Scholarly article on topic 'Dimensioning a Small-Sized PTC Solar Field for Heating and Cooling of a Hotel in Almería (Spain)'

Dimensioning a Small-Sized PTC Solar Field for Heating and Cooling of a Hotel in Almería (Spain) Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Manuel Quirante, Loreto Valenzuela

Abstract This paper presents a solar field configuration to supply thermal energy to the heating and air conditioning system of a hotel located in Almería (Southern Spain). The solar collector technology selected for the solar field is parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology, in particular a small sized PTC prototype especially designed for industrial process heat and air-conditioning systems. Each PTC collector is 8m long and its aperture length is 1m. The heat transfer fluid in the solar field is pressurized hot water. Considering the space available for the solar collector field just close to the hotel and its thermal energy demand profile, the solar field configuration proposed consists of 8 parallel rows, north-south oriented, composed of 32 PTCs connected in series. With this solar field configuration, 25% of the cooling demand is covered the hottest day of the summer and 76% of the heating demand is covered the coldest day of the winter.

Academic research paper on topic "Dimensioning a Small-Sized PTC Solar Field for Heating and Cooling of a Hotel in Almería (Spain)"

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Energy Procedía 30 (2012) 967 - 973

SHC 2012

Dimensioning a small-sized PTC solar field for heating and cooling of a hotel in Almería (Spain)

Manuel Quirantea, Loreto Valenzuela

aStudent, Master in Solar Energy Systems, CIESOL-University of Almería, Camino del Bobar, 15 B4-5°B, Almeria E04007, Spain bCIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almería, Crta. Senes, s/n, Tabernas, Almeria, E04200, Spain

Abstract

This paper presents a solar field configuration to supply thermal energy to the heating and air conditioning system of a hotel located in Almería (Southern Spain). The solar collector technology selected for the solar field is parabolic trough collector (PTC) technology, in particular a small sized PTC prototype especially designed for industrial process heat and air-conditioning systems. Each PTC collector is 8m long and its aperture length is 1m. The heat transfer fluid in the solar field is pressurized hot water. Considering the space available for the solar collector field just close to the hotel and its thermal energy demand profile, the solar field configuration proposed consists of 8 parallel rows, north-south oriented, composed of 32 PTCs connected in series. With this solar field configuration, 25% of the cooling demand is covered the hottest day of the summer and 76% of the heating demand is covered the coldest day of the winter.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. S election and peer-review under responsibility of the PSE AG Keywords: Solar heating and cooling; parabolic trough collectors; case study

1. Introduction

Utilization of solar energy for air-conditioning is taking a renewed interest from private and public institutions in the last decade [1][2].

The hot source of typical single effect absorption chillers available in the market requires temperature around 80°C and the COP ranges from 0.6 to 0.8. Nowadays the use of double effect machines with two generation stages is extending. These systems require operating temperatures above 140°C and the COP

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +34-950-387934; fax: +34-950-365015. E-mail address: loreto.valenzuela@psa.es.

1876-6102 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the PSE AG doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2012.11.109

can be up to 1.2. Flat plate collectors and evacuated tube collectors are being used to feed the hot source in single effect cooling machines, but for double effect machines it is necessary to use concentrated solar radiation and parabolic trough collectors (PTC) are a good alternative.

The case study presented in this paper is related to the dimensioning of a PTC solar field to cover the thermal energy demand of a hotel located in Almería (Southern Spain). The hotel has 278 rooms, which is a typical size for holidays hotels located near the sea, and represents a good example of building demanding energy for water heating, laundry, pool heating, and space heating and cooling systems. This type of building usually has free space on the roof to install a solar facility.

Other aspect significant in the touristic sector is the relevance in taking the label "Green Hotel". There is an EC voluntary programme through which companies commit to energy efficiency measures in nonresidential buildings (hospital, hotels, office buildings, schools, etc.) [3]. The certification Green Building is achieved if the building implements actions devoted to reduce primary energy consumption by at least 25%.

This paper summarized the solar field configuration studied and results obtained.

Acronyms

EC European Commision

PTC Parabolic Trough Collector

PSA Plataforma Solar de Almería

SHW Sanitary Hot Water

TMY Typical Meteorological Year

2. Thermal energy demand of the hotel

First step to undertake the problem was to analyze the thermal energy demand profile of the hotel and evaluate the technical feasibility of a PTC solar field supplying completely or partially this demand (at least 25% to achieve the requirements of Green Building certification). Table 1 includes the monthly demand profile in MWh. These data were obtained analyzing original data from the construction of the hotel and gas and electricity consumption measured by the hotel maintenance staff. Once the thermal energy demand profile is estimated, these data were validated using figures available for other buildings of similar characteristics [4]. Thermal energy demand in winter is about 25% of demand in summer time. In winter energy is required for space heating and sanitary hot water (SHW) and in summer mainly for space cooling but also for SHW.

