Scholarly article on topic 'The Survey of Academic Procrastionation on High School Students with in Terms of School Burn-out and Learning Styles'

The Survey of Academic Procrastionation on High School Students with in Terms of School Burn-out and Learning Styles Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

Share paper
OECD Field of science
{"School burn-out" / "academic procrastination" / "learning style" / "Sibling Relationship" / "Mentally Retarded" / Deaf}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Semra Çakır, Figen Akça, Aynur Fırıncı Kodaz, Sezen Tulgarer

Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the link between the academic procrastination of university students and school burn out, learning styles and gender. 241 students who are studying in high school attended to the survey. In the survey Secondary School Burnout Scale (SSBS) which was developed by Aypay (2012), Academic Procrastination which was developed by Çakıcı (2013) and Grasha-Reichmann Learning Style Scale which was adapted by Koçak (2007) were applied in order to gather data. It is suggested that there is a positive relation between the inactive style and the tendency of academic procrastination within the sub dimensions of school burn-out. In addition it is considered that there are negative relations between academic procrastination and independent style, dependent style, competitive style, participant style. However in the multiple regression analysis it is witnessed that inactive style, independent style, participant style, course burn-out and burnout caused by the family predict the tendency of academic procrastination significantly. Results were discussed by educationalists and counselors according to the findings.

Academic research paper on topic "The Survey of Academic Procrastionation on High School Students with in Terms of School Burn-out and Learning Styles"

Available online at


Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 114 (2014) 654 - 662

4th World Conference on Psychology, Counselling and Guidance WCPCG-2013

The Survey of Academic Procrastionation on High School Students with in Terms of School Burn-Out and Learning Styles

Semra Qakira, Figen Ak9ab, Aynur Firinci Kodazc, Sezen Tulgarerd

a Psychological counselor and guidance phd student, Uludag university, Bursa 16130, Turkey

b Assistant Professor Doktor, Uludag university, Bursa 16130, Turkey c Psychological counselor and guidance phd student, Uludag university, Bursa,16130, Turkey d Psychological counselor, Address, Bursa 16130 Turkey


The purpose of this study is to analyze the link between the academic procrastination of university students and school burn out, learning styles and gender. 241 students who are studying in high school attended to the survey. In the survey Secondary School Burnout Scale (SSBS) which was developed by Aypay (2012), Academic Procrastination which was developed by Çakici (2013) and Grasha-Reichmann Learning Style Scale which was adapted by Koçak (2007) were applied in order to gather data. It is suggested that there is a positive relation between the inactive style and the tendency of academic procrastination within the sub dimensions of school burn-out. In addition it is considered that there are negative relations between academic procrastination and independent style, dependent style, competitive style, participant style. However in the multiple regression analysis it is witnessed that inactive style, independent style, participant style, course burn-out and burnout caused by the family predict the tendency of academic procrastination significantly. Results were discussed by educationalists and counselors according to the findings.

© 2013 The Authors. PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selection and peer-review underresponsibility of Academic World EducationandResearchCenter.

Keywords: School burn-out, academic procrastination, learning style; Keywords: Sibling Relationship, Mentally Retarded, Deaf;

1. Introduction

It is clear that academic education has an undeniable importance in individual's lives considering the education system in our country. Each individual from different ages takes exams in different stages and are able to continue their education with the success they acquire from those exams. Together with the preparation process for these

Corresponding author: Semra Qakir E-mail addres:

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.763

exams students may have stress which can cause burnout through time. (Divaris et. al., 2012; Kutsal and Bilge, 2012).

Maslach and Jackson (1981) define burnout as physical exhaustion, long fatigue, desperation and hopelessness, physical and mental symptom that contains negative attitudes towards people, job and the life itself. Many researches have shown that burnout is more common in teachers, doctors, nurses and social service experts who have closer relations with people (Maslach & Jackson, 1981; Aypay, 2012). For students school is considered as a work in their lives since it is obvious that they spare time, they struggle to do their responsibilities in order to be successful as if they go to work (Esteve, 2008). In this process, each day, students encounter many physical, emotional and psychological troubles which are classroom activities, health, family, job, expenses and other people or their expectations. Students are influenced negatively by these expectations which come from their inner selves or from outside without their control (Qam, 1991; Cushman and West, 2006). School burnout conveys the burnout syndrome caused by the excessive demands of the school and education on students. In the process of learning, stress caused by the lessons, class load, or other psychological pressure factors may cause emotional burnout, tendency for depersonalization and the feeling of low success. School burnout causes absenteeism, low motivation to the lesson, high percentage of leaving school and procrastination (McCarthy, Pretty, & Catano, 1990; Yang and Farn, 2005; Dyrbye, 2009).

