Scholarly article on topic 'Comparison of Perceived Problem Solving Skills of Trainee Students Graduated from Different'

Comparison of Perceived Problem Solving Skills of Trainee Students Graduated from Different Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Problem Solving Skills" / "Teacher Training" / "Trainee Teachers"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Yildiz Oztan Ulusoy, Hakan Turan, Belgin Tanriverdi, Hakan Kolayis

Abstract The purpose of this research is to compare perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students who is bachelor of education and bachelor of faculty of science who got training education. The sample is 168 randomly chosen amongst trainee students graduated from faculty of education and science from Kocaeli University. As a means for data gathering “Problem ‚šzme Envanteri” developed by Heppner and Petersen (1982), adapted to Turkish by Şahin, Şahin and Heppner (1993) is used. In conclusion; as the trainee students’ perceived problem solving skills vary significantly in favor of faculty of education (p<0.00, t=5.58), it don’t significantly vary in gender (p>0.82, t=0.23). Accordingly; the education given in faculty of science is suggested to be enriched with the activities that improve students’ perceived problem solving skills.

Academic research paper on topic "Comparison of Perceived Problem Solving Skills of Trainee Students Graduated from Different"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

SciVerse ScienceDirect PfOCSCl ¡0

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 (2012) 2099 - 2103

WCES 2012

Comparison of perceived problem solving skills of trainee students

graduated from different

Yildiz Oztan Ulusoya *, Hakan Turanb Belgin Tanriverdic Hakan Kolayisd

aKocaeli University Faculty of Education, Kocaeli, 41380 Turkey bKocaeli University Faculty of Education, Kocaeli, 41380 Turkey cKocaeli University Faculty of Education, Kocaeli, 41380 Turkey bSakarya University School of Physical Education and Sports, Sakarya, 54187, Turkey

Abstract

The purpose of this research is to compare perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students who is bachelor of education and bachelor of faculty of science who got training education. The sample is 168 randomly chosen amongst trainee students graduated from faculty of education and science from Kocaeli University. As a means for data gathering "Problem Çôzme Envanteri" developed by Heppner and Petersen (1982), adapted to Turkish by §ahin, Çahin and Heppner (1993) is used. In conclusion; as the trainee students' perceived problem solving skills vary significantly in favor of faculty of education (p<0.00, t=5.58), it don't significantly vary in gender (p>0.82, t=0.23). Accordingly; the education given in faculty of science is suggested to be enriched with the activities that improve students' perceived problem solving skills.

Keywords: Problem Solving Skills, Teacher Training, Trainee Teachers

ELSEVIER

1. Introduction

Nowadays teachers has to have some features in order to successfully carry on new teaching programs. One of these is to perceive themselves positively in problem solving skills. They must be a model for students in different experienced situation to find new solutions.

1. 1. Problem solving

Problem is a Latin concept. According to Schunk, (2004, 203) problem is a goal tried to be reached and a concept needed to be found a solution. According to Tomas (1999) a question or a situation whose solution is not certain or those we cannot answer currently, can be accepted as a problem.

According to Bingham (1958, 10) problems vary in field, difficulty, complexity and duration. There is only one determined answer of some problems. On the other hand there isn't just a sing correct answer of the various questions that occur. Such problems shouldn't be tried to be solved as those have one solution. If it is tried to be solved in this way, the solution becomes ineffective.

* Yildiz Ulusoy. Tel.: +9-262-303-2405 E-mail address: yildizoz@kocaeli.edu.tr

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.05.435

To Bingham (1958, 10) there are some common features in all problems. These are: a certain goal in individual's mind, an obstacle encountered in a way or another in the road from the end and the desire to achieve the goal by removing the obstacle. The desire to achieve the goal directs the individual to solve the problem.

Problem solving is a process while overcoming the difficulties in achieving the goal (Bingham, 1958, 10). Heppner and Peterson, (1982, 66-75) use problem solving as a synonym to the concept of coping with problems. In real life problem solving is regarded as to direct the cognitive and affective processes by one by to an aim in order to accord to internal and external requests or to calls. To Schunk, (2004, 203) it is a effort people make to accomplish a goal whish doesn't has a spontaneous answer, to D'Zurilla and Goldiried,(1971, 407-426) it is a cognitive and behavioral process including creating effective options to cope with a problematic situation and choosing one of the these option thought to be the most effective one (Aktaran Katkat ve Mizrak, 2003).

