Scholarly article on topic 'Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated'

Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated Academic research paper on "Civil engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Civil engineering, author of scientific article — Hans E. Boysen

Abstract The Øresund and the planned Fehmarnbelt fixed links have recently adopted a set of standards that can significantly raise the operating efficiency and capacity of freight by rail. These standards are explained in the context of the German–Scandinavian railway corridor and in comparison to the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability. Using a quantitative model, the mass and volume load capacity per train are calculated. Compared to present constraining limitations in the German–Scandinavian corridor, the mass load capacity per train can be increased by 64%, and the volume load capacity by up to 220%.

Academic research paper on topic "Øresund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated"

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Journal of Rail Transport Planning & Management

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jrtpm

0resund and Fehmarnbelt high-capacity rail corridor standards updated CroSSMark

Hans E. Boysen *

Royal Institute of Technology (IITH), Dept of Transport Science, SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden

ARTICLE INFO

Article history: Received 17 January 2014 Revised 31 August 2014 Accepted 3 September 2014 Available online 5 October 2014

Keywords:

Capacity

Corridor

Efficiency

Engineering

Freight

Infrastructure

International

Railway

Standard

ABSTRACT

The 0resund and the planned Fehmarnbelt fixed links have recently adopted a set of standards that can significantly raise the operating efficiency and capacity of freight by rail. These standards are explained in the context of the German-Scandinavian railway corridor and in comparison to the European Technical Specifications for Interoperability. Using a quantitative model, the mass and volume load capacity per train are calculated. Compared to present constraining limitations in the German-Scandinavian corridor, the mass load capacity per train can be increased by 64%, and the volume load capacity by up to 220%.

© 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND

license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3XI/).

1. Introduction

Major transportation flows in northern Europe move along the north-south axis. The economies of the Scandinavian nations depend to approximately one third on international trade, and Germany is the largest or second largest trading partner of Norway, Sweden and Denmark alike. Thus, the performance of the German-Scandinavian corridor is of great importance.

The European Commission's Transport 2050 strategy, that 'by 2030, 30% of road freight over 300 km should shift to other modes such as rail or waterborne transport, and more than 50% by 2050' (EC, 2011a), highlights the importance of significantly raising the efficiency and capacity of freight transportation by rail over long distances.

The main road and rail borne transport flows between Norway, Sweden and Germany are funneled through Malmo, where the 0resund fixed link to K0benhavn has surpassed the various train ferry links as the main conduit of rail borne freight between Sweden, Denmark, Germany and beyond, see Fig. 1.

Since the completion of the 0resund fixed link between K0benhavn and Malmo in 2000, annual freight tonnage by rail across 0resund has grown from 3.0 million net tons in 2001 (the first whole year of operation) to 6.2 million net tons in 2011, see

* Corresponding author. E-mail address: heboysen@kth.se

Fig. 2. This growth is realized by a gradual increase in the number of freight trains as well as heavier tonnage per train.

For intermodal, paper and auto parts, there are already multiple daily departures between Gent, Duisburg, Dortmund, Hamburg and Scandinavia. Shippers and train operators are requesting paths for longer trains for these commodities. Since 835 m long trains were introduced between Maschen and Fredericia in 2012, the actual train length and mass have risen steadily (J0rgensen, 2014). The paper industry is also requesting larger loading gauges between Scandinavia and Hamburg, and intermodal would benefit from higher gauges particularly between France and Scandinavia.

The present all-rail route through Denmark leads via Padborg and Taulov, but the new planned Fehmarnbelt tunnel, scheduled to open in 2021, together with new or upgraded connecting lines via Nsstved and K0ge, will create a more direct all-rail route between Germany and Scandinavia by way of Lübeck, cutting the rail distance between Hamburg and K0benhavn by approximately 170 km as well as offering more direct connections between Scandinavia and southern and eastern Germany. Plans are for the Feh-marnbelt corridor to accommodate two freight train paths per hour in each direction, as well as passenger train paths.

In Germany, Lübeck is where flows through several different routes will converge: from western Europe through Hamburg; from southern and central Europe through the new eastern Corridor via Regensburg and Stendal; and from eastern Europe past Berlin. Hamburg will remain a focal point for overseas freight and

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/jjrtpm.2014.09.001 2210-9706/© 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Mass transport capacity (high density goods)

Fig. 1. Map of the German-Scandinavian rail freight corridor with planned and potential expansions.

wagonload, being the site of Europe's second largest container seaport (ESPO, 2013), and with the adjacent Maschen marshalling yard being Europe's largest classification yard as well as the northernmost classification yard in the German wagonload network, benefiting from frequent daily connections with much of the European railway network.

In the German-Scandinavian corridor, with the construction of a new line between Kobenhavn and Ringsted by 2018, a new bridge across Storstremmen at Vordingborg and the new Fehmarn-belt tunnel between Rodby and Puttgarden by 2021 as well as the upgrading of existing lines between K0ge and Nsstved, Ringsted and R0dby by 2021 and between Puttgarden and Bad Schwartau by 2021 (electrification) and 2028 (double track), and the construction of triple and quadruple track between Bargteheide and Hamburg by 2020, close to 90% of the total railway distance between Hamburg and K0benhavn will be upgraded or new by 2021.

The circumstances described above present both the need and the rare opportunity to dramatically raise efficiency and capacity in this important German-Scandinavian rail corridor, by applying coordinated and high engineering standards for the future.

This paper presents the engineering standards that are adopted by the 0resund and Fehmarnbelt fixed links and analyzes them in the context of present northern European railway state of the art as

Train Meter

length X load X

Payload/ gross weight

Train trailing mass Volume transport capacity (low density goods)

Train Length X

length utilization

Useful cross section

Fig. 3. Models of mass and volume load capacity per train.

well as shipper and operator needs and opportunities. It is an updated version of a paper previously published in 2013 (Boysen, 2013a a).

2. Analysis methods

For the individual shipper, high cubic and tonnage capacity per wagon are important drivers of efficiency and capacity, limited mainly by the permissible loading gauge and axle load. For the train operator, the cubic and tonnage capacity per train together with high average speed drive efficiency and capacity, in the face of high fixed or 'stiff costs per train (Boysen, 2012a). For the railway system as a whole, the load capacity per train multiplied by the train frequency determine the overall system transportation capacity. The load capacity per train can be broken down into two models, for volume (cubic) and mass (tonnage) load capacity, respectively, see Fig. 3 (Boysen, 2012b).

In the above models, whereas the two parameters 'payload/ gross weight' and 'length utilization' are determined by the rolling stock design, the following infrastructure-dependent parameters are identified:

- Useful cross section (loading gauge and intermodal gauge).

- Train length.

- Axle load.

- Linear load (meter load).

- Trailing mass (trailing tonnage).

The latter, trailing mass, is limited mainly by the ruling uphill gradient as an infrastructure parameter.