It is suggested that when the definitions made about procrastination are observed, all humans delay a responsibility or a task that they have to carry out in a part of their lives (Grecco, 1984). People who never show the attitude of procrastination all of their lives are believed to misunderstand the procrastination concept or to intend to answer the social desirability (Milgram, Tal and Levision, 1998). However academic procrastination is defined as the person's delaying the academic studies till a moment when an intensive stress is experienced (Senecal et al., 1995). In another definition academic procrastination behavior, is defined as the student's delaying the studies of school (Kandemir, 2010). Rothbolum, Solomon and Murakami (1986) define academic procrastination as being anxcious as a result of the desire for occasional or constant detainment. Ellis and Knaus (1977) determined that 70% of university students do not fulfill their academic tasks on time. For Turkish university students this rate is believed to be 50% (Balkis and Duru, 2009). It is thought that there is not a significant relation between the reasons for procrastination and gender, school success and performance approach (Ozer and Altun, 2011). If academic procrastination causes anxiety why do the students show this behavior? In this survey the answer to these questions are considered at length.

Another element which influences the learning environment is the learning style (Ozbay, 2006). Despite the fact that there are differences among students in terms of learning styles and these are accepted as a diversity (Gencel, 2007) these differences are the features that are barely recognized by the teachers (§enturk and Yildiz Ikikarde§, 2011). Learning style is defined as the personal features that influence the individual's skill in receiving information, the relation with the peers and the teachers, the participation to the learning studies (Grasha, 2002). It is known that learning style influence learning and each learning style simplifies different learnings (§im§ek, 2006).

Grasha-Reichman's learning style model is one created according to student-student and student-teacher interaction and their learning style divides into two categories according to the student's active participation to the learning process. These categories are classified as competitive, cooperative, inactive, participatory, dependent, and independent (§im§ek, 2006). Evolving out of the definitions and the explanations above learning style with its most general meaning, may be explained as the choices of the individuals for methods in gathering, and arranging the information and thinking and predicting over it (Davis, 1993).

It is obvious that in a country like Turkey where a having a good education means a real competition, every stage of education will be very hard and demanding for students. Students in each stage of education, face the pressure of the exams and grade average as a requirement for having a better education in the next education stage. This competitive environment in the education system not only affects the students, concerning the pressure of the grade average and the exams, but the families as well. Because of all these reasons students have to study constantly and start to solve tests at an early age. Especially parents also teachers almost everyone expects a great success from the students and always reminds them to study harder and more regularly (Yildirim and Ergene, 2003).

When we consider the explanations above as a whole, it can be thought that the nature of the academic procrastination, which is a very common phenomenon, is needed to be understood in a better way. Because, procrastination attitude may affect not only the student's academic, social and psychological harmony, but learning quality and well being as well. Therefore, observation subject in this study is the relation between academic procrastination, which is a very common burnout condition that high school students have, and the learning style that the students use. School burn-out and the relation of academic procrastination with learning styles have not been studied much in our country. Considering the burnout of the high school students who have trouble especially with university exam there is need for more studies in this field.

For this reason the questions below are need to be answered;

1. Is there a relation between academic procrastination with burnout and learning styles?

2. Does the procrastination attitude differ in terms of gender?

3. Do the school burnout and learning styles predict academic procrastination tendency?

2. Method

Research is a descriptive study in survey model. The research group consists of 241 high school students 119 of which are female and 112 of which are male. All of these students are preparing for the university exam and are also going to the additional private courses. 13.3% of the participant students are 2. Grade, 14.1% are 3. Grade and 72.6% are 4. Grade. 53.1% of the students are from Anatolian High School, 27.4% are from Central High School, 11.2% are from Vocational High School, 3.3% are from Vocational Religious High School and 5% are from Science High School and alternative high school education institutes.

