Scholarly article on topic 'Effect of Chitosan on the Quality of Rose Apples (Syzygium Agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan Stored at an Ambient Temperature'

Effect of Chitosan on the Quality of Rose Apples (Syzygium Agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan Stored at an Ambient Temperature Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

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{"ROSE APPLE" / "Syzygium agueum Alston CHITOSAN" / STORAGE}

Abstract of research paper on Biological sciences, author of scientific article — Maratree Plainsirichai, Saranya Leelaphatthanapanich, Nattapong Wongsachai

Abstract Rose apples (Syzygium agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan are economically important fruit for Thailand. However, because the peel of the rose apple is thin, the fruit deteriorates quickly and water retention is low. This study investigated the effect of chitosan treatment on the quality of rose apples cv. Tabtim Chan stored at an ambient temperature of 30°C. The results demonstrated that at day 5 of storage, the fruit coated with 2% chitosan had a weight loss of 12.82% and a disease incidence of 14% which were significantly less than those of the control (22.12%, 24% respectively). Fruit firmness of the rose apples treated with 2% chitosan was significantly higher than that of the control (5.92kg/cm2 and 4.12kg/cm2 respectively). In conclusion, treating the rose apples with 2% chitosan reduces weight loss, disease incidence and maintains the fruit firmness of rose apples cv. Tabtim Chan compared with those which were untreated.

Academic research paper on topic "Effect of Chitosan on the Quality of Rose Apples (Syzygium Agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan Stored at an Ambient Temperature"

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APCBEE Procedía 8 (2014) 317 - 322

2013 4th International Conference on Agriculture and Animal Science (CAAS 2013) 2013 3rd International Conference on Asia Agriculture and Animal (ICAAA 2013)

Effect of Chitosan on the Quality of Rose Apples {Syzygium agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan Stored at an Ambient

Temperature

Maratree Plainsirichaia'*9Saranya Leelaphatthanapanicha,Nattapong Wongsachaia

aDepartment of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham university, Mahasarakham, 44150 Thailand.

Abstract

Rose apples (Syzygium agueum Alston) cv. Tabtim Chan are economically important fruit for Thailand. However, because the peel of the rose apple is thin, the fruit deteriorates quickly and water retention is low. This study investigated the effect of chitosan treatment on the quality of rose apples cv. Tabtim Chan stored at an ambient temperature of 30 °C. The results demonstrated that at day 5 of storage, the fruit coated with 2 % chitosan had a weight loss of 12.82 % and a disease incidence of 14 % which were significantly less than those of the control (22.12 %, 24 % respectively). Fruit firmness of the rose apples treated with 2 % chitosan was significantly higher than that of the control (5.92 kg/cm2 and 4.12 kg/cm2 respectively). In conclusion, treating the rose apples with 2 % chitosan reduces weight loss, disease incidence and maintains the fruit firmness of rose apples cv. Tabtim Chan compared with those which were untreated.

© 2014MaratreePlainsirichai.Published byElsevier B.V.This isanopenaccess articleunderthe CCBY-NC-NDlicense (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society Keywords: ROSE APPLE, Syzygium agueum Alston CHITOSAN, STORAGE

1. Introduction

Rose apple (Syzygium agueum Alston) is a fruit plant native to the tropics of South-East Asia. It is commercially grown in Taiwan, Malaysia, Indonesia and Thailand. The ripe fruit is thirst quenching and juicy [1]. However, after harvesting its shelf life is very short under ambient temperature due to its thin skin and

* Corresponding author. Tel.: -089-4821130 E-mail address: maratreep@gmail.com

2212-6708 © 2014 Maratree Plainsirichai. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Asia-Pacific Chemical, Biological & Environmental Engineering Society doi: 10.1016/j.apcbee.2014.03.047

soft texture when ripe. This results in the loss of water and a vulnerability to infections from disease. This problem is an obstacle to the production of rose apples for export. Low temperature is always used to extend the shelf life of rose apples but it necessitates high cost, whereas covering the skin with a coating substance like chitosan has been shown to reduce water loss, disease infection and weight loss in many other fruits.

Chitosan is a linear amino polysaccharide consisting of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine units, which can be extracted from the exoskeleton of crustaceans, such as shrimps and cra[2]. The use of chitosan has been approved by The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for fruit and vegetables. It has been shown to maintain quality and extend the shelf life of fresh produce due to its film-forming property which acts as a barrier to water loss and gas exchanges[3] and [4], it has antimicrobial properties[5] and it is a non-toxic substance[6].