Beyond the load capacity per train, the also important train speed is limited by the permitted line speed, signal spacing,

5 -4 3 2 -1 0

Freight tonnage (MNT/yr)

□ Freight tonnage (MNT/yr)

2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Fig. 2. Freight by rail across the 0resund fixed link, east and westbound, million net tons per year.

gradients, locomotive and wagon permitted speed and train braking performance.

For the above parameters, existing and planned engineering standards were surveyed for the north-south mainlines in this German-Scandinavian corridor, from Hamburg in the south to Oslo and Hallsberg in the north (Nelldal and Boysen, 2011), identifying weak and strong links. The main data sources are the network statements and standards of each infrastructure manager in the corridor. For comparison, the engineering standards of a few other European rail links were also surveyed and reviewed.

Finally, the volume and mass load capacity per train were compared for three sets of standards:

- The present (2014) weakest links along the German-Scandinavian corridor.

- The minimum standards required by the European Commission's technical specifications for interoperability (TSI).

- The present or planned standards of the 0resund and Fehmarn-belt fixed links.

3. European railway engineering standards

Railway standards and operating practices have developed under national railways and national regulating bodies. Despite much coordination and standardization being accomplished by international organizations and treaties, such as the Union Internationale des Chemins de fer (International Union of Railways, UIC), Rigolamente Internazionale dei Veicoli (International Wagon Regulations, RIV) and its successor from 2006, General Contract of use for Freight Wagons (AVV), Directive 2001/16/EC of the European Parliament and Council on the interoperability of the trans-European conventional rail system and Directive 2008/57/ EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the interoperability of the rail system within the Community, some national differences still remain, which hamper the efficiency of international corridors.

Higher-capacity standards than the minimum standards mandated by the EC have been proposed in Germany (Voges and Sachse, 1998) and for the main corridors of the EU and neighboring countries (Ferrmed, 2012). Voges and Sachse investigated the feasibility of longer trains, higher axle loads and larger loading gauges, concluding that there would be many practical applications particularly for longer trains of 900 m or more and for a loading gauge larger and more rectangular than the GC loading gauge, whereas Ferrmed is proposing up to 1500 m long trains with a trailing

tonnage of up to 5000 tons on up to 12%c gradient (15%c on short sections).

The engineering standards were reviewed for some existing or planned rail links in Europe, notable for their bottle neck location or high engineering standards, or both, see Table 1. (Note that for the oldest links, the standards have been raised successively to reach the present levels.)

Of the corridors surveyed, as shown in Table 1 above, those completed in 2000 or later are capable of 25 tons axle load in combination with either 8.3 or 8.8 tons linear load. Also noteworthy is that several of these corridors are prepared for significantly wider and taller loading gauges than those now in effect in much of Europe.

4. Railway engineering standards in the German-Scandinavian corridor

An overview of the existing and planned engineering standards in the German-Scandinavian rail corridor is presented, together with a discussion of the needs and utility of each parameter.

4.1. Loading gauge

The 'loading gauge', or static gauge reference profile, represents the largest cross section, i.e. width and height, that may be loaded onto a wagon. The width of the static gauge reference profile in Continental Europe is 3.15 m for all of the individual gauges UIC 505-1 (G1), G2, GA, GB, GB1, GB2, GB-G6 and GC (EC, 2013). In Sweden and Norway, however, the static width is 3.40 m for the loading gauges A, B and U, but 3.60 m for loading gauge C. Reductions in width due to lateral overthrow in curves apply, in Continental Europe to vehicles whose axle spacing and overall body length exceed 5.5 m and 7.75 m, respectively, but in Sweden and Norway to vehicles exceeding 18 m and 24 m.

The permissible width is limited not only by fixed objects adjacent to the tracks but ultimately also by the track centerline spacing on double track, whereas the permissible height on electrified railways is also limited by the overhead line contact wire and its required electrical clearance. In central and northern Europe the nominal contact wire height is generally 5.3 m or higher above top of rail (ATOR), including in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Luxembourg (25 kV), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, but not including high-speed lines built to French standards.

Table 1

Engineering standards of some key European rail links.

Ofot line Ore line Channel tunnel 0resund link Betuwe route Fehmarn-belt tunnel Brenner base tunnel

Connected nations NO, SE FR, GB DK, SE NL DE, DK AT, IT

Original or planned 1888 Lulea-Gällivare 1899 1994 2000 2007 Rotterdam- 2021 2026

opening Gällivare-Kiruna 1902 Kiruna-Narvik Zevenaar

Electric traction 15 kV 25 kV 25 kV 50 Hz 25 kV 50 Hz 25 kV 50 Hz 25 kV

power 16 2/3 Hz 50 Hz 50 Hz

OHL height (m) 5.50 6.03 5.33 5.50 5.30 5.30

Loading gauge, 3.40 x 4.65 Lulea-Peuravaara, 4.10 x 5.60 2.60 x 4.83 3.15 x 4.65 3.15 x 4.65 Plan: 3.60 x 4.83

width x height 3.40 x 4.595 Peuravaara-Narvik Plan: 3.60 x 4.83 4.10 x 6.15

Axle load (t) 30 Plan: 32.5 to be tested 2014 22.5 25 25 25 25

Linear load (t/m) 12 Plan: 13 to be tested 2014 8.3 8.8 8.3 8.8

Train length (m) 750 750 >1000 750, longer with 1050 750

permit, 1035 tested

Max. gradient (%») 10 11 15,6 EB, 15,4 WB 5 612.5 4 NB, 6.7 SB

Connecting lines: 12

References TRV (2013) Eurotunnel 0resunds-bron (2013) Prorail (2014); Femern BMVIT (2010);

(2013) Keyrail (2013) (2012, 2014) BBT (2014)

The loading gauges and intermodal gauges (see below) of the German-Scandinavian corridor are shown in Fig. 4.

Germany uses loading gauge G2 (3.15 m x 4.65 m, pitched top).

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned for loading gauge C (3.60 m x 4.83 m, flat top).

Denmark uses loading gauge G2 (3.15 m x 4.65 m, pitched top), but the new high speed line Ringsted-K0ge-Ny Ellebjerg (Koben-havn) is planned for loading gauge GC.

The 0resund link presently uses UIC gauge GC (3.15 m x 4.65 m, chamfered), but is preparing for loading gauge C (3.60 m x 4.83 m, flat top).

Southern Sweden uses loading gauges A (3.40 m x 4.65 m, pitched top) and C (3.60 m x 4.83 m, flat top), introduced in 1999. Existing lines are gradually being cleared for loading gauge C when upgraded or to meet specific transportation needs.

Norway uses loading gauge U (3.40 m x 4.45 m, pitched top) and a multipurpose gauge (2.86 x 4.595 m, pitched top) superimposed.

As international standards, the technical specifications for interoperability (TSI) define loading gauge G1 (3.15 m x 4.28, pitched top) as being generally cleared in Continental Europe (EC, 2013), while requiring gauge GC (3.15 m x 4.65 m, chamfered) or larger to be applied to new Core or other TEN-T lines (EC, 2011b).

