Scholarly article on topic 'Rendering of help to pupils of special and particular needs at Latvia education system'

Rendering of help to pupils of special and particular needs at Latvia education system Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

CC BY-NC-ND
0
0
Share paper
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"pupils of particular needs" / "pupils of special needs" / "special education" / "incorporative education" / "special help" / "inclusive environment"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — M.A. Ilga Prudņikova, M.A. Svetlana Ušča, M.A. Inese Patapova

Abstract Problem Statement In Latvia, the most extensive spectrum of problems, that the teacher meets at school at daily routine, exist within the category of pupils of special needs, when working with the most different pupils, including the pupils of special needs who receive the services incorporated into the special education. When registering the pupils at schools, especially the children of special needs and also of particular needs, the school must consider what to change in order to provide feasibility for the pupil of special needs to study nearer to the place of abode and also to „learn something“. There exist closely two ways of rendering special help in Latvia: • Special education establishments activity; • Special and particular help and support to pupils at all-round education establishments (within incorporative environment). Latvia pedagogues have no united attitude regarding which form of education would be the best for the pupils of special and particular needs. Purpose of Study is to do the analysis of special education ways existing in Latvia and to clear up the parents’ opinion regarding the extent to which the pupil of special needs, studying at the educational establishment most useful to him, are provided of the possibility to receive help of qualified professionals, of the possibility to receive the knowledge, to develop social life and working skills, to prepare for work and life in society, to receive special correction and rehabilitation. Materials and methods . Survey of scientific and informative literature. The analysis of Latvia experience of help rendering to the pupils of special needs. For the clarification of the opinion of pupils’ parents, the mediatizing was use – the quantitative method. Conclusions Frequently the introductory solutions are in the hands of the schools and the pedagogues themselves establishing the most useful to their situations assistance system.

Academic research paper on topic "Rendering of help to pupils of special and particular needs at Latvia education system"

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

\4 ScienceDirect

Procedía Social and Behavioral Sciences 12 (2011) 383-392

International Conference on Education and Educational Psychology (ICEEPSY 2010)

Rendering of help to pupils of special and particular needs at

Latvia education system.

MA Ilga Prudnikova a, MA Svetlana Usca b, MA Inese Patapova c

aPersonality Socialization research institute of Rezekne Higher Educational Institution, Atbrivosanas aleja 115,

Rezekne, LV-4601, Latvia

bPersonality Socialization research institute of Rezekne Higher Educational Institution, Atbrivosanas aleja 115,

Rezekne, LV-4601, Latvia

cPersonality Socialization research institute of Rezekne Higher Educational Institution, Atbrivosanas aleja 115,

Rezekne, LV-4601, Latvia

Abstract

Problem Statement. In Latvia, the most extensive spectrum of problems, that the teacher meets at school at daily routine, exist within the category of pupils of special needs, when working with the most different pupils, including the pupils of special needs who receive the services incorporated into the special education. When registering the pupils at schools, especially the children of special needs and also of particular needs, the school must consider what to change in order to provide feasibility for the pupil of special needs to study nearer to the place of abode and also to „learn something".

There exist closely two ways of rendering special help in Latvia:

• Special education establishments activity;

• Special and particular help and support to pupils at all-round education establishments (within incorporative environment).

Latvia pedagogues have no united attitude regarding which form of education would be the best for the pupils of special and particular needs.

Purpose of Study is to do the analysis of special education ways existing in Latvia and to clear up the parents' opinion regarding the extent to which the pupil of special needs, studying at the educational establishment most useful to him, are provided of the possibility to receive help of qualified professionals, of the possibility to receive the knowledge, to develop social life and working skills, to prepare for work and life in society, to receive special correction and rehabilitation.

Materials and methods. Survey of scientific and informative literature. The analysis of Latvia experience of help rendering to the pupils of special needs. For the cla rification of the opinion of pupils' parents , the mediatizing was use - the quantitative method.

Conclusions. Frequently the introductory solutions are in the hands of the schools and the pedagogues themselves establishing the most useful to their situations assistance system.

© 2009 Published by Elsevier Ltd. S election and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr. Zafer Bekirogullari of Y.B.

