Scholarly article on topic 'Research of the Single-switch Active Power Factor Correction for the Electric Vehicle Charging System'

Research of the Single-switch Active Power Factor Correction for the Electric Vehicle Charging System Academic research paper on "Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Electrical engineering, electronic engineering, information engineering, author of scientific article — Yuchen Han, Haiping Xu, Dongxu Li, Zuzhi Zhang, Shi Lei

Abstract Face to energy crisis and increasingly severe pressure on environmental pollution, electric vehicles have become the new direction of the vehicles. In order to meet the electric vehicle's charging requirements for high power factor (PF), this paper intends to implement single- switch active power factor correction (APFC) function under the control of voltage, current dual closed-loop in Inductor current “continuous conduction mode” (CCM). The article uses saber software to simulate with the single-phase and three-phase PFC system and finally develops a 3KW experiment prototype. The results of the power experiment validate the feasibility of the method. The power factor can be improved to nearly 1 and it has good application value in actual project.

Academic research paper on topic "Research of the Single-switch Active Power Factor Correction for the Electric Vehicle Charging System"

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ScienceDirect

IERI Procedia 4 (2013) 126 - 132

2013 International Conference on Electronic Engineering and Computer Science

Research of the Single-Switch Active Power Factor Correction for the Electric Vehicle Charging System

Yuchen Han1'2'3'4, Haiping Xu2'3'4, Dongxu Li2'3'4, Zuzhi Zhang2'3'4, Shi Lei1'2'3'4*

1 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shijingshan District, Beijing, P.R.China 2 Institute of Electrical Engineering Chinese Academy of Science, Haidian District, Beijing 100190, China 3 Key Laboratory of Power Electronics and Electric Drive, Inst. of Electrical Engineering (IEE), Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), P O.box 2703,

Beijing, P.R.China

4 Beijing Engineering Laboratory of Electrical Drive System & Power Electronic Device Packaging Technology, Beijing, P.R.China

Abstract

Face to energy crisis and increasingly severe pressure on environmental pollution, electric vehicles have become the new direction of the vehicles. In order to meet the electric vehicle's charging requirements for high power factor (PF), this paper intends to implement singleswitch active power factor correction (APFC) function under the control of voltage, current dual closed-loop in Inductor current "continuous conduction mode" (CCM). The article uses saber software to simulate with the single-phase and three-phase PFC system and finally develops a 3KW experiment prototype. The results of the power experiment validate the feasibility of the method. The power factor can be improved to nearly 1 and it has good application value in actual project.

© 2013The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier B.V.

Selectionandpeerreview underresponsibility oflnformationEngineeringResearchlnstitute

Keywords: APFC; CCM; electric vehicle charging system; single-switch

1. Introduction

With the continuous depletion of fossil fuels and increasingly serious environmental pollution, new energy has become a hot direction of the research. Electric vehicle as a non—polluting transportation tool, will have great advantages in the market.

The traditional electric vehicle charging system uses diode rectifier bridges topology cascade with DC-DC and has the following disadvantages: the input current harmonic content is high and absorbs reactive power from the grid. Hence the input power factor is very low.

To solve the above problems, a kind of power factor correction circuit is necessary to improve the PF and reduce the current harmonic content. This paper intends to implement single-switch active power factor correction function with the method of voltage, current dual closed-loop control of boost converter with average current control.

Corresponding author: Yuchen Han . Tel.: 0086-010-82547233 . E-mail address: hanyuchen10@mail.iee.ac.cn .

This paper was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project no (51077122)

2212-6678 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Selection and peer review under responsibility of Information Engineering Research Institute doi: 10.1016/j.ieri.2013.11.019

The simulation and experiment show that the single-switch PFC can meet the requirements of high PF and low THD and it will be used as the former-class of 3KW charger on electric vehicle.

2. Single-switch PFC Circuit and CCM control strategy

The following Fig.1 is the main circuit of single-phase single-switch PFC, which is composed of diode rectifier bridges, inductance, MOSFET, capacitor and the resistance load. The circuit is a boost converter, so it has two operating mode: switch conducting and switch non- conducting mode. When the switch conducting, the power supply charges the inductance, and the capacitor discharges through the resistance; when the switch non-conducting, the power supply charges the capacitor and resistance through the diode with a voltage higher than the supply and the voltage of the resistance increases. The advantages of the circuit are as follows: the input current can be continuous and modulated in the whole sinusoidal voltage cycle, so the PF can be high. Besides, the drive circuit is simple and the peak current of MOSFET is low.