Before proceeding with the configuration of the solar field, other input required to dimension the solar field was the typical meteorological year (TMY) for this location. As the location is quite close to the Plataforma Solar de Almería (PSA), the study was performed considering the available TMY of the PSA.

Table 1. Monthly thermal energy demand of the hotel.

Energy demand (MWh) Month -

Space heating Space cooling Water heating Total

January 42.30 0.00 26.20 68.50

February 34.60 0.00 23.21 57.81

March 28.80 0.00 24.69 53.49

April 7.70 23.40 34.38 65.48

May 0.00 96.54 34.77 131.31

June 0.00 157.80 54.86 212.66

July 0.00 210.10 55.43 265.53

August 0.00 199.80 56.69 256.49

September 0.00 146.50 56.08 202.58

October 6.30 45.70 35.53 87.53

November 53.10 0.00 23.90 77.00

December 65.90 0.00 32.75 98.65

Total 238.70 879.84 458.49 1577.03

ou 150

Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month

Fig. 1. Thermal energy demand profile of the hotel

3. Solar plant solution proposed

3.1. Characteristics of the PTC selected

Once known the thermal energy demand of the hotel and the TMY of the location, the next step required in the analysis is the selection of a PTC to perform the calculations. The PTC Capsol [5] was chosen for designing the solar field. The dimensions of the collector unit selected are 1m x 8m. Each collector unit is composed by 4 modules (each module is 2m long). The reflector is a 0.5mm tick aluminum sheet with a special solar coating, Mirosun by Alanod Solar. The reflector is attached to the concentrator inside surface made of composite material. The use of composites favors to have a lightweight and rigid PTC adequate for roof installations. The absorber tube is stainless steel with selective coating of black Chrome, by Energie Solaire. The inner diameter of the absorber pipe is 15mm. Each collector module has a flat-glass cover placed on the aperture plane and a non-evacuated glass tube surrounding the steel absorber tube. The use of a glass flat cover and the low thermal conductivity of the composite materials used for the concentrator structure minimize thermal losses. The flat plate cover also facilitates the cleaning of the collector.

The global efficiency function obtained for one module of the PTC Capsol is [5]

Coverall = 0.63(±0.03) - 1.1(±0.6)AT/Ed- 1.4(±0.4)10'2- AT!/Ed (1)

where AT is the temperature difference between the average fluid temperature in the collector and the ambient temperature (in °C) and Ed is the direct normal irradiance (in W/m2). This curve was obtained from experiments where incidence angle of beam solar radiation was nearly 0°.

The incidence angle function K(6) obtained experimentally for this collector module was [5]

K(6) = 1 + 2.2(±0.7)-10'3-e - 1.65(±0.14)10'4e2 (2)

where 6 is the incidence angle of the beam solar radiation (in degrees).

3.2. Design point

The time and date selected for the design point is the solar noon of July 15th.

The geographical coordinates of the location are longitude 2° 47' W and latitude 36° 42' N.

The orientation of the collectors in the solar field is North-South direction, so the incidence angle of beam solar radiation is 15.8° at solar noon in July 15th.

Direct normal irradiance for the date selected is 940 W/m2 and ambient temperature 31°C.

The double effect absorption machine selected presents a good performance working in the temperature range from 145°C to 160°C. Therefore the inlet and outlet fluid temperature in the solar field are fixed to 140°C and 170°C.

The heat transfer fluid in the solar field is pressurized hot water. To avoid the existence of two phase flow or stagnation in the collectors, water pressure is above 10 bar. Thermodynamic properties of the water as a function of working temperature and pressure are calculated using the standard IAPWS-IF97 [6].

3.3. Procedure followed to design the solar field

Once fixed all parameters corresponding to the design point the first step followed is to calculate the number of collectors per row, which depends on the temperature increase required by the process, which is 30°C in the present case study, and on the temperature increase achieved at one collector, which

depends on the collector characteristics, DNI available, incidence angle of solar radiation, water mass flow through the collector and average fluid enthalpy.

To guarantee a turbulent flow inside the receiver pipe, the Reynolds number is imposed to be higher than 105. Considering this assumption, minimum fluid velocity is calculated.

