Scholarly article on topic 'On the Use of Interphraseologisms in the Journalistic Discourse of German and Russian Linguocultures'

On the Use of Interphraseologisms in the Journalistic Discourse of German and Russian Linguocultures Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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{Interphraseologism / interlexeme / "journalistic discourse" / Russian / German / Latinism / Gallicism / Anglicism}

Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Lyubov A. Nefedova

Abstract The article discusses interphraseologisms that function in journalistic discourse in German and Russian linguocultures. The study embarked upon by the author explores interlexemes which are idioms and expressions. The concept of interphraseologism is looked at from the angle of modern German studies. Peculiarities of Latinisms, Gallicisms and Aglicisms use are revealed in German and Russian journalistic discourse.

Academic research paper on topic "On the Use of Interphraseologisms in the Journalistic Discourse of German and Russian Linguocultures"


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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 154 (2014) 130 - 137


CULTURE, 20-22 October 2014

On the Use of Interphraseologisms in the Journalistic Discourse of German and

Russian Linguocultures

Lyubov A. Nefedova*

Moscow Pedagogical State University, Malaya Pirogovskaya St., Bld. 1, Moscow, 119991, Russia


The article discusses interphraseologisms that function in journalistic discourse in German and Russian linguocultures. The study embarked upon by the author explores interlexemes which are idioms and expressions. The concept of interphraseologism is looked at from the angle of modern German studies. Peculiarities of Latinisms, Gallicisms and Aglicisms use are revealed in German and Russian journalistic discourse.

© 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of National Research Tomsk State University.

Keywords: Interphraseologism; interlexeme; journalistic discourse; Russian; German; Latinism; Gallicism; Anglicism

1. Introduction

Integrative processes in the modern world are reflected primarily in the vocabularies of the languages: in every linguoculture there are words, phrases and expressions known to speakers of many other languages and cultures. Words that are used in the same meaning in several languages are termed as internationalisms, or interlexemes, in linguistic literature.

The aim of this study, which is to be an integral part of a complex long-term work dedicated to research on various issues of borrowing and derivation of borrowed items in the German language (Nefedova, 2012), was to create a corpus of linguistic units which are interphraseologisms in German and Russian languages and describe the features of their functioning in the modern journalistic discourse of German and Russian linguocultures.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: (499) 246 80 11. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

Peer-review under responsibility of National Research Tomsk State University. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.124

This study explores interlexemes that are not words but idioms and expressions, which have not yet been linguists' concern. This makes this work particularly topical. Lack of wholesome and comprehensive study of the general mechanisms of interphraseologisms functioning in the journalistic discourse of both German and Russian linguocultures also determines the relevance and novelty of this study.

2. The concept of interphraseologism in modern German studies

Internationalisms are cross-language units. Traditionally, lexemes are regarded as internationalisms when occurring in at least three languages if one of the languages is genetically different from the other two. A theoretical framework for the study of German internationalisms is based on works by German Germanists within inter-language lexicology, which in contrast to comparative lexicology focuses on general vocabulary integrated into the vocabularies of several languages and issues related to its structure, semantics and functioning in language (Braun, Schaeder & Volmert 1990). Theoretical studies undertaken by these linguists in German studies have allowed revealing a corpus of interlexemes in European languages (Özen, 2000).

Now, let us put to scrutiny different definitions of internationalisms in German studies and take notice of their basic features. Ulrich indicates that an internationalism is a word that is used in many languages and understandable without translation: „Wort, das in vielen Nationalsprachen, international gebräuchlich, ohne Übersetzung verständlich ist ..." (Ulrich, 1972).

The DUDEN Universal Dictionary defines an internationalism as a word that is used in different languages with the same meaning and has the same or similar form: (Sprachw.) Wort, das in gleicher Bedeutung u. gleicher od. ähnlicher Form in verschiedenen Kultursprachen vorkommt (z.B. Demokratie) (Duden, 2007).

Schippan also emphasizes the identical meaning of internationalisms: „Man versteht unter Internationaismen solche Wörter, die international gebräuchlich sind, sich in der morphematischen, lautlichen und orthographischen Gestalt den aufnehmenden Sprachen anpassen und so in gleicher Bedeutung, oft als Termini, verwendet werden: dt. Theater, engl. theatre, franz. theatre, russ. teatr" (Schippan, 2002).