Much research has shown the efficiency of chitosan when used to treat fruits. For example, 2 % chitosan reduced the weight loss of longan fruit [7] and it has been used to treat papaya fruit [8]. Hirano (1997) [9] demonstrated that use of 0.1 % chitosan reduced growth of problematic post-harvest pathogenic fungi by up to 50%. It also controlled gray mould and blue mould caused by Botylis cinerea and Penicillium expansum in tomatoes stored at 25 °C and 2 °C[10].

However, previous work on the application of chitosan to maintain the quality of rose apples stored at ambient temperature is relatively limited. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chitosan on quality of the fruit, weight loss, texture, color and disease incidence during storage at ambient temperature. We expected that chitosan applied at a higher concentrationwould maintain the quality of the rose apples.

2. Materials and Methods

In the Division of Plant Production Technology at the Department of Agriculture and Technology, Mahasarakham University in the North East of Thailand, an experiment was undertaken to investigate the effects of treating rose apples (cv. Tabtim Chan) with chitosan. The experiment was to determine the effects the treatment had on the quality and storage of rose apples.

The rose apples were procured from a local supplier. They had been harvested the day before the experiment was performed. The rose apples had not received any chemical treatments for disease control at the farm, supplier or in the laboratory. The rose apples were checked and graded to make certain they were uniform for color and size, and that there was a complete absence of physical damage. The fruit was treated with 1%, 2% and 3% chitosan compared against 0 % (control).

After being treated with chitosan the fruit was stored at 30°C with a relative humidity of 60-65%. In total 25 rose apples were treated (4 treatment with 5 fruit per treatment). The experiment used a design that was completely randomized, so that the selection of each fruit was completely random.

Quality and storage life of the fruit were measured by (1) weight loss expressed as a percentage of the initial fresh weight (%), (2) changes to skin color, (3) fruit firmness (kg cm-2) and (4) visual assessment of any disease symptoms (%).

Each day, after the day that the fruit had been treated with chitosan, the assessments were done. Weight loss (%) was determined gravimetrically. Fruit firmness was determined at a single point on the circumference of the fruit using a penetrometer having a probe with an 8 mm diameter. One fruit was measured in each replication.

The proportion of fruit showing signs of infection was used as the measure to assess disease incidence. The color of the skin was determined using a chroma meter (Minolta®, model CR-301, Japan) and the CIE lab system (L*, a* and b*) was used to determine color changes. Interpretations of the L*, a* and b* values followed those of Bakker et al. (1986) [11] where L* = the lightness with zero equaling black and 100 equaling white, a* = red (positive) or green (negative) and b* = yellow (positive) or blue-yellow (negative). Then the a* and b* values were converted into a hue angle (arctangent b*/a) and chroma (Va *2 + b*2). Hue = an angle on a color wheel of 360° where 00 = red-purple, 90° = yellow, 180° = blue-green and 270° = blue. Chroma is the intensity or purity of the hue [12] [13].The data was analyzed using ANOVA and significant

differences between means were detected at P=0.05. The data expressed as percentages was transformed to inverse sine before analysis and then the means were transformed back, to be presented in the results section.

3. Results and Discussion

The results demonstrated that treatment with 2 % and 3 % chitosan significantly reduced the weight loss of the rose apples. At the end of storage, the control fruit had lost about 22.12 % of their weight while those fruit treated with 2 % and 3 % chitosan had a weight loss of only 12.82 % and 12.94 % respectively (Table 1).

Table 1. Weight loss of rose apple cv. Tabtim Chan coated with chitosan at different concentration before storage at ambient temperature,

Chitosan (%) Storage time (days)

0 1 2 3 4 5

0 (Control) 0 1.24a 4.64ab 10.29a 12.98a 22.12a

1 0 1.09a 5.65a 10.27a 12.93a 22.03a

2 0 0.53b 3.47b 6.64b 9.02b 12.82b

3 0 0.49b 3.63b 6.80b 9.90b 12.94b

F-Test ns ** ** ** ** **

CV (%) 20.29 14.63 11.02 12.16 9.94

Letter(s) in each column indicate least significant differences at probability (p) of 0.05, NS = Non significant

There was no significant difference between the weight loss of the fruit coated with 2 % and 3 % chitosan. Coating the fruit with 1 % chitosan did not reduce weight loss. Chitosan did not affect the color value (L*, a* and b*) of the fruit over the storage time. The fruit coated with 2 % or 3 % chitosan were significantly firmer than the control. Significant differences between the control and fruit treated with 2 % or 3 % chitosan did not appear until day 3. There was no significant difference between the firmness of the fruit coated with a 2 % or 3 % chitosan. Coating the fruit with 1 % chitosan had no significant impact on fruit firmness. Initially, 2 % or 3 % chitosan had no significant impact on disease incidence but a difference began to appear after 4 days. The fruit coated with 2 % or 3 % chitosan had disease incidences of only 7 % and 15 % while the control had disease incidences of 17 % and 24 % at days 4 and 5 respectively. There was no significant difference in disease incidence between fruit coated with 2 % or 3 % chitosan. In addition, there was no significant difference between the disease incidence of the fruit coated with 1 % chitosan on the control.