As a measure of the useful cross section area of a loading gauge, the largest rectangular section that can be inscribed within the gauge and above the standard floor level (1.2 m above top of rail) is formed, see Fig. 5. This is representative of the many loads that are rectangular in projection, including boxed and palleted goods as well as rolls of paper standing upright.

The loading gauge useful cross sections in the German-Scandinavian corridor vary between 7.3 m2 and 13.1 m2. The useful cross section of loading gauge C is 79% larger than that of loading

gauge G2, and 30% larger than that of loading gauge GC. For actual wagons the differences are even larger, due to the larger lateral reductions necessary in Continental Europe.

A large useful cross section is the basis for achieving a high volume and high linear load per unit length, i.e. maximizing the payload even in short wagons and short trains. This is of benefit to low-density commodities such as consumer products, forest products, food, automobiles and automobile parts. In addition, high and wide loading gauges are also useful for large individual items, such as paper rolls, house sections, construction elements, construction equipment and farm machinery. A large volume per wagon can significantly raise the efficiency of wagonload freight for large shipments in industries where terminal tracks are available at both origin and destination.

For moisture sensitive cargos needing a closed wagon, the most prevalent type Habbiins has an inside height along its centerline of 2.8 m in loading gauge G1 (UIC 505-1) but 3.2 m in loading gauge G2, whereas in loading gauge C a multipurpose wagon type Simnss can be built with 3.6 m inside height across its entire width, able to accommodate up to 3.56 m (140") paper rolls standing upright (Boysen, 2013b).

A specific application of loading gauge C being investigated is the transportation of paper from several mills in Sweden by rail to Lübeck in 3.6 m x 3.6 m x 13.8 m SECU containers, see Fig. 6. With an inside width of 3.43 m, these containers are also able to load industry pallets three across (1.0 m+ 1.2 m+ 1.2 m).

4.2. Intermodal gauge

Intermodal gauges are rectangular loading gauges for standard intermodal load units on wagons, as defined by UIC codes 571-4

Fig. 4. Nominal contact wire height, loading gauges and intermodal gauges in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

13.068

7.28512410E

13.068 13.068

10.0395

7.285124109

10.0395

8.347820349

□ Useful cross

□ section (m2)

Fig. 5. Useful cross section area of standard loading gauges (static gauge reference profiles).

Fig. 6. Sea and rail intermodal SECU container loaded on wagon type Sgmns-w (Kockums Industrier).

Fig. 7. Definition of UIC intermodal gauges, P/C 450 example.

450 -, 400 -350 ■ 300 250 200 150 100 ■ 50 -0

405410

/ e^ /

□ Intermodal

□ gauge P/C

Fig. 8. Intermodal gauges P/C ### for 2.60 m wide load units in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

(UIC, 2011) and 596-6 (UIC, 2006). The standards are based on a floor height of 33 cm ATOR of a standard pocket wagon, thus code P, and a 3-digit code indicating the maximum height of 2.60 m wide load units. Thus, code P450 represents a semitrailer, 260 cm wide by 450 cm high and suitable for loading onto a pocket wagon, and requiring a railway intermodal gauge of 2.60 m x 4.83 m (static dimensions). Similarly, code C represents containers and swap bodies with the corresponding top corner positions when loaded onto a standard container wagon with container mounts at 117.5 cm above top of rail, (see Fig. 7).

The intermodal clearances in the German-Scandinavian corridor are shown in Fig. 8.

Intermodal gauge clearances in the German-Scandinavian corridor vary between P/C 400 and P/C 450.

In Germany mainlines are generally cleared to P/C 410 (2.60 m x 4.43 m), including Hamburg-Flensburg, and HamburgLübeck-Puttgarden except for a short section of P/C 405 (2.60 m x 4.38 m) between Hamburg and Lübeck, near Bad Oldesloe. The Bad Schwartau-Puttgarden line is to be electrified by 2021.

Fig. 9. Permissible maximum height of trucks in Europe, as of 1 October 2013 (KTH).

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned to clear P/C 450 (2.60 m x 4.83 m).

In Denmark the Padborg - K0benhavn line is cleared to P/C 410 (2.60 m x 4.43 m), while the Southern Line between R0dby and Ringsted, which is to be electrified by 2021, is presently cleared to P/C 400 (2.60 m x 4.33 m). The Little South line between Nsstved and K0ge is also to be electrified by 2018. The new high speed line Ringsted-K0ge-Ny Ellebjerg (K0benhavn) is planned for P/C 432.

The 0resund link is cleared to P/C 450 (2.60 m x 4.83 m) (0SB, 2013).

In Sweden, P/C 450 (2.60 m x 4.83 m) can already be used in a contiguous network connecting Trelleborg, Malmö, Göteborg, Stockholm and Haparanda (Boysen, 2013b). However, the Norway Line has isolated obstacles to P/C 400 (2.60 m x 4.33 m) between Dals Rostock and Kornsj0, where it is proposed to raise clearances from 2014.

In Norway the 0stfold Line between Kornsj0 and Oslo is cleared to P/C 410 (2.60 m x 4.43 m).

The European technical specifications for interoperability (TSI), by requiring loading gauge GC (3.15 m x 4.65 m, chamfered) or larger on new Core or other TEN-T lines (EC, 2011b), implicitly also require intermodal gauge P/C 432 (2.60 m x 4.65 m) or higher.

The main use of the 2.60 m wide intermodal gauge is to carry standard intermodal load units, whose dimensions are limited by

international standards and national highway regulations. The maximum permissible height of trucks in Europe ranges from 4.0 m to 'not defined' (ITF, 2012), see Fig. 9.rway, Sweden, France, the UK and Ireland permit trucks of 4.50 m height or taller, and Finland permits 4.40 m. A common application of the 4.50 m height is trucks and trailers with double load decks, used extensively for food in roll cages and for various palleted goods. For cargos that cannot be stacked, double load decks can potentially double the load capacity and drastically reduce the cost per loaded unit.

A potential further intermodal application of P/C 450 would be for 4.0 m high semitrailers to be loaded roll-on roll-off via end ramps onto flat wagons with 0.83 m continuous floor height. By avoiding lifting, this would vastly increase the number of existing semitrailers that can be handled in railway intermodal service, since the majority of the existing semitrailers in Europe lack the reinforcements that are necessary to be lifted.

Other possible uses of high intermodal gauges are various high and narrow goods, e.g. packaged lumber, house sections, construction elements, flat glass, construction equipment and automobile parts. Standard lumber packages, 1.10 m high, can be stacked three high on standard flat or container wagons within intermodal gauge P/C 450, an increase by 50% from P/C 410, which is prevalent in northern Europe (IU 2012).

4.3. Train length

The maximum practical or permissible train length is limited directly by braking performance, longitudinal in-train forces and safety against derailment, and infrastructure constraints, i.e. the available length of terminals, yards and passing sidings. The practical train length is also limited indirectly, by the maximum trailing mass. Cold weather can be a challenge to long trains, particularly if made up of many short, stand-alone i.e. non-articulated wagons, due to increased leakage from air hose couplings ('glad hands') and possible formation of ice plugs in the brake pipe.