1. 1. 1. Problem Solving Process

The problem solving process is using the knowledge and abilities to accomplish the aim (Lee vd. 2000, adapted by Kalayci, 2001, 20). According to Knippen and Green (1997) the actual success in problem solving is to identify it how to be solved. People go through certain stages in the process of problem solving (Feldman, 1996, 275).

Problem solving process starts with understanding the problem or gaining awareness, and continuous with the stages of producing alternative strategies and applying by choosing amongst one of those alternatives. Lastly that chosen solution is needed to be confirmed (Polya 1954 adapted by Brown, 1994,176).

In the following years Tomas (1999) arranges the problem solving process in five stages: 1st Step: Define the problem

2nd Step: Collect information about source of the problem 3rd Step: Develop alternative solutions for problem 4th Step: Choose the most suitable solution 5th Step: Apply the solution.

1. 1. 2. Teaching Problem Solving

Problem solving process is to use knowledge and skills to achieve the goals. In this process students are expected to make plan by using knowledge and skills about the problem, use those plans, find the most suitable solution for the problem and to apply this solution (Lee vd., 2000 adapted by Kalayci, 2001, 20).

According to Erden (2002) giving students problem solving skills is one of the prior goals of all educational institutions. Especially in programs depending on progressive and reconstructive philosophical movement, improving problem solving skill is the main goal of education. People need to have this skill to adapt social life and change, to be a successful and independent person.

To Bingham (1958, 24) teacher plays an important role in improving children's problem solving skills. Teacher is responsible for seeing that capacities in the surrounding can be changed into remarkable learning situations, and guiding to add new elements into the situation. According to Hmelo (2004) and Watts (1994, 42) teachers help students in learning the cognitive information they need for problem solving and cooperation.

Teacher skills that can teach students problem solving, can be summed up as follows:

Creating problem solving atmosphere,

Creating problem solving time,

Using materials which will support problem solving,

Having information and experience about how problem is solved,

Choosing the suitable problems that are to be solved (Britz, 1993 adapted by Kalayci, 2001, 36).

Rather than giving information to students about how to solve an encountered problem, teachers must bring solving skill for their own problems (Karplus, 1977). There are two main approaches in problem solving. Firstly, teachers configure the information actively in cooperation groups. Secondly, student and teacher roles have changed their form. Teacher is no longer the main source of the information. What is done in cooperation is the facilitator of learning. In the learning process for them to explore, the teacher guide to discover students' thoughts by asking open ended questions and include them into the group process (Hmelo, 2004; von Glasersfeld, 1991, 8-11). In such atmosphere, students understand the creative thinking and problem solving better, trust themselves more in creative skills, get ready for using creative approaches more in solving professional problems and showing more creative approaches in daily life (Davis, 1980, 3). To Duffy and Cunningham (2001) in problem solving process, students take more responsibility; become more independent and self-regulatory individuals.

For effective teaching teacher should know how students learn and develop, arrange activities that will support their intellectual, social and individual development, apply different teaching strategies to encourage them for critical thinking, problem solving and development of performance skills (MEB, 2002, 23).When qualification to develop problem solving skills that ministry expects from teachers, is considered it can be said that the problem solving skills of the trainee studying students in education departments gains importance. The aim of this study; is to compare the perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students graduated from Faculty of Education (EF) and from Faculty of Science with a training education. To achieve this goal the following questions are tried to be answered. The problem solving disposition of the studying students in Mathematics and Turkish teaching departments,

• Does it vary in faculties they are graduated?

• Does it vary in gender?

Answering the previous questions the trainee students' problem solving skills can be presented in terms of different factors.

2. Method

2.1. Participants and procedures

A research is a descriptive study. As the intention is to compare the trainee students' perceived problem solving skills in terms of different factors, in the research, comparative kind of relational screening model is used. The research phase consists of the trainee students graduated from Kocaeli University Faculty of Education Turkish teaching and from Faculty of Science those who got a training education, and the sample consists of 90 EF, 78 FEF, total 168 students randomly chosen from this phase. The numbers and percentages according to gender and faculties of the participant students' are given in Table 1.