The definition of the Dictionary of Linguistic Terms (Lexikon sprachwissenschaftlicher Termini) allocates the common origin of internationalisms: „Internationalismus: in vielen (meist genetisch verwandten) Sprachen mit gleicher Bedeutung verwendetes Wort gleicher Herkunft, z.B. dt. Kultur, engl. culture, russ. kultura < lat. cultura; dt. Sport, franz. sport, russ. sport < engl. Sport" (Lexikon, 1988).

In the new edition of the Metzler Lexikon Sprache edited by Glück, an internationalism is defined as a borrowing which is now in use in many languages: „Entlehnung, die in sehr vielen Sprachen Usus (und daher für die internationale Verständigung nützlich) ist, z.B. Taxi. Hotel, Computer, Ticket (Metzler Lexikon Sprache, 2010, p. 301 - 302). In these reference books, we should note along the way, all the examples are limited to the level of words.

Following Schaeder, we understand internationalisms as inter-language units of different levels of language (intermorpheme, interlexeme): „.eine Sammelbezeichnung für interlinguale Einheiten von jeweils unterschiedlicher Komplexität [z.B. Intermorphem, Interlexem]" (Braun, Schaeder, & Volmert, 1990).

Thus, internationalisms are characterized by the following features:

(1) common etymological origin;

(2) use in many languages and supranational character;

(3) the same or similar meaning and the same or similar form;

(4) understood without translation;

(5) emergence as a result of borrowing or word formation, mainly from Latin and / or Greek morphemes.

For comparison, let us look at the definition of an internationalism given in the Linguistic Encyclopedic Dictionary. Internationalisms are "words that coincide in their external form (given the naturally corresponding sounds and graphic units in specific languages) with a fully or partially coinciding meaning, express concepts of international character from science and technology, politics, culture and art, and function in different, primarily unrelated (at least three) languages" (Bel'chikov, 1998, p. 197).

In this definition, an important criterion is the use of internationalisms in unrelated languages and at least in three ones, which should be considered when identifying the corpus of these units of language.

Apart from international words, interlexemes also include interphraseologisms, or interphrasemes. The Concept of international phraseologism is more actively developed in Slavic studies. Scholars point to the fact that the

phraseological fund of every language has general and universal features. Therefore, an important aspect of phraseology is not just identifying the national specificity of phraseologisms but delineating the international and the national in phraseology and determining the universal in stable figures of speech in different languages (Stepanova). See also the article on the definition of an interphraseologism by L. A. Nefedova (2011).

However, the problem of identifying phraseological internationalisms, or interphrasemes, remains one of the most complex and not yet enough developed issues of modern phraseology. Currently, an international phraseologism is understood by Slavicists as a phraseologism that exists in Slavic and Western languages and has a similar composition of lexemes and semantics (Stepanova). So, L. I. Stepanova considers the following Russian proverb as international: Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят, which is also known in Czech, Slovak and Polish as well as in English (look a gift horse in the mouth) and German (einem geschenkten Gaul schaut / sieht man nicht ins Maul).

Researches on Russian idioms have shown that the idiomatic fund of the Russian language is largely international. The comparison of Russian and German phraseology embarked upon by A. D. Reichstein has revealed a more than 60 percent phraseological equivalence in the two languages (Reichstein 1980).

In addition, when it comes to the international fund in phraseology, Slavicists traditionally deal with phraseological borrowings (calques, semi-calques, borrowings from another language in their original form) and universals, or phraseological parallels that arise in different languages independently from each other.

The basis of the international phraseological fund, according to scholars, is made up of biblical idioms and Latinisms primarily winged words. This is a common cultural heritage of the European nations. It should be noted that Latinisms are frequently used in the Russian language in their original writing and less often in a transliterated form as in the following examples (1), (2):

(1) О темпора, о морес! Как они часто все-таки ошибались, эти классики. [Аркадий

Стругацкий, Борис Стругацкий. Жук в муравейнике (1979)]

(2) Нищ есмь. Омниа меа мекум порто. Но табачок обожаю. [А. И. Куприн. Яма (1915)]

Besides, a large footprint in the phraseological corpus of German and Russian has been left by French. Phraseological Gallicisms have penetrated all the European languages (see examples below).

