Scholarly article on topic 'Family Communication Patterns and Academic Resilience'

Family Communication Patterns and Academic Resilience Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Bahram Jowkar, Naeimeh Kohoulat, Hamidreza Zakeri

Abstract This study was examined the relationship between family communication patterns and academic resilience. Six-hundred-six high school students (309 girls and 297 boys) were participants of the study. Youth Development Module scale (RYDM) and Family Communication Patterns scale (FCP) were used as measures of the study. Simultaneous multiple regression of family communication patterns on academic resilience showed that “conversation” was a significant positive predictor of the “community care/ high”, “school care/ high”, “home care/ high”, “peer care”, and “school/ community meaningful”. Also, “conformity” was significant positive predictor of “school/ community meaningful” and significant negative predictor of the “community care/ high” and “home care/ high”.

Academic research paper on topic "Family Communication Patterns and Academic Resilience"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 (2011) 87 - 90

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2011)

Family Communication Patterns and Academic Resilience

Bahram Jowkara, Naeimeh Kohoulata, Hamidreza Zakeria *

aDepartment of Educational psychology, University of Shiraz, Shiraz, Iran

Abstract

This study was examined the relationship between family communication patterns and academic resilience. Six-hundred-six high school students (309 girls and 297 boys) were participants of the study. Youth Development Module scale (RYDM) and Family Communication Patterns scale (FCP) were used as measures of the study. Simultaneous multiple regression of family communication patterns on academic resilience showed that "conversation" was a significant positive predictor of the "community care/ high", "school care/ high", "home care/ high", "peer care", and "school/ community meaningful". Also, "conformity" was significant positive predictor of "school/ community meaningful" and significant negative predictor of the "community care/ high" and "home care/ high".

© 2011Publishedby ElsevierLtd.Selectionand/or peer-reviewunder responsibility ofDrZafer Bekirogullari. Keywords: Academic resilience, Family communication patterns, Conversation.

1. Introduction

Resilience can be thought of as competence in the face of significant challenges to achievement or development (Masten & Coatsworth, 1995). Resilience refers to the individual's ability to rebound when confronted with a psychological challenge (Strumpfer, 2001). Specifically, resilience is the pattern of psychological activity consisting of the motive to be strong in the face of inordinate demands and the energy to produce goal directed behavior, emotions, and cognitions. The theory of resiliency discusses two major variables. The first is risk factors, which can be described as stressful development at risk (i.e., chronic poverty, child abuse, neglect, minority status, language fluency, living in violent communities, acculturation, and racism). The second variable is a protective factor. Protective factors can be described as variables that reduce the probabilities that a child will develop abnormally (Mash & Wolf, 2002) (i.e., strong family support, a relationship with the community, church, a mentor, and personal characteristics). Garmezy (1983) defined protective factors as "factors that may account for resilience and adaptation in the present of severely threatening events". In the several studies, four groups of variable we re identified as protective factors that help foster resilience (Werner & Smith, 1982, 1992; Werner, 1989, 1993; Garmezy, 1983, 1991, 1993; Masten, 1999a, 1999b, 2001; Masten & coatsworth, 1998; Masten et al., 1995; Masten

* Corresponding author. Tel: +98-711-6248485; fax: +98-711-6248485. E-mail address: Hzakeri55@yahoo.com

ELSEVIER

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr Zafer Bekirogullari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.210

et al., 1999; Masten, Best, & Garmezy, 1990). The first group was made up of individual characteristic. These included average to high I.Q., and internal locus of control, and high self concept. The second group of protective factors is related of the family cohesion and the presence of caring adults was included in this category. The third category referred to support factors outside of the family such as community organizations and churches. The fourth category related to effect to schools and caring teachers (Arnold, 2003). Therefore, family factors identified as one of the factor to effective to resilience.

Wanget et al., (1998) changed the focus on resilience to the more specific category of academic resilience. They defined academic resilience as "the capacity of students to attain academic and social success in school despite exposure to personal and environmental adversities". Catteral (1998) defined academic resilience as an important in achievement test scores from the eighth grade to the end of tenth grade. He found that several factors such as family support and school-based activities were present for those students who showed an improvement in academic performance. Academic resilience defined as the ability to recover from low academic performance and alienation. Academic resilience is used interchangeably with academic improvement and improvement (Cappella & Weinstein, 2001). Overall, academic resilience is considered to be a dynamic developmental process that involves the protective qualities associated with individual students (internal protective factors) and their environments (external protective factors) that contribute to the adjustment and academic success of at risk students (Luthar, Cicchetti, & Becker, 2000). Thus, Family is one of the external protective factors in examination of the academic resilience.

The present study focused on family communication patterns as family's protective factor. Based on research by McLeod and Chaffee (1972), Fitzpatrick and Ritchie (1994; Ritchie & Fitzpatrick, 1990) have conceptualized conversation and conformity orientations in families as central beliefs that determine much of how families communicate. The first belief, conversation orientation, is defined as the degree to which families create a climate in which all family members are encouraged to participate in unrestrained interaction about a wide array of topics. The other important belief regarding family communication is conformity orientation. Conformity orientation refers to the degree to which family communication stresses a climate of homogeneity of attitudes, values, and beliefs (Koerner & Fitzpatrick, 2002).

In the literature, the term academic resilience seems to be highly accepted and used by resilience researchers (Andrew & Herbert, 2006; Borman & Overman, 2004; Cappella & Rhona, 2001; Finn & Rock, 1997). According to the researchers, family support led students to feel a sense of control over their success and failure in school (i.e., Kenny, Gallagher, Alvarez, Salvat, & Silsby, 2002; Floyd, 1996; Cook, 2000; Gandara, 1995; Gloria & Rodriguez, 2000; Hernandez, 2000; Marshall, 2008; Kitano & Lewis, 2005; Masten, 1998; Metzke, 2000; Fenzel, 1994). Some of the researches showed that by providing caring environments, high expectations, and positive interactions, the family could be an important source for fostering academic resilience (Wang et al., 1994; Arellano & Padilla, 1996).

