Scholarly article on topic 'A Study of Trends in Mentoring Relationships Existing in the Indian IT Industry'

A Study of Trends in Mentoring Relationships Existing in the Indian IT Industry Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Suruchi Pandey, Tanya Chhaila

Abstract All kinds of organisations – private or public, large or small, global or local, irrespective of the products they manufacture or the services they deliver practice Mentoring weather formally and informally. While prior mentoring research has yielded significant insights as to importance of mentoring and its outcome for the protégé, mentor and the organization. However, it has been very general and not specific to any sector. Each sector has its own peculiar way of managing people and resources. IT industry is having most robust kind of HRD practices. Thus, it is important to understand the industry specific trends of mentoring relationships. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of mentoring relationships on employees and the organization in some of the companies under Indian IT Sector. It also aims to understand the practices and methodologies followed to pair mentors and mentees that it will enable relationships to be successful & achieve program goals. The research aims to uncover the effect of various mentoring processes across the organizations in this sector, its impact on the employee's career progression, employee satisfaction, and employee commitment and its impact on the knowledge management. This study highlights on employee's perspective about the mentoring program and roles of a mentor with respect to the organisation and with respect to his protégé. The findings of the study also gave an insight into factors that affect the mentoring relationships in an organisation. The primary research was conducted through structured questionnaires and interviews of employees working in the IT Industry.

Academic research paper on topic "A Study of Trends in Mentoring Relationships Existing in the Indian IT Industry"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 133 (2014) 425 - 437

ICTMS-2013

A study of trends in mentoring relationships existing in the Indian

IT industry

Suruchi Pandey a*, Tanya Chhaila b

aSymbiosis Institute of Management Studies, Symbiosis International University, Pune, India bManagement Trainee in IT Firm, Pune India

Abstract

All kinds of organisations - private or public, large or small, global or local, irrespective of the products they manufacture or the services they deliver practice Mentoring weather formally and informally. While prior mentoring research has yielded significant insights as to importance of mentoring and its outcome for the protégé, mentor and the organization. However, it has been very general and not specific to any sector. Each sector has its own peculiar way of managing people and resources. IT industry is having most robust kind of HRD practices. Thus, it is important to understand the industry specific trends of mentoring relationships. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of mentoring relationships on employees and the organization in some of the companies under Indian IT Sector. It also aims to understand the practices and methodologies followed to pair mentors and mentees that it will enable relationships to be successful & achieve program goals. The research aims to uncover the effect of various mentoring processes across the organizations in this sector, its impact on the employee's career progressio n, employee satisfaction, and employee commitment and its impact on the knowledge management. This study highlights on employee's perspective about the mentoring program and roles of a mentor with respect to the organisation and with respect to his protégé. The findings of the study also gave an insight into factors that affect the mentoring relationships in an organisation. The primary research was conducted through structured questionnaires and interviews of employees working in the IT Industry.

©2014 The Authors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICTMS-2013. Keywords : Mentoring, Mentor, Mentee

1. Introduction

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0-000-000-0000 ; fax: +0-000-000-0000 . E-mail address: suruchi.p@sims.edu

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICTMS-2013. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.04.209

"Mentoring is a brain to pick, an ear to listen, and a push in the right direction." - John Crosby

Mentoring process receives a lot of attention from the researchers, providing multiple definitions and perspectives on what exactly is mentor, mentee and mentoring process. At a given point of time most of us have experiences mentoring .

Traditionally mentoring is one of the ways used to transfer knowledge. It is described as the matching of a new employee with a more experienced person in the same role. Mentoring is a human resource development process whereby a more experienced (senior) / knowledgeable person (mentor) takes the responsibility of developing and empowering a less experienced (junior) staff member (protégé or mentee). The scope is as broad as organisations would like it to be. Kram (1985) defines a mentor as an individual who is advanced, experienced, and knowledgeable and is committed to career support to protégé.