Currently, all the languages of the world have been flooded with Anglicisms; the phraseological fund of the European languages have become actively replenished with fixed expressions directly borrowed from the English language and their calques.

Applying the above features of the internationalism to phraseological units, it should be noted that the issue of attributing universals, or phraseological parallels, to interphraseologisms is not straightforward, while the criterion of common etymological origin of universals is not obvious. Proverbs like «Дареному коню в зубы не смотрят» in Russian and „Einem geschenkten Gaul schaut / sieht man nicht ins Maul" in German should not be attributed to interphraseologisms because one of the features of an interlexeme is its comprehensibility without translation.

Summing up the analysis of the definitions of an internationalism definitions in dictionaries of linguistic terms and in studies of the term in various academic publications, we consider as interphraseologisms phraseological units which have common etymology, i.e. are borrowed from one source language and used in their original form, hence, they are not calqued translations in the recipient language.

3. Peculiarities of interphraseologisms use in German and Russian journalistic discourse

In our work, we restricted ourselves to identifying phraseological units common in both German and Russian. These units of language have the status of interphraseologisms as in these recipient languages they are borrowings from Latin, French and English, thus functioning at least in three languages (one source language and two recipient languages). As material for our study we drew on the German and Russian electronic corpora of texts и

So, we have identified three groups of interphrasemes which are borrowings from three source languages and are used in their original form in German and Russian. In the first phase of our work, German phraseological units borrowed from Latin, French and English were selected from the DUDEN Universal Dictionary on the basis of the above described features of internationalisms. All these units are known in Russian as well.

As it turned out, internationalized phraseological units are predominantly winged words that we, after I.I. Chernysheva, consider as phraseologisms, or phraseological expressions (festgeprägte Sätze). See the classification of phraseologisms in: (Chernysheva 1975; 2003). According to the author, the composition of the 1st and 2nd groups of phraseological expressions (proverbs and sayings) can be supplemented by units going back in their origin to ancient literature and mythology, the Bible, belles-lettres and journalism, for example: Der Würfel ist gefallen! (the words attributed to Julius Caesar); Auge um Auge, Zahn um Zahn (the Bible), Das also war des Pudels Kern (Goethe) . These phraseological expressions are traditionally referred to as "winged words" (geflügelte Worte) and make a special group in all classifications (Chernysheva 1975:654).

Unlike biblical phraseologisms translated into German as well as Russian which thus have lost their status of interphraseologisms, ancient winged words which are Latinisms are used in both languages in their original form as embedded foreign elements. A much larger group of phraseologisms borrowed into German is made up, according to the DUDEN dictionary, with Latin winged words, the use of which was then tested on the material of German and Russian language corpora of texts.

3.1. Peculiarities of Latinisms use in German and Russian journalistic discourse

Examples of phraseological Latinisms used in German and Russian journalistic discourse show that many sayings, or popular expressions, are well known and reproducible among educated native speakers, which allows considering them as precedent phrases.

The term "precedent phrase", which has been developed primarily in Russian studies, is understood as a reproducible product of language and thinking activity; a complete and self-contained unit, which may or may not be predicative; a complex sign in which the sum of the meanings of its components does not equal its meaning; a precedent phrase per se is part of the cognitive base; a precedent phrase is repeatedly reproduced in native speakers' language. Among precedent phrases are quotations from texts of different kinds (Zakharenko, Krasnykh, Gudkov, Bagayeva).

Latin is the basis of common classical education, so Latinisms are widely used by authors of articles in both German and Russian press without translation, reckoning for readers' educational level, see examples (3) - (10):

(3) Schließlich ein spezielles Memento mori: ein nachgebautes, ganz normales Kinderzimmer mit ganz normalen Utensilien, Spielzeug, Rucksack, Badelatschen, Trinkflasche, herumliegende Socken. Und jeder Gegenstand trägt einen Totenkopf. Hannoversche Allgemeine, 21.07.2008

(4) Его игра не вызывает сейчас ощущения оторопи и мыслей о мгновении вечности -"memento mori". [Сати Спивакова. Не всё (2002)]

