Scholarly article on topic 'Energy Retrofitting of School Buildings to Achieve Plus Energy and 3-litre Building Standards'

Energy Retrofitting of School Buildings to Achieve Plus Energy and 3-litre Building Standards Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Plus energy schools" / "3-litre school buildings" / "energy-efficient retrofit of school buildings" / "renovation of educational buildings" / "thermal comfort"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Johann Reiss

Abstract The amount of delivered energy used by educational buildings is equal to approx. 20 million MWh/a, about two thirds of which are used by school buildings. In the next few years, many school buildings will have to undergo major retrofits. Now this is the time to set the course for the future energy consumption of these buildings. In the scope of a demon¬stra¬tion project funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology it will be shown by which innovative measures the energy consumption of school buildings can be reduced by almost 80% on average. These measures include energy retrofitting of the building envelope, of technical building services, and the use of renewable energy. After retrofitting, some school buildings now achieve plus energy standard, the other ones achieve the 3-litre building standard. Findings of this project will be contributed to SHC Task 47 (Solar Renovation of Non-Residential Buildings).

Academic research paper on topic "Energy Retrofitting of School Buildings to Achieve Plus Energy and 3-litre Building Standards"

Procedía

SHC 2013, International Conference on Solar Heating and Cooling for Buildings and Industry

September 23-25, 2013, Freiburg, Germany

Energy retrofitting of school buildings to achieve plus energy and 3-

litre building standards

Johann Reiss

Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany

Abstract

The amount of delivered energy used by educational buildings is equal to approx. 20 million MWh/a, about two thirds of which are used by school buildings. In the next few years, many school buildings will have to undergo major retrofits. Now this is the time to set the course for the future energy consumption of these buildings. In the scope of a demon-stra-tion project funded by the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology it will be shown by which innovative measures the energy consumption of school buildings can be reduced by almost 80 % on average. These measures include energy retrofitting of the building envelope, of technical building services, and the use of renewable energy. After retrofitting, some school buildings now achieve plus energy standard, the other ones achieve the 3-litre building standard. Findings of this project will be contributed to SHC Task 47 (Solar Renovation of Non-Residential Buildings).

© 2014TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeerreview bythescientificconferencecommitteeof SHC 2013 under responsibilityofPSEAG

Keywords: Plus energy schools, 3-litre school buildings; energy-efficient retrofit of school buildings; renovation of educational buildings; thermal comfort

1. Background

In the next few years, a large number of educational buildings will be due for renovation. The market offers a range of innovative technologies for construction and technical building services, which enable users to achieve high energy savings, if used correctly. Further, the additional use of renewables can considerably reduce the use of delivered energy, so that buildings can achieve plus energy standard. Demonstration buildings serve as an example; they are often imitated by architects, system planners, and energy consultants. Apart from saving energy, such buildings are also distinguished by providing high thermal comfort com-pared to the conditions before refurbishment. In the scope of the German research project on energy-efficient schools "Energieeffiziente Schulen -

Available online at www.sciencedirect.com

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Energy Procedia 48 (2014) 1503 - 1511

1876-6102 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer review by the scientific conference committee of SHC 2013 under responsibility of PSE AG doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.02.170

EnEff:Schule" [1] five school buildings were retrofitted; another two schools were newly built. Three of these schools achieve plus energy standard (two retrofitted buildings and one new building). Four schools achieve the standard of a 3-litre school building [2]. The 3-litre building standard is defined as follows: The primary energy use for heating and ventilation plus the required electricity for auxiliary energy is less than 34 kWh/m2a - this corresponds to the energy content of 3 liters of heating oil or 3 m3 natural gas. As there is yet no official definition of plus energy buildings in the non-residential sector, only one energy-plus school (Stuttgart) includes the energy of all electric appliances used at school in its energy balance. The energy balance is based on primary energy.

2. Implementation of the demonstration project

Currently, seven schools have been included as demonstration buildings in the research project. These schools are spread throughout Germany (see Figure 1). The energy concepts of the demonstration projects are usually drafted by expert teams who are located close to the school sites. Besides the architect, plant designer and building physicist at least one university/ technical college or a scientific institute becomes involved. After completion of the construction phase, the demonstration project will be subjected to at least two years of monitoring, which will be performed by a university/ technical college or a scientific institute.