2.1. Data Collection Instruments

Secondary School Burnout Scale (SSBS). SSBS has been developed to determine the burnout level of the students who are attending to high school by Aypay (2010). In the scale there is a separate point evaluation for each subscale. The higher points obtained from the subscales show that the burn-out is eminent, lower points show that the burnout is low. Factor Analysis has emerged a structure with seven factors. These are; loss of interest to school, burnout from family, burnout from homework, burnout from studying, burnout from teacher attitudes, need to rest time and fun, and feeling of insufficiency. The total variance that these seven factors formed is 61%. The consistency correlation obtained from DFA has shown that the model is consistent. ([GFI=0.93, AGFI=0.91, PGFI=0.90, RMSEA=0.05, CFI=0.94] Cronbach Alpha internal consistency coefficient is between .67-.86 for scale's sub dimensions. The two-half test reliability of the scale is between .63-.88 for scale's sub dimensions. Academic Control Base Scale is used for the measure validity of the scale. It is found that there are significant correlations(r=.14-.33) at low and medium levels between SSBS sub factor points and ACBS subscale points. Academic procrastination scale. (APS)"Academic Procrastination Scale" that was developed to determine students' academic procrastination behaviors by Qakici (2003) was used. Academic Procrastination Scale is a 19

item measure containing 12 positively worded items and 7 negatively worded items, which include the tasks that students are responsible in education life. The responses given to the phrases of the scale are ranked with five point likert scale: "never reflects me", slightly reflects me", "somewhat reflects me", "generally reflects me", and "always reflects me". Internal consistency reliability coefficients were found .92 for Academic Procrastination Scale, .89 for the first scale, and .84 for the second scale, and a seventeen-days test-retest reliabilities were 0.89, 0.80 for the first factor, and 0.82 for the second factor (Qakici, 2003), which were quite high, as the general recommendation (Büyükoztürk, 2004) is that reliability coefficients should be at least 0.80 or higher.

Grasha-Reichmann learning style scale. Focusing on the students' preference for six different learning styles have been identified such as Independent, Inactive, Cooperative, Dependent, Competitive and Participant. The scale was prepared as a 5 Likert Scale and it consists of 42 items. The scale was adapted into Turkish by Kofak (2007). It is stated that the scale's Alfa reliability coefficient was 0.77 in independent sub dimension, 0.76 in inactive sub dimension, 0.77 in cooperative sub dimension, 0.70 in dependent sub dimension, 0.78 in competitive sub dimension, 0.67 in participant sub dimension and the scale's total Cronbach Alfa coefficient was 0.83.

2.2. Data Analysis

The data obtained from the research were uploaded to electronic environment and analyzed using SPSS for Windows version 16. The data were tested with Pearson product-moment correlation and multiple regression analysis.

The coefficients of the tendency for academic procrastination were calculated in order to test the relation between learning styles and burnout conditions. According to the findings (Table 1) obtained, it is discovered that there are significant positive relations between academic procrastination and passive style r(241)=.587,p<.01, loss of interest to school r(241) =.187,p<.01, burnout from studying r(241)=.612,p<.01, burnout from family r(241)=.396,p<.01 burnout from homework r(241)=.385,p<.01,burnout from teacher attitudes r(241)=.385, p<.01, need to rest and time for fun r(241)=.151, p<.01, feeling of insufficiency at school r(241) =.185, p<.01 . In addition it is seen that there are significant negative relations between academic procrastination and independent style r(241)= -305,p<.01, dependent style r(241)= .-198,p<.01, competitive style r(241)= .-267,p<.01, participant style r(241)= .-465,p<.01 Another finding obtained from the research, shows that there is a difference between academic procrastination and gender to the disadvantage of girls (t=3.85..p<.05).

Table 1. Correlation coefficients oriented in the relations between the tendency for academic procrastination and gender, learning styles and burnout conditions

3. Findings


Academic Procrastination Tendency

Independent Style

Inactive Style Dependent Style Competitive Style Participant Style Loss of Interest to School Burnout from Studying Burnout From Family Burnout from Homework Burnout from Teacher Attitudes

-,305(**) ,587(**) -,198(**) -,267(**) -,465(**) ,187(**) ,612(**) ,396(**) ,385(**) ,385(**)

Need to Rest and Time for Fun ,151(**)

insufficiency at School ,185(**)


Multiple regression analysis was done in order to test the predictive strength of school burnout, academic procrastination and learning styles. The results of multiple regressions were presented in Table 2.