The maximum practical or permissible train lengths in the German-Scandinavian corridor, based on infrastructure limitations or brake rules, are shown in Fig. 10. The UIC value is approximate, based on a wagon rake length of 1000 m.

Maximum practical or permissible train lengths in the German-Scandinavian corridor vary between 580 m and 1050 m or longer.

In Germany trains of 835 m length were introduced in 2012 between Maschen and the Flensburg border after adapting brake rules and tables, extending yard tracks and sidings, and in some cases adjusting signal positions. On other lines the maximum train length remains 740 m. Trial runs with a single locomotive and up to 1035 m train length were made between Oberhausen and

1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0

835 740

1050 1040

730 630

700 580

c/ / </ f ^ *

□Train

□ length

□ (m)

Fig. 10. Maximum practical or permissible train lengths in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

Kijfhoek (Netherlands) in 2008 as part of the GZ 1000 research project (Rixner, 2009). Subsequently, the Maschen marshalling yard was upgraded to accommodate longer trains, with a total of 24 classification tracks extended to between 1021 m and 1045 m, completed in July 2014 (DB Netz, 2014).

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned for 1050 m train length or longer.

In Denmark 835 m long freight trains are permitted, and are operated regularly between Padborg and Fredericia. Sidings for 1000 m long trains are planned as part of the upgrade of the Southern Line between Rodby and Ringsted by 2021. The new line Ring-sted-Koge-Kobenhavn is also being built for 1000 m train length.

The 0resund link permits up to 1000 m long trains (0SB, 2013), but the infrastructure is capable of handling trains longer than 1000 m.

In Sweden trains up to 730 m long are permitted in brake mode P, and up to 880 m long in brake mode G. The southernmost marshalling yard, Malmo, and the busiest marshalling yard, Hallsberg, have yard tracks up to 877 m and 890 m long, respectively. However, passing sidings on single track lines generally limit the practical train length to 630 m. The mainlines are gradually being adapted for 750 m long trains.

In Norway trains in brake mode P up to 700 m long and in brake mode G up to 850 m long are permitted. On the 0stfold Line between Kornsjo and Oslo, many passing sidings limit the practical train length to 580 m, but the strategic goal for this line is to accommodate 750 m long trains (Skauge, 2007).

As international standards, the EC infrastructure technical specification for interoperability requires new Core TEN-T lines for freight or mixed traffic to be capable of between 740 m and 1050 m long trains (EC, 2014), whereas the UIC standard for braking performance covers up to 1000 m long wagon rakes (UIC, 2013), corresponding to a train length of up to approximately 1040 m with locomotives.

The ability to operate long trains is of great importance not only to the capacity of the railway as a system, but also to the economic competitiveness of individual train operators. This is because the potential revenue increases with train size, whereas a large portion of the operator's cost is either fixed or 'stiff with respect to train size (Boysen, 2012a). Most notably, modern locomotives carry a high fixed cost, and should be used as closely to their full tractive capacity as is practicable, for which long trains are needed.

As an example of what is becoming the norm, a modern 6 MW, 4-axle locomotive on 12.5%c gradient has a tractive capacity of approximately 2000 tons trailing mass. With a typical intermodal train averaging approximately 2 tons/m according to data from Swedish terminals, 2000 tons will correspond to 1000 m train

length to fully utilize the locomotive's tractive capacity. Similarly, with a typical paper train of Habbiins wagons loaded close to 22.5 tons/axle or 3.9 tons/m, 2000 tons will correspond to more than 500 m train length, or with double locomotives, 4000 tons will correspond to over 1000 m train length.

On less than 12.5%c gradient, such as on mainlines in southern Sweden, trains longer than 1000 m are needed to fully utilize a modern 4-axle locomotive for intermodal trains, whereas across 0resund with 15.6%c uphill gradient eastbound, approximately 900 m appears sufficient, on average.

The greatest benefit of operating long trains will be for intermodal and automotive trains and for wagonload trains with a high proportion of empty wagons, on lines with low vertical gradients. The long articulated or drawbar-connected wagons available for intermodal and automobile loads are very suitable for long trains in a cold climate. With intermodal transportation demand growing, applications which would benefit from 1000 m long trains are increasing. This can be realized by extending terminals and yards in combination with unidirectional running or extended passing sidings, and by using brake mode G.

4.4. Axle load

Axle load is the static gross load per wheelset. The higher the permissible axle load, the higher the total gross mass, the attainable payload and potential revenue per wagon.

The maximum permissible axle loads in the German-Scandinavian corridor are shown in Fig. 11.

The maximum permissible axle load is presently 22.5 tons or 25 tons in the entire German-Scandinavian corridor.

In Germany, 22.5 ton axle load is generally permitted on mainlines, including Hamburg-Flensburg and Hamburg-Lubeck-Puttgarden. South of Hamburg, the connecting line Hamburg Hansaport-Maschen-Uelzen-Lehrte-Beddingen (Salzgitter) is upgraded to 25 tons axle load and 10 tons/m, which is used for iron ore transportation from seaport to steel mill.

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned for 25 tons axle load.

In Denmark the Padborg-Kobenhavn line, the Southern Line Rodby-Ringsted and the Little South line Nsstved-Koge all permit 22.5 tons axle load. The new double track on the Southern Line between Rodby and Vordingborg is planned for 25 tons axle load, as is the new high-speed line Ringsted-K0ge-Ny Ellebjerg (Koben-havn) now under construction.

On the 0resund link 25 tons axle load is permitted.

In southern Sweden mainlines are generally classified for 22.5 tons axle load, but 25 tons axle load is permitted at restricted speed of 90 km/h on the West Coast Line north of Halmstad and on

<S" <v

□ Axle

□ load (tons)

Fig. 11. Axle load limits in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

Table 2

Maximum linear load of modern existing wagons for main commodities.