Fig. 1. Map of Germany indicating the locations of the demonstration buildings.

The entire project has been accompanied by scientific research, which was carried out by Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics, Munich University (Hochschule München) and the Institute for Resource Efficiency and Energy Strategies. Accompanying research started as early as in 2008 with project phase 1 [3]. The second (ongoing) project phase was launched in 2012.

2.1 Description of the demonstration projects

The demonstration project includes five retrofitted school buildings and two new constructions. Figure 2 presents views of the school buildings and lists their locations. This paper, however, will only deal with those five school buildings that were subjected to energy retrofitting measures.

SCHOOL LOCATION TARGET

Science College Overbach 3-litre building standard

* hsè Primary school Hohen-Neuendorf Energy-plus school

Special school Olbersdorf 3-litre building standard

High school Rostock Energy-plus school

faâfe ■hbmB High school Cottbus 3-litre building standard

High school Marktoberdorf 3-litre building standard

¡Ig Primary and secondary modern school Stuttgart Energy-plus school

New construction Refurbishment

Fig. 2. Views of the school buildings and description of the related energy performance targets.

To become eligible for funding, a project needs to ensure the implementation of innovative building and / or building services technologies. In Table 1 these innovative technologies have been compiled and related to the corresponding demonstration project. All buildings are equipped with automatically controlled mechanical shading devices and building automation systems. In most buildings, high-quality thermal insulation materials, triple glazing and daylight redirecting systems are applied.

Balanced mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery units were installed at four schools. One school will be equipped with an air extraction system.

Besides the two energy-plus schools, one more building has been provided with photovoltaic systems. After retrofitting, the use of district heat will continue at those sites where district heating has been previously used.

None of the buildings features active cooling by means of a mechanical cooling device. There is passive cooling in two buildings.

The use of electrochromic glazing, phase change materials, night-time ventilation, biogas, biomass and wind power is restricted to one school each.

Table 1. Survey of the technologies deployed in surplus-energy educational buildings

Retrofitting

Innovative components Olbersdorf Rostock Cottbus Marktoberdorf Stuttgart

High-performance thermal insulation • • • •

Triple glazing • • • •

Electrochromic glazing •

Automatic mechanical shading • • • • •

Daylight redirection • • • •

Phase change materials •

Ventilation system with heat recovery • • • •

Passive cooling • •

Night-time ventilation •

Photovoltaics • • •

Solar thermal systems • •

Geothermal energy • • •

Biogas •

Biomass •

Wind power •

District heating • • •

Building automation • • • • •

Excellent thermal insulation of the building envelope is a basic condition for realizing a plus energy school or a 3-litre school building. In Figure 3 the U-values of the external wall, of roof/ top floor, ground/ ceiling above basement and of the windows have been compiled, stating the respective values before and after refurbishment. The resulting mean values of all 5 buildings are 0.18 W/m2k for the external wall, 0.13 W/m2k for roof/ top floor, and 0.42 W/m2k for ground/ ceiling above basement. The windows have a mean U-value of 0.95 W/m2k.

Building component U-value [W/m2K]

Before retrofitting 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 After retrofitting 0.50 1.00

External wall CI Minimum U-value -y □ Range of U-values u 18

1.27 i Mean value 0

Roof/ uppermost floor 1 0 13

Ground /ceiling above basement

I I 1 Ij

2.49 ).42

Windows

! I 1 1

2.91 0.95

Fig. 3 : U-values before and after retrofitting

In schools, ventilation is a central issue. As many persons stay in a classroom for quite a long time, the air change is required to be relatively high. In the school building at Olbersdorf a CO2-controlled exhaust air system (extraction system) was installed. The used air is extracted from the spaces by a fan to be discharged across the roof through existing ventilation ducts. The outdoor air flows through supply-air windows into the room. The supply air window consists of a box-type window with inside and outside double glazing. The outdoor air heats up as it passes through the space between the window panes. At two schools, centralized balanced mechanical ventilation systems with heat recovery were installed. Another two schools have been provided with a decentralized, balanced ventilation system (for both air supply and extract applications). In Figure 4 there is an overview of the school buildings and the related ventilation systems.