Once the minimum flow is established, an energy balance is done to determine the temperature increase at each collector and consequently the number of collectors to be connected in series.

3.4. Results

From the assumptions considered in section 3.2 and doing an energy balance, a number of 32 PTCs in series per row was obtained. The thermal power supply calculated per row was 26 kWth.

Considering the DNI data for this date from the TMY available for this location, the total energy supplied by one row calculated was 211 kWh.

To guarantee that the solar field covers a 100% of thermal energy demand of the hotel (for space cooling and SHW) on July 15th, which is about 9,300 kWh according to the monthly data detailed in Table 1, the solar field would be constituted by 44 parallel rows of 32 PTCs connected in series.

Different solar field configurations were analyzed depending on the energy supply. In all cases North-South orientations were selected. Configurations varied from a solar field composed by 44 parallel rows of 32 PTCs to cover 100% of the space cooling and SHW demand during the hottest day of the summer, to a configuration of solar field composed by 75 parallel rows of 11 PTCs to cover 100% of space heating and SHW demand the coldest day of winter time. Table 2 summarizes results obtained for 5 solar field configurations analyzed.

Table 2. Summary of solar field configurations and thermal energy demands covered

Orientation Date Average fluid temperature (°C) Thermal energy demand covered (according to Date) Daily demand covered Solar field configuration (mirrors surface)

N-S July 15th 155 100% space cooling and SHW December 21st: 100% of space heating and SHW (excess of thermal energy produced) 44 parallel rows of 32 PTCs (11,264 m2)

N-S July 15th 155 100% space cooling December 21st: 100% of space heating and SHW (excess of thermal energy produced) 32 parallel rows of 32 PTCs (8,192 m2)

N-S December 21st 155 100% space heating and SHW July 15th: 35% of space cooling and SHW or 48% of space cooling 75 parallel rows of 11 PTCs (6,600 m2)

N-S December 21st 55 100% space heating and SHW July 15th: 16% of space cooling 42 parallel rows of 13 PTCs (4,368 m2)

N-S December 21st 155 76% space heating July 15th: 25% of space cooling 8 parallel rows of 32 PTCs (2,048 m2)

Currently there is land available close to the hotel, in particular to the machinery room, to put the solar field, but the space available is limited (see Figure 2) to a zone of 29 m wide by 102 m long. So the final configuration chosen is a solar field composed by 8 parallel rows, north-south oriented, composed by 32 PTCs in series. With this field layout, the solar plant would supply 25% of the energy required for space cooling in summer and 76% of the energy required for space heating the coldest day of winter time.

Fig. 2. Aerial view of the hotel and proposed location of the solar field (CCP)

4. Conclusions

Currently hotel sector is one of potential thermal energy demander that could incorporate solar assisted heated systems with the advantage not only of reducing fossil energy dependence but also improving their touristic image in the way of getting Green Labels that makes attractive to the tourism this type of buildings.

This paper presented a solar plant solution to cover partially the thermal energy demand for space cooling and heating of a holiday hotel in the Southern Spain. The solar collector used to perform the study is a small sized parabolic trough collector specially designed for industrial process heat applications or space cooling of buildings. Among different solar field configurations analyzed and considering the land available for the solar field, the plant solution proposed is composed of 8 parallel rows of 32 PTCs in series with a total mirror surface of 2048 m2.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Spanish Ministry for Economy and Competitiveness for the financial support given to the GEDIVA project (contract No ENE2011 -24777).

References

[1] Desideri U, Proietti S, Sdringola P. Solar-powered cooling systems: technical and economic analysis on industrial refrigeration and air-conditioning applications. Applied Energy 2009; 86:1376-1386.

[2] Rosiek S, Batlles FJ. Integration of the solar thermal energy in the construction: Analysis of the solar-assisted air-conditioning system installed in CIESOL building. Renewable Energy 2009; 34: 1423-1431.

[3] European Commision, The GreenBuilding Programme; 2012. http://re.jrc.ec.europa.eu/energyefficiency/index.htm.

[4] IDAE Spanish Institute for Diversification of Energy Saving. Energy saving in the hotel sector: recommendations and solutions for low-risk. http://www.idae.es.

[5] Fernández-García A, Zarza E, Valenzuela L, Pérez M, Valcárcel E, Rojas E. Development of a small-sized parabolic trough collector. Final Capsol project results. ISES Solar World Congress 2011, Kassel, Germany.

[6] Wagner W, Kruse A. Properties of water and steam: the industrial standard IAPWS-IF97 for the thermodynamic properties and supplementary equations for other properties, Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 1998.