Table 1: Student numbers according to gender and faculty levels.

Faculty Gender Total

EF FEF Women Men

Number 90 78 117 51 168

Percentage 53.6 46.4 69.6 30.4 100

According to the information in Table 1; participant students are 53,6% bachelor of education, 46,4% bachelor of faculty of science, 69,6% women, 30,4% men.

2.2. Instrumentation and data analysis

In the research in order to identify trainee studente' problem solving disposition as a means of data gathering "Problem Qozme Envanteri" (Problem Solving Inventory) developed by Heppner and Petersen (1982), adapted to Turkish by §ahin, §ahin and Heppner (1993) is used. The translation of the inventory is firstly done by Akkoyun and Oztan (1988), then by Taylan (1990) and Sava§ir and §ahin (1997). Transferring from Heppner, Taylan (1990) worked on validity and reliability of the inventory and stated that it is used in psychological counseling, medicine or educational environment in order to identify individuals' problem solving or coping strategy. From the measure consists of a total 35 items, 35 is the lowest, 210 is the highest point can be got. The minority of points got from the measure, shows the height of the problem solving perception, and height of the points shows minority of the perception (Taylan, 1990, 39). The result of the Cronbach Alfa measured for the sake of reliability of the scale, is found as 88 (§ahin, §ahin and Heppner, 1993). With the independent groups, t-test is used in analyzing the data for the purpose of comparing the descriptive statistical techniques and perceived problem solving skills according to factors of faculty and gender. In analyzing the data SPSS is used.

3. Findings

In Table 2 the t-test results related to whether the perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students vary in gender and faculty that they graduated from.

Table 2. Results of independent sample test for the comparison of students' perceived problem solving skills

on by their graduated faculty and gender

Variable Indicator Mean Std. Error df t p-value

Problem Solving EF 124.08 17.45 192 5.58 0.00

Disposition By Faculty FEF 139.21 17.60

Problem Solving Girl 131.32 19.60 192 0.23 0.82

Disposition By Gender Boy 130.61 17.89

According to data from Table 2; it occurs that perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students vary significantly in favor of education faculty (p<0.00, t=5.58), but do not significantly vary in gender (p>0.82, t=0.23).

4. Conclusion and Discussion

From the results of this research where the perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students' graduated from Faculty of Education and Faculty of Science with a training education is compared, it occurs that perceived problem solving skills of the trainee students,

• Do vary significantly in faculties they graduated in favor of education faculty,

• Do not vary significantly in gender.

The results of this study shows similarities with the studies done by Gelen (2002) ve Ekinci (2009) in terms of critical thinking disposition not varying in gender, Lee and others (2000) in terms of varying in grade levels, Giilveren (2007) and Ekinci (2009) in terms of not varying, Giilveren (2007) in terms of varying in departments they are studying, Gelen (2002) and Ekinci (2009) in terms of not varying.

Starting from these results, it can be stated that the perceived problem solving skills of trainee students graduated from education faculties which take part in the research scope are higher than the trainee students graduated from faculty of science, that gender doesn't have a determiner role in perceived problem solving. In the light of these

results it can be suggested that the education given in faculties of science must be enriched with the activities increasing students' perceived problem solving skills.

References

Altunçekiç, A., Yaman, S. & Koray, Ö. (2005). Ögretmen adaylannin öz-yeterlik inanç düzeyleri ve problem çôzme becerileri üzerine bir

araçtirma (Kastamonu Iii Örnegi), Kastamonu Egitim Dergisi, 13(1), 93-102. Bingham, A. (1958). Improving children's facility in problem solving. New York: T eaehers College. Columbia University. Çocuklarda problem çôzme yeteneklerinin geliçtirilmesi. Çev.: A. Ferhan Oguzkan. 1983

Brown, B. L. (1998). Applying Constructivism in Vacational and Creer Education. ERIC Clearinghouse on Adult, Career, and Vacational

Education Center on Education and Trainig For Employment College of Education. The Ohio State University. Columbus, OH Çam, S. (1997). Iletiçim becerileri programimn ögretmen adaylarmm ego durumlarma ve problem çôzme becerisi algilartna etkisi. Türk