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr. Zafer Bekirogullari of Y.B. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.02.047

Keywords:pupils of particular needs, pupils of special needs, special education , incorporative education, special help, inclusive environment

Introduction

In the democratic society a man is considered to be an unique value, who lives, studies or works among other people. Respecting a man as a value, the society in nowadays conditions in European countries bring forward new tasks for the development of the education, that are determined while analyzing the acceptable documents:

• to provide basic education for everybody - In 1990, the program "Education for everybody" was started when in Jomtien within the framework of International conference the declaration was accepted "Regarding the education for everybody as well as the plan for the actions was elaborated for ten years for the promotion of basic education development and availability (http://www.unesco.org/en/education/publications/);

• incorporative education is defined as strategy in order to achieve the agenda: education for everybody - World conference of 1994 regarding special needs education that took place in Salamank, Spain (http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/unesco-salamanca.shtml);

• qualitative education for everybody - World Education Forum in 2000 in Dakar, Senegal, with the determination to achieve it until year 2015 (www.unesco.org/education/efa/ed_for_all/framework.shtml).

In order to provide successful fulfillment, this determination is included also into UNO Millenium development agendas (Roulz, 2006).

For Latvia, the matters discussed by EU are very important. The tasks for years 2007-2013 of Basic Approaches of Education Development attest that, where the providing of special educational needs at incorporative environment in Latvia is one of the prior branches of education policy (http://www.izm.gov.lv).

In 2010, after Latvia joining UNO Convention regarding the rights of the person of invalidity, it is important to create the potentialities for the pupils of special and particular needs to study, in order to both widen their knowledge, skills and attitude and also to adjust to the changing,, complicated and mutually dependent eorld. Convention invites for non-discriminating attitude and equal, rightful approach at all life areas, including education (www.lm.gov.lv).

Summarizing the statistics data, altogether about 239 800 pupils were studying in school year 2009./2010. in Latvia. About 9000 pupils need special education. In Latvia, there are about 63 special education establishments, including 3 special primary schools (without boarding school), 42 special boarding primary schools for the children of mental age disorder and 3 special secondary schools. About 3 000 pupils study at pedagogical and social correction classes in Latvia in school year 2008/09. 250 all-round education establishments implemented special programs (www.izm.gov.lv).

At present, The potentialities for the pupils with special and particular needs offered by Latvia educational system are varied. Analyzing the kinds of present special help rendering, the following can be extracted:

1. special education establishments activities -

• The beginning of the education of the pupils of average heavy and of heavy mental age development disorder can be traced already from year 1854 with Plac „establishment for idiots" (Kravalis, 1996);

• 15 pupils of average heavy and of heavy mental age disorder have started to study in school year 1990/91 at 2 special education establishments in c level grade (data of ESM Statistics and analysis department);

2. special and particular help and assistance for pupils at all-round education establishments

(incorporative environment) -

• since the end of the eighties of the last century, the integration process has started at the schools, in the result of which the pupils of special needs enter the all-round education school (Nimante, 2007);

• the pupils of special needs always have studied at all-round education schools and classes.

Regardless of good order in legislation, when analyzing Latvia education system, the problems are indicated at

„Latvia common social incorporative memorandum" (2003), that are connected with the potentialities of social risks education and education of the children of special needs (www.likumi.lv):

1. the educational help is not equally available for the children of special needs, children of moderate means family or family of social rejected risk;

2. the inhabitants, especially of rejected groups, lack financial and material resources, in order to provide qualitative education for their children;

3. low proportion of the children of special needs who integrate at all-round education schools.

Latvia continue the started pass towards the incorporative education „that stimulate the schools to reconsider their structure, education approach, pupils grouping and assistance use, for all the above to provide the educational needs of each and all the pupils." (Farrell, 2005, 91. pg.). Education Law foresees that the parents have the rights to choose the educational establishment for their children including one that is the nearest to their living place (www.likumi.lv).

Latvia educational system in total and each all-round education school must answer the question: if the school and which of the schools is ready to accept any child, if the necessary assistance is provided, in order any child can go to the school as well as on the level of the class - is the pupil accepted at the class, if he feels good and if he can achieve success, participating in the studying process and within the co-operation .

Purpose of Study is to do the analysis of the kinds of Latvia present special education and to clear up what the parents thing, at what extent the pupil of special and particular, gaining the education at the most appropriate education establishment, the potential is provided to receive qualified help of the specialists, to master the knowledge, to develop the social and working skills, to prepare for the work and life in the society, to receive the special correction and rehabilitation.

Materials and methods:

• Theoretical analysis of literature

• Analysis of normative documentation

• Mediatize of the pupils' parents.