A mentor willingly invests time, interest, and support to help them with their upward mobility (Peluchette & Jeanquart, 2000 et al). A mentor provides expertise to protégés to help them for different purposes like advance their careers, enhance their education, or build their networks. Mentoring is primarily about learning and developing and is present when there are changes or transitions to go through at work and in individual lives. A mentor recognizes the links between the personal and the professional aspects of a person's life and through the mentoring process organisation can help bring the two individual together resulting in free flowing productivity at work with enhanced self esteem and confidence. Mentoring is win-win situation where mentor, mentee and organizations all have developmental benefits. The organizational benefits of mentoring are numerous and cannot be rejected. Right from empowering its employees, it aligns employees to organization's vision and goals, quickens the pace of integrating new employees into their roles in the organization and also enables employees to grow to their potential.

Organizations can apply mentoring for different reasons. For some it is a means of career development i.e. the mentor helps in the career progression of the protégé. This function includes sponsorship, protection, coaching, challenging the protégé, and giving them exposure. Scandura (1998) calls these mentoring functions 'vocational career support.' To others it is a means of improving the protégé's psychosocial development (McDo wall-Long, 2004). Psychosocial mentoring functions involve confirmation and acceptance, counselling, friendship, and role modelling. To some, it is way of helping the organization by monitoring the work of the protégé and assuring they work according to the standards (Covan, 2002). Irrespective of the reason why mentoring was implemented, the value of this method lies in the fact that they help the employees of the organization work more effectively and efficiently.

Ostroff and Kozlowski (1993), which suggests that a mentor is a senior experienced organizational member who specifically helps a young professional develop their individual technical, interpersonal, and political skills. However, this differs slightly to the view of Burlew (1991) who states that the definition of a mentoring relationship has changed from the intense, exclusive, multiyear relationship between senior involved in a variety of short-term, low intensity interactions with peers and direct supervisors. Some authors rightly put mentoring as a "A Learning Collaboration"—a developmental caring, sharing, and helping relationship with a focus on the enhancement of the protégé's or mentee's growth and skill development. The focus of mentoring is on the mentee's career and psychosocial needs. Mentoring is just-in time help, insight into issues, and the sharing of expertise, values, skills, and perspectives. Mentors function as a catalyst-an agent that provokes a reaction that might not otherwise have taken place or speeds up a reaction that might have taken place in the future.

Study of different literature concluded that mentoring relationship impacts employee satisfaction, employee commitment, career progression and many other Developmental aspects where as mentor-mentee pairing practices, socialization process, gender, position, age, knowledge sharing, time-period of mentoring effect the mentoring relationship.

There is enough literature available about mentoring process but very specific to the IT industry practices not much is available in the various online and offline literature researcher observed.

2. Objectives and Methodology

After the study of concepts and practice of mentoring in literature, following primary objectives were decided for the study:

• To study the trends and practices of mentoring in IT Industry operating in India.

• To know the employees perception on mentoring relationship in an organisation

• To understand the factors effecting mentoring relationship.

Keeping in mind the above objective the methodology adopted to pursue present study is explained

3. Primary research

An exploratory study was conducted through close ended questionnaire on 100 employees of IT sector (both fresher as well as laterals). These employees were either mentee's or mentors in their respective organization. These respondents were from Indian IT industry were ranging from having less than 2 years of work experience to more than 5 years work experience form reputed firms. These respondents comprised of employees of both executive and managerial level in these organization The survey was conducted based on :

• Leading IT companies which have established mentoring & coaching processes

• Convenience of data collection due to proximity of location

• Convenience of data collection due to educational qualification and prior work experience of the researcher

4. Data collection and analysis

The data was collected through circulation of google doc and in few cases telephonic interview and one to one meeting was held. The data was collected via the random sampling technique. Data collection was carried out by administering the structured questionnaire (based on validated tools). Measurement techniques included multiple choice questions, dichotomous questions(yes or no), and attitude scales like 5 point Likert scale (Strongly Agree-Agree-Neither agree nor disagree- Disagree-Strongly Disagree) from strongly agree to strongly disagree and ranking scale. Since all the employees were assured of confidentiality, they were comfortable sharing data with the researchers. Most of the respondents were approached on personal level. The analysis techniques used were:

i. Frequency distribution tables like Bar charts, Pie Charts.

ii. Cross tabulation with chi-square to test if the two variables in mentoring relationship are statistically associated with each other significantly.

iii. Factor analysis to reduce the set of variables in a dataset and find the most important factors impacting the mentoring relationship in an organization.

iv. Tools used- SPSS, Ms Excel, Google Docs

5. Scope and limitations

Firstly, due to the paucity of time only a few companies from the IT industry could be covered. Secondly, the exact tracking of the mentee to his respective mentor was not possible because of the confidentiality issues and seniority of mentors.