The goal of present study was examined effect of family communication patterns on academic resilience. The main question of the study was which one of the family communication patterns predicts the academic resilience? Also, the effect of gender variable in this relationship was examined.

2. Methods

Participants of this study were Six-hundred-six high school students (309 girls and 297 boys) that selected by multi-stages cluster random sampling; from different high school of Iran.

(.(. Msjnneen

2.(.(. Family C/mmncicjOi/c PaOOeecn scale (FCP)

The FCP is a 26 item scale and comprises two subscales: "conversation" and "conformity". The reliability of the measure examined by internal consistency Chronbach alpha method. Alpha coefficient for "conversation" was 0.91 and for "conformity" was 0.88.Validity of the measures investigated by factor analysis method.

2.1.2. Youth Development Module scale (RYDM)

The RYDM is a 41 item scale and comprises five subscales: "community care/ high", "school care/ high, "home care/ high", "peer care" and "school/ community meaningful". The reliability of the measure examined by internal consistency Chronbach alpha method. Alpha coefficient for "community care/ high" was 0.88 "school care/ high" was 0.80 "home care/ high" was 0.83 "peer care" was 0.79 and for "school/ community meaningful" was 0.78.Validity of the measures investigated by factor analysis method. Result of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the validity of measure for use in Iran.

3. Results

The results revealed significant correlations between family communication patterns and academic resilience subscales (Table 1).

Table1. Correlation matrix of academic resilience and family communication patterns

Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1. Community care/ high 1

2. School care/ high 0.19** 1

3. Home care/ high 0.35** 0.25** 1

4. Peer care 0.25** 0.28** 0.32** 1

5. School/ community meaningful 0.29** 0.37** 0.29** 0.32** 1

6. Conversation pattern 0.20** 0.13** 0.46** 0.11* 0.18** 1

7. Conformity pattern -0.12** -0.03 -0.24** -0.02 0.15** -0.00 1

* p<0.05 ** p<0.001

Simultaneous multiple regression of academic resilience subscales on family communication patterns, revealed that the "conversation" was a significant positive predictor of the "community care/ high", "school care/ high", "home care/ high", "peer care", and "school/ community meaningful". Whereas, "conformity" was significant positive predictor of "school/ community meaningful" and significant negative predictor of the "community care/ high" and "home care/ high" (Table 2).

Table2. Multiple regression of family communication patterns on academic resilience

Prediction Variables Criterion Variable R R2 B ß t P<

Conversation pattern Conformity pattern Community care/ high 0.24 0.06 0.08 -0.06 0.20 -0.13 4.44 2.89 0.001 0.05

Conversation pattern Conformity pattern School care/ high 0.14 0.02 0.04 -0.01 0.13 -0.03 2.82 0.70 0.05 N.S

Conversation pattern Conformity pattern Home care/ high 0.52 0.27 0.18 -0.11 0.45 -0.23 11.16 5.73 0.001 0.001

Conversation pattern Conformity pattern Peer care 0.12 0.01 0.03 -0.00 0.12 -0.02 2.66 0.43 0.05 N.S

Conversation pattern Conformity pattern School/ community meaningful 0.22 0.04 0.07 0.07 0.17 0.13 3.72 2.93 0.001 0.05

The results of analysis t-test showed that the mean score of girls was significantly greater than boys in the "community care/ high" and "home care/ high" (Table 3).

Table3. Comparison of girls and boys participants in study variables

Variable

M SD M SD

Community care/ high 18.43 5.26 16.79 5.17 3.80 0.001

School care/ high 18.41 4.91 18.08 4.40 0.83 N.S

Home care/ high 25.65 5.18 24.56 4.90 2.61 0.05

Peer care 13.87 3.82 13.29 3.53 1.91 N.S

School/ community meaningful 18.45 5.70 19.33 5.13 1.93 N.S

Conversation pattern 52.43 12.27 51.41 12.95 0.91 N.S

Conformity pattern 33.26 10.67 34.84 10.38 1.69 N.S

4. Discussion

Results of the study supported the relationship between family communication patterns (as family factors) and academic resilience (as academic success factors) (Hernandez, 2000; Marshall, 2008; Kitano & Lewis, 2005). The results of present study showed that conversation was a significant positive predictor of the "community care/ high", "school care/ high", "home care/ high, peer care", and "school/ community meaningful". Furthermore, conformity was significant positive predictor of "school/ community meaningful" and significant negative predictor of the "community care/ high" and "home care/ high". In the families with high conversation orientation, family members freely, frequently, and spontaneously interact with each other and share their individual activities, thoughts, and feelings with one another. Families holding this view value the exchange of ideas, and parents holding this belief see frequent communication with their children as the main means to educate and to socialize them. Therefore, children in the families have demonstrated the high interaction in home, school, social and peer groups. Conversely, in families with high conformity orientation interactions focus on harmony, conflict avoidance, and the interdependence of family members. Parents are expected to make the decisions for the family, and children are expected to act according to their parents' wishes. Thus, children in the families have demonstrated low interaction in their communications. In general, the findings of present study is emphasizing that family communications specially the relationship between parents with children can important in social behavioral (i.e., school, peer group). In relation to gender differences, the results showed there was a significant difference between means scores of girls and boys in "community care/ high" and "home care/ high", so that the means scores of girls is higher than boys in this style.

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