(5) Trotzdem dürfen die evangelischen Kirchen und Gemeinden die ökumenische Zusammenarbeit nun keinesfalls verlassen. Zu viele, nur gemeinsam zu lösende Aufgaben stehen an. Die Verständigung hat an der Kirchenbasis kaum gelitten, dort wird man sich rasch wieder finden. Auf höherer Ebene ist ein neuer Modus vivendi vermutlich schwieriger. St. Galler Tagblatt, 09.09.2000

(6) Ведь его modus vivendi как раз в перераспределении денег и состоит, отчего правильнее было бы говорить о среднем классе начальников. [Владимир Баранов. Государство, информация и начальники (2003) // «Лебедь» (Бостон), 2003.12.07]

(7) Das alles bedeutet Zeit, engagierten Einsatz und nolens volens auch Geld. Zürcher Tagesanzeiger, 23.10.1996

(8) Полярным льдам угодно было скопиться в устьях Оби, обгазовалось ггомадное холодное течение, понеслась пугга, и вот мы, nolens-volens, должны познакомиться. [Д. Н. Мамин-Сибиряк. Золотуха (1883)]

(9) Per aspera ad astra könnte am Donnerstag das Motto beim Davos-Festival geheissen haben. Die Südostschweiz, 04.08.2007

(10) Девизом В. Калистратова может быть известное латинское изречение: Per aspera ad astra! [Валерий Калистратов: вчера и сегодня (2003) // «Российская музыкальная газета», 2003.04.09]

However, sayings are often accompanied by translation, see examples (11) - (17) from German:

(11) „Alea jacta est" - der Würfel ist gefallen: Für viele Menschen meiner Generation gehört der Satz zum aktiven Sprachschatz, obwohl sie nie Latein als Schulfach hatten. Sie haben Asterix gelesen. Rhein-Zeitung, 22.10.2009

(12) Die Internats schüler entdecken dabei nicht nur die Schönheit der Sprache, sondern auch die Bedeutung des Augenblicks: „Carpe diem" - „Nutze den Tag" wird zu ihrem alles bestimmenden Lebensmotto, welches auch von einigen der jungen Leserinnen und Lesern übernommen wurde. St. Galler Tagblatt, 23.05.1998

(13) Es wird gemault, gejammert, bedauert, geschimpft, gemäkelt und ab und an auch mal etwas Positives registriert. Dies muss zu Lebzeiten des Philosophen René Descartes (1596 bis 1650) anders gewesen sein. Denn sonst lautete sein berühmt gewordener Satz nicht „Cogito ergo sum" (Ich denke, also bin ich) sondern „Ich wettere, also bin ich". Braunschweiger Zeitung, 21.01.2006.

(14) Der prominenteste Vitiligo-Patient der Welt war Michael Jackson - zumindest behauptete er, es zu sein. Er wollte sich wohl nicht dem Vorwurf aussetzen, die Hautfarbe wechseln zu wollen. De mortuis nihil nisi bene, über Tote sagt man nichts als Gutes, gebietet das lateinische Sprichwort, aber höchstwahrscheinlich hat er gelogen. Denn seine Haut, zumindest im Gesicht, wurde gleichmäßig weiß - ganz ohne Flecken. Nürnberger Zeitung, 15.06.2010.

(15) In vino veritas (im Wein liegt Wahrheit), frei nach diesem Motto findet am Fr., 13.4., von 18 bis 22 Uhr die Eröffnung der Weingalerie in der Stiftstaverne Ardagger statt. Niederösterreichische Nachrichten, 10.04.2007.

(16) „Non vitae, sed scholae discimus", schrieb vor fast 2000 Jahren vorwurfsvoll Seneca der Jüngere. Und musste sich im Lauf der Zeit umkehrend und belehrend korrigieren lassen: Non scholae, sed vitae discimus -"Nicht für die Schule, fürs Leben lernen wir" heißt es heute in Richtung manch unwilligen Schülers. RheinZeitung, 25.11.2000.

(17) „Tempora mutantur et nos mutamur in illis", wusste Kaiser Lothar I. schon im neunten Jahrhundert: „Die Zeiten ändern sich, und wir ändern uns mit ihnen." Die Südostschweiz, 25.07.2005.