Fig. 1. the main circuit of single-phase single-switch PFC

The Fig.2 is the main circuit of three-phase single-switch PFC. When the input three-phase voltage is balanced, the principle of three-phase PFC circuit is similar with single-phase PFC circuit.

Fig. 2. the main circuit of three-phase single-switch PFC

Essentially PFC circuit is an AC/DC converter. The standard converter uses pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques to adjust the input power to provide appropriate power for the load. The structure of dual closed-loop control is as Fig.3. The sampling output voltage is compared with a reference voltage, then after a PID correction the difference will be the output of voltage. This error signal is used to alter the pulse width working together with the current loop. The voltage loop makes the output voltage more stable. If the output voltage is higher, the pulse width decreases, thereby making the output voltage lower, so that the output voltage is restored to the normal output value. This is the principle of the voltage loop.

Fig. 3. The schematic diagram of the dual close-loop control

The current loop is the inner loop of the feedback control. The output voltage is multiplied by the absolute value of a certain sinusoidal wave. The result is compared with input current collected by current sensors and the error will be modulation wave after PI. Finally it is added to an operational amplifier with the other input a sawtooth carrier wave and the result will be the PWM to control the switch. When the sampling real current is higher, switch closes, otherwise switch opens, so the current control loop can make input current closer to a sine wave.

The article uses the continuous conduction mode (CCM) with the method of average current control. The program flow is as Fig.4.The most important parts are soft-switching, sine generation, PI controller, safe and PWM generation module. The soft-switching module reduces the start current peak. The sine generation module will generate a sine wave by the method of looking up table. The safe module can monitor the voltage and current and end the program when it is overvoltage or over-current.

irii lial izalion

PI CO ntrol

Fig. 4. The program flow

3. System Design & Calculation

We also develop a 3KW experiment prototype and the Fig.5 is the main circuit of the 3kW charger on electric vehicle. This article focuses on the former class of the system, i.e. the former PFC part. The single-phase single-switch PFC consists of inductance, MOSFET, capacitor, and resistance load. The MOSFET used here is 600V/50A. The switching frequency is 10 kHz.

.3ÖO-

]-^ PWM control |<-1 PIP adjust"^—| DC detect jJT

CAN communication port^-

monitor unit

;iliary power and control port

Fig. 5. the main circuit of 3.6KW charger on electric vehicle

The prerequisite of CCM power factor correction is the input inductor current maintaining a continuous state, thus the ripple current is less than twice of the peak of minimum input AC current. So the inductance should satisfy the condition:

L>L . (L l)

min v critical S

So, considering 20% ripple current, the expressions are:

Vmin*(1-

Vmin stands for the peak of minimum input sinusoidal voltage, and V0 is the output voltage. f is the switching frequency,P0 is the output power, Vminrms is valid values for the minimum input sinusoidal voltage. So through calculating the inductance chosen is L=250uH/20A.

As the AC component of the output current flows through the capacitor, the voltage will ripple at both ends and the fluctuating value depends on the capacitor value. So we can know the value of the capacitor is mainly relative to the voltage ripple, the DC voltage responses, and the amplitude of the voltage harmonic. It usually requires that the output voltage

ripple is less than 10%. So set the fluctuating values of the output voltage is Au, the peak of it is

= — [idt= 1q si rJc 2wC

sin2wt

Aut=-^ wC

Aut Au

So the capacitor should satisfy the condition:

Through calculating and considering the real condition, we choose the capacitor: C=1000uF/450Vdc. 4. Simulation Results

Single-phase and three-phase single-switch PFC circuit was simulated in the Saber environment. Simulation parameter settings were the followings: inductor 250uH, resistor 100ohm, AC voltage 220V 50Hz, output capacitor 1000uF.

The Fig.6 is single-phase single-switch voltage waveforms and current waveforms in voltage, current dual closed-loop in CCM. The purple waveform is the input voltage and the green one is the input current. Simulation results show that the current and voltage is almost the same phase and the power factor is more than 0.95.Besides, from the waveforms, the input current harmonic content is also high, through FFT analysis we can know that the most harmonic contents are the 3th , 5th ,

Fig. 6. single-phase single-switch voltage and current waveforms in voltage, current dual closed-loop

The Fig.7(a) is three-phase single-switch voltage waveforms and current waveforms in voltage, current dual closed-loop in DCM, and the Fig.7(b) is in CCM. In Fig.7(a) the purple waveform is input voltage and green one is input current and in Fig.7(b) the green waveform is input voltage and purple one is input current. Simulation results show that the currents and voltages are both the same phase and power factor is more than 0.95. Also the PF in CCM is higher than that in DCM and the THD is lower. So we choose the CCM as the experiment method. Through FFT analysis we can know that the most harmonic contents are the 5th , 7th and 11th .

