Scholarly article on topic 'Powerline Communication (PLC) on HVDC Bus in a Renewable Energy System'

Powerline Communication (PLC) on HVDC Bus in a Renewable Energy System Academic research paper on "Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering"

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{PLC / "HVDC Bus" / Dependability / "Smart DC-DC converters" / "Renewable energy."}

Abstract of research paper on Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, author of scientific article — The Vinh Nguyen, Pierre Petit, Fabrice Maufay, Michel Aillerie, Jean-Pierre Charles

Abstract The management of the distribution of electrical energy generated from renewable sources such as solar and wind is a technology keylock to improve the performance and the stability of the overall energy transfer processes. Thus, researches on power lines used as communication supports are very promising for managing small and medium powered generator systems, which are not initially designed in a dependability approach. Additionally, this new possibilities of management allows improving the performance and the stability in the overall energy transfer process. The present study is particularly orientated to distributed architecture for managing parallel photovoltaic and/or wind sensors connected to high voltage DC (HVDC) bus and communication using power-line as communication vector (PLC). The PLC system using the modulation technique, allows the monitoring and information transfer concerning the local delivered powers and their variations, together with all information (temperature, shading area,…) necessary to optimize the energy production. Then, the aim of this work is the study of PLC solutions designed for working with HVDC bus especially for its integration in a global renewable energy system. The so- developed PLC circuits will be thus considered as interfaces between smart DC-DC converters and the HVDC bus. They will be based on a hardware part constituted by a transceiver integrating a modulation-demodulation interface with the HVDC bus and a signal processor able to operate the treatment of various information exchanged from and to the input sensors.

Academic research paper on topic "Powerline Communication (PLC) on HVDC Bus in a Renewable Energy System"

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ScienceDirect

Energy Procedía 36 (2013) 657 - 666

TerraGreen 13 International Conference 2013 - Advancements in Renewable Energy

and Clean Environment

Powerline communication (PLC) on HVDC bus in a renewable energy system

The Vinh Nguyen , Pierre Petit, Fabrice Maufay, Michel Aillerie, and Jean-Pierre

Charles

Lorraine University, LMOPS-EA 4423, 57070 Metz, France _Supelec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz, France_

Abstract

The management of the distribution of electrical energy generated from renewable sources such as solar and wind is a technology keylock to improve the performance and the stability of the overall energy transfer processes. Thus, researches on power lines used as communication supports are very promising for managing small and medium powered generator systems, which are not initially designed in a dependability approach. Additionally, this new possibilities of management allows improving the performance and the stability in the overall energy transfer process.

The present study is particularly orientated to distributed architecture for managing parallel photovoltaic and/or wind sensors connected to high voltage DC (HVDC) bus and communication using power-line as communication vector (PLC). The PLC system using the modulation technique, allows the monitoring and information transfer concerning the local delivered powers and their variations, together with all information (temperature, shading area,...) necessary to optimize the energy production. Then, the aim of this work is the study of PLC solutions designed for working with HVDC bus especially for its integration in a global renewable energy system. The so-developed PLC circuits will be thus considered as interfaces between smart DC-DC converters and the HVDC bus. They will be based on a hardware part constituted by a transceiver integrating a modulation-demodulation interface with the HVDC bus and a signal processor able to operate the treatment of various information exchanged from and to the input sensors.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the TerraGreen Academy Keywords: PLC, HVDC Bus, dependability, smart DC-DC converters, renewable energy.

1. Introduction

Nowadays, all countries improve their electrical systems and all around the world, the production of electric energy must satisfy well-defined quality trends. National and international laws and rules regulate

* Also at Lorraine University, IUT de Thionville-Yutz, 57970 Yutz; Tel.: +33-387-378-565; fax: +33-387-378-559 E-mail address: vinhnt@qui.edu.vn, aillerie@metz.supelec.fr

1876-6102 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the TerraGreen Academy

doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2013.07.076

these quality trends. One way of improvement of the energy production is introducing and building smart grids for power systems. Installing smart grids, micro grids and implementing other state of the art power systems into electrical systems definitely improve their quality. It is clear that, when sustainable energy context is concerned, we need to take into account renewable energy sources, mini power plants, and household-size power plants next to greater size basic power plants.

