Scholarly article on topic 'A Novel Synthesis Method of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate Based on the Calcium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol Composites'

A Novel Synthesis Method of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate Based on the Calcium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol Composites Academic research paper on "Chemical engineering"

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Academic research paper on topic "A Novel Synthesis Method of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate Based on the Calcium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol Composites"

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Nanomaterials Volume 2013, Article ID 542109, 7 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/542109

Research Article

A Novel Synthesis Method of Porous Calcium Silicate Hydrate Based on the Calcium Oxide/Polyethylene Glycol Composites

Wei Guan, Fangying Ji, Yong Cheng, Zhuoyao Fang, Dexin Fang, Peng Yan, and Qingkong Chen

Key Laboratory of Three Gorges Reservoir Region's Eco-Environment, Ministry of Education, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Fangying Ji; jfytougao@163.com Received 9 August 2013; Revised 1 September 2013; Accepted 2 September 2013 Academic Editor: Fan Dong

Copyright © 2013 Wei Guan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

This paper proposed a novel method to prepare porous calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) based on the calcium oxide/polyethylene glycol (CaO/PEG2000) composites as the calcium materials. The porosity formation mechanism was revealed via X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The reactivity of silica materials (SiO2) enhanced by increasing pH value. Ca2+ could not sustain release from CaO/PEG2000 and reacted with SiO32- caused by silica to form CSH until the hydrothermal temperature reached to 170°C, avoiding the hardly dissolved intermediates formation efficiently. The as-prepared CSH, due to the large specific surface areas, exhibited excellent release capability of Ca2+ and OH-. This porous CSH has potential application in reducing the negative environmental effects of continual natural phosphate resource depletion.

1. Introduction

Phosphate, as an irreplaceable and nonrenewable resource, has an important contribution to industry and agriculture [14]. But this precious resource will be exhausted as a result of increased consumption in the near future [5-8]. The sustainable utilization of phosphate has become a severe challenge for human beings. Calcium silicate hydrate, due to the unique release capability of Ca2+ and OH-, has caused international extensive concern in the field of "recovery of phosphate from wastewater" [9-14]. This is because the released Ca2+ and OH- can react with the phosphate ions to form hydroxya-patite (HAP) on the surface of CSH when the concentration of these ions reached to the supersaturated conditions [1517]. Therefore, the release capability of Ca2+ and OH- of CSH plays a key role in the field of phosphate recovery.

It is worthy to notice that the release capability is related to the specific surface area (SBET) and pore structure. Large SBET and porous structures are beneficial to enhance the solubility of CSH [18,19]. The current CSH samples were prepared by dynamic hydrothermal synthesis using CaO materials and SiO2 materials [20-23]. However, there two critical problems

that affect the solubility of CSH. On the one hand, the reactivity of SiO2 was too poor to participate in the formation of CSH. The residual SiO2 precipitated on the surface of CSH is easy to block the pore structure and decrease the solubility of CSH. According to the previous study, the proper temperature to synthesize CSH was 170°C [18,19]. However, there were abundant hard dissolve intermediates such as calcium silicate, formed during the heating process. These intermediates coated on the surface of CSH and affected the solubility of CSH [24,25]. Therefore, enhancing the reactivity of SiO2 materials and avoiding the formation of intermediates are the critical factors for the formation of CSH with porous structure.

A synthesis strategy based on calcium oxide/polyethylene glycol (CaO/PEG2000) composites was developed for the formation of porous CSH. Under the dynamic hydrothermal condition, massive SiO32- (released from the SiO2 materials due to the increased pH values) reacted with Ca2+ (sustained released from CaO/PEG2000 composites) at a proper temperature to form CSH efficiently. Compared with previously reported synthesis methods, this new synthesis method

Table 1: Chemical components of carbide residue.