6. Scope for further study

Research can be taken forward by coming up model for mentoring relationship. Inter industry practices can be compared and best practices can be compared. Mentor and mentee fit attributes can be worked out.

7. Results and Analysis

Results and Conclusions derived from the questions are as below:

i) Perceived benefits of mentoring process:

Newjoinee Knowledge Adjustment Career orientation Sharing and progression

socialising

Fig 1: Distribution of population amongst the perceived benefits of mentorship (in %)

It was concluded that employees with less than 2 years of work experience in the company viewed new joinee orientation as the primary benefit of mentoring. Employees with 2-5 years of work experience viewed career progression as the primary benefit and those with greater than 5 years of work ex, gave importance to knowledge sharing and career progression. Thus, it can be inferred that new employees seek help to adjust in the new workplace environment whereas, employees with substantial amount of experience in the company , who would probably be acting as mentors themselves, look for opportunities for career growth.

ii) Perceived role of mentor in the program

180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

8 12 4

I Encourage free flow of nformtion

Focus on sharing of nformation

Help in sdjuctment and socialising

nculcate communication and eadership skills

I Mentor as a coach

Fig 2: Perceived role of mentor in the program

It was concluded that a 31% of the respondents feel that the primary role of mentor is to act as a coach but a close 33% of the respondents contradict this belief. However, a majority of 40% of the employees do not believe that it is the role of the mentor to inculcate leadership and communication skills but that the mentor should lay focus on encouraging free flow of information (36%), laying emphasis on sharing information (36%) and help new employees in socializing and adjustment, Thus it can be concluded that the perceived role of a mentor in an organization is that of a knowledge management that also assists in employee engagement.

iii) Perceived benefits of initiation of mentorship program at various stages in an organization

■Percentage

Assigning Assigning Assigning Better having mentor in the mentor at the mentor at a worked for begining limitstime of joining later stage sometime self learning helps helps (>1 than get

imonth) mentor (>3 months)

Fig 3: Perceived benefits of initiation of mentorship program at various stages in an organization

This factor stresses on the fact that different employees have different mentoring needs and value the programme at different stages of their career. Some like it to start right when they join the organization while some want it after having spent a period of time in the organization. According to the analysis, approx 39% of the population strongly believes that being assigned a mentor at the time of joining the organization helps adjusting better with. Also, it contributes to understanding the organization culture. Only about 14% of the sample data believes that it is better to have worked for sometime in the organisation before a mentor is assigned. Also only a 14% 8% of the sample agrees with the fact that employees who get mentors assigned right from the beginning limits self learning.

iv) Criteria for selection of employees to act as mentor in an organization

Job role of employees

Personality traits of employees

Heirachical ranks of employees

Voluntary partcipation

1 1 6

I Percentage

0 10 20 30 40 50

Fig 4: Criteria for selection of employees to act as mentor in an organization This factor aims to understand the basis of the selection criteria used to select mentors for a mentorship program. As

per the responses received a majority of 42% said that job role of the employees was the main criteria used to select mentors. A minimum of 16% said that personality traits of employees was used as a base and only 19% reported that voluntary participation was a criteria.

Thus, it can be concluded that contrary to popular notion that mentorship is based on voluntary participation; the job role is given weightage in the IT industry. This also helps in the mentor and mentee pairing process and establishes credibility of the mentors.

v) Method used for mentor-mentee pairing

Fig 5: Method used for mentor-mentee pairing

A majority of 42% reported that job related characteristics were taken into account when pairing a mentee to the mentor. Although this will aid in the process of knowledge transfer, but this does little to help ensure interpersonal compatibility or liking between mentoring partners. Thus, 30% of the reporting sample also reported that personal attributes and abilities of the protégé and the mentor should be matched for the pairing process. This ensures rapport formation and further enhances the effectiveness of the program. However, contrary to popular notion, only a minority of 13% of the respondents reported that random pairing was done between he mentor and the mentee. Thus, it can be concluded that organizations follow a formal structured pairing process, keeping the job characteristics and personal attributes of the mentor and the mentee in mind.