Olbersdorf Rostock Cottbus Marktoberdorf Stuttgart

Ventilation J" Aft

hajtlf*

HMH1 HI

Air extraction system X

Centralised ventilation system using heat recovery X X

Decentralised ventilation system using heat recovery X X

Fig. 4. Overview of the ventilations systems that were installed in the demonstration buildings

2.2 Assessing the energy efficiency of the retrofitted demonstration buildings

When assessing the energy performance of the concepts, the calculation methodology specified in German standard DIN V 18599 (Energetische Bewertung von Gebäuden/ Energy efficiency in buildings) is to be applied.

Usually, the calculations will be done by the local project teams to be subsequently reviewed by the accompanying research team. Table 2 presents a compilation of the final energy demand (delivered energy need) and the primary energy demand for all retrofitted demonstration projects.

Table 2. Delivered energy and primary energy before and after retrofitting.

Retrofitted schools Delivered energy need [kWh/m2a] Primary energy need [kWh/m2a]

Before retrofitting After retrofitting Before retrofitting After retrofitting

Olbersdorf 235.4 41.0 254.0 50.4

Rostock 203.71 71.72 78.31 55.02

Cottbus 275.9 36.5 217.4 45.3

Marktoberdorf 91.7 39.13 103.8 68.03

Stuttgart 129.61 25.74 168.11 66.24

1 Consumption data (no data on energy need available)

2 Energy yields from PV, wind, ORC not included

3 Energy yields from PV and CHP not included

4 Energy yield from PV not included

For the schools at Rostock and Stuttgart, the condition before retrofitting is only documented by just one value for energy consumption, lacking any energy requirement data. The energy yields from photovoltaics, wind power and ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle) have not been considered in the calculations, as the calculation methodology of DIN V 18599 did not specify any procedures for evaluating these types of energy generation at the time when the calculations were done. These energy shares were determined by doing a separate calculation. They will be considered later when calculating the energy performance certificate for energy-surplus buildings. The figures that were calculated for the school at Marktoberdorf do not include the share that was contributed by the CHP plant, nor the contribution from photovoltaics. Neither has the PV yield been included in the calculated energy demand of the Stuttgart school.

2.2.1 Verifying the energy performance of 3-litre school buildings

In the case of 3-litre school buildings, the following principle applies: The primary energy demand for space heating and ventilation - including the related demand for auxiliary energy (e.g. circulation pumps, fans, etc.) - is not allowed to exceed 34 kWh/m2a. Calculations for this verification of compliance with the requirements must also conform to the method specified in German standard DIN V 18599.

Figure 5 represents the primary energy balance shares for the school at Olbersdorf. The total primary energy demand is 50.6 kWh/m2a. For space heating and ventilation (including the auxiliary energy required for these purposes), the primary energy demand amounts to 35 kWh/m2a, which only minimally exceeds the value of 34 kWh/m2a.

3-l-Building School Olbersdorf

(¡5 c <B

80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

8.6 Lighting

7.0 DHW

111 III mm> WB fl/ u.o veruiiaiion

Relevant for evaluation . y of 3-litre-building standard

34.7 Heating 3 5.0

Fig. 5. Representation of the energy balance for the 3-litre school building at Olbersdorf 2.2.2 Verifying the energy performance of energy-plus schools

For the energy performance verification of residential energy-surplus buildings, the German Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs (BMVBS) has published the boundary conditions for assessment in [4]. In this publication, the annual demand of primary energy and the annual demand of final (delivered) energy are used as evaluation indicators. The requirements ZQp < 0 kWh/m2a and Qe < 0 kWh/m2a apply to both quantities.

The energy performance certificate must be based on an extended verification of compliance according to the German Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV), using the calculation method specified in DIN V 18599. For lighting and domestic appliances, a normalized energy demand has to be assumed. The amount of renewable surplus energy generated within the system boundaries that are relevant to the balance calculations may be deducted from the energy demand.