Chemical composition (%)

_CaO SiO2 Al2O3 SO2 MgO Fe2O3 SrO NaOH CuO H2O

Carbide residue 79.34 3.57 2.14 1.22 0.62 0.21 0.26 — — 12.64

Silica 0.08 97.46 0.16 1.82 — 0.03 — 0.29 0.02 0.14

herein avoided the formation of the hardly dissolved intermediates. Thus, the as-prepared CSH with porous structure exhibited excellent release capabilities of Ca2+ and OH-. In addition, a novel porosity formation mechanism was revealed in the present paper.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Raw Materials. The CaO material (carbide residue, content of CaO > 75%) and SiO2 material (Silica, content of SiO2 > 98%) were obtained from Chongqing Changshou Chemical Co. Ltd. PEG2000 (the chemical formula is HO(CH2CH2O)„H) and NaOH were obtained from Chengdu Kelong chemical Co. Ltd. The Chemical composition of the carbide residue and silica is presented in Table 1. The above materials and chemicals were placed into sealed bottles for storage.

2.2. Dynamic Hydrothermal Synthesis of Porous CSH. Prior to CSH synthesis, PEG2000 was put into 300 mL deionized water with strong stirring to obtain the PEG solution, and the mass fraction of PEG2000 was 2% w/v. Subsequently, 6 mg of carbide residue was added into the PEG solution with strong stirring and reacted 60 min at 80°C. Then, the solid segments were centrifugal separated from the PEG solution and were dried at 105°C for 2h to obtain the CaO/PEG2000 composites.

Subsequently, CaO/PEG2000 composites and CaO materials were mixed with SiO2 material to form a 300 mL slurry (liquid/solid mass ratio is 30/1; Ca/Si molar ratio is 1.75/1), respectively. 1 mol/L of NaOH was used to maintain the pH values of the slurry at 13.0. Mixtures were agitated at 90 rpm, and the resulting slurry was put into a high-pressure kettle for hydrothermal synthesis at 170°C for 6h. The as-prepared CSH samples obtained from CaO/PEG2000 composites and CaO materials were labeled as CSH (CaO/PEG2000) and CSH (CaO), respectively.

2.3. Dissolution Experiment. The release of Ca2+ and OH-from CSH was investigated via a series of batch experiments. For each experiment, 1 g of CSH was poured into 1L of deion-ized water in glass bottles, thus leading to a sample to solution ratio of 1 g/L. The bottles were then placed on an agitation table and mixed at 40 rpm at 20°C for 5,10,15, 20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 min. The resulting Ca2+ concentration was determined using the EDTA coordination titration method (the relative derivation of data is 0.05%). Solution pH value was measured (±0.1) using precise pH paper (pH 7.0-10.0, San-ai-si reagent Co., Ltd., Shanghai, China). The accuracy of pH measurement is 0.1.

2.4. Experiments on Phosphate Recovery from Synthetic Solutions. Phosphate recovery property of the as-synthesized samples were investigated in a series of batch experiments. The pH values of phosphate-content solution were in the range of 7.0-7.5 before the CSH samples was added into this solution. For each one, one glass bottle containing 1L of a synthetic solution with initial phosphate concentration (100 mg/L) was prepared. Then 1 g of synthesized sample was put into this bottle, thus leading to a sample-to-solution ratio of 1 g/L. The bottle was placed on an agitation table and shaken at 40r/min under given temperature conditions (20°C) for 60 min. The solid samples after reaction were then separated from the removed synthetic solution, and were added again to synthetic solution with initial phosphate concentration of 100 mg/L. This experiment was repeated for six times until the phosphate concentration was kept unchanged with the addition of samples. The content of phosphate in the recovered products was identified with atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Atomic Absorption Spectrometer, AA800, USA).

2.5. Characterization Instruments. The phase component and crystal structure of CSH are determined using X-ray diffraction with Cu Ka radiation (XRD, model XD-2 instrument, China). The morphology was observed by fieldemission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, IUE, Hitachi, Japan) and transmission electron microscope (TEM, JEOL JEM-2010, Japan). The SBET and pore structure was investigated using adsorption-desorption measurements. Nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms were obtained on a nitrogen adsorption apparatus (ASAP-2010, USA). The microstructures are evaluated by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, IR Prestige-21FT-infrared spectrometer, Shimadzu, Japan).

