Scholarly article on topic 'Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Correlates of Academic Adjustment of In-School Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria'

Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Correlates of Academic Adjustment of In-School Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Dorothy Ebere Adimora, Edith Nwakaego Nwokenna, Joachim Chinweike Omeje, Elsie Chizua Umeano

Abstract The study investigated the parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as correlates of academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-Afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Using correlational survey research design, the study made use of 45 public secondary schools with a population of 3,362 junior secondary school class two (JSS11) students. A sample of 624 secondary school students was used for the study. An instrument with three clusters was used for the study. Research questions were analyzed using pearson r and R-square while the hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 probability level. It was found that parents’ style of parenting and students’ attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) significantly predict in-school adolescents’ academic adjustment. It was recommended among others that parents should be aware of the negative and positive influences of the various parenting styles on students’ academic adjustmentand other academic gains.

Academic research paper on topic "Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Correlates of Academic Adjustment of In-School Adolescents in Enugu State, Nigeria"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 205 (2015) 702 - 708

6th World conference on Psychology Counseling and Guidance, 14 - 16 May 2015

Parenting Styles and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder as Correlates of Academic Adjustment of In-School Adolescents in Enugu

State, Nigeria

Dorothy Ebere Adimoraa*,Edith Nwakaego Nwokennab, Joachim Chinweike Omejec,

Elsie Chizua Umeanod

aDr. Dept. of Educational Foundations/CUDIMAC, Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Post Code:

410001, Nigeria.

b Dr. , Dept. of Arts Education, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. c Asso. Prof. Dept. of Educational Foundations, Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. dProf. Dept. of Educational Foundations, Educational Psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.

Abstract

The study investigated the parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as correlates of academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-Afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. Using correlational survey research design, the study made use of 45 public secondary schools with a population of 3,362 junior secondary school class two (JSS11) students. A sample of 624 secondary school students was used for the study. An instrument with three clusters was used for the study. Research questions were analyzed using pearson r and R-square while the hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 probability level. It was found that parents' style of parenting and students' attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) significantly predict in-school adolescents' academic adjustment. It was recommended among others that parents should be aware of the negative and positive influences of the various parenting styles on students' academic adjustmentand other academic gains.

© 2015TheAuthors. Published by ElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center.

Keywords: Parenting; innattention; adjustment and in-school adolescents.

1. Introduction

* Dorothy Ebere Adimora. Tel.: +43-44-34-3. E-mail address: ebere.adimora@unn.edu.ng.

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Research and Education Center. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.09.110

Students are obviously faced with challenges in school. From one year to another, they experience changes in teachers, classrooms, school, class rules, procedures, performance expectations, difficulty of work, and peers. Their successes in negotiating these challenges predict school successes which result in many school adjustments. School adjustment has been construed historically in terms of children's academic progress or achievement. This outcome is important, but being very limited, it narrows the search for precursors and events in children's environments that may affect adjustment. On a broader level, adjustment could be seen as involving not only children's progress and achievement but also their attitudes toward school, anxieties, loneliness, social support, and academic motivation (e.g., engagement, avoidance, absences) (Schunk, Pintrich and Meece, 2010).

Academic adjustments are modifications in how students participate in classes and activities. These modifications allow students to meet standards. Academic adjustments give students equal access to the educational opportunities of the school such as course readings in alternate formats such as electronic text, braille, and enlarged print, extended time on tests, shared class notes, maintenance of full-time status for financial aid purposes with reduced course load, modifications needed to participate in and out of class educational opportunities such as internships and field trips (Schunk, Pintrich and Meece, 2010). In-school adolescents' academic adjustment could be attributed to some factors such as heredity, style of parenting adopted by parents, neurological imbalance, impulsivity, difficulty staying focused and paying attention, behaviour control problem, and hyperactivity. Students with ADHD according to Shaw-Zirt, Popali-Lehane, & Chaplin (2005) seem to have a more difficult time adjusting to college academically, socially and emotionally. University of Massachusetts (2008) recorded a functional impact or limitations of ADHD on learning and a high degree of impacts on applicant in the learning context for which academic adjustments are being requested.

