Scholarly article on topic 'Dynamics of Gall Rust Disease on Sengon (Falcataria Moluccana) in various Agroforestry Patterns'

Dynamics of Gall Rust Disease on Sengon (Falcataria Moluccana) in various Agroforestry Patterns Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{"Gall rust disease" / "Falcataria moluccana" / Agroforestry}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Puji Lestari, Sri Rahayu, Widiyatno

Abstract Sengon (Falcataria moluccana) has a high economical value in the community forest. It was planted by agroforestry system that has various pattern. However, gall rust disease has caused severe damage to all growth stages. Each agroforestry pattern has a different contribution on the development of gall rust disease. This research was aimed to evaluate development of gall rust disease in various agroforestry pattern. Field study was made in various agroforestry pattern that are PA I (sengon with coffee, papaya, and ginger), PA II (cassava planted between sengon with 1, 5 m spacing) and PA III (cassava planted in the edge of sengon plantation with 0, 5 m spacing) to observe Disease Incidence (DI) and Disease Severity (DS). The result showed that development of gall rust disease for 5 months at agroforestry patterns were observed is low (PA I has DI = 47,22%, DS = 15,74% while PA II has DI = 27,16%, DS = 10,29 and PA III has DI = 20,99%, DS = 7,41%).

Academic research paper on topic "Dynamics of Gall Rust Disease on Sengon (Falcataria Moluccana) in various Agroforestry Patterns"

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Procedia Environmental Sciences 17 (2013) 167 - 171

The 3 International Conference on Sustainable Future for Human Security

SUSTAIN 2012

Dynamics of gall rust disease on sengon (Falcataria moluccana) in various agroforestry patterns

Puji Lestaria*, Sri Rahayub, Widiyatnob

aVocational School of Forest Management, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia bFaculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Agro Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia

Abstract

Sengon (Falcataria moluccana) has a high economical value in the community forest. It was planted by agroforestry system that has various pattern. However, gall rust disease has caused severe damage to all growth stages. Each agroforestry pattern has a different contribution on the development of gall rust disease. This research was aimed to evaluate development of gall rust disease in various agroforestry pattern. Field study was made in various agroforestry pattern that are PA I (sengon with coffee, papaya, and ginger), PA II (cassava planted between sengon with 1, 5 m spacing) and PA III (cassava planted in the edge of sengon plantation with 0, 5 m spacing) to observe Disease Incidence (DI) and Disease Severity (DS). The result showed that development of gall rust disease for 5 months at agroforestry patterns were observed is low (PA I has DI = 47,22%, DS = 15,74% while PA II has DI = 27,16%, DS = 10,29 and PA III has DI = 20,99%, DS = 7,41%).

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SUSTAIN conference's committee and supportedby Kyoto University; (OPIR), (GCOE-ES), (GCOE-HSE),(CSEAS),(RISH), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts.

Keywords: Gall rust disease; Falcataria moluccana; Agroforestry

1. Introduction

Sengon is fast growing species which has a high economical value. Nowdays, sengon is planted not only in timber estate but also in community forest with agroforestry system. Agroforestry system combines tress with crops. However, gall rust disease has caused severe damage to all growth stages. Gall rust is caused by rust fungi, Uromycladium tepperianum. Epidemic of gall rust disease at sengon especially in Java island makes productivity of sengon decrease. It is has influence on cultivation of sengon and developing prospect of product which is based on sengon. Eecently, cultivation of sengon

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62 857 351 70748 ; fax: +62 274 551 752 E-mail address: cahyaningbintari@yahoo.com.

1878-0296 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of SUSTAIN conference's committee and supported by Kyoto University; (OPIR), (GCOE-ES), (GCOE-HSE), (CSEAS), (RISH), (GCOE-ARS) and (GSS) as co-hosts. doi: 10.1016/j.proenv.2013.02.025

increase rapidly but its management has not been optimally. On the other hand, management in community forest is based on needs and habits of the owner. It makes various agroforestry pattern because the principal of agroforestry management is resource sharing to get optimal yield. The different agroforestry pattern with various species composer, especially in community forest which is based on sengon will has influence on development of gall rust disease. Related to gall rust desease, each agroforestry pattern gives different contribution for disease incidence and disease severity of gall rust because of its enviromental factor. Development of gall rust disease is higher in low light intensity, high relative humidity and low temperature [1, 2, 3, 4]. The environment has influence on mode of pathogen dispersal, efficiency of pathogen survival, pathogen reproduction and level of aggresiveness of pathogen. This research was aimed to evaluated development of gall rust disease in various agroforestry pattern.

2. Methods

In this research, field study in community forest in Temanggung, Central Java was conducted to observed gall rust symptoms at sengon 2,5 years old in various agroforestry patterns; PA I (sengon with coffee, papaya, and ginger); PA II (cassava planted between sengon with 1, 5 m spacing) and PA III (cassava planted in the edge of sengon plantation with 0, 5 m spacing). Figure 1. shows layout agroforestry patterns were observed. Observed parameters were Disease Incidence (DI) and Disease Severity (DS) by making score at each part of tree (tabel 1).