Nomenclature

C Capacitors (nF)

D Diodes

HVDC High Voltage Direct Current

L Inductors (mH)

M MOSFET switch

Np, Ns Principal and secondary inductors (|H)

MPPT Maximum Power Point Tracker

PIC Peripheral Interface Controller

PLC Power Line Communication

R Resistors (Q)

Mentioning an example, figure 1 shows the projections of renewable energy sources that will be available in the 27 European Member States in 2020 as published in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans Reports, NREAPs [1]. According to the NREAPs, in 2020, more than one third of our electricity consumption will come from different renewable energy sources according of the flowchart of Fig. 1. The share of renewable energy sources in electricity is forecasted to increase from 14.9% in 2005 to 34.3% in 2020. According to the national RES industry roadmaps, renewable electricity (RES-E) can reach a higher share of 42.3% electricity consumption in 2020.

■ Hydro

■ Biomass

■ PV

■ CSP

■ Wind onshore

■ Wind offshore Geothermal Ocean

Conventional Energy Source

Fig. 1. The chart of renewable energy sources installed in 2020 the European Community into the civil according to the NREAPs[1].

New challenges will appear considering the increase of the variety of energy sources, as well as their technology, their geo-location and dispersion. New challenges must be solved by electrical engineers and other professionals, as for example, how these small power plants are connected to a central power system, assuming a maximum power delivered by the various sensors or sources.

One possible response to these challenges can be the solution proposed in Fig. 2. In this figure, we present a power supply system composed with various sources such as solar cells with different technologies and wind turbines interconnected by a high voltage DC bus assuming a small wire section and a global relative low cost architecture. [2]. This solution implies that the sources deliver energy through the bus HVDC via step-up DC-DC converters. In case of AC distribution, a central DC-AC inverter interfaces the HVDC bus to the grid. Thus, the HVDC system is designed to replace both traditional medium-voltage (MV) overhead line branches and low-voltage AC distribution by a highvoltage DC distribution system. It is to be of note that in this distributed configuration, maximum power point trackers (MPPT) are integrated in each individual converter. Additionally, as these MPPTs track the individual power of each source, the global efficiency of the system will be higher than in case of central architecture.

Fig. 2. Schematic of a parallel structure of high voltage DC bus. Communication between modules and inverters made

by common carriers.

Currently, in numerous industrial domains, HVDC systems are intensively studied and developed for changing the electric distribution from an AC distribution system to a DC one. Most of the present

inverter appliances as well as distributed electricity generation and storage use DC. In addition, the main advantage of DC for the smart grid is that no synchronization is required for distributed generation. With the HVDC system, the quality of the AC low-voltage supply at the grid AC can be improved with a customer inverter, and it is possible to shorten and decrease the number of the branches of the MV grid consisting of overhead lines by replacing those with underground low-voltage cables. It results directly in a decreased amount of possible faults in the MV grid. Thus, the quality and reliability of the electricity distribution can be improved, and the costs caused by outages reduced.

In recent years, some new energy power supply concepts have been introduced. One of these results or concepts newly introduced in renewable energy systems is the smart grid. The smart grid integrates communication and power supply networks in one i.e., it contains some smart and useful functions from communication and power source networks. These functions can be combined resulting in a complex picture of the smart grid output and thus, it seems evident that both communication functions and expansions of smart grids have required new approach in the field of power quality.

In order to monitor, measure and continuously check the electrical grid, a possible communication solution in a smart system is the use of a power line communication (PLC) subsystem. PLC is a technology that employs the infrastructure of electrical power distributed system as communication medium. PLC technology could provide the consumer with a spectrum of services such as internet, home entertainment, home automation, and enable the electricity supply authority to efficiently manage their distribution networks in a competitive manner. On the other hand, there are some difficulties and disadvantages that hinder using PLC as universal communication system. Indeed, in addition to the interference problem created the radiation from power lines, PLC systems suffer from the noise created by loads and devices connected to the power line network [3], which imposes restrictions on the available bandwidth.