However, ADHD is one of the most common childhood brain disorder which can continue through adolescence and adulthood. ADHD is a prevalent childhood mental health condition affecting 7.8% of the school-aged population. It is characterized by developmentally atypical levels of inattention, activity, and impulsivity. A recent estimate reports that 56% of children with ADHD are treated with prescription medication,which has proven to be efficacious for symptom reduction in a large number of trials (Scheffler, Brown, Fulton, Hinshaw, Levine and Stone, 2009). Jill, Micheal, MacLean (2008) in their recent research indicated that the symptoms of ADHD persist past childhood and adolescence well into college age and beyond. This can cause a variety of problems in numerous domains, including academics, academic adjustment, school, work and home. Those with ADHD who attend college may have a more difficult time dealing with academic, social and career planning demands. This may lead to lower rates of college success and higher rates of dropping out. Symptoms include difficulty staying focused and paying attention, difficulty controlling behaviour, and hyperactivity (over-activity). These symptoms can make it difficult for a child with ADHD to succeed in school, get along with other children or adults, or finish tasks at home. Children with ADHD generally have problems paying attention or concentrating. They do not seem to follow directions and are easily bored or frustrated with tasks. They also tend to move constantly and are impulsive, not thinking before acting (Scheffler, Brown, Fulton, Hinshaw, Levine and Stone, 2009).

However, it is not everyone who is overly hyperactive, inattentive, or impulsive that has ADHD. After all, most people sometimes blurt out things they do not mean to say, jump from one task to another, or become disorganized and forgetful. It therefore depends on the degree; the diagnosis requires that such behaviour be demonstrated to a degree that is inappropriate for the person's age. The behaviours must create a real handicap in at least two areas of one's life, like home and the classroom, or the classroom and on the playground.Thus, an individual who exhibits some symptoms but whose academic performance or social life is not impaired would not be diagnosed with ADHD.The diagnostic guidelines contain specific requirements for determining when the symptoms indicate ADHD. This is used by parents, teachers councellors or anybody taking care of the child to identify those with the disorder (Schunk, Pintrich and Meece, 2010). However, parents as the closest and the first socialization agent of a child are in a better position to monitor and diagnose such disorder. Parenting (or child rearing) is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship (Martin, 2000). A high-quality parent-child relationship is critical for healthy development (Kazdin, 2014). Suffice it to say that the parenting style adopted by parents tremendously influence growth, development and future life opportunities of a child. Parenting style, therefore is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Style of parenting could also influence students' academic adjustment.

Parenting styles have been characterized by dimensions of parental responsiveness and demandingness

(Baumrind, 1991). Baumrind explained parenting style in four dimensions such as: authoritarian, authoritative, permisive and uninvolved parenting styles. Authoritarian parent maintains strict control via rigid rules, without debate, high expectations for the children and is often interfering. Authoritarian parent constantly issue commands, criticism and only very occasional praise. Lacks warmth, frequently uses emotional pressure (e.g. guilt, shame). Authoritative parent keeps a close eye on children, sets firm boundaries, but grants considerable freedom within them; Intervenes only when necessary; Sticks to rules; and does not shy away from conflict when enforcing rules; loving, supportive, but not over-indulgent. A key aspect is flexibility: adapts to responses after listening to and taking into account both their own perspective and that of the child. Permissive parents are dubbed 'indulgent' - tries above all to maintain friendship with the child; responsive but undemanding; warm and loving but lax; sets few boundaries and usually giving in to their child's wishes; punishments are seldom threatened, let alone carried through; Shies away from conflict; Offers little guidance and discipline and has few expectations. Any discipline is usually in the form of bribes (e.g. if you do this I will buy you that').Uninvolved parents are generally unresponsive, undemanding, permissive and sets few clear boundaries; Neither warm nor firm and does not monitor the children; Provides the basic necessities (food, warmth, housing, etc) but is otherwise disengaged and offers little to no guidelines or discipline. Researches reveal that parenting styles affect children or adolescent's future development. It affects children and adolescents' developmental skills which include maintaining a close relationship with others, being self-reliant, and able to work independently (Baumrind, 1991).

