Scholarly article on topic 'Human cytomegalovirus gB genotype distribution among HIV infected patients from Pretoria'

Human cytomegalovirus gB genotype distribution among HIV infected patients from Pretoria Academic research paper on "Clinical medicine"

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Academic research paper on topic "Human cytomegalovirus gB genotype distribution among HIV infected patients from Pretoria"

Funding: S-PC11BF002 project (Saiotek, Department of Industry, Basque Government) and EHU13/04 (University of Basque Country, UPV/EHU).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1347 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.018

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HlV) ll

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Performance and cost-effectiveness of immunochromatography based rapid diagnostic test (RDT) kits in diagnosis of dengue infection in resource limited set up

S. Mitra1-*, R. Choudhari1, H.Nori1, A.P. Prabhakar1, O.Abraham2, V.Jeyaseelan1, A.M. Abraham1, J.A. Jude1, J. Muliyil1

1 Christian Medical College, Vellore, Vellore, India

2 Christian Medical College, Vellore, India

Background: Dengue infection occurs among more than 50 million annually. In India, the case fatality rate is up to 3-5%. Early diagnosis is crucial to the clinical care. However the currently recommended diagnostic tests by WHO is costly, time consuming, labor and technologically demanding which may not be available in the resource limited set up where the large burden of dengue related illness occur.

This study evaluated the role of immunochromatographic method based rapid diagnostic test kits (RDT) and cost-effectiveness for the diagnosis of acute dengue infection.

Methods & Materials: 281 adult patients presenting to Christian Medical College, Vellore, India with community acquired acute febrile illness between September 2012 to February 2013 were recruited for the study. The patients with other proven etiology were used as negative control. 132 cases of dengue and 149 cases of non-dengue infection were enrolled. The RDTs tested from 4 manufacturers were Panbio, SD, J.Mitra and Reckon. SPSS version 16.0.1 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: Performance of the RDTs based on IgM: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of Panbio, SD, Reckon and J.Mitra. The inter-rater kappa agreement between Panbio with SD duo of 0.54 was found to be moderate.

Performance of the RDTs based on NS1 detection: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the SD, Reckon, and J.Mitra. The inter-rater kappa agreement between SD with Reckon of 0.79 was found to be best and substantial.

Combination of RDTs: the best sensitivity of 99.2% was achieved by testing Panbio and SD in parallel. The best specificity of 99.9% and 100% respectively was obtained when Reckon with Panbio or SD was performed in series.

None of the RDTs could not adequately differentiate between acute primary and secondary dengue.

Conclusion: In the region of high dengue endemicity, Panbio RDT alone is highly sensitive, cost effective (~13.6 USD), easier to perform and shorter turnover time makes it a test of choice in resource limited set up during an outbreak season.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1348

Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.019

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HlV) ll

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Hepatitis C viral infection in our region

E. Dimitrovska

CrossMark

Clinical Hospital, Bitola, Macedonia

Background: To present the basic characteristics of Hepatitis C viral infection (HCVi) in the region of Bitola, Republic of Macedonia, in the period from October 2010 to October 2013.

Methods & Materials: Past medical history, epidemiological data, standard biochemical analyses, Elisa antibodies, PCR, and liver biopsy, were used in order to set the diagnoses. 74 patients had been analyzed:49 male (66.22%) and 25 female (33.78%). According to age, the patients were between 18 and 65 years old. All of them were from the urban area. 52 patients (70%) were intravenous drug abusers.

Results: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1 was diagnosed in 23 patients (31%), and HCV genotype 3 in 51 patients (69%). The patients were treated with Peg-interferon alfa 2-a/Ribavirine under current standards (180 mcg once weekly/1200 mg daily), during 24 or 48 weeks. Therapy was completed in 49 patients (66%). In 6 patients (8%) therapy was not completed due to the side effects (generalized urticaria, pancitopaenia, colon neoplasm), and 19 patients (26%) are still receiving therapy. SVR were documented in all of the patients.

Conclusion: Accordding to sex, most of the patients were male: 49 (66.22%). Most of the patients were intravenous drug abusers: 52 (70%). According to age, most of the patients were between 18 and 30 years old: 58 (78%). HCVi became a great problem in our region in the recent years, especially among the young population and intravenous drug abusers.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1349 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.020

Session: Virology and Viral lnfections (Non-HlV) ll

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

CrossMark

Human cytomegalovirus gB genotype distribution among HIV infected patients from Pretoria

S.S. Baloyi1-*, S. Selabe2, T. Kyaw2

1 University of Llmpopo, Pretoria, South Africa

2 University of Llmpopo/National Health Laboratory Service, Pretoria, South Africa

Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a double stranded DNA virus in the Herpesviridae family latently infecting 60-100% of world population. A severe HCMV disease is associated with congenital infection and immunosuppression. The HCMV major envelope glycoprotein gB is involved in the host cell entry,

cell-to-cell transmission and fusion of infected cells. The gB glycoprotein is an important target for both humoral and cellular immune responses and included in the HCMV vaccine development. HCMV gB gene is classified into four genotypes; namely genotype 1, 2, 3 and 4. All gB genotypes were implicated in the disease severity of transplant recipients and HIV infected patients.