The HVDC bus mainly defines the structure and dimensions of the proposed communication architecture when the communication is implemented with PLC. Thus, the structure and dimensions of the HVDC bus, link to a physical a geographic area bring challenges to PLC, such as the reliable communication range for as example, the determination of the PLC repeater power inserted on the bus. In addition, converters in the bus generate harmonics and interferences to the channel. These, combined with the challenges among the implemented functions in the grid, set the boundary conditions and the minimum requirements for PLC. The target in this paper is to implement novel PLC-based network architecture for the HVDC bus system that meets all these requirements.

Thus, we can summarize the main objectives in developing distribution systems and pursuing for smart grids are the cost efficiency and the reliability of the electricity distribution. Ubiquitous communication plays a key role in smart grids and the HVDC concept presents a novel approach to implement a smart grid.

In this paper we present a simple hardware implementation based on the integration in the smart DC-DC converters of a Peripheral Interface Controller (PIC) microcontroller assuming the functions of tracker and PLC controller. The system is suitable for data communications within a local power network area, such as remote automatic meter reading, fire and security alarm control, etc. The system is built using digital modulation [4] to reduce the complexity of the overall DC-DC converter-PLC controller. The PLC system is connected to power lines of the HVDC bus using proper interfacing circuits, which are used to provide electrical isolation and impedance adaptation between the power DC-DC conversion part of the converter and the power line network. This means that the PLC systems can be considered as an additional part of each converter, without modification of its basic structure and yielding to a great reduction in the cost of the overall system.

2. Principle of PLC system on HVDC bus for renewable energy generator

The structure of a complete energy production generator on an intermediate HVDC bus with the proposed PLC-based network is illustrated in Fig. 2 with the consideration of AC distribution grid as final element. The input DC voltage is converted and step-up to high-voltage DC and distributed to inverter through the HVDC bus.

As described above, the role of a PLC system in a renewable energy generator is to control and transmit to a central control system, information coming from the sensors, drive the sensors from information return back from the control system and assume the communication interface with the HVDC bus, i.e. the energy transmission lines. Special attention has to be taken due to the fact that the energy lines may contain parasitic signals under pulse forms that possibly induce noise at the receiver side [5-8]. Due to these parasitic signals on the HVDC bus, the base-band transmission of data is inefficient and hence one of the digital modulation techniques needs to be used to obtain immune data form and to guarantee safe transmission process. A block diagram of a possible PLC solution is shown in Figs. 3.a and 3.b.

The upper part of this block diagram is related to the transmitter. In this part, a controller assumes the information generation and synchronization. A modulator powered by an oscillator then modulates the signal. The modulated signal is finally amplified before injection, via an interfacing circuit, on the HVDC bus. The lower part of the block diagrams of Fig. 3 concerns the receiver that has to perform inverse operations than those done by the transmitter. For that, just behind the interfacing circuit a demodulator operates to transfer the demodulated information to the controller. It is to be of note that the controller can also assume the function of maximum power point tracker in the energy production function of the generator.

Carrier frequency Osscillator

PIC Microcontroller

Modulation -> Power Amplifier -►

Powerline Network

a) Transmitter

Powerline Interfacing Demodulation PIC

Network w circuit w r Micro-controller

b) Receiver

Fig. 3. Block diagram of the proposed PLC for (a) Transmitter and (b) Receiver.

3. Design of PLC system on HVDC bus for renewable energy generator

Taking into account the previous presented study and the chosen approach, we have developed a PLC system on HVDC bus for renewable energy generator base on a microcontroller PIC16F876 also used for

the MPPT of the step-up DC-DC converter. In the present study, the value of the HVDC bus voltage is considered as equal to 400V.

The wiring of the microcontroller and a detail of the various elements are presented, for clarity, separately for the transmission and reception functions in Fig. 4.a and 4.b, respectively. The modulator/demodulator circuits were designed simple and trusted, in which the NE555 performs: the modulation of two signals from the pin RC6/TX/CK of PIC and signal frequency carrier to create the signal controller on the PLC switch MOSFET M. The comparator converts data levels to other levels where logic HIGH is greater than 5V and logic LOW is less than 0V. The modulated signal is transmitted (or received) to (from) the power-line by an interfacing circuit, which role is to isolate the high voltage of the HVDC bus with the low voltage environment of the PLC. The suggested interfacing circuit is also detailed in Figs. 4.a and 4.b.