In Russian, sayings are also often given in the original form and in translation. See examples (18) - (23):

(18) - Поздравляю вас, милостивый государь, поздравляю, - и продолжал он, - правда, не всякий, можно сказать, согласился бы таким образом зарррработывать себе насущный хлеб; но de gustibus non est disputandum, то есть у всякого свой вкус. [И. С. Тургенев. Чертопханов и Недопюскин (1849)]

(19) Ведь errare humanum est - человеку свойственно ошибаться, и полностью отметать такую возможность нельзя. [Александр Фролов. Он уважать себя заставил (2003) // «Советская Россия», 2003.06.15]

(20) Очевидно, по ассоциации с высказыванием «In vino veritas - Истина в вине», что уже изначально определяло цель создания устройства. [Екатерина Романова, Николай Романов. Дамы-козыри (2002)]

(21) «Tempora mutantur et nos mutantur in illis - Времена меняются, и мы меняемся с ними». [Василий Катанян. Прикосновение к идолам (1998)]

(22) Поле сражения без боя было уступлено Авксентьеву, Бунакову и их ближайшим товарищам с крайнего правого советского фланга. Suum cuique*... *каждому свое (лат.). [Н. Н. Суханов. Записки о революции / Книга 3 (1918-1921)]

Translations are obviously explanatory in nature and therefore do not question the criterion of intelligibility of winged words without translation. Moreover, the winged words under consideration, as noted above, can be found in dictionaries and are thus units of language. Using winged words in their original form in different languages allows considering them as phrasal internationalisms.

3.2. Peculiarities of Gallicisms use in German and Russian journalistic discourse

Interphraseologisms undoubtedly include phraseological Gallicisms which are still widely used both in German and Russian journalistic discourse. The corpus of phraseological Gallicisms is much smaller than that of Latinisms, nevertheless their overall popularity and prevalence in journalistic discourse is obvious.

The functioning of fixed expressions and phrases borrowed from French, unlike Latinisms, in Russian discourse has a specific feature: in Russian, phraseologisms borrowed from French are traditionally used in transliteration. The orthography thereby demonstrates the foreign character of borrowed Gallicisms, which immediately attracts the reader's eye:

(23) «Cherchez la femme» hiess es auch für mich als FDP-Parteipräsident, als es darum ging, eine Frau als Stadtratskandidatin für den zweiten Wahlgang zu motivieren. St. Galler Tagblatt, 19.10.2000

(24) Да, вот это, как у вас говорится, шерше ля фам: жены наши обменялись новостями... [Владлен Давыдов. Театр моей мечты (2004)]

(25) Vor allem aber ist nach Ansicht der St.Galler Regisseurin Dagmar Schlingmann und ihrer Mitarbeiter die Figur der Lulu in der Urfassung nachvollziehbarer. Die spätere «Erdgeist»-Fassung stellt Lulu als Typus Frau vor, als die femme fatale, die ihre Männer einen nach dem andern ins Verderben stürzt. St. Galler Tagblatt, 24.05.1997

(26) Но она-то за свою ошибку не поплатилась, разве что переделалась из мальчика в фамм фаталь с постельным меццо-сопрано, если это так можно назвать. [Дарья Симонова. Шанкр (2002)

(27) Meine Liebe zu den Schweizer Bankiers wurde leider nicht erwidert. Noblesse oblige, ich kehre also nach Moskau zurück ohne einen Franken, aber frank und frei! Zürcher Tagesanzeiger, 10.02.1998

(28) Он не хотел меня злить - это я хорошо чувствовал, Но он и не хотел рассуждать о том, что вело за круг «ноблес оближ». [Виктор Конецкий. На околонаучной параболе (Путешествие в Академгородок). Повесть (1978)]

(29) Der eine lässt es mit appenzellischem Humor mit einem trockenen «Jo Hälawia» über sich ergehen, der andere mit einem galanten «C'est la vie». Ob so vielen Verdiensten und so viel Ehre frage ich mich. St. Galler Tagblatt, 03.07.2000

(30)... ее оторвали, посадили в карцер, в котором она отсидела трое суток. Вот тебе и селяви! Еще один цветок в букете. [Татьяна Окуневская. Татьянин день (1998)]

(31) Im ersten Satz ist mit der «idée fixe» bereits alles angelegt. St. Galler Tagblatt, 19.04.2008

(32) Мысль эта становится для Даниила Андреева своеобразной «идеей фикс», к ней он так или иначе постоянно возвращается во все последующие годы жизни. [Станислав Куняев. Крупнозернистая жизнь (2004) // «Наш современник», 2004.03.15]

Example 31 above indicates that a word and a phraseological combination are often indistinguishable by semantic criteria. In general, fully executed components of a phraseologism significantly distinguish it from a single word.