Chi -Square Analysis:Testing the relationship between criteria used to select employees to act as mentors and method used for mentor-mentee pairing

8. Hypothesis

H0: The criteria used to select employees to act as mentors is dependent of method used for mentor-mentee pairing H1: The criterion used to select employees to act as mentors is independent of method used for mentor-mentee pairing.

We analyzed the data by running a chi-square test for which the The p value obtained was 0.404. In biological applications, a probability 5% (p=0.05) is usually adopted as the standard Since the P-value is less than .05, we reject H0 and hence it shows that The criteria used to select employees to act as mentors is independent of method used for mentor-mentee pairing.

Table 1: Mentor_mentee_Paring * Criteria_to_select_mentor Cross tabulation

Criteria to select mentor Total

Voluntary partcipation Heirachical ranks of employees Personality traits of employees Job role of employees

Mentor mentee Pa ring Random paring 2 2 2 7 13

Job related characteristics 8 11 8 15 42

Interpersonal compatibility 6 3 0 6 15

Peronal attributes and abilities of protege and the mentor 3 7 6 14 30

Total 19 23 16 42 100

Table 2: Chi square tests

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2-sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 9.370a 9 .404

Likelihood Ratio 11.180 9 .264

Linear-by-Linear Association .094 1 .759

N of Valid Cases 100

a. 7 cells (43.8%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is 2.08.

vi) Are mentors allowed to choose their mentees?

This factor aimed to see the inclusiveness of the mentor in the pairing process. A majority of 47% reported that sometimes, if the situation demands, mentors have a say in choosing their mentees and close to 30% of the respondents reported that they never had a say during the allocation of mentees. This shows that although a formal structured approached in IT companies, the participation of mentors in the process is very rare.

Fig 6: Mentors say in the pairing process

^^■Yes

Fig 7: Mentees role in the pairing process

vii) Do mentees have a say in the pairing process?

A majority of 60% reported negatively to this factor. Hence, it indicated that mentees are allocated their mentors without any participation or suggestions from their side. This shows that the pairing process followed in IT firms , although is structured , but is controlled and managed by the organisation solely.

viii) Perceived role of a mentor for his protégé

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0

I Percentage

' ' / S

Fig 8: Perceived role of a mentor for his protégé

A close to 30% of the respondents felt that coaching and role modelling were prime roles of a mentor with relation to his protégé. Although other factors also lie within the ambit of the role of the mentor, but counselling forms a minority of 3%, whereas close to 10% believed that, providing challenging assignments, exposure and friendship were the prime roles of the mentor.

The utility of mentoring as an employee developmental tool is contingent on the dynamics of the mentor-protégé relationship. For example, e.g for new comers into the organization, mentoring relationships during the very early days, help connect the mentee to the organization at deeper emotional level, by developing roots into the organization, through the power of relationship with the mentor & mentee grows under the protection of the mentor. The mentor becomes a substitute for parental guidance.

ix) Impact of age of the mentor on mentoring

I Senior managers are more knowledgable

I Commmunication with senior mentors is more formal

Posittion of the mentor matters

Senior mentors are more approachable

Fig 9: Impact of age of the mentor on mentoring

In general, the respondents disagreed to the statement that age does not really have an impact on the mentoring process. Almost half the population believed that young managers were not efficient. As per their experiences they reported that although senior mentors are knowledgeable, but communication with them is more formal and they are not easily approachable which hampers the learning process. 38% believed that position of the mentor does not impact the effectiveness of the mentoring process.

x) Impact of gender on mentoring

I Relationship more informal with the mentor of different gender

Comfort level is high with the mentor of the same gender

Gender of the mentor impacts relationship with the mentor

I Knowledge transfer is better with different gender

Fig 10: Impact of gender on mentoring

A max of 32% felt that comfort level is high with the mentor of the same gender. Contrary to which 47% believed that mentoring relationship is more informal if the mentor is of a different gender. However, a maximum of 47% of the respondents disagreed to Knowledge transfer being better with different gender and 40% disagreed to gender having any impact on the mentoring process. It can be inferred that in general, respondents were of the

opinion that gender does not affect mentoring. This was further analysed by running Chi-squared test on the given dataset using SPSS.