Psikolojik Dani§ma ve Rehberlik Dergisi. c.2, S.12, ss.16-27. Davis, G. (1980). The teaching of Elementary Problem Solving in Engineering and Related Fields. (Edit. Lubkin, James, L.) American Society for

Engineering Education. Washington. D.C. Duffy, T., M. & Cunningham, D. J. (2001). Constructivism: implications for the design and delivery of instruction. the handbook of research for educational communications and technology. The Association for Educational Communications and Technology http://www.aect.org/intranet/publications/edtech/07/ index.html [02.10.2007] Erden, M. (2005). Ögretmenlik Meslegine Giri$. Istanbul: Epsilon Yayincilik Feldman, R. S. (1996). Understanding Psychology (4th edition). USA: Mc Graw-Hill

Genç, S. Z. & Kalafat, T. (2007). Ögretmen adaylannin demokratik tutumlan ile problem çôzme becerilerinin çeçitli degiçkenler açisindan incelenmesi. Pamukkale Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi Yil 2007 (2) 22. Sayi 10 http://pauegitimdergi.pau.edu.tr/Makaleler/1257026354_Salih%20Zeki%20Gen%C3%A71,%20Temel%20Kalafat2.pdf Gûçray, S. (2003). The analysis of decision making behaviors and perceived problem solving skills in adolescents. The Turkish Online Journal

Of Educational Technology, 2 (2), Article 5 Heppner, P. P. & Peterson, C. H. (1982). The Development and implications of a Personal-ftoblra Solving inventory. Journal of Counseling Psychology. 29,66-75.

Hmelo, S. & Cindy. E. (2004). Problem-based learning: what and how do students learn? Educational Psychology Review. Vol. 16 No. 3. 235266. September.

Katkat, D., & Mizrak, O. (2003). Ögretmen adaylarinin pedogojik egitimlerinin problem çôzme becerilerine etkisi. Milli Egitim Dergisi. Sayi 158. Bahar, 2003.

Kalayci, N. (2001). Sosyal Bilgilerde Problem Çôzme ve Uygulamalar. Ankara: Gazi Kitabevi

Karplus, R. (1977). Science teaching and the development of reasoning. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. 14/2

Knippen, J. T. & Green, T. B. (1997). A guide to problem solving. Journal of Workplace Learning. Volume 9. Number 3. 1997 pp. 98-99

MEB. (2002). Ögretmen Yeterlikleri. Ögretmen Yetiçtirme ve Egitimi Genel Müdürlügü. Ankara: Milli Egitim Basimevi

Polat, R. H. & Tümkaya, S. (2010). An investigation of the students of primary school problem solving

abilities depending on need for cognition. Elementary Education Online. 9(1), 346—360, 2010.iMgretim Online, 9(1), 346-360, 2010.

http://ilkogretim-online.org.tr/vol9say1/v9s1m26.pdf Schunk, D. H. (2004). Learning theories: an educational perspective. England: Macmillan Publishing Co, Inc. (1991). xi, 402 pp. Çahin, N., Çahin, N. H. & Heppner, P. P. (1993). Psychometric proporties of the problem solving inventory in a group of Turkish university

students. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 17 (4), 379-396. Taylan, S. (1990). Heppner'in Problem Çôzme Envanterinin Uyarlama, Güvenirlik ve Geçerlik Çalvjmalari. Unpublished master's thesis.

Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitiisü. Tomas, S. (1999). Creative Problem-Solving: An Approach To Generating Ideas. Hospital Materiel Management Quarterly. May 1999; 20, 4; Health & Medical Complete pg. 33

von Glasersfeld, E. (1991). Questions and answers about radical constructivism. scope, sequence, and coordination of secondary school science.

(ed. M. K. Pearsall.) The National Science Teachers Association. Vol. II: Relevant research (169—182). (Final Draft, August 1991). Watts, M. (1994). Constructivism, Re-constructivism and Task-orientated Problem-solving. The Content of Science: A Constructivist Approach to its Teaching and Learning. ed. Peter J. Fensham, Richard F. Gunstone, Richard T. White. London-Washington D.C.: The Falmer Press: 39-59