Table 2. Results of multiple regression analysis about the prediction of academic procrastination and learning styles for school burnout

Variables B SE ß T P

Step 1

Burnout from Studying 2,113 ,177 ,612 11,958 ,000

Step 2

Burnout from Studying 1,476 ,184 ,427 8,011 ,000

Inactive Style 1,121 ,158 ,378 7,088 ,000

Step 3

Burnout from Studying 1,257 ,190 ,364 6,627 ,000

Inactive Style 1,186 ,155 ,400 7,632 ,000

Independent Style -,581 ,161 -,173 -3,605 ,000

Step 4

Burnout from Studying 1,158 ,188 ,335 6,158 ,000

Inactive Style 1,064 ,156 ,359 6,807 ,000

Independent Style -,582 ,158 -,174 -3,695 ,000

Burnout From Studying ,570 ,168 ,162 3,386 ,001

Step 5

Burnout from Studying 1,003 ,194 ,290 5,176 ,000

Inactive Style ,905 ,164 ,305 5,503 ,000

Independent Style -542 156 -162 -3,474 ,001

Burnout from family ,649 ,168 ,185 3,854 ,000

Participant Style -,462 ,167 -,147 -2,765 ,006

Step 6

Burnout from Studying 1,107 ,197 ,320 5,614 ,000

Inactive Style ,916 ,163 ,309 5,615 ,000

Independent Style -,536 ,155 -,160 -3,466 ,001

Burnout from family ,727 ,170 ,207 4,271 ,000

Participant Style -,448 ,166 -,142 -2,705 ,007

Need to Rest and Time for Fun -,625 ,270 -,109 -2,316 ,021

In the first step of the regression analysis, it was seen that study burnout explains 37 % of academic procrastination (R2=.37, adjusted R2=.37, F (1, 239) =143,005, p<.05). In the second step, it was seen that inactive style also got in the regression equality and it contributed to explained-variance in 11 % level (R2=.48, A R2=.11, adjusted R2 =.48, F (1, 238)=50,236, p<.05). In the third step, independent style got in regression equality and 3 % of it contributed to explained-variance (R2=.51, AR2=.03, adjusted R2 =.50, F (1, 237) =12,993, p<.05). In the fourth step, burnout from family got in regression equality and only 2 % of it contributed to explained-variance (R2=.53, AR2=.02, adjusted R2 =.52, F(1, 236)=11,462, p<.05). In the fifth step, participation style got in regression equality and only 2 % of it contributed to explained-variance (R2=.55, AR2=.02, adjusted R2 =.54, F (1, 235) =7,646, p<.05). In the sixth step, need to rest and time for fun got in regression equality and only 1% of it contributed to explained-variance (R2=.56, AR2=.01, adjusted R2 =.55, F(1, 234)=5,362, p<.05). According to the standardized coefficients, the most relatively important variables is burnout from studying (0=.320) and inactive style (fl=.309) for the prediction of academic procrastination.

4. Discussion

The aim of the survey is to analyze whether school burnout conditions and learning styles predict the academic procrastination in high school students or not. Besides considering the gender it is reviewed whether academic procrastination tendency differs or not.

As a result of these analyzes it is seen that there is a positive relation between academic procrastination and school burnout or academic burnout. This finding matches with the study of Akin (2012). Self-handicapping was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion, lowered personal accomplishment, and depersonalization. A structural equation model fit the data well and accounted for 20% of the variance in emotional exhaustion, 14% in lowered personal accomplishment, and 10% in depersonalization. Also in many studies, the symptoms of academic burnout cause exhaustion, burnout, making fun of homework, careless behavior and attitude, procrastination, depersonalization, feeling incapable as a student, lack of efficiency (Zhang, Gan and Cham, 2007; Aypay and Eryilmaz, 2010). It is stated that students who have performance problems generally perceive class as threatening and avoid competing (Elliot and Harackiewicz, 1996). In addition it is inferred that these students give up the studies they carry on easily since they cannot get help and in order not to seem unsuccessful (Middleton and Midgley, 1997).