3. Results and Discussion

3.1. The Effect of pH on the Reactivity of SiO2. In the water solution, the main existence forms of silicon are different with the changes of pH values. Silicon exists in the form of SiO32-when the pH value is over 13.0 [26-28]. This result can be verified according to the fraction formula of H2SiO3, HSiO3- and SiO32- under the given pH value as follows:

s [H+]2

H2SiO3 [H+]+Kal [H+UK^'

Kai [H+]

°HSiO3 r +,2 r +i '

[H ] + ^«1 [H ] + ^«1 ^«2

[H+]2 + Kai [H+ ]+KaiKa

where [H+] is the concentration of hydrogen ions and Ka1 and Ka2 are the first and second dissociation constants, respectively. When pH = 12.0, the distribution coefficients of H2SiO3, HSiO3-, and SiO32- are 0%, 39%, and 61%, respectively. When pH = 13.0, these coefficients are 0%, 6%, and 94%, respectively, [29]. This trend indicated that silicon exists only in the form of SiO32- that is beneficial to the formation ofCSH.

3.2. Complexation between CaO and PEG2000. The reaction mechanism between CaO and PEG2000 was revealed via FT-IR analysis. Figures 1(a) and 1(b) show the FT-IR spectra of neat CaO and CaO/PEG2000 composites, respectively. As shown in Figure 1(a), a broad and sharp peak at 1402~ 1546 cm-1 and 870 cm-1 can be attributed to the characteristic peak of CaO. The stretching vibration band of C-O-C at 1090 cm-1 and the characteristic absorption band occurred at about 2270 cm-1 due to a bent oscillation peak of C-H bond in Figure 1(b) can be assigned to bands of PEG2000, and the absorption peak of C-O-C moves to a low band. This phenomenon indicated that the asymmetric stretching vibration frequency of C-O-C group of PEG2000 decreased due to the effect of Ca +. Furthermore, this result demonstrated that Ca2+ reacted with oxygen atom in PEG molecule to form complexation structure; that is, CaO and PEG2000 existed together in the form of complex.

3.3. The Porosity Formation Mechanism ofCSH

3.3.1. Morphological Structure. The surface morphology of CSH (CaO) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000) was examined by FESEM, as shown in Figures 2(a) and 2(b). It can be seen that CSH (CaO) possessed a dense surface and compact structure (Figure 2(a)). In contrast, pore size of CSH (CaO/PEG2000) tended to be larger (Figure 2(b)). The morphological structure of CSH (CaO) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000) was further examined by TEM, as shown in Figures 2(c) and 2(d). The TEM image shows that the surface of CSH (CaO) was compact (Figure 2(c)) consistent with the FESEM observation. In contrast, CSH (CaO/PEG2000) possesses hollow microspheres due to the absence of the hardly dissolved intermediates (Figure 2(d)).

3.3.2. Specific Surface Area and Pore Structure. The SBET and pore structure of the as-prepared samples were investigated by adsorption-desorption measurements. As shown in Table 2, the SBET of CSH (CaO/PEG2000) increased to 133m2/g compared to CSH (CaO) (62m2/g). In comparison to CSH (CaO) (0.16cm3/g), the pore volume of CSH (CaO/PEG2000) increased to 0.36cm3/g.

Figure 3(a) shows the N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms of the CSH samples. According to the Brunauer-Deming-Deming-Teller (BDDT) classification, the majority

3000 2500 2000 1500

Wavenumber (cm-1)

Figure 1: FT-IR spectra of CaO (a) and CaO/PEG2000 composites (b).

Table 2: Specific BET surface areas and pore parameters of CSH samples.

CSH samples Total volume Peak p (cm3/g) ore diameter (nm) Vr (m2/g)

CSH (CaO) 0.16 13.57 62

(CaO/PEG2000) 0.36 5.8 133

of physisorption isotherms can be grouped into six types. The isotherms of all the samples belonged to type IV, including the pore-size distributions in the mesoporous regions [30]. The shapes of hysteresis loops were of the type H3, which was associated with mesopores formed due to aggregation of plates-like particles [31].

Figure 3(b) shows the corresponding PSD of the samples. For the CSH (CaO), the PSD curve is bimodal with smaller (~2.54nm) and larger (~45.42nm) mesopores. For CSH (CaO/PEG2000), the PSD curve exhibits small (~6.52nm) mesopores. The small mesopores and larger ones came from the aggregation of primary particles and secondary particles, respectively. This result was consistent with the result of N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. A large number of small mesopores contribute to the large SBET.