Fig. 7. (b) three-phase single-switch voltage and current waveforms in CCM 5. Experiment results

The experiment condition is designed as above: MOSFET 600V/50A, inductor 250uH, capacitor 1000uF, AC supply 220V, load 20KW/40i2 resistance box and the circuit of single-phase single-switch PFC is as Fig.6. The Fig.8(a) is the waveform in low power. CH1, CH2, CH3 is PWM, output voltage and input current respectively. Experimental waveforms show that the current is close to sine wave and the output voltage is stable with the ripple less than 5%, but when the output power is 380W, the waveform is not good.

The Fig.8(b) is the single-phase PFC waveform in higher power. CH1, CH2, CH3 and CH4 is PWM, output voltage, input current and input voltage respectively and the output power is 2KW. Experimental waveforms show that the current is

the same phase with the input voltage and is almost sine wave. The output voltage is 283V, the ripple is 4.2% and PF is 0.99, Till) is 7.4%, efficiency is 96.3%.

Tek JL • Stop M Pos: -16.00.us Jg^ J^ £ Stop M Pos: —8.000jus

M 10,0ms 15-May-12 16:12

CHI I CHI 5.00V 10.000SCH3 10.OA

CH2 100V CHI 100V

M 10.0ms AC Line

15-May-12 17:35 50.03891

Fig. 8. (a) single-phase single-switch PFC with the output power 380W; (b) single-phase single-switch PFC with the output power 2KW

The Fig.9(a) is the single-phase PFC waveform in rated power. CH1, CH2, CH3 and CH4 is PWM, output voltage, input

current and input voltage respectively and the output power is 2.88KW. Experimental waveforms show that the current is

the same phase with the input voltage and it is almost sine wave. The ripple of the output voltage is 5% and PF is nearly 1,

THD is 8.2%, efficiency is 95.8%.

The Fig.9(b) is the three-phase PFC waveform in low power. The waveform from top to bottom in turn is output voltage,

reference current and input current. Experimental waveforms show that the current is the same phase with the input voltage

and is closed to sine wave. The PF is higher than 0.96. Tek J"L • Stop M Pos: -O.OOOjus

CH3 20.0A

CH2 100V

cm loov

M 10.0ms 15-May-12 18:00

AC Line 50.0036

'VYVV'V

1.x...

/.A...

■A" / H

Fig. 9 (a) single-phase single-switch PFC with the output power 2.88KW; (b) three-phase single-switch PFC

6. Conclusion

Electric vehicle charging system working in high power factor is essential to large-scale use. Single-switch PFC has many advantages, like low cost, easy control and maintenance. So single-switch PFC has been widespread concerned and developed in electric vehicles.

Through the simulation and experiment, it can be seen that for electric vehicle charging system the PFC working in CCM is better than that in DCM in the field of PF and THD. The dual closed-loop CCM control strategy work well and has many advantages of high PF (nearly 1) and low THD comparing with the open loop or voltage loop only. The single-switch PFC can meet the performance requirements of high PF (nearly 1) in electric vehicles charging system. It is already used as the former-class of 3KW charger on electric vehicles and the results show that it has good application value in actual project.

Acknowledgements

The author would like to thank the fund and support of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Project no (51077122).

References

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[2] Roberto Martinez, Prasad N Enjeti , A High-Performance Single-phase Rectifier with Input Power Factor Correction [J]. IEEE Trans On Power Electronics, March 1996,11(2): 311-317

[3] Oscar Garcia, Jose A.Cobos. Single Phase Power Factor Correction: A Survey. IEEE Transaction On Power Electronics, May. 2003, VOL 18, NO. 3:749~755

[4] S. Y. R. Hui. H. Chung, Y.K.E.Ho, Y.S.Lee. Modular. Development of Single-Stage 3-Phase PFC Using Single-Phase Step-Down Converters [C]. IEEE PESC 1998 : 776-781.

[5] Xia Liu, Yuhua Guo, Study on the Single-Phase Active Power Factor Correction Circuit. Southwest Jiaotong University Master Degree Thesis. 2005.4