Commodities Wagons Axle load Gauge Length Linear load

Automobiles, Miscellaneous Laaeilprss 4 x 22.5 tons G2 31.00 m 2.9 tons/m

Containers Lgnss 2 x 22.5 tons G1 15.09 m 3.0 tons/m

Containers Sggnss 4 x 22.5 tons G1 25.94 m 3.5 tons/m

Containers, Semitrailers Sdggmrss 6 x 22.5 tons »G1 34.03 m 4.0 tons/m

Containers Sgnss 4 x 22.5 tons G1 19.64 m 4.6 tons/m

Paper, Miscellaneous Habbiillns, Habbiins 4 x 25 tons G1 23.35 m 4.3 tons/m

Paper Sgmns-w with SECU box 4 x 25 tons C 15.24 m 6.6 tons/m

Steel plates and profiles Rbns 4 x 22.5 tons G1 26.35 m 3.4 tons/m

Steel plates and profiles Rilnss, Rnss 4 x 25 tons »G1 19.90 m 5.0 tons/m

Steel plates and profiles Rmmnss, Tamns 4 x 22.5 tons G1 14.04 m 6.4 tons/m

Steel plates and bars Samms 6 x 22.5 tons G1 16.40 m 8.2 tons/m

Steel plates and bars Sammnps 6 x 22.5 tons G1 13.20 m 10.2 tons/m

Steel sheet coils Sahimms, Sahmms 6 x 22.5 tons »G1 16.40 m 8.2 tons/m

Steel sheet coils Shimmnss 4 x 25 tons »G1 12.04 m 8.3 tons/m

Steel sheet coils Sahlmmnps 6 x 22.5 tons G1 13.20 m 10.2 tons/m

10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

□ Linear

□ load (tons/m)

Fig. 12. Present and planned permissible linear loads in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

the Väner Line north of Göteborg. A large portion of the wagons operated in Sweden are designed for 25 tons axle load, including wagons for paper, lumber and steel.

In southern Norway the 0stfold Line between Kornsj0 and Oslo permits 22.5 tons axle load.

As an international standard, the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) 'Infrastructure' requires new Core and other TEN-T lines for freight or mixed traffic to be capable of 25 tons axle load or higher (EC, 2011b), whereas TSI 'Rolling stock freight wagons' refers to national standards for up to 30 tons axle load.

Single axle running gear, 2-axle and 3-axle bogies for 25 tons axle load are available in Europe, and wagons for a variety of commodities are increasingly being built for 25 tons axle load, see Table 2. For comparison, 2-axle bogies for 30 tons axle load are used in Sweden and Norway, whereas those for 32.4-40 tons axle load are used in North America and Australia. High axle loads benefit high-density and low-density commodities alike, including intermodal, since a given load can be carried by fewer axles, offering cost savings in the wagons. For bulk commodities, fewer wagons are needed to carry a given tonnage. Thus, high axle loads generally benefit the train operator.

For discrete and indivisible loads, fewer axles per wagon may be sufficient, potentially replacing 6-axle with 4-axle wagons, or 4-axle with less expensive 2-axle wagons. In intermodal transportation, a gradual shift from 20 ft containers to an increasing share of 40 ft and 45 ft containers is ongoing. Of containers carried by rail in Sweden, the 40 ft and 45 ft lengths together constituted 55% in 2008, and the trend toward long containers is continuing. Another

trend is for the maximum gross mass limit of new containers and swap bodies to exceed the 30.48 tons for 40 ft containers specified by the ISO 668 standard (ISO, 2013). Recent 40 ft and 45 ft containers and swap bodies in Germany and Scandinavia have gross mass limits of up to: Hamburg Süd and Maersk 32.5 tons; Hapag Lloyd 34 tons; Intracon AS 45 ft at 35 tons; Green Cargo 45 ft at 38.9 tons. (For comparison, APL 53 ft containers, presently used between China and North America, are tested to 31 tons.) An axle load of at least 25 tons is necessary to handle the heaviest 38.9 ton swap bodies efficiently on a plain 2-axle wagon of type Lgnss at 11 tons tare mass, rather than having to use a more expensive 3 or even 4 axles per loaded unit, thus making a case for 25 tons axle load in intermodal service.

The trend for a variety of commodities is to use successively higher axle loads. Axle load 25 tons can raise the load capacity or reduce the number of axles per wagon, benefitting most commodities and industries. This can be realized when the track and substructure are renewed. New railway bridges in Sweden are generally designed for 33 tons axle load, but on the Ore Line 40 tons (BV, 2008).

4.5. Linear load

The linear load, or meter load, of a wagon is its gross mass per unit length, and is a dimensioning criterion for the track substructure, including bridges and fills.

The present and planned permissible linear loads in the German-Scandinavian corridor are shown in Fig. 12.

Fig. 13. Dimensioning loads for new railway bridges in southern Sweden, Train Load BV 2000 (BV, 2008).

The maximum permissible linear load presently varies from 6.4 tons/m to 8.3 tons/m in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

In Germany nearly all mainlines permit a linear load of 8 tons/ m, including Hamburg-Puttgarden. The parallel HamburgFlensburg line, however, has a local restriction to 6.4 tons/m at Rendsburg, but is being reinforced here to handle 8.0 tons/m (on one track at a time) by 2016. On the connecting line Hamburg Hansaport-Maschen-Uelzen-Lehrte-Beddingen (Salzgitter), iron ore trains operate at 10 tons/m.

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned for 8.3 tons/m.

In Denmark the Southern Line Rodby-Ringsted and the Little South line Nœstved-Koge presently permit 7.2 tons/m, the existing line Ringsted-Kastrup permits 8 tons/m, and the new line Ring-sted-Koge-Kobenhavn is being built for 8 tons/m. A planned major undertaking is a new double-track bridge across Storstremmen (3 km) Orehoved-Masned0. Its assumed life of 120 years (Rail Net Denmark, 2012) underscores the importance of dimensioning the bridge not only for the present but also for anticipated future needs. The parallel line via Padborg permits 8.0 tons/m.

The 0resund link permits 8.3 tons/m.

In Sweden mainlines in the south are generally classified for 6.4 tons/m, but up to 8 tons/m is permitted at restricted speed of 90 km/h on the West Coast Line and the Southern Main Line. New bridges in southern Sweden are designed to handle Train Load BV 2000, with a linear load corresponding to 11 tons/m (BV, 2008), see Fig. 13.

In Norway the 0stfold Line permits 8.3 tons/m Kornsj0-Oslo.

The European standards TSI 'Rolling stock - freight wagons' (EC, 2006) and EN 15528 'Railway applications - Line categories for managing the interface between load limits and infrastructure' (CEN, 2012) define two track classes for 25 tons axle load: linear loads 8 tons/m (E4) and 8.8 tons/m (E5).

The linear load varies considerably for different commodities and wagon designs. A high linear load makes it possible to maximize the train payload within a limited train length. What is practicably achievable depends on the combination of payload density and loading gauge useful cross section.

As an example at the high end, to fit a trailing mass of 4000 tons into a wagon consist of 610 m length would necessitate a linear load density of 6.6 tons/m.

The linear loads of modern, existing wagons for the main commodities by rail between Scandinavia and Germany or beyond are shown in Table 2, arranged by commodity group and increasing linear load.

The data in Table 2 show that for automobiles, containers, semitrailers and paper, none of the existing wagons investigated exceeds 6.6 tons/m even if loaded to 25 tons axle load (or 5.9 tons/m if loaded to 22.5 tons axle load, Sgmns-w). For the transportation of steel, however, several wagon types that exist in large numbers reach linear loads of 8.2 tons/m, 8.3 tons/m or even 10.2 tons/m. Of these wagons for steel transportation, since the load limits are nearly the same for the 13.2 m and 16.4 m long flat wagons, the longer wagon can in most cases fulfill the same task as the shorter, but at 8.2 tons/m.