3.3.3. Phase Structure. Figure 4 shows the XRD patterns of CSH (CaO) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000). Multiple phases, such as Jennite (PDF card 18-1206, chemical formula Ca9Si6O18(OH)6 • 8H2O), xonotlite (PDF card 23-0125, chemical formula Ca6Si6O17(OH)2), and Ca3Si2O7 (PDF card 11-0317), appear in the XRD pattern of Figure 4(a). By comparison, the phase of CSH (CaO/PEG2000) was only Jennite (Figure 4(b)). Combined with the above analysis, the as-prepared CSH (CaO/PEG2000) (i.e., Jennite), without intermediates, exhibited large SBET and porous structure.

The porosity formation mechanism can be revealed as follows: (1) during the heating process, SiO3 - was released from SiO2 materials due to the increased pH value (13.0), and Ca2+ cannot be released from CaO/PEG2000 composites due to

(c) (d)

Figure 2: FESEM photographs of CSH (CaO) (a) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000) (b); TEM images ofCSH (CaO) (c) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000) (d).

280 240 200 160 -120 -

0.4 0.6

Relative pressure p/p0

40 60 80 100 120 140 Pore diameter (nm)

-O- CSH (CaO)

-#- CSH (CaO/PEG2000 )

CSH (CaO)

CSH (CaO/PEG2000 )

Figure 3: N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms (a) and pore-size distribution curves (b) of the as-prepared CSH samples.

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

10 20 30 40 50

28 (deg)

О Jennite □ Ca3Si2O7 V Xonotlite

Figure 4: XRD patterns ofCSH (CaO) (a) and CSH (CaO/PEG2000) (b).

c I о 1

Reaction time (min)

CSH (CaO) CSH (CaO/PEG200c)

CSH (CaO/PEG2000 ) CSH (CaO)

Figure 5: Concentration of Ca2+ released from CSH samples (a) and pH in deionized water kept by CSH samples (b).

the coating of PEG2000 below the hydrothermal temperature (170°C); (2) when the hydrothermal temperature reached to a proper condition (170°C), the molecular chain broke between CaO and PEG2000. At this time, Ca2+ released from CaO/PEG2000 composites and reacted with SiO32- quickly to form CSH (CaO/PEG2000). To the synthesis of CSH (CaO), massive Ca2+ was released from neat CaO materials during the heating process before the hydrothermal temperature reached to 170° C, leading to formation of abundant hardly dissolved intermediates. By comparison, the new synthesis method herein avoided the formation of the hard dissolve intermediates.

3.4. The Enhanced Solubility ofCSH. Figure 5 shows the variations of concentration of Ca2+ and OH- released from the as-synthesized CSH samples and pH-values in deionized water. According to Figure 5(a), CSH (CaO/PEG2000) releases more Ca2+ than CSH (CaO). Compared with the CSH (CaO) (2.83 mg/L), the concentration of Ca2+ was released from CSH (CaO/PEG2000) and increased to 5.74 mg/L. Figure 5(b) shows that the pH value of the solution can be kept at 9.5 by CSH (CaO/PEG2000); however, CSH (CaO) can only maintain the pH value at 8.2. The as-prepared CSH (CaO/PEG2000) with porous structure exhibited enhanced release capability of Ca2+ and OH-.

3.5. The Enhanced Phosphate Recovery Property of CSH. The phosphate content of the product recovered by CSH (CaO/PEG2000) increased to 117.6 mg/g, compared with CSH (CaO) (84.5 mg/g). This result indicated that the as-prepared porous CSH, without the hardly dissolved intermediates, exhibited highly enhanced phosphate recovery property. Meanwhile, the recovered phosphate products, due to their abundant phosphate content, can be reused as phosphate rock or phosphate fertilizer.

4. Conclusion

Porous CSH was prepared based on the CaO/PEG2000 composites as the calcium materials; Ca2+ could not sustain release from CaO/PEG2000 and reacted with SiO32- caused by silica to form CSH until the hydrothermal temperature reached to 170° C, avoiding the formation of hardly dissolved intermediates compared with previously reported synthesis methods. The as-prepared CSH, due to the large specific surface areas, exhibited excellent release capability of Ca2+ and OH-. Thus, the phosphate recovery property of CSH enhanced. The recovered phosphate products, due to their abundant phosphate content, can be reused in industry and agriculture instead of phosphate rock. Therefore, the as-prepared porous material has potential application value in recovering phosphate from wastewater to solve the environmental problems caused by the shortage of phosphate

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests

regarding the publication of this paper.

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