In the proposed PLC emitter part, a level converter based on an operational amplifier, which works as a simple comparator is used to convert data levels between the PIC and the modulator. To minimize the effect of distortion, the selected carrier frequency (fc) has to be constant and stable. Therefore, an oscillator was built using a NE555 voltage controlled oscillator to produce a rectangular waveform with a frequency of 50kHz. The amplification of the signal was designed using a BUZ11 transistor, usually used for low voltage - high speed applications, especially in inductive circuits. The interfacing circuit consists of a forward-converter transformer where both primary and secondary windings conduct simultaneously with opposing magneto motive force along the mutual flux path. The difference of the magneto motive force is responsible for maintaining the magnetizing flux in the core. When primary winding current is interrupted by switching off the switch, M the dotted ends of the windings develop negative potential to oppose the interruption of current blocking the diode, D and thus, interrupting the conduction. To reduce the current delivered by the HVDC bus in the secondary coil, thus avoiding possible saturation we added, Fig. 4.a, a self Ls and a capacitor C4 in the interfacing circuit.

Fig. 4. Implementation of the microcontroller for (a) Transmitter and (b) Receiver parts of the PLC system.

In the proposed PLC receiver part, the received signal enters first to the demodulator, which recovers the original data. An interfacing circuit similar to the interfacing circuit used to isolate the receiver from the 400V DC environment by a circuit Ri, Ci and combine with the circuit filter R2, L2, C2.

Evaluation of any communication technology is only relevant in the context of the operating environment. This seemingly obvious point, frequently bypassed in textbook analysis, cannot be overlooked in the field of power line communications. We begin by examining three common assumptions which must be modified in order to be applicable to power line analysis. The majority of engineering texts rely heavily on the principle of superposition. Unfortunately, the conditions required for superposition to be applicable (i.e., linearity and time invariance) are not met for the majority of power line networks. One cause of nonlinearity is when a packet's signal voltage adds to the DC line voltage and causes power supply switching electronic to turn on and off at the packet carrier frequency. Another area of confusion arises from the common view that wiring capacitance dominates signal propagation effects. This simplified view is rooted in assumptions, which do not accurately reflect power-wiring environments. While it is true that wire capacitance is dominant for cases where the termination or load impedance is much greater than the characteristic impedance of the wire, power lines are frequently loaded with impedances significantly below the characteristic impedance of the wire. Common examples of loads, which present low network impedance at communication frequencies, include capacitors and inductor used within inverter and battery. The impedance of these devices is typically an order of magnitude, or more, below the characteristic impedance of power wiring.

12. 26V

10. oov-

5. 00V

1 —1 1-N - S —\

\ 1 \ \

\ \ \

\ \ \

- \ ---- -, 1

- 5. 00V. -7. 01V-

181.6us 200. Ous 240.Ous

— V(M:d) ---V(D:1)

280.Ous Ti re

320.Ous

360.Ous 383.2us

Fig. 5. Noise from this device inject as the oscillator into switching.

400.040V

400.000V-

399.960V

1.2ms V(HVDC)

1.4ms Time

Fig. 6. Signal leakage voltage of power line DC.

It is often useful to divide tonal noise into the two sub-categories of unintended and intended interference. The most common sources of unintended tonal noise are switching power supplies, which are present in numerous electronic devices such as transistor and diode of the converter. The fundamental frequency of these supplies may be anywhere in the range from 20kHz to >148kHz. The noise that these devices inject back (oscillator) onto the power mains is typically rich in harmonics of the switching frequency. Note the similarity between the switching supply noise and an ideal trapezoidal waveform in Fig. 5.

0.00 0.00

406. 03V"

404. 00V

400. OOV

396. 00V 394.70V

Os 0.4ms 0.8ms 1.2ms 1.6ms 2.0ms 2.4ms 2.8ms V(HVDC) (b)

Os 0.4ms 0.8ms

V(R1:2)

1.2ms 1.6ms

Fig. 7. The transmitted signal of PLC passe HVDC bus for (a) signal output of modulation; (b) signal on HVDC bus; (c) signal

input of demodulation.