Low-density commodities, such as many consumer products and forest products, can reach high linear loads only if using a large loading gauge, as shown in Table 2 by the SECU box using loading gauge C. In contrast, for high-density commodities such as steel, high linear loads are reached for heavy loads using 6-axle wagons (Sahimms, Samms) and for compact loads such as coils using short wagons (Shimmnss), see Figs. 14 and 15. Loads using long 4-axle wagons (Rbns, Rilns, Rnss), such as rolled plates and profiles, fail to reach high linear loads.

For the shipper, maximizing the payload per wagon can generally save cost per unit loaded. Thus using 6-axle wagons can be beneficial for heavy shipments where there is little track curvature. For the train operator, maximizing the payload within a constrained train length can maximize capacity and revenue where there is high demand.

By maximizing the linear load, it may be possible to reach a high load utilization without the drawbacks of longer trains:

- Need for longer terminals, yards and passing sidings.

- Deteriorated brake performance with increasing brake pipe

length, in some cases necessitating reduced train speed.

Thus, new wagon designs should aim to increase the practically achievable linear load, by using 25 tons axle load or higher, in combination with large flat-top loading gauges for low-density commodities, and 6 axles for heavy shipments of high-density commodities on lines with little curvature. Linear load 8.3 tons/m can raise the load capacity of existing wagons for steel coils, plates and profiles.

To support this, the infrastructure in the Fehmarnbelt corridor and connecting lines should be constructed for a linear load of 8.3 tons/m or higher. This can be realized when the substructure is renewed.

Fig. 14. Wagon type Samms, for 22.5 tons axle load and 8.2 tons/m linear load (Tatravagonka Poprad).

•2CÎ.0

Fig. 15. Wagon type Shimmnss for 25 tons axle load and 8.3 tons/m linear load (Tatravagonka Poprad).

For the existing fleets of 4- and 6-axle wagons reaching 8.3 tons/m and 8.2 tons/m, the load capacity that goes unused at 8.0 tons/m is approximately 4 tons per wagon.

4.6. Trailing mass

Trailing mass (or tonnage) refers to the gross mass of a wagon consist, not including the mass of active locomotives. The higher the trailing mass, the more payload can be carried per train. Trailing mass is limited by the vertical gradient, adhesion, the tractive effort and power of the locomotives, the feeding capacity of the electrical power supply system on electrified railways, coupler strength, buffer characteristics and braking performance. For a unit train, the trailing mass can be calculated as the wagon consist length times the linear load.

The absolute limits on trailing mass using screw couplers are shown for each nation in Fig. 16. Not shown here are line specific limits due to gradients and electrical power distribution constraints.

In Germany 4000 tons trailing mass is applied with high-strength screw couplers in brake mode G. Limiting loads with respect to traction capacity are calculated for each line section and each locomotive type.

The Fehmarnbelt link is being planned to permit 4000 tons trailing mass.

In Denmark, railway safety rules permit maximum 2500 tons trailing mass. Brake mode P is used, but G will be reintroduced (J0rgensen, 2012).

The 0resund link permits 4000 tons trailing mass.

In Sweden an absolute limit on trailing mass is not defined, but unit trains of up to 3200 tons trailing mass are operated on 17%c gradient with high-strength screw couplers of 1.35 MN tensile strength per EN 15566 (CEN, 2010) and high-capacity buffers of category C, 70 kJ energy absorbing capacity per UIC 526-1 (UIC, 2008) to cope with high in-train longitudinal forces.

In Norway train formation rules with respect to coupler strength permit up to 3950 tons trailing mass on 4%c uphill gradient, 1920 tons on 13%c and 1080 tons on 25%c with head-end locomotives only, but higher mass in case locomotives are distributed in the train consist.

Trailing mass 4000 tons can raise the load capacity per train by 60% over the present limit through Denmark, enabling double trains for commodities such as steel and forest products.

4.7. Gradient

Vertical gradient is the rise (or fall) of track per unit length, usually expressed in per mille (%c) and over a defined length, e.g. 500 m. The recommended or actual maximum gradients in the German-Scandinavian corridor with connecting lines are shown in Fig. 17.

4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Trailing mass (tons)

4000 4000

□Trailing mass (tons)

.0? »Sl . rV

Fig. 16. Permissible trailing mass using screw couplers in Germany and Scandinavia.

The highest gradients in the German-Scandinavian corridor are within 12.5%c over 500 m length, with three exceptions: Storebœlt, 0resund and Norway.

In Germany 12.5%c is the recommended maximum gradient on mainlines, and is kept within even by the high bridge at Rendsburg on the Hamburg-Flensburg line.

The Fehmarnbelt link is planned not to exceed 12.5%c.

In Denmark, on the Padborg-Kobenhavn route 15.6%c gradient exists at Storebœlt, limiting the trailing mass on this route. On the Southern Line Rodby-Kobenhavn a replacement bridge across Storstremmen is planned with 12.5%c gradient, whereas the new high-speed line Ringsted-Kobenhavn is designed with 11.1%c east-bound uphill gradient Ringsted-K0ge and 10.6%c westbound uphill gradient K0ge-Ringsted, as evaluated over 500 m length.

Across 0resund the maximum uphill gradient eastbound is 15.6%c on the bridge section, and westbound 15.4%c in the Drogden tunnel. The westbound uphill gradient on the bridge is 12.4%c.

In southern Sweden the ruling gradients are generally 10%c on mainlines used by freight trains. The existing ruling gradient of 12.5%c Vejbyslatt-Grevie (northbound) on the West Coast Line will be bypassed by the Hallandsàs tunnel, to be opened in 2015, then limiting gradients Malmo-Goteborg-Kornsj0 to approximately 10%c, as for the Southern Mainline Malmo-Mjolby and the freight corridor Mjolby-Hallsberg and beyond.

In southern Norway on the 0stfold line between Kornsj0 and Oslo, the ruling uphill gradients are 13%c (northbound and southbound), but with one exception: 25%c Halden-Aspedammen (southbound). A second exception is on the Mainline between Oslo and Alnabru: 25%c Loenga-Bryn (northbound).

As an international standard, the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) 'Infrastructure' generally permits 12.5%c gradient on new Core and other TEN-T lines for freight or mixed traffic (EC, 2011b).

Uphill grades limit the trailing tonnage that can be hauled by a given locomotive, in some cases necessitating multiple locomotives or a pusher, while downhill grades necessitate higher braking performance for a given speed. On a 12.5%c uphill grade, a BR 185 locomotive can haul approximately 2000 tons, which for an intermodal train averaging in the order of 2 tons/m corresponds to approximately 1000 m train length. For the sake of operating efficiency and capacity, it is important to avoid high gradients when constructing new lines.