Through a reduction of water loss and increased resistance to water vapor transmission Chitosan is able to maintain the weight of rose apples. Possibly as a result of the dense structure of chitosan films they are very effective gas barriers[14]. this study confirms the results of a similar study undertaken by Jiang and Li (2001) [7] which showed that 1 % and 2 % applications of chitosan reduced weight loss of longan fruit. It was demonstrated by Ali et al. (2011) [8] that 1.5 % and 2 % chitosan also reduced weight loss in papaya fruit during storage compared to the control. When fruit are coated in chitosan, the reduced rate of moisture loss can be attributed to the film forming an addition barrier to stop diffusion through the stomata [15]. Chitosan was also shown to protect rose apples against disease infection. This means that it might be possible to use chitosan as a natural fungicide to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals in the protection of fruit and vegetables[10]. Chitosan has a direct toxic affect on pathogens that might be the reason for it being able to prevent fruit from becoming diseased. Spore germination, germ tube elongation, and mycelia growth are

directly inhibited in many phytopathogens by the application of chitosan that reduces the incidence of disease[16] [17]. In addition the storage time is prolonged and decay incidence decreased by chitosan[18] [19]. The incidence of grey mould in some fruit has been decreased by chitosan affecting the plasma membrane[10] .

The elicitation of fruits biochemical defense responses is another way that chitosan works [10]. The impedance of the movement of microbial cells is another possible way that chitosan applications could have antimicrobial properties. Interactions between cell-lipophilic molecules are catalyzed by this effect, which results from the formation of larger positively charged drops that cause changes in the interaction between the negatively charged free fatty acids and the positively charged chitosan[20] and [21]. The antimicrobial activity of chitosan was observed by Reedy (2009) [22], and it was found that as the concentration of chitosan used as a preharvest spray was increased in strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) the incidence of decay decreased. The study of El Ghaouth et al., (1991a) [23] showed that protection against decay, which was comparable with fungicide treatments, was imparted by dipping strawberries in a chitosan solution.

Hernandez Munoz (2006) [24] found that when strawberries were coated with 1.5 % chitosan and stored at 20 oC for 4 days they did not show any signs of fungal decay.

The main causes of fruit softening are due to the degradation of the cell wall's middle lamemma in cortical parenchyma cells[25], cell to cell contact, cell wall strength and full cellular tension.[26] In this work chitosan maintained the full firmness of the fruit. This might be as a result of the chitosan covering the cuticle and lenticels as well as having high antifungal activity, which resulted in the reduction of infection and respiration as well as other processes that cause ripening during storage[27]. Chitosan application does not improve fruit color. It is possible that the fruit color is constant after harvest if rose apples are non climatic fruit. There could be a reduction in the color change as the application of chitosan may reduce the rate of respiration and ethylene production[8]. This result is the opposite of the work done by Hernández-Muñoz (2006) [24] that found a 1.5 % chitosan coating on strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) stored at 20 oC delayed changes in their color. As the L* value from this study decreased it revealed that the chitosan coat caused the fruit to be slightly darker.

It can be concluded from this work that a 1.0 % concentration of chitosan could not prevent disease incidence or weight loss. This is the same as the work of Ali et al. (2011) [8] where 1.0 % chitossan did not reduce disease incidence or weight loss. In the same study it was shown that the 1.0 % chitosan application resulted in rapid weight loss due to increased respiration and ethylene production. Also, weight reduction and disease incidence were associated: decreases in weight resulted in the incidence of disease increasing after prolonged storage[7].It is possible that the characteristics of chitosan do not completely prevent weight loss in produce[28] .

It can be concluded that the application of 2 % chitosan reduces weight loss, disease incidence and maintains the firmness of rose apples cv. Tabtim Chan stored at an ambient temperature.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the Coordination Centre of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology and the National Science and Technology Development Agency, Bangkok, Thailand for financial assistance with this research. Thanks are also due to Dr Kaija Hakala, MTT Agrifood Research Finland, for her kind suggestions and preparation of the manuscript. Thanks also to colleagues in the Faculty of Technology, Mahasarakham University for their kind assistance when this work was being carried out.

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