Adolescence is a transitional stage of physical and psychological human development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal adulthood or age of majority. The period of adolescence is most closely associated with the teenage years, though its physical, psychological and cultural expressions may begin earlier and end later (Webster, 2012). In-school adolescents are those adolescents that are enrolled in lower secondary or any other level of education, those who are in age-appropriate level of education.

Currently, little is known about the relative contribution of inattention symptoms and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms to academic and social adjustment problems in schools. Moreso, it is not yet clear, how parenting style influence students' academic adjustment. However, research on school children and in-school adolescents have suggested deficits in cognitive and academic functioning.This therefore, prompted this study.

The problem of this study, therefore centers on the fact that eventhough there is a wealth of research available on childhood ADHD, less is known about its carry over into adolesence and adulthood and whether there is any diognoses of that disorder in the area of study. It also seems that the poor adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-Afor Education Zone of Enugu State, Nigeria especially in Igbo-Eze North Local Government Area, stems from the fact that they lack adjustment and that such ugly trend might have been triggered by an evidence of ADHD and their parents' adoption of a wrong parenting style. It then becomes imperative to administer early diagnosis and devise a remediation strategy to address this disorder.

To the best of researchers' knowledge, no study has examined the correlation of parenting style and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment in Enugu State, Nigeria. On that note, the correlation of parenting style and attention defiicit hyperactivity disorder with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment is still in doubt and calls for urgent research attention. Against this background, therefore, the researchers investigated the correlation of parenting style and attension defiicit hyperactivity disorder with in-school adolescents' academic adjustments' academic adjustment in Obollo-Afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. In this area, parents seem to be aggresive, hostile, un responsive, offers poor emotional climate and spend less time with their children and these adolescents seem to display poor attension, impulsivity and hyperactivity. The problem which arose for this study, stated in question form, therefore is; what is the correlation of parenting style, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment?

The following understated research questions guided the study:

1. What is the relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents?

2. What is the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents?

Hypotheses

Ho1: Parenting styles does not significantly correlate with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents.

Ho3: There is no significant relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and academic adjustment of

in-school adolescents.

2. Methods

A correlational survey research design was adopted for this study. A correlational survey according to Bernstein, Penner, Clarke-Stewart and Roy (2006) examines relationships among variables in order to describe research data more fully, to test predictions, to evaluate theories, and to suggest new hypotheses about why people think and act as they do. The study was conducted at Obollo-Afor education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria comprising Igbo-Eze North, Igbo-Eze South and Udenu LGA of 21, 10 and 14 secondary schools respectively. The population was all 3,362 junior secondary two (JSS11) in-school adolescents in Igbo-Eze North of the education zone in 2013/2014 academic session. The researchers drew 624 in-school adolescents using stratified sampling and simple random sampling techniques. It was purposive because Igbo-Eze North as a commercial city predisposes the parents to a busy schedule, lack of time for the children thereby making the in-school adolescents vulnerable to impulsivity, hyperactivity innattension and worse still poor academic adjustment. The instrument used for the study was a questionnaire with two clusters, parenting scale and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder was adapted by the researcher and used for the study. The questionnaire has responses that ran on a four point scale thus: Very Often (VO) = 4 points, Often (O) = 3 points, Sometimes (O) = 2 points, Never (N) = 1 point. The instrument was validated by three experts in Educational psychology, Faculty of Education, University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach alpha reliability was used to determine the internal consistency of the instruments which yielded 0.81 and 0.89 respectively. Research questions were analyzed using pearson r and R-square while the hypotheses were tested using analysis of variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 probability level. For each, respondent, an overall mean score and standard deviation for all the items were computed. An overall mean score of 2.5 and above showed that the in-school adolescents' parenting style and their attension deficit hyperactivity disorder correlate with their academic adjustment. Below 2.5 showed poor parenting styles and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The results of the study were presented based on the research questions and corresponding hypotheses.