Across 0resund with up to 15.4%c gradient in the Drogden tunnel and 15.6%c eastbound on the bridge, BR 185 locomotives haul 1700 tons, and EG locomotives 2120 tons. Heavier trains would use double locomotives, either on the head end or distributed,

hauling mass goods such as paper or steel. As an example using currently available equipment, a unit paper train powered by double BR 185 locomotives and made up of Habbiins wagons loaded to 22.5 tons/axle would be approximately 921 m long with 3400 tons trailing mass, or more with BR 193 locomotives.

Similarly, a unit steel train powered by double BR 185 locomotives and made up of Shimmnss wagons loaded to 22.5 tons/axle would have 3400 tons trailing mass and be approximately 495 m long, leaving room for additional wagons to be added as BR 193 and other more powerful locomotives become available.

4.8. Signal block lengths and brake tables

With fixed signal blocks and fixed distant signals, the spacing between a distant signal and its corresponding home signal, together with gradient, determines the braking performance required for a given operating speed. The required stopping distance can be a single or multiple signal blocks. Accounting for distance, gradient, brake mode and train length, the required braking performance and permissible speed are established in brake percentage tables in accordance with the physical characteristics of each line section.

Nominal signal distances in Germany and Scandinavia range from 700 m to 2200 m. Brake modes G and P are used in freight trains; brake mode G for long and heavy trains by virtue of lower longitudinal in-train forces, and brake mode P for fast but short trains by virtue of quicker reaction and shorter stopping distances.

The nominal signal spacing in each nation and link in the German-Scandinavian corridor is shown in Fig. 18.

In Germany distant signals are spaced at least 700 m or 1000 m from their home signal on mainlines, 1300 m on high speed lines. Brake tables are established for 400 m, 700 m, 1000 m and 1300 m. Freight trains use brake modes G and P, depending on trailing mass, and brake mode G is used at up to 100 km/h, but faster with continuous train protection (LZB).

The Fehmarnbelt link is planned for 1800 m signal block length and ETCS Level 2 signaling.

In Denmark distant signals are spaced at least 800 m or 1200 m from their home signal. Brake mode P is presently used in freight service, but brake mode G will be re-introduced to accommodate longer trains (Jorgensen 2012).

Along the 0resund link the signal blocks are approximately 2200 m long, but distant signals at Peberholm are spaced at 2000 m distance. The long signal distances across 0resund open the possibility of significantly higher running speeds than presently used, if the corresponding brake tables are introduced.

15.6 15.6

12.5 12.5

^ ^ «r y

□ Ruling

□ gradients (%o)

Fig. 17. Recommended or actual maximum gradients in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

2000 -

1500 ■

□ Signal

□ distance (m)

Fig. 18. Nominal spacing of distant signals or signal block lengths in Germany and Scandinavia.

In southern Sweden distant signals are spaced at least 800 m or 1000 m from their home signal, and brake tables are established for these distances and for multi-block through signaling. The brake tables used on the Freight Corridor through Skane and the West Coast Line are based on 800 m and 1000 m signal spacing, respectively, whereas that on the Southern Mainline is based on multi-block signaling. Brake mode P is generally used by freight trains, whereas brake mode G is currently used only on the Ore Line in northern Sweden.

In Norway distant signals are spaced at least 800 m, 1200 m or 1500 m from their home signal, and brake tables are issued for these distances. The brake table used on the 0stfold Line is based on 800 m signal spacing. Brake mode P is generally used by freight trains, whereas brake mode G is used on the Ofot Line in northern Norway.

For higher speeds or longer trains, the need for long or multiblock signal distances or high braking performance increases. For heavily loaded wagons, higher braking performance is achieved with SS than with S brakes, which stresses the importance of equipping new wagons with SS brakes to enable longer trains and higher speeds.

Brake tables for longer signal distances than 1000 m, where actual signal spacing is longer, can raise freight train speeds significantly.

With nearly continuous transmission of home signal aspects as in the European train control system (ETCS), there will be more flexibility in deciding train speeds in relation to braking performance.

4.9. Line speed

The maximum permissible line speed generally depends on several factors, including track geometry, track structure, maintenance condition, electrical overhead lines and signaling. Permissible speeds may be differentiated depending on specific rolling stock features, such as the dynamic performance of running gear. The planned line speeds in the German-Scandinavian corridor are shown in Fig. 19.

In Germany, the Hamburg-Flensburg line permits 160 km/h, except for a short section at Flensburg, restricted to 100 km/h. The Hamburg-Puttgarden line also presently permits 160 km/h, except for restrictions Lübeck-Bad Schwartau to 120 km/h and NeustadtFehmarnsund to 100 km/h. An upgrade to 160 km/h is planned.

The Fehmarnbelt fixed link is being planned for 200 km/h.

In Denmark, the Padborg-K0benhavn line largely permits 180 km/h, except Padborg-Tinglev 120 km/h and Vojens-Taulov 160 km/h. The Southern Line and the Little South line between R0dby, Nœstved, K0ge and Ringsted presently permit 120 km/h and 160 km/h, but upgrading to 160 km/h and 200 km/h is planned. The new line Ringsted-K0ge-K0benhavn is being built for 200 km/h to 250 km/h.

The 0resund link presently permits 180 km/h through the Drogden tunnel and 200 km/h on the bridge section. An increase to 200 km/h is foreseen through the tunnel, limited by the tunnel design, and possibly to 250 km/h across the bridge.

In Sweden, the Freight Corridor through Skàne has a nominal speed of 140 km/h, but is presently restricted to 90 km/h between

300 250 -200 ■ 150 100 -50

250 250

200 200 160

200 200 160

□ Speed

□ (km/h)

Fig. 19. Planned permissible line speeds in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

Teckomatorp and Ästorp, pending an upgrade planned for 2015. The West Coast Line to Göteborg and the Norway Line permit 200 km/h nominally, although with restrictions as low as 70 km/ h and 65 km/h at Dals Rostock and Ed. The Southern Mainline between Malmö and Mjölby and onward to Hallsberg also permits 200 km/h. A potential upgrade for 250 km/h is being studied.

In Norway, the 0stfold Line between Kornsjo and Oslo permits up to 160 km/h, although with local restrictions as low as 40 km/ h and freight train average speeds not exceeding 67 km/h (Jernbaneverket, 2014). The new Follo Line between Ski and Oslo as well as new double track sections are being planned for 200 km/h-250 km/h.

As an international standard, the Technical Specification for Interoperability (TSI) 'Infrastructure' requires new Core TEN-T lines for passenger or mixed traffic to be capable of 200 km/h line speed (EC, 2011b).

With freight train speeds being limited to 120 km/h by the dynamic performance of standard Y25 bogies, and in many cases to 100 km/h or less by braking performance, line speed is rarely a constraint for freight trains. High line speeds tend to increase the speed difference between freight and long-distance passenger trains, which emphasizes the need to also raise freight train speeds or to separate freight and passenger flows to different parallel lines or different time windows (night and day). An increase of freight train speeds from 100 km/h to 120 km/h can potentially add one more freight train path per hour, according to timetable simulations done for the Southern Mainline in Sweden, which again stresses the need for higher braking performance of freight trains, realizable by consistent use of SS capable wagons.