Investigation basis - 3 education establishments from 3 regions of Latvia.

Theoretical aspect of the problem

Terms: "of special needs" and ,,of particular needs" are differentiated and defined in legislation - Regulations issued by the Cabinet (izm.izm.gov.lv/nozares./speciala-izgl.html) and in the Law of All-round education (http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=20243).

For the pupils of special needs, the individual consultative help of assistance crew of pedagogical correction education or education establishment assistance crew. The difficulty of these pupils to study the education program or when studying separate educational subjects are conditionally transitory, because they are connected with emotional non-stability, weak cognition activity low studies motivation and insufficient behavior regulation.

The main difference is the following: the children of the special needs are always diagnosed and together with the diagnosis there is noted some physical or mental age disorder or physical impairment.

As the basic causes, usually the following are established: diseases and traumas suffered within prenatal, perinatal or postnatal period; organic damages of cerebra; insufficient anatomical and functional maturity of central nervous system structures, as well as the inheritance with diseases of genetic character, immunological unconformity etc.

Usually in such cases the children study according to the appropriate special pre school or special primary school programm : educate of vision disorder; educate of audition disorder; educate of physical development disorder; educate of somatic illness; educate of language disorder; educate of learning disorder; educate of mental health disorder; educate of mental age disorder; educate with heavy mental age disorder or several heavy development disorders.

They can study at any school according to 49th paragraph of All-round education law (http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=20243 1), that states that within the special education the potentialities and conditions are created for the pupils of special needs to achieve the education at any educational establishment corresponding to their health status, abilities and development level, simultaneously providing the pedagogically psychological and medical correction of the pupil, preparedness for the work and living in the society.

In all the special basic education programs the process of studies and upbringing is connected with systematic therapy and improvement activities, with daily special correction and rehabilitation work, because many children of special needs besides the primary disorder often additionally there exist one or more other secondary disorders or

different illnesses. The pupils with multiple development disorders have specific problems: memory, speech, attention, communication, etc. difficulties ( Vigante, 2007).

At present, in Latvia, the children of special and particular are provided in the legislation with the potentialities according to their needs. (1 Picture).

Picture . Education kinds of the pupils ( Prudnikova, 2008)

Since eighties of the last century , Latvia education system supports integration. It can be considered that the beginning of the process of planned integration is the school year of 1990/91, when in the experimental way the teaching of the pupils of medium heavy and heavy mental backwardness at special education establishments (Vigante, 2008). The integration is done on different levels and in different kinds. In Latvia educational system, there can be traced all the integration models by M. Meison and R. Reizer, some of them are already described and characterized beforehand (Nimante, 2002):

• Periodical integration, when pupils of special needs and other children meat each other periodically, for example, at some events.

• Geographical integration, when pu[ild of special needs and other children are besides each other geographically, for example, the special school and all-round education school are placed near and the pupils can see, what happens at other school, in the yard of another school.

• Social integration, when pupils of special needs and other children socially contact each other, for example, if there is a special class at all-round education school, then special class pupils socialize with the rest of the children , for example in the yard or at the canteen.

• Functional integration, when some separate pupil of special needs is being integrated at the all-round education class, but he is not offered the needed pedagogical support, adapted or modified program. (Mason, Reiser, 2000)

In Latvia educational system, there can be traced the offered four integration kinds according to the children disorder, the needs and potentialities connected with it, also by Russia special pedagogues N. Malofejeva un N. .Shmatko (2008) ( 2 Picture)

Ëi il

assfe feîBfflg îte process si

0 IT « • L- v I

it l&^l ÄE

near to Wj.1

îi-Q^Ï feli

«^situes

P.'vÎÎ."-/'' 'ÎAr

JJBiiWiy? -S-.?- îfe.?.

. -...... -

1. Picture. Integration models (by Malofejev,Shmatko, 2008)

Speaking about the education development tendencies and integration, in Latvia, most often the notion „humanity" un „democracy" are used. The most important is openness and readiness for these processes of each education establishment.

Further the division is offered, adapting the scheme given by UNESCO (UNESCO, 2005 ), that is enlarged with education achieving forms, that are characteristic for the children of special and particular needs in Latvia (3 Picture):

2. Picture. Education achievement forms (by NTmante, 2007)

UNESCO defines the incorporative education as the process, where all the various needs of educate's are provided, promoting membership of everybody into the studies process, into culture and life of different communities and diminishing the rejecting in the education and process of education (UNESCO, 2004).