As yet, there is no such definition for non-residential energy-surplus buildings (hence neither for schools). This is why the energy performance certificates for the project's energy-plus schools are based on different approaches. Demand calculations for the Rostock school merely consider the primary energy demand for space heating, water heating, ventilation, lighting and auxiliary energy, while the energy demand of the electric appliances used at school (computers, beamers, printers etc.) is not accounted for. In Figure 6 there is a representation of the primary energy balance. The overall energy demand amounts to 55.0 kWh/m2a. This demand will be covered by a photovoltaic system (75 kWp), three wind turbines with vertical axes of rotation and an ORC plant (Organic Rankine Cycle) with an electricity output of 2.5 kW. In total, the generated primary energy amounts to 55.2 kWh/m2a, which slightly exceeds the energy requirement of the building. Based on the given definition, the requirements to an energy-plus school are hence fulfilled.

Energy-plus School Rostock

=ï 50

23.3 11.3

Lighting Wind energy

17.3 14.4 Ventilation PV

Heating DHW

DEMAND GENERATION

Fig. 6. Representation of the energy balance for the energy-plus school at Rostock.

Demand calculations for the Stuttgart energy-plus school also include the energy demand of the electric appliances used inside the school building. In this case, the requirements for achieving the energy-surplus building standard are substantially higher.

3. Results

After completion of the construction phase, the demonstration buildings will undergo two years of monitoring. Generally, monitoring and data analysis will be performed by a university/ technical college. All data will be transferred to the EnEff:School accompanying research team to be stored in a database. This data provides the basis for cross-evaluation.

Figure 7 shows a diagram of an east-oriented classroom at the Olbersdorf 3-litre school. For the period from April 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012 the hourly means of the indoor temperature are plotted versus the outdoor air temperatures. Measured data was only used if occupants were present in the room.

28 26 24

g 16 ce

14 12 10

-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Outside air temperature [°C]

X x „ * X * x^

*** XyXS C X x# K » nr. s^èr;

X XX m xx " *x ' Äx > x^ X X x

raijrx'oT-Ain^irin^s - \ ' V/ V v' I I I I I

Fig. 7. Representation of the indoor air temperatures in classroom #310 (facing east) during occupancy as a function of the outdoor air temperature for the period from April 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012.

The diagram shows that even when outdoor air temperatures of 35° C are prevailing the indoor air temperature does not exceed 27° C. Consequently, this room is thermally comfortable even on hot sunny days.

In the same room and during the same period also the levels of the CO2 concentration were measured. Figure 8 illustrates the frequency of occurrence for specific concentrations.

Fig. 8. Representation of the percentage frequency of occurrence for CO2 concentrations in eastern classroom #310 during occupancy for the

period from April 1, 2011 to February 29, 2012.

If one assumes a value of 1500 ppm to be still acceptable, this concentration will be exceeded during approximately 2 % of the lessons. This is an exceedance that can be tolerated, however.

4. Outlook

At present, not all of the demonstration projects have been completed. This is why monitoring data are available for only a few projects. Besides, some more demonstration projects will be included in the program. The conclusion of the entire project is scheduled for 2016.

Acknowledgements

The EnEff:Schule project receives funding by the German Government (Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology, BMWi) within the 5th Energy Research Program under the contract no. 03ET1075C.

The content of this document reflects the author's view. Neither the author nor the German Government are liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.

References

[1] Bundesministerium fur Wirtschaft und Technologie: EnOB: Forschungsförderung und Programm. http://www.enob.info/ [The Federal German Ministry of Economics and Technology: EnOB: Research for energy-optimised construction. http://www.enob.info/en/]

[2] Fraunhofer-Institut für Bauphysik: Energieeffiziente Schulen - EnEff:Schule Projekt-Website: www.eneff-schule.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics: Energy-efficient schools - EnEff:Schule project website: www.eneff-schule.de]

[3] Reiss, J.; Erhorn, H.; Roser, A.; Gruber, E.; Schakib-Ekbatan, K.; Winkler, M.; Jensch, W.: Energieeffiziente Schulen - EnEff:Schule. Published by Fraunhofer-IRB-Verlag, Stuttgart 2013

[4] Bundesministerium für Verkehr, Bau und Stadtentwicklung [The Federal Ministry of Transport, Building and Urban Affairs] (ed.): Wege zum Effizienzhaus Plus (German language brochure); http://www.bmvbs.de/SharedDocs/EN/Artikel/IR/efficiency-house-plus.html