For train operators, higher freight train speeds can reduce the number of stops for passenger train passes, thus contributing to raised average speeds and increased range over night or shorter cycle times.

5. Analysis

Having reviewed the capacity constraints and standards above, link-by-link or nation-by-nation, the most severe constraints through the German-Scandinavian corridor can now be listed, see Table 3:

- Present most constraining limits Hamburg-Padborg-Oslo.

- Present most constraining limits Hamburg-Padborg-Hallsberg.

- TSI minimum standards.

- 0resund and Fehmarnbelt standards.

The mass and volume load capacity per wagon are constrained by the infrastructure's limits on axle load and loading gauge, respectively. Raising these will raise the load capacity per wagon.

5.1. Mass load capacity per wagon and per train

The mass load capacity per train is constrained by the absolute trailing mass limit per train, which in all the cases studied is more restrictive than the product of train length and linear load. Thus, raising the trailing mass limit per train, including the electric power feeding capacity, will result in a higher mass load capacity per train.

Increasing train length from 580 m or 630 m to a wagon rake length of 1000 m alone can raise the load capacity per train by approximately 64%-78% for intermodal, automobiles and paper, whereas increasing the axle load from 22.5 tons to 25 tons can raise the payload per wagon and per train by approximately 14% for paper, and by 15% per wagon for steel. Some of the wagons used by the paper and particularly the steel industry are already built for 25 tons axle load, in these cases reaping the benefits of higher infrastructure standards without necessitating wagon fleet replacement. Expanding clearances and loading gauges can dramatically add further capacity for intermodal, auto parts and paper. All of these improvements combine to reduce operating costs, thus making train operators more competitive, and to raise system throughput capacity.

The payload mass load capacity per train is constrained by the limit on train length or wagon rake length, the linear load and the payload-to-gross weight of the wagons, or by the limit on trailing mass and the payload-to-gross weight of the wagons used. The latter ratio varies between approximately 0.71 and 0.725 (Habbiins 22.5 t, Habbiins 25 t) in paper service and 0.79 and 0.81 (Sgns 22.5 t, Sgns 25 t) in container service. Using the limit on trailing mass per train and the payload-to-gross weight ratio, the mass load capacity per train can now be calculated, see Fig. 3, applying payload-to-gross weight ratios up to 0.79 and 0.81 (depending on axle load):

- Oslo-Hamburg, 2014: 1010 tons x 0.79 « 798 tons (with headend power only).

- Hallsberg-Hamburg, 2014: 2500 tons x 0.79 « 1975 tons.

- TSI: not defined.

- 0resund and Fehmarnbelt: 4000 tons x 0.81 « 3240 tons.

The attainable mass load capacity per train with each set of standards is compared in Fig. 20.

5.2. Volume load capacity per wagon and per train

The volume load capacity per train is constrained by the limit on train length or wagon rake length and the loading gauge useful cross section. Raising either or all of these will result in a higher volume load capacity per train. Using the model for volume load

Table 3

Overview of constraining standards in the German-Scandinavian rail corridor.

Constraining limits Hamburg-Oslo (2014) Constraining limits Hamburg-Hallsberg (2014) TSI minimum standards (new freight lines) 0resund and Fehmarnbelt

Loading gauge 7.285 m2 (DE, DK) 7.285 m2 (DE, DK) 10.0395 m2 13.068 m2

Intermodal gauge P/C 400 (SE) P/C 410 (DE, DK) P/C 432 P/C 450

Train length 580 m (NO) 630 m (SE) 740 m-1050 ma >1050ma

Axle load 22.5 t 22.5 t 25 t 25 t

Linear load 6.4 t/m (DE, SE) 6.4 t/m (DE, SE) 8.0 t/m 8.3 t/m

Trailing massb 1010 t (NO)c 2500 t (DK) n.a. 4000 t

Gradient 25% (NO) 15.6% (DK, 0SB) 12.5% EB 15.6% (0SB) WB 15.4% (0SB)

Distant signals 800 m (NO) 1000 m (DE, SE) 2000 m (0SB)

a Wagon rake length 1000 m per UIC 544-1. b W.r.t. mechanical limitations. c On 25%« gradient with head end power only.

3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Mass load capacity (tons)

□ Mass load capacity (tons)

Fig. 20. Mass load capacity per train with head-end power only in the German-Scandinavian corridor.

8000 6000 4000 2000 0

Volume load capacity (m3)

3883 4229

□ Volume load capacity (m3)

Fig. 21. Volume load capacity per train in the German-Scandinavian rail corridor.

capacity per train, see Fig. 3, this can now be calculated, deducting the locomotive length and applying a length utilization of approximately 0.95 (depending on wagon length):

- Oslo-Hamburg, 2014: (580 m-19 m) x 0.95 x 7.2851 m2 «

3883 m3.

- Hallsberg-Hamburg, 2014: (630 m-19 m) x 0.95 x 7.2851 m2

« 4229 m3.

- TSI: (740 m-19 m) x 0.95 x 10.0395 m2 « 6877 m3.

- 0resund and Fehmarnbelt:(1000 m) x 0.95 x 13.068 m2 «

12415 m3.

The attainable volume load capacity with each set of standards is compared in Fig. 21.

6. Conclusion

The 0resund and Fehmarnbelt fixed railway links have adopted a set of engineering standards which significantly raises the load capacity per wagon and per train, compared to the present constraints in the Scandinavian-German rail corridor via Padborg, see Table 3.

By raising the load capacity per wagon and per train, the transportation cost per load unit can be reduced due to the train operators' high fixed or 'stiff costs per train (Boysen, 2012a).

If adopting the 0resund and Fehmarnbelt standards also on other lines in the corridor, the load capacity per train between Germany and Scandinavia can be raised by:

- Volume: +194% for Sweden, +220% for Norway over present constraints, +81% over the TSI minimum requirements.

- Mass: +64% over the present limit through Denmark. (The limit applicable on 25%c gradient in Norway can be avoided by using a pusher or distributed power).

Freight train speeds can be raised to approximately 120 km/h with 1200 m signal distance and SS-braked wagons in brake mode P.

Large freight flows, high fixed costs per train, and high infrastructure utilization (congestion) form the conditions under which the market will benefit from these standards.

Further detailed studies and in some cases demonstrations of the above are needed, and should be the basis for applying effective and cost-efficient engineering standards to meet the needs of shippers, train operators and infrastructure managers alike.

Future work needed includes detailed surveying of existing trackside clearances, unifying train formation rules and brake tables, and test operation of long and heavy trains under varying weather conditions, particularly in cold weather. This work should proceed incrementally throughout the corridor to capture the benefits as limitations and obstacles are being raised or removed.

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UIC, 2013. Code 544-1, Brakes - Braking Performance, 5. International Union of Railways (UIC), Paris.

Voges, W., Sachse, M., 1998. New dimensions for freight transport. Eisenbahntechnische Rundschau 47, 606-610, October.