3. Results

Results of the study were presented in line with the research questions and corresponding hypotheses as follows.

Tablet. Relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents.

Parenting Styles N Sum of df t-value Mean Adjusted

Squares Square R-square

Authoritarian 499.701 623 55.675 416.187 0.83

Authoritative 495.038 623 256.975 495.038 0.99

Permisive 499.701 623 23.027 429.777 0.86

Uninvolved 624 499.701 623 45.411 383.907 0.77

The relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents reveals that the t-values of authoritarian, authoritative, permisive and uninvolved parents are 55.675, 256.975, 23.027 and 45.411 respectively at 623 degree of freedom and 416.187, 495.038, 429.777 and 383.907 mean square. This shows that the correlation of authoritarian and uninvolved parenting styles are negative and linear, while that of authoritative parenting is positive and strong with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment. The adjusted R-square which is the magnitude of the relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment is shown to be .991 the adjusted R-Square which is shown to be 0.991 means that the correlation of parenting styles with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents contributes 99% which reveals a high relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school and the remaining 1% could be as a result of other minute factors. This reveals that the parenting styles of the in-school adolescents significantly relates with their academic adjustment. The corresponding hypothesis which predicted a non significant predictive power of pupils' parenting style on their mathamatics anxiety was futher subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) as shown on Table 2 below.

Table 2: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis of relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents.

Parenting Styles t-value Pearson r Better value Sig. (2-tailed) Decision

Authoritarian 20.780 0.913a 0.08658 0.801 Accepted

Authoritative 256.975 0.995" 0.36642 0.000 Rejected Permisive 61.831 -0.927a 0.33529 0.008 Accepted Uninvolved_45.411_0.768_0.43147_0.481_Accepted_

The relationship between parenting styles and in-school adolescents' academic adjustment is positive and linear. This was shown in the correlation between observed value predictor variable (parenting styles) and the criterion variable which is academic adjustment, the pearson's correlation coefficient (r) is 0.913a 0.995a, -0.927a and 0.768a for authoritarian, authoritative, permisive and uninvolved parents respectively which are significant at 0.801, 0.00, 0.008 and 0.481 respectively. The significant level for authoritarian, permisive parenting and uninvolved styles of 0.801, 0.008 and 0.481 respectively are above the 0.05 probability level at which the null hypothesis was tested, this implies that authoritarian, permissive parenting and uninvolved parenting styles have no significant correlation with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents, therefore, the hypothesis "Parenting styles have no significant correlation with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents" is therefore accepted for authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parents. Furthermore, the significant level for authoritative parenting style of 0.00 respectively is below the 0.05 probability level at which the null hypothesis was tested. Therefore, authoritative parenting style significantly correlates with in-school adolescents academic adjustment, the hypothesis "Parenting styles have no significant relationship with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents is therefore rejected for authoritative parenting style. The null hypothesis of no significant relationship of parenting styles does not significantly correlate with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents is therefore accepted for authoritarian, permissive and uninvolved parents and rejected for authoritative parenting style.

Table 3: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder as a correlate of academic adjustment of in-school adolescents.

ADHD N df t-value Mean Square Adjusted R-square

624 623 25.572 434.910 0.87

The correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with academic adjustment reveals the t-value as 25.572 at 623 degree of freedom and 434.910 as the mean square. This shows that the correlation between ADHD with academic adjustment is negative and linear. The adjusted R- square which is the magnitude of the correlation of ADHD with academic adjustment is shown to be 0.87. The adjusted R-Square which is shown to be 0.870 means that the predictor variable contributes 84% which reveals a high correlation between ADHD and academic adjustment, the remaining 16% could be as a result of other insignificant factors. The corresponding hypothesis which predicted a non significant correlation of in-school adolescents' ADHD significantly correlates with their academic adjustment was futher subjected to (ANOVA) as shown in table 4 below.

Table 4: Analysis of variance (ANOVA) analysis of ADHD as it correlates with academic adjustment.