Incorporative education can be explained more widely: Incorporative education for all the children and youth irrespective of their education and development needs and potentials, property status and social status, race,

nationality, sex, religion and political conviction, health status, kind of life and activities, provides equal rights to participate and collaborate within the process of education and to gain achievements at the environment respecting man and correspondent of man. ( Nimante, 2008).

They are the potentials which the school should provide to each child, where all the children equally can participate in any activity, cooperate and collaborate, equally gaining the success.

„Incorporation" can be looked over on different levels:

• Widest meaning - in education system (is the education available for the child),

• Narrower meaning - at school (if the child is accepted at school, is the potential to receive education

provided),

• Narrowest level - class (if the child feels relevant to class, if he can collaborate, participate and gain the

success).

Analysis of Latvia present special education kinds

In order to do the comparative analysis of two potentials of gaining the basic education, to establish the strong and weak points, the analysis of investigations of several authors was done (Tihomirova, Nimante, Vigante u.c.) and the personal experience of the authors was summarized regarding the incorporative education in Latvia.

It is concluded that both education achievements potentialities have the advantages and the weak points . The biggest advantage of the special schools - the education environment arranged according to the pupils needs, Professional teachers, who profoundly understand the psychology of these children, the peculiarities of the development level and the abilities. At the present economical situation, it would be a mistake to rapidly pass over to massive incorporation of pupils of special needs, by the result of which the pupil would suffer, the corresponding to his needs education quality is not provided, he could not achieve the development level, which is potential to be achieved at more adjustable to his needs environment.

Results of the research

In order to clear up the parents' opinion regarding the work of the school, what is their attitude towards the

achievements of their children - the mediatizing of the parents was done in September, 2010, at three different boarding schools: Riga 1st special boarding primary school (pupils of heavy mental age development disorder study), Liepna boarding primary school (grout at social risk pupils study) and Rezekne speech therapy boarding primary school (pupils of heavy speech disorder). 141 parents were mediatized.

The summarized information allows to conclude that, at the above mentioned Latvia general education barding schools, the representation of children is varied enough. What does the school do already at present and what solution ways is seeking, how they consider the child or what is the attitude towards the child - the answers to these and other questions gives the mediatizing of the parents of the pupils of the above schools.

What is the evaluation of the parents of the work of school, education environment, attitude towards the school - can be seen in the answers of the questionnaires for the first question, where it was asked if the school provides appropriate level of knowledge, organizes the learning process according to the potentials of the pupils, if the school treats the child with understanding, if it promotes formation of friendly mutual relations ( 4 Picture.)

Picture4. Attitude of the parents against the environment of the schools

Analyzing the received answers it is concluded that in most of the cases the parents highly evaluate the work of the school.

Doing the mediatization of the parents, the respondents were offered to evaluate, what is the main thing to their minds - the teaching level corresponding to the child's abilities or the feelings of the children at the school. ( 5 Picture). Some respondents could not settle upon the most important, marking both the offered answers as equally important.

100 80 60 40 20 0

Riga 1st Special Boarding Elementary school

Rezekne speech therapy boarding primary school

I The main thing -the feelings of the children at the school

The main think -the teaching level corresponding to the chil d's abil ities

Liepna boarding primary school

Picture 5. Parents' opinion regarding task of the school

Analyzing the achieved data, we can see that the attitude of the parents differ. It is determined both by the erected education aims of the school, the specifics and the needs of the pupils. Most of the parents of Riga 1st special boarding primary school, where the pupils of mental age disorder study, wish that the learning level would correspond to the abilities of the children, in the meaning that what can be developed is developed step by step, in advance getting acquainted with each pupil, doing more profound investigation work, taking into account the peculiarities, abilities and needs of the pupil. Liepna boarding primary school pupils', that represent pupils social group at risk, parents stress that, the most important is that the pupils feel good at school, let the pupils are provided by atmosphere of emotional favor and mutual understanding and the positive cooperation environment is made, let multiply educational stimulus are developed, that would correspond to the psychological peculiarities of the educate, let them understand the connection between the studies and the life. The parents of the pupils of Rezekne speech therapy boarding primary school for the pupils of heavy speech disorders have evaluated both the above mentioned aspects as equally important.