As a finding of the survey it is seen that all the sub dimensions of academic burnout have a high correlation with academic procrastination. Particularly highly positive significances have been found between procrastination and study burnout, burnout caused by the family and boredom with teacher's behavior. Solomon and Rothblum (1984), in a survey that they took with university students, state that 46% of the students in homework/project writing, 30% doing their reading homework weekly, 28% preparing for the exams, 23% attending the courses regularly, and 11% in administrative acts (paying the tuition, returning to the library) show the procrastination attitude. Due to the fact that high school students in our country have to deal both with academic studies and preparation for the university exam creates a serious pressure on them at a high level. Although it seems an unhealthy application to utilize academic procrastination as a defensive mechanism, for teenagers who have to overcome the burnout caused by this problem, it may be accepted as a creative adaptation.

In addition findings show that the level of the academic procrastination tendency is higher in female students compared to male students and it is believed that the difference between them is significant. In literature it is seen that there are different results along with collateral studies (Washington, 2004). The studies on Turkish culture report that female students who have a high education level tend to show success, independent and autonomous attitudes in an amount equal to male students (Karakitapoglu and Imamoglu, 2002). It can be said that female students do not feel to show themselves more hardworking and talented behaving properly for the traditional gender role and therefore they act accordingly. So this condition explains why females show the procrastination behavior more than males.

In the analyzes it is seen that there is a positive relation between academic procrastination and inactive style but there is a negative relation between academic procrastination and independent style, dependent style, competitive style, participant style. Students who are passive in the classroom, daydream, find the activities boring, and are not able to concentrate have an inactive learning style. Also it is seen that students who have this style have academic procrastination. Students who want teachers that explain what is expected, define how to do the homework that has been assigned in details, write the summary of the course and important notes on the board, students who write down any word that the teacher speak up and do the homework exactly the same as the teacher described have a dependent learning style.

The students who choose to do the homework alone, are able to learn many subjects individually, can make their own ideas about the subjects, have ideas on how to do the lessons, make researches about interesting issues and prefer to study by oneself in classroom projects have an independent learning style (Kofak, 2007). It is seen that students that have these two styles show academic procrastination less.

Students that fulfill the things they are asked to do in the classroom, respect joining the lesson, find the classroom activities interesting, do the homework before the deadline and prefer to sit in the front rows have a participant learning style. Students who compete with others in order to be successful and take good grades, like to answer and solve problems before everyone and want to be one of the best students in the classroom have a competitive learning style (Kofak, 2007). The students who have these two styles show procrastination attitude less. Former studies on the issue show that academic procrastination tendency is related to ineffective learning strategies, problems on concentration, low grade average, boredom, trouble with doing homework, unplanned study habit, unreasonable excuses, worry, fear of failure, low self efficiency, low self control and being unable to put off satisfaction (Chissom and Iran-Nejad, 1992; Ferrari and Beck, 1999; Lay, 1986; Senecal and ark, 1995). Leaving the responsibility to the last moment overstrain the students who have a high procrastination level. The habit of studying late hours under the pressure of time may cause sleeplessness, sleeping less and concentration problems. According to the studies of Uzuntiryaki, Bilgin and Geban (2002) done with 1. and 2. grade high school students independent, participant and cooperative learning styles are effective in students' success.

According to the results of the last regression analysis, the created model explains 56% of the total variance in academic procrastination tendency. It is seen that among these variables study burnout and inactive style are important predictors of academic procrastination tendency. In summary considering the findings obtained from the research offers below can be made:

Considering the fact that, students' learning styles are able to explain their academic procrastinations it is obvious that there is need for having students gain different learning styles. Grasha (1972) mentions that it is required to choose teaching techniques appropriate to the particular learning styles in order to make a difference in students' learning styles. Therefore it is obvious that it will be effective to use cooperative teaching technique for the students whose cooperative and participant learning styles are weak and well structured independent homework studies will encourage them to develop their independent learning styles.

Besides, considering the fact that students' burnout is able to predict their academic procrastination tendency, firstly it is necessary to handle the variables involved in educational environment. Especially for the conditions of study burnout, burnout caused by the family and insufficient rest and fun, educationalists have important roles in conducting both educational and personal counseling at school. Also in many studies it is stated that the teacher's support is much more effective than the one received from family or friends. In the studies of Özer, Genftanirim and Ergene (2011) it is determined that the teacher's support is significantly related to leaving school and the students who feel this support as little or at a medium level are tend to leave school more. It is important for teachers to appraise students all of their education life, giving them positive feedbacks and info-based support, so that they will not have emotional burnout and lose faith in their education. Subsequently, counselors and teachers at school have important roles in increasing the students' academic success and decreasing procrastination tendency.