ADHD t-value Pearson R Better value Sig. (2-tailed) Decision

25.572 0.870 0.32275 0.00 Rejected

The relationship between in-school adolescents' ADHD is negative and linear. This was shown in the correlation between observed value predictor variable (ADHD) and the criterion variable which is academic adjustment, the pearson's correlation coefficient (r) is 0.020a which is significant at 0.703b , this was above the 0.05 probability level at which the null hypothesis was tested. The hypothesis stated a negative significance of ADHD on in-school adolescents' academic adjustment. The null hypothesis which states that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has no significant relationship with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment is therefore rejected.

4. Discussion

Inspired by the need to investigate parenting style and ADHD as they correlate with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-Afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria, the purpose of this study was to determine parenting styles and ADHD as they correlate with academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The first research question ascertained the the relationship between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents. In other words, the result indicates that

there is a correlation between parenting styles and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents in Obollo-afor Education zone of Enugu State, Nigeria Nsukka Local Government Education

Authority in Enugu State, Nigeria. In support of this assertion, Glasgow, Dornbusch, Troyer, Steinberg, & Ritter (1997) stipulate that authoritative parenting style has been found to be an essential factor in an adolescent's life in comparison with the other parenting styles. It has been seen as the most effective in enhancing personal and social responsibilities in adolescents, without constraining their newly formed autonomy and individuality. Amato & Gilbreth, 1999; Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Brown, (1992) further asserts that some studies have indicated that parental authoritativeness is associated with higher academic adjustment and achievements. Similarly, Steinberg, Brown, Cazmarek, Cider, and Lazarus (1988) observed that authoritative parenting facilitates school achievement while Dornbusch, Ritter, Leidermann, Roberts, & Fraleigh (1987) found that adolescents raised by authoritative parents, when compared with adolescents raised by authoritarian, uninvolved or permissive parents, have higher levels of academic adjustment.

With regards to the research question which stated, what is the correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and academic adjustment of in-school adolescents? the result of this study reveals that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder correlates with in-school adolescents' academic adjustment. To affirm this statement, Jill, Micheal, MacLean (2008) in their recent research indicate that the symptoms of ADHD persist past childhood and adolescence well into college age and beyond and that it could cause a variety of problems in numerous domains, including academics, academic adjustment, school, work and home. Those with ADHD who attend college may have a more difficult time dealing with academic, social and career planning demands. Similarly, Shaw-Zirt, Popali-Lehane, & Chaplin (2005) opined that college students with ADHD seem to have a more difficult time adjusting to college socially and emotionally.

5. Recommendations

Parents should be educated on the negative and positive impacts of the various paranting styles on students' academic and non-academic gains and the importance of adopting the parenting style that would aid in promoting their children's academic achievement and adjustment.

Parents ought to treat their children especially adolescents as rational beings to bring them close to them and to avoid the feeling of alienation and negative peer influence and risky behaviour as they would confide in their parents as well as discussing their problems and plans with them.

Educators and counselors couls use fora like PTA meetings, speech and price giving days and anniversaryies to educate parents on the influence of farenting styles on children's academic gains

Schools provide a amuch less structured academic environment than does high school. As such, there may be many more potential distractions in college than students with ADHD are accustomed to.

Government, educators, psychologists should organize seminars and workshops for parents, caregivers, teachers and schol administrators to create awareness on the steps early diagnoses of ADHD to prevent it's disruptive influence on students' academic gains.

It is imperative to realize the negative influence of ADHD on students especially adolescents, in order to administer early diagnosis which would lead to a a better adjustment of the adolescents.

6. Conclusion

Conclusively, the results of the current study corroborate the findings of previous research concluding that parenting styles such as authoritarian, authoritative, permissive and uninvolved continually play a tremendous role in influencing students' academic adjustment and achievement. The current study found that authoritative parenting style significantly predicted academic adjustment, and no relation was found for permissive and authoritarian, uninvolved parenting styles.The adverse effect of ADHD is real and creates a real handicap in at least two areas of a person's life, like home, the classroom or the playground.

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