The answers to the questions "Do you regularly receive the notes regarding the marks of your child?", "Which way do you receive the news regarding the events at school?", "How often do you attend the school in order to get to know regarding the child's behavior, progress, achievements?", etc. - reveal the attitude of the parents towards the school, the child's success at the school, their membership at the education process (6. Picture).

120 100 80 60 40 20 0

When I For When Organized Organized

consider it individual negligence parents' parents' necessary conversation happened meetings meetings

— Rezekne Speech therapy Boarding Primary School

Liepna Boarding Primary School

— Riga 1st Special Primary Boarding School

Picture 6. Parents' attitude towards the achievements of their children

It can be concluded that the answers characterize both the social environment where the pupil comes from and the attitude of the parents. Most of the parents that are interested in their children success at the school are the parents from Riga 1st special boarding primary school. The reason - the living place of the parents is near the school, the most of the pupils come from socially favorable environment. These parents try as frequently as possible to meet the teachers, in order to discuss the common plan of activities for the promotion of the child's development. They are interested into the success of their child, because here the education and upbringing processes are individualized, taking into account the potentialities of each child, health status and development level.

Liepna boarding primary school pupils' parent most often attend the school if some misunderstanding has occurred and they are asked to come. Rezekne speech therapy boarding primary school parents' attitude towards their children success at studies is quite indifferent. That is testified by the answer to the question „Do you regularly receive the reports regarding the marks of your child?", to which 34% of the parents answered, that they are not interested in the reports because the school is responsible for the success of the child .

Within the analysis of the answers it can be concluded that those pupils which have heavy mental development disorders and for the incorporation of which Latvia schools are not yet ready at present, the parents are more interested into the children' success. Easily incorporated into general education school are the children of the group of social risks and the children of language disorders, but their parents attitude regarding the success of the child' success and towards the school endangers the incorporation even if the supporting staff is fully completed at the school. In the case of the parents' indifference at the boarding school that can be considered a partial isolation from the influence form a certain social environment, it is possible for the pupil of development, learning, behavior disorders to achieve higher results.

It is concluded that within nowadays conditions when all-round education schools not always can provide all the necessary help to the pupils of different disorders and of social groups at risk, when the attitude of the parents and the society altogether is expectant, burdening all the educational and upbringing activities on the shoulders of the school, there must exist education potentialities of two kinds - incorporative education and boarding schools, in order to evaluate each concrete case and accept the decision according to the child's interests and needs regarding the studies at concrete educational establishment.

The authors consider that such activities must be offered to the boarding primary schools, while organizing the educational and upbringing work according to the needs, interests and abilities of the pupils, that would promote their incorporation into the society and that this process is advanced by incorporating into many-sided kinds of activities in different fields (7. Picture).

Picture 7. The promotive areas of incorporation into the society for pupils of special and particular needs

Joining some of the activities determine the needs and the abilities of the incorporative pupils group. For example, Riga 1st special boarding primary school pupils of mental age development disorder have successfully joined the activities like that: annual international children visual arts exhibition „Lidice", state and international swimming competition, international song festival „Nac un dziedi" (Come and sing), annual international festival „Mode" (Fashion) etc.; pupils of Rezekne speech therapy boarding primary school: annual international children visual arts exhibition „Lidice", A. Liepa Extramural mathematics school competition, Latvia young readers competition "Plasa apvarsna" (Wide horizon); XVI Annual Literary Contest Pardubice Stream 2010 Theme: „ One For All, All For One, participate at social organizations: Daugavas vanagi, mazpulceni etc., Liepna boarding primary school pupils: participate at creative workshops for pu[ils together with their families, that is organized within the framework of the project "Mes to spejam" (We can do that), participate at summer camps (the present year the school themselves organized summer camp „ Fantaziju varaviksne" (Rainbow of fantasy) (for the children of Aluksne region), at friendly leads etc.

Discussion

In order to accomplish the incorporative education the following matters are promoted:

• whether each school can cooperate with other specialists that can provide the needed support to the pupils of special and particular needs;

• whether each school can accept the „otherwise" pupil

• whether each school is ready for the changes;

Conclusion

1. In Latvia education system, according to the disorders of the pupils, the needs and potentials connected with that several integration models work.

2. For the choice of the parents of pupils of special and particular needs, there are variety of forms of achieving education are offered in Latvia.

3. Making the analysis of the present special education kinds in Latvia, it was indicated that that the two basic education achievement potentials have advantages and the weak points.