: Sengon

: Papaya

: Cofee

: Ginger

: Casava

Figure 1. (a) Layout Agroforestry Pattern at PA 1 (b) Layout Agoforetry Pattern at PA II (c) Layout Agroforetry Pattern at PA III

Figure 2. (a) Gall rust at twig (b) Gall rust at branch (c) Gall rust at stem

Tabel 1. Relative score of gall rust disease at sengon in agroforestry system

Part of tree Symptom Score

Twig Disappear Appear 0 1

Branch Disappear Appear 0 2

Stem Disappear 0

Appear 3

Disease incidence and disease severity were found by using this formula:

a number of tree which is suffer of disease

Disease Incidence =-x 100% (1)

total of tree

(na x za) + (nb x zb) + ... + (ny x zy)

Disease Severity =-x 100%% (2)

where:

na - nz : a number of tree which have score a until z za - zy : score a until y N : total of trees which are observed Z : the highest score

The other observed parameter were light intensity, relative humidity and temperature. All of observed parameter were measured twice a month from September 2010 to Februari 2011.

3. Result and Discussion

Observations on stand regularly are needed to evaluated the development of disease. The development of disease can be justified by measuring disease incidence and disease severity. Disease incidence is percentage of trees that is suffer of disease in a observation unit while disease severity shows rank of severity of disease which in a population of trees [5].

Figure 3. (a) Disease Incidence in Various Agroforestry Patterns (b) Disease Severity in Various Agroforestry Patterns

In general, disease incidence and disease severity in three all agroforestry pattern that observed was low. The figure 3.(a) shows the number of disease incidence in various agroforetry pattern. Disease incidence in PA I for 5 months was 47,22 % while disease incidence in PA II was 27,16 % and disease incidence in PA III was 20,99 %. The figure 3.(b) shows the number of disease severity in various agroforetry pattern. Disease severity in PA I for 5 months was 15,74 % while disease severity in PA II was 10,29 % and disease severity in PA III was 20,99 %. However, the trends showed that development of gall rust disease at PA I was higher than PA II and PA III. It caused the shadiness at PA I was heavier than PA II and PA III.

Figure 4. (a) Light Intensity in Various Agroforestry Pattern (b) Relative Humidity in Various Agroforestry Pattern (c) Temperature in Various Agroforestry Pattern

Figure 4. (a) shows light intensity in various agroforestry pattern. The lowest light intensity was PA I, which constituted 18,55%. PA II, which accounted for 55,20% was considerably higher than PA I but it was significantly lower than PA III, which made up 69,67%. The development of gall rust disease was slow in high light intensity because radiation of ultraviolet for 5 hours obstructed germination process of rust fungi's teliospora [1].

Figure 4. (b) shows relative humidity in various agroforestry pattern. The highest humidity was PA I, accounted for 51,08%. PA II, which made up 46,17% was higher than PA III which constituted 43,17% but it was greatly lower than PA I. High relative humidity is most favorable condition for development of gall rust disease. In high relative humidity (RH > 90 %) the landing teliospore germinated to produce a basidiospore on the host surface. The basidiospore forms about 10 hours after inoculation, and 6 hours later forms a penetration peg, which penetrates the host cells directly through the epidermis [4].

Figure 4. (c) shows temperature in various agroforestry pattern. Temperature at PA I, PA II and PA III were 30,04°C, 40,11°C and 40,90°C. Rust fungi on wheat can occur at temperatures till 40°C [3] but it can develops optimally at temperatures between 18,3 °C and 29,4°C [2]. Thus, temperatures in all agroforestry pattern which was observed is unfavorable for rust fungi development, including U. tepperianum. Although, this condition was possible for it to grow.

Unless appropriate management, agroforestry sistem which combines several plant is susceptible for development of gall rust disease. Spacing arragement, selection of species and silviculture treatment are important to be noticed to create environment for stand that unfavorable for fungi development.

Management agroforestry at three agroforestry patterns which were observed can be examples for integrated pest managemant. Although, the development of gall rust disease at PA I was higher than PA I and PA II but its status was occasional. At PA I, spacing between species was narrow but sengon were

combined with coffee, papaya, and ginger which shorter than it so that development of gall rust disease can be suppresed because sengon received sunlight directly.

The other factor that supported the succesful management in agroforestry system which was observed was pruning practice on branch that show gall rust disesae. Pruning practice can reduce the spread of gall rust inoculum.

4. Conclusion

Agroforestry patterns were observed can be used to be a model for integrated pest management because the result showed that development of gall rust disease for 5 months at agroforestry patterns were observed is low ( PA I has DI = 47,22%, DS = 15,74% while PA II has DI = 27,16%, DS = 10,29 and PA III has DI = 20,99%, DS = 7,41%).

Acknowledgements

The authors acknowledge the financial support of Universitas Gadjah Mada under research grant program. We appreciate the valuable technical support provided by Latif Hanafiantoro, Risky Hening D. A, M. Arief Wibowo and Sayekti Purwoko. We also thank to Mr. Agus for facilitating on fieldwork.

References

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[2] Markel, S., Gene M., Rick C., and Jody H. Rust Disease of Wheat in Agriculture and Natural Resources. University of Arkansas. 2006. FSA7547-PD-11-06N.

[3] Marsalis, A.M., and Natalie P.G. Leaf, Stem and Stripe Rust Disease of Wheat. College of Agriculture and Home Economics. 2006. Gide A-415.

[4] Rahayu, S., Su L.S., and Nor A. A. S. Uromycladium tepperianum, the gall rust fungus from Falcataria moluccana in Malaysia and Indonesia. Mycoscience 2010; 51:149—153.

[5] Widyastuti, S.M., Sumardi and Harjono. PatologiHutan. Gadjah Mada University Press: Yogyakarta; 2005.