Aim: To analyse the gene profile and construct the phyloge-netic tree of HCMV gB gene sequences obtained from HIV infected patients who were experiencing HCMV viraemia to document the circulating HCMV gB genotypes in South Africa.

Methods & Materials: Nested PCR method targeting variable region of gB gene was developed and gB gene sequences were amplified from twenty archived plasma samples of HCMV viraemic HIV infected patients. Analysis of nucleotide sequences were performed by using Chromas-Pro software programme and phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing with standard sequences from Genbank, NCBI.

Results: The gB2 genotype was detected in 35% (7/20) of patients and only 15% (3/20) represents gB1. The gB3 and gB4 genotypes were identified among 20% (4/20) and 30% (6/20) of patients respectively. All gB gene sequences obtained from study participants displayed 98%-100% similarity with laboratory strains AD 169 and Towne as well as other reference sequences obtained from clinical cases. All participants were severely immunosuppressed and their mean CD4+ T-cell counts was 32 cells/^l.

Conclusion: All four gB genotypes circulate in the study population and gB 2 genotype is a dominant genotype. High sequence similarity between study samples and vaccine strain indicates that our population will have positive response should the HCMV gB vaccine becomes available in South Africa.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1350 Type: Poster Presentation

emergency department. In physical examination she had altered consciousness, aphasia and neck stiffness. It was learnt that her neighbour had a zona infection recently but she did not remember exact time. Her WBC level was 9800 K/uL, CRP was 2,38 mg/dL (0-0,8), procalcitonin was 0,18ng/mL (0,5-2,0). CSF pressure was mildly elevated; there was 400 leukocyte/mm3 with lymphocyte predominance. CSF glucose level was 47 mg/dL and protein level was 151 mg/dL (15-45), at the same time her blood glucose level was 114 mg/dL. Intravenous ceftriaxone2 x 2 gr and acyclovir 3 x 10 mg/kg/day were started. She became conscious on the first day of the treatment. On the third day she had visual hallucinations and disarthria, she underwent second spinal tap. The CSF pressure was mildly elevated, glucose was 89 mg/dl (blood glucose level was 114 mg/dL) and protein was 271 mg/dL. There were 520 leukocyte/mm3. The patient had anxiety and was disoriented; on the follow up she became better. VZV PCR was reported as positive in the CSF sample that was sent to an outside laboratory to investigate viral pathogens. Acyclovir was stopped on the 14th day. She had a complaint of fast speaking and emotional lability in the follow-up controls for 3 months.

Conclusion: Less common causes of viral encephalitis include VZV, with an incidence of 1 in 2000 infected persons. Acyclovir was recommended for but duration of therapy was not standart in the literature.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2014.03.1351 Type: Poster Presentation

Final Abstract Number: 64.022

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HIV) II

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

CrossMark

Final Abstract Number: 64.021

Session: Virology and Viral Infections (Non-HIV) II

Date: Saturday, April 5,2014

Time: 12:45-14:15

Room: Ballroom

Varicella zoster virus encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman

G.R. Yilmaz1, T. Guven2, A. Demirturk2, G. Korukluoglu3, Z. KocakTufan2, R. Guner2, M. Tasyaran2-*

1 Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

2 Yildirim Beyazit University, Ankara Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey

3 Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency, Ankara, Turkey

Background: Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) may cause many central nervous system diseases such as cerebellar ataxia, myelitis, meningitis or encephalitis. The information regarding clinical features of VZV encephalitis is limited.

Methods & Materials: A 52 year old female patient present with fever and altered consciousness.

Results: She had high fever and nausea for 4 days and had been admitted to a hospital with these complaints before, second generation cephalosporin had been administered for upper respiratory tract infection. Third days of this therapy, aphasia, inability to communication and lethagy developed. She was admitted to our

CrossMark

Seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease in Tanzania

D.P. Mdetele *, C. Kassanga

Sokoine University of agriculture, Morogorp, Tanzania, United Republic of

Background: Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) in Tanzania is a major obstacle to the development of the national livestock industry because of its adverse effect in livestock production and trade of animal and animal products into lucrative export market.

The study aimed at documenting the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in the two different ecosystem (Wildlife-livestock interface areas and non interface areas) where pastoral and Agropastoral mode of livestock rearing is predominant in Tanzania.

Methods & Materials: A cross sectional study was conducted on Serengeti ecosystem (Wildlife-livestock Interface) and Central part ofTanzania (Non interface) to determine the prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in Serengeti, Bunda, Kongwa and Iramba districts.

Seroprevalence investigation was performed using 3 ABC-ELISA technique.

Results: The results showed that the overall prevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) was 66.25% (265/400). Significantly higher prevalence was recorded in wildlifelivestock-interface area 71.5% (143/200) compared to non interface area 61% (122/200) (x2 = 4.9308, P = 0.0264). However district wise higher prevalence was recorded in Kongwa district 89% (89/100), Serengeti 78% (78/100), Bunda 65% (65/100) and Iramba 33% (33/100) respec-