Akbay, S.E.(2009). Cinsiyete Göre Üniversite Ögrencilerinde Akademik Erteleme Davrani§i:Akademik Güdülenme,Akademik Özyeterlik ve Akademik Yükleme Stillerinin Rolü. Yayinlanmami§ Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Mersin Üniversitesi, Mersin.

Akin, A. (2012),"Self-handicapping and burnout" ,Psychological Reports ,Vol. 1101 ,pp. 187 - 196.

Aypay, A. (2012). Ortaögretim ögrencileri i§in okul tükenmi§ligi öl§egi (OOTÖ). Kuram ve Uygulamada Egitim Bilimleri, 12 (2), 773-788.

Aypay, A. ve Eryilmaz, A. (2011). Lise Ögrencilerinin Derse Katilmaya Motive Olmalari ile Okul Tükenmi§ligi Arasindaki ili§kinin incelenmesi. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 21, 26-44.

Balkis, M. ve Duru, E. (2010). Akademik Erteleme Egilimi, Akademik Ba§ari ili§kisinde Genel ve Performans Benlik Saygisinin Rolü, Pamukkale Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 27, 159-170.

Büyüköztürk, §. (2004). Veri analizi el kitabi (4. Baski). Ankara: Pegem A Yayincilik.

Chissom, B. ve Iran-Nejad, A. (1992). Development of an instrument to assess learning strategies. Psychological Reports, 71, 1001-1002.

Cushman,S., West, R. (2006). Precursors to College Student Burnout: Developing a Typology of Understanding. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication 7 (1), 23-31.

Qakici, Q. D. (2003). Lise ve üniversite ögrencilerinde genel erteleme ve akademik erteleme davraniginin incelenmesi. Yayinlanmami§ Yüksek Lisans Tezi, Ankara Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Qam, O. (1991). Hemgirelerde Tükenmiglik ve Qegitli Degigkenlere Göre incelenmesi. Yayinlanmami§ Doktora Tezi. Ege Üniversitesi, izmir.

Davis, B.G. (1993). Tools for teaching (1. Edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Divaris K., Polychronopoulou A., Taoufik K.(2012). Stress And Burnout in Postgraduate Dental Education. European Journal of Dental Education. 16 (1): 35-42.

Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., Harper, W., Massie, F. S., Jr, Power, D. V., Eacker, A., et al. (2009). The learning environment and medical student burnout: A multicentre study. Medical Education, 43, 274-282.

Elliot, A. J., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Approach and avoidance achievement goals and intrinsic motivation: A mediational analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70, 461-475.

Ellis, A., & Knaus, W. J. (1977). Overcoming procrastination. New York: Signet Books.

Esteve, E. B. (2008). Well-being and performance in academic settings. The predicting role of self-efficacy. Dissertation, Universitat Jaume I, Spain.

Ferrari, J.R. ve Beck, B. (1999). Affective responses before and after fraudulent excuses by academic procrastinators. Education, 118, 529-537

Gencel Evin,i.(2007).''Kolb'un Deneyimsel Ögrenme Kuramina Dayali Ögrenme Stilleri Envarteri III'ü Türk§eye Uyarlama Qali§masi''.9(2),D.E.Ü.Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü Dergisi,izmir,,120-140.

Grasha, F. A. (1972). Observations on Relating Teaching Goals to Students Response Styles and Classroom Methods. American Psychologist. 27,144- 147.

Grasha, A. F. (2002). Teaching with style. San Bernadino: Alliance Publishers

Grecco, P.R., (1984). A cognitive-behavioral assessment of problematic academic procrastination: development of a procrastination self-statement inventory. Unpublished PHD, California School of Professional Psychology - Fresno.

Kagan, M. (2009). Üniversite Ögrencilerinde Akademik Erteleme Davrani§ini A§iklayan Degi§kenlerin Belirlenmesi. Ankara Üniversitesi Egitim Bilimleri Fakültesi Dergisi, 42 (2) 113-128.