The leakage voltage of the 400V voltage DC that can pass through the interfacing circuit was tested to determine its efficiency and the result of the simulation is reported in Fig. 6. It was found that the maximum leakage signal amplitude was 2mV, which corresponds to sufficiently low amplitude to avoid problems with the electronic components of the transceiver.

To assess the attenuation, distortion and noise performance of the circuit, the interfacing circuit was tested using triangular and rectangular signals. The transmitted signal was monitored during transmission in three points; at the signal output of modulation taken to control switching BUZ11 to make the current (50kHz) before entering the interfacing circuit of Fig. 7.a, on the power-line HVDC is signal amplitude 5 V, frequency fluctuations 50kHz and if it is a signal digital then frequency 500Hz as Fig. 7.b, and at the interfacing circuit receiver stage is signal entering the similar frequency on power line HVDC as Fig. 7.c, it is sine waveform. It was found that a rectangular waveform needs to be used as a carrier signal.

1. 746V 1. 500V

1. ooov

0. 500V.

».U.LI.IJI IIIIII lililí,

V(R3:2)

Frequency

100KHZ

150KHZ

181 KHz

Fig. 8. Frequency response of the PLC receive.

The interface receiver frequency works as a band-pass filter centred at the working frequency of the PLC system, i.e. in our case a frequency equal to 50kHz. The bandwidth of the simulated circuit is shown in Fig. 8. It can be seen that spectrum of signal with amplitude 1,7 V central at frequency 50kHz.

/ /

/ /

/ /

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0.01ms 0.50ms 1.00ms 1.50ms 2.00ms 2.50ms 3.00ms 3.50ms 4.00ms 4.44ms V(C3:1 ) Tirre

Fig. 9. Signal waveforms output of demodulation.

Finally, we tested the response of the demodulated circuit with a signal of amplitude of 5V at 500Hz with this band-pass, it will limit the influence of band-high noise as of AM radio. The output signal waveforms were as shown in Fig. 9. This is taken to pin RC7/RX/DT of micro-controller PIC used in the converter DC-DC on HVDC bus.

4. Conclusion

In this contribution, at first we have presented the numerous advantages allowing an improvement of performances and stability of the overall energy transfer process in a renewable energy system if powerline communication (PLC) system is developed and associated to a power bus using high DC voltage.

Taking into account these considerations we have designed a simple and reliable PLC system for DC-DC converters connected to HVDC bus. The system achieves the required demands of stability, reliability, and accuracy. The system was simulated in continuous operation, demonstrating that in the retain solution, the transmitted signal suffered from very low levels of noise and distortion. In the framework of smart grid concept, the proposed architecture can be successfully implemented with shelf components to assume low data rate PLC on the HVDC bus allowing applications such as power reading and remote control as necessary in a parallel renewable energy sources system.

References

[1] Mapping Renewable Energy Pathways towards 2020-EREC/EU Industry Roadmap

[2] Petit P. Optimization of energy transfert systems photovotaiques. PhD Thesis, Université Paul Verlaine Metz; 2011.

[3] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electromagnetic_interference.

[4] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/On-off keying.

[5] Lotito A, Fiorelli R, Arrigo D, Cappelletti R. A complete Narrow-Band Power Line Communication node for AMR.

Power Line Comm and Appli ISPLC '07 IEEE Int Symp 2007;161-166.

[6] Szén I, Ràcz E. Use of the Power Line Communication System (PLC) at Low Voltage (0.4 kV) Noisy Electrical Networks - Introducing a New Concept. Power Quality Int Conf Renew Energ Power Quality ICREPQ '12 2012.

[7] Götz M, Rapp M, Dostert K. Power Line Channel Characteristics and Their Effect on Communication System Design. IEEE Comm Mag 2004;78-86.

[8] Guillen EP, Lopez JJ, Barahona CY. Throughput Analysis over Power Line Communication Channel in an Electric Noisy Scenario. Int Jour Eng Nat Sci 2009;3:3:173-179.