4. The incorporative solutions of pupils of special and particular needs are in the hands of the schools and teachers themselves, making the supporting system appropriate to their situation, taking care of the fact of making incorporative society with common values, as well as how to elevate the achievements of each child.

5. In the nearest future there must exist two kinds of education potentials - incorporative education and the boarding schools appropriate the interests and needs of the children, providing the differentiation of the technique of methods, teaching and learning , as well as the cooperation with the parents.

References

1. Booth, T., Ainscow, M. (2002) Index for Inclusion. - CSIE, 2002.

2. Farrell, M. (2005) Key Issues in Special Education. - Routledge, London http://www.csie.org.uk/inclusion/unesco-salamanca.shtml

3. General Education Law, 1999 General Education Law, 1999. www.aic.lv/rec/LV/leg_lv/LV_lik/izg_likL.doc

4. Indekss ieklaujosai izglitibai (2006). - Riga: Britu Padome, 2006.

5. Kravalis, J. (1996) Latvijas specialas skolas. - Riga: Apgads „Macibu gramata".

6. Labklajibas ministrijas majas lapa http://www.lm.gov.lv

7. Latvijas Republikas Izglltibas un zinatnes ministrijas majas lapa http://www.izm.gov.lv

8. LR Ministru kabineta 2006.06.20. noteikumi nr. 492 „Macibu sasniegumu vërtësanas kartiba specialas izglltibas programmas" izm.izm.gov.lv/nozares.../speciala-izgl.html

9. Mason, M., Reiser, R. (2000) Altogether Better: From Special Needs to Equality inEducation. -London: Comic Relief.

10. Ministru kabineta noteikumi www.likumi.lv

11. Nimante, D. (2002) Kas ir ieklaujosa izglitiba? // Skola visiem / S. Miezites red. - Riga: Skolu atbalsta centrs.

12. Nimante, D. (2007) Ieklaujosa skola ieklaujosa sabiedriba // Skolotajs, 1 (61).

13. Nimante, D. (2007) Inclusion of Children with Special and Exceptional Needs Into a Comprehensive School in Latvia. Scientific papers university of Latvia, volume, Pedagogy and Teachers' Education 715, (pp. 101 - 113).

14. Nimante, D. (2008) Velreiz par ieklaujosu izglitibu. Skolotajs, Nr. 1.

15. Prudnikova .I, Usca S., Vigante R. (2010). Latvijas esosas pieredzes izvertesana no ieklaujosas izglitibas pausto vertibu viedokla. Izglitibas reforma visparizglitojosa skola: Izglitibas satura petijumi un ieviesanas problemas. 2009. gada zinatnisko rakstu krajums. Rezekne: RA izdevnieciba. 63.-75.lpp. http://www.ru.lv

16. Rouzs., M. (2006) Skola visiem: Kapec un ka? // Ieklaujosa skola ieklaujosa sabiedriba / red. A. Tuna. - Riga: IAC

17. Starptautiska slimibu un veselibas problemu klasifikacija. 10. redakcija. Pasaules Veselibas Organizacija Zeneva, 1. sej., 1992. [Parpubliceta: LR Labklajibas ministrija un Veselibas statistikas informacijas un medicinisko tehnologiju centrs. - Riga, 1999.]

18. UNESCO - Education for All - World Education Forum www.unesco.org/education/efa/ed_for_all/framework.shtml

19. UNESCO (2004) Guidelines for Inclusion. http://www.unesco.org/en/education/publications/

20. UNESCO (2005) Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Access to Education for All. - Paris:UNESCO, 2005. -( pp.22-28).

21. Visparejais izglitibas likums http://www.likumi.lv/doc.php?id=20243

22. Vigante R. (2007) Peculiarities of the Assessment of Educational Achievement of Students with Disabilities of Intellectual Development . Scientific papers university of Latvia, volume, Pedagogy and Teachers' Education 715, (pp. 120 - 132).

23. Vigante R. (2008) Specialas izglitibas programmu limenu diferenciacija un integracija. /Rezeknes Augstskola, Sabiedriba, integracija, izglitiba. Starptautiskas konferences materiali. Rezekne.

24. Выготский, Л. (2003) Основы дефектологии. - Санктпетербург: Санктпетербургское психологическое общество.

25. Малофеев Н. Н., Шматко Н. Д. (2008) Интеграция и специальные образовательные учреждения необходимость перемен. // Дефектология, 2008., №2 ,(86. - 93. стр).