9. Chi -Square Analysis: Testing the relationship between effectiveness of mentoring program and gender of the mentor

Hypothesis:

H0: Effectiveness of mentoring program is dependent on gender of mentor H1: Effectiveness of mentoring program is independent on gender of mentor

The data was analysed by running a chi-square test for which the p value obtained was 0.012. In biological applications, a probability 5% (p=0.05) is usually adopted as the standard Since the P-value is less than .05, we reject H0 and hence it shows that effectiveness of mentoring program is independent of the gender of mentor and mentee. Thus out of the people who find the mentorship process effective, there is not a significant difference amongst male and female population with respect to the mentoring relationship they share. We can conclude that the gender of the mentor does not make a significant difference on the mentoring relation the mentee and the mentor share.

Table 3: Gender_impacts_relationship * Gender_knwlge_transfer_better_with_different Crosstabulation

Gender knwlge transfer better with different Total

strongly disagree neutral agree strongly

disagree agree

strongly disagree 0 2 0 2 0 4

disagree 0 17 8 12 3 40

Gender impacts relationship neutral 2 10 0 0 3 15

agree 0 13 6 4 5 28

strongly agree 0 5 0 4 4 13

Total 2 47 14 22 15 100

Table 4: chi square tests

Chi-Square Tests

Value df Asymp. Sig. (2- ■sided)

Pearson Chi-Square 31.322' 16 .012

Likelihood Ratio 34.913 16 .004

Linear-by-Linear Association 1.035 1 .309

N of Valid Cases 100

a. 17 cells (68.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .08.

xi) Common factors that most affect mentoring relationship:

The respondents were asked to rate a 10 statements on a Likert scale of 1 to 5 where "1" stands for "strongly disagree" and "5" for "strongly agree". These statements covered the various attributes that have a bearing on the mentoring program in an organization. To combine these attributes into factors Factor analysis was run using SPSS.

The analysis was done by interpreting eigen values for all 10 factors. Those greater than 1 were considered to be relevant. This gave us 4 factors. Further, various attributes under each of these 4 factors with values less than -0.7 and 0.7 in the rotated component matrix were taken. These were then used to combine attributes and label them into different factors which have bearing on the mentoring relationship in an organization, namely,

• Age of the Mentor

• Autonomy to mentee

Focus on sharing information Time Period- start of program

Table 5: Rotated ComponentMatrixa

Inculcate_comm_n_leadership_skills

Component 1

4 .186

Young_mentors_not_efficient

Approachable_Communicative

Help_in_socializing

Focus_sharing_information Designation

Autonomy_to_mentee

Knowledge_mgmt

Time_period_start Factor_Age

-.625 .582 .502

.388 -.832 -.612 .226 .445

Extraction Method:

Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. a. Rotation converged in 6 iterations.

Principal

Component

-.105 -.133 .786 .738

Analysis.

Table 6: Component Transformation Matrix

Component Transformation Matrix

Component 1 1 .804 2 -.145 3 -.368 4 .445

2 .183 .958 -.162 -.153

3 .324 .126 .913 .212

4 -.464 .215 -.063 .857

Extraction Method: Principal Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization. Component Analys

200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Time Period- start of program Focus on sharing information I Autonomy to mentee Age of the Mentor

Strongly Disagree{2) Neutral (3) Agree (4) Strongly disagree(l) agree (5)

Fig 11: Common factors that most affect mentoring relationship

It can be observed that close to 45% of the respondents agreed that "Autonomy to mentee", "Focus on sharing information", "Time Period" as important factors that affect mentoring relations. A close to 50% of the respondents agreed that" Age of mentor" was an important factor.