Only in rare cases, phraseological combinations borrowed from French are used as direct loans and translated into Russian, for example:

(33) Он считался «enfant terrible» - «ужасным ребенком», люди сердились, но в конце концов привыкли. [И. Г. Эренбург. Люди, годы, жизнь. Книга 7 (1960-1965)]

Gallicisms as well as Latinisms are a marker of broadly educated native speakers who include them in their language. The frequent use of fixed expressions from French allows considering them as a precedent phrases which have not lost their relevance today, despite the fact that French lexis in general is highly susceptible to processes of archaisation in German and Russian alike..

3.3. Specific features of Anglicisms use in German and Russian journalistic discourse

As noted above, modem languages are intensively replenished with vocabulary, including phraseologisms from English. Calques, or translations, are more typical for Russian, while German in recent decades has been borrowing fixed expressions and phrases directly from English. But, as soon as calques are excluded from interphraseologisms, we describe English phraseological units borrowed into German and Russian in their original form.

The examples of English fixed expressions from the Russian corpus of texts clearly show that unlike Gallicisms, they are not transliterated. See the following examples:

(34) Striptease-Tänzerinnen des Moskauer Nachtclubs "Golden Girls" ließen sich für einen Kalender unter dem Sechziger-Jahre-Motto "Make Love Not War" fotografieren [Der Spiegel 40/2013].

(35) Говорили, что он таким образом парафразировал известную фразу Гамлета: to be or not to be - быть иль не быть. [Ю. Н. Тынянов. Малолетный Витушишников (1933)]

(36) К сожалению, в итоге - the last but not the least - приходится констатировать следующее: ратуя за всеобщее уподобление Л.С. Выготскому, автор статьи ни в коей мере не уподобляется ему сам. [А. Б. Орлов. Нищета «исторического психоанализа» (2004) // «Вопросы психологии», 2004.06.15]

(37) Слушайте то, что вам говорят, говорите сами - вас выслушают. Make Love not War! Любовь - это свобода! [Василий Аксенов. Круглые сутки нон-стоп // «Новый Мир», № 8, 1976]

There is no doubt that phraseological Anglicisms are precedent phrases of modern times, reflecting innovations in the corpus of interphraseologisms which is based on Latin and Gallicisms adjacent to it. A comprehensive study of the structure, semantics and functioning of phraseological Anglicisms in German and Russian is a task of the future. Early results of this work are reflected in an article by L. A. Nefedova and O. G. Polyakov (2014).

4. Conclusion

German and Russian interphrasemes are phraseologisms borrowed from Latin, French and English. These three languages are source languages for the creation of interphrasemes. English can be juxtaposed to Latin and French as the language that has been actively enlarging upon the vocabularies of other languages over the recent decades.

Phraseologisms of the above source languages function as interphraseologisms, being precedent utterances that are known to most native speakers of German and Russian.

The study of interphraseologisms is carried out within the framework of the research into general issues internationalisms, or interlexemes, as well as more general issues of linguistic borrowing at different levels. As far as new interphraseologisms are Anglicisms, this study can be extended to research into the impact of English on other modern languages and issues of lexical neology.

Linguists involved in the study of interphraseologisms contribute to the further development of the theoretical foundations of inter-lingual lexicology and phraseology as well as intercultural German studies (interkulturelle Germanistik), which open new opportunities to explore and understand linguistic phenomena within the framework of dialogue of cultures thanks to an alternative look from the outside (fremder Blick, Alterität).

Internationalisms are also within concerns of studies of different issues of intercultural communication and contrastive pragmatics. This study can help reveal the cultural and linguistic competence of native speakers who are members of varied linguocultural communities, mainly universal impregnations in the vocabularies of the languages that form the universal core of cultures as a form of being aware of and understanding the world.


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