Karakitapoglu-Aygün, Z. ve Imamoglu, O. E. (2002). Value domains of Turkish adults and university students, The Journal of Social psychology, 142 (3), 333-351.

Kandemir, M. (2010). Akademik erteleme davranisini agtklaytct bir model. Yayinlanmamis Doktora Tezi, Gazi Üniversitesi, Ankara.

Ko§ak, T. (2007). ilkögretim 6,7,8. sinif ögrencilerinin Ögrenme Stilleri ve Akademik Ba§ari Arasindaki ili§kinin incelenmesi. (Gaziantep ili Merkez il§eleri Örnegi), Yayinlanmami§ Yüksel Lisans Tezi, Gaziantep Üniversitesi, Gaziantep.

Kutsal, D., Bilge, F. (2012). Lise Ögrencilerinin Tükenmi§lik ve Sosyal Destek Düzeyleri, Egitim ve Bilim, 37 (16) 283-297.

Mccranie, E. & Brandsma, J. M. (1988). Personality antecedents of burnout among middle aged physicians. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 14 (1), 30-36.

Lay, C. H. (1986). At last, my research article on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 20, 474-495.

Maslach, C., & Jackson, S.E. (1981). The measurement of experienced burnout. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 2, 99-113.

McCarthy, M. E., Pretty, G. M., & Catano, V. (1990). Psychological sense of community and student burnout. Journal of College Student Development, 31, 211-216.

Middleton, M., & Midgley, C. (1997). Avoiding the demonstration of lack of ability: An under-explored aspect of goal theory. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 710-718.

Milgram, N., Mey-Tal, G. ve Levison, Y. (1998). Procrastination, generalized or specific, in college students and their parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 25 (2), 297-316.

Özbay, M. (2006). Türkge özel ögretim yöntemleri I. Ankara: Öncü Kitapevi.

Özer, A., Gen9tanirim, D. ve Ergene, T. (2011). Türk Lise Ögrencilerinde Okul Terkinin Yordanmasi: Araci ve Etkile§im Degi§kenleri ile Bir Model Testi. Egitim ve Bilim, 36 (161), 302-317.

Özer, A., Altun, E. (2011). Üniversite Ögrencilerinin Akademik Erteleme Nedenleri. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Egitim Fakültesi Dergisi, 11 (21) 45 - 72.

Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J. & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators.

Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33, 387-394.

Senecal, C., Koestner, R., ve Vallerand, R. J. (1995). Self-regulation and academic procrastination. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 607-619.

Solomon, L., & Rothblum, E. (1984). Academic procrastination: Frequency and cognitive-behavioral correlates. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 31, 503-509.

§entürk ,F. & Yildiz ikikarde§, N.(2011). Ögrenme ve Ögretme Stillerinin 7. Sinif Ögrencilerinin Matematik Ba§arisi Üzerine Etkisi. Necatibey Egitim Fakültesi Elektronik Fen ve Matematik Egitimi Dergisi (EFMED) 5 (1) 250-276.

§im§ek, A. (2006). Ogrenme Bi§imi. Kuzgun,Y., Deryakulu, D. (Eds.), Egitimde bireysel Farkliliklar. (2. Baski). Ankara: Nobel Yayin Dagitim.

Uzuntiryaki, E., Bilgin, i., and Geban, O. (2003). The Effect of Learning Styles on High School Students' Achievement and Attitudes in Chemistry. National Association Research Science Teaching, Philedelphia, Pennsylvania.

Washington, Jene A. (2004) The relationship between procrastination and depression among graduate and professional students across academic programs: Implications for counseling, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Texas Southern University, Texas.

Yang, H.-J., & Farn, C. K. (2005). An investigation the factors affecting MIS student burnout in technical-vocational college. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 917-932.

Yildirim, i. ve Ergene, T. (2003). Lise son sinif ogrencilerinin akademik ba§anlannin yordayicisi olarak sinav kaygisi, boyun egici davrani§lar ve sosyal destek. Hacettepe Universitesi Egitim Fakultesi Dergisi, 25, 224-234.

Zhang, Y., Gan, Y., & Cham, H. (2007). Perfectionism, academic burnout and engagement chinese college students: A structural equation modeling analysis. Personality And Individual Differences, 43, 1529-1540.