10. Conclusion

To meet the demands and challenges of the future workplace organizations are preparing to develop their employees/leaders to reach their potential by using different and new forms of mentoring that can aid in achieving the goals of Talent Management.

The perceived role of a mentor changes with the exposure one has in an organisation. People with substantial amount of work experience look for career growth and those at a fresher level prefer mentoring to help in orientation. A mentor serves the role of a coach and a role model with a sharp focus on information sharing and ensuring free flow of knowledge. There are various factors which affect mentoring relationship like age, gender, autonomy, time-period of mentoring, focus on knowledge management. Thus, mentoring process can be strengthened by considering these factors which affect relationship and thus can be designed in such a way so as to make it more efficient.

Today diversity at workplace is need and demand of an hour and corporates are more encourage on bringing diversity at workplace and their workforce comprises of substantial number of both male and female employees. Hence many of the employees feel gender of the mentor/mentee doesn't matter to them. However, like we observed in the data, for some, gender has a role to play for the reason that it makes them more comfortable to discuss various issues at workplace. Also it was seen many employees disagree that the relationship is more informal with the mentor of a different gender. It all depends on the how one wants to share the relationship for maintaining the objective of the process. These issues are also culture specific to organization and individual. Achieving an apt mentor and mentee fit in a organisation enhances learning and the affectivity of the mentoring process. Contrary to popular notion, organizations do not follow a random paring strategy, but look into the job role as well as the personal attributes of mentors and mentees. Based on the situations mentors have a say in the process, however, mentees are hardly ever involved in the process. On further analysis, it was found that criterion used to select employees to act as mentors is independent of method used for mentor-mentee pairing.

Mentoring relationship benefits was seen from both mentee's and mentor's perspective. Mentee's with less work experience in the company views adjustments, knowledge sharing and career progression as the main benefit from mentoring process. Thus, seeing the above findings we can say that if the factors affecting mentoring are taken care of and handled intelligently, it might reap in greater benefits for the organizations and individuals. Mentoring also contributes to the job enlargement of the mentor as it enhances his scope of responsibilities and gives a sense of satisfaction.

11. Recommendations

The pairing process of a mentor and a mentee can be more formalized and structured. The pairing process in mentoring program should comprise of the following milestones: Commencement of Mentoring Process, and Orientation of Mentors and Mentees which are identified and supplemented with relevant literature, supporting our objectives, which are amenable to the social environment existing within the Indian context. After these milestones are achieved, Mentor-Mentee Pairing takes place. The selection of a mentor should be based on comprehensive criterion rather than relying on one attribute alone. This could include: a) Mode of selection of Mentors, b) Hierarchal rank of Mentors, and c) Personality traits of Mentor. This will ensure the required competencies and skills in a mentor and enhance the affectivity of the learning process. It will also help ensure the interpersonal compatibility of the mentor and mentee.

A formal and structured training program should be designed for the mentors. This would orient them to their perceived role. Training contributes by helping mentees develop appropriate expectations for the relationship, clarifying the objectives of the program as well as parameters of the relationship .It enhances the amount of mentoring provided and improves the quality of the mentorship. This may be because of increased communication and partner self-disclosure. The following could be included in the training program: • Value of mentorship

• Role of Mentors and Mentees

• Key benefits, Dos and Don'ts

• Role of HR in facilitating the relationship

• Concepts related to mentorship

Gradually this would set into system. But to kickstart mentorship programme in a righway orientation of mentors is must.

As mentoring is a two-way process. Hence it is the responsibility of both mentor and mentee to meet the expectations of each other. The norms set at the beginning such as time commitment, frequency of meetings, knowledge sharing etc should be adhered to. Both the mentor and mentee need to be open and honest and respect each other. The feedback should be received with an open mind by the mentee. Thus understanding the responsibility by both mentor and mentee can lead to a successful mentoring relationship. Making mentoring as one of the KRA's in the performance appraisal would increase the effectiveness of the mentoring program. Mentoring also contributes to the job enlargement of the mentor as it enhances his scope of responsibilities and gives a sense of satisfaction. Mentorship has a lot to contribute and is one of the best HR practice can companies can follow to reap the benefit of prosperity.

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