Scholarly article on topic 'The Barriers to Increasing the Productivity in Expatriate Management: Examples in the World and Turkey'

The Barriers to Increasing the Productivity in Expatriate Management: Examples in the World and Turkey Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"Expariate Management" / Adaptation / Failure / "Human Resources Management" / Turkey}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Mehtap Aracı

Abstract In the current frame of global rivalry perceptive, one of the significant formulas of multinational enterprises to obtain competitive advantage is having human resources who are well-equipped and having mobile ability. This situation increases the need for those who have the quality to work abroad for a definite duration, and bring forward the issue of Expariate Management (EM) for Human Resources Management (HRM). The right choose and management of assigned personnel effectively in this way is a quite important matter because of the global knowledge that is provides in areas such as production, management, marketing, but at the same time it is a problem because of high costs it may cause. The most common and costly problem facing multinationals in doing business in over seas countries is the high level failure of expatriates because of the adaptation problems to the new country. The adaptation problem expariates faced to a large extent may arise from various reasons in many developed and developing countries. This reveals the neccessity of differentiation of EM by countries. The aim of this study is to provide a brief overview of some adaptation problems encountered by expariates, to give information about EM practices and views in the world and to illustrate the EM practices of Turkey and the point it has reached in Turkey though various examples. There have been few studies dealing specifically with expatriate practices in Turkey. It is hoped that the current paper can fill this gap. Putting the barriers to increasing the productivity in EM and offering some examples from the world can be useful for both the success of business employing expatriates and for numerous scholars to study in this field.

Academic research paper on topic "The Barriers to Increasing the Productivity in Expatriate Management: Examples in the World and Turkey"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 195 (2015) 993 - 1002

World Conference on Technology, Innovation and Entrepreneurship

The Barriers to Increasing the Productivity in Expatriate Management: Examples in the World and Turkey

Mehtap Araci *

Gül§ehir Vocational School, Nev§ehir Haci Bektaç Veli University, 50900, Nev§ehir, Turkey


In the current frame of global rivalry perceptive, one of the significant formulas of multinational enterprises to obtain competitive advantage is having human resources who are well-equipped and having mobile ability. This situation increases the need for those who have the quality to work abroad for a definite duration, and bring forward the issue of Expariate Management (EM) for Human Resources Management (HRM). The right choose and management of assigned personnel effectively in this way is a quite important matter because of the global knowledge that is provides in areas such as production, management, marketing, but at the same time it is a problem because of high costs it may cause. The most common and costly problem facing multinationals in doing business in over seas countries is the high level failure of expatriates because of the adaptation problems to the new country. The adaptation problem expariates faced to a large extent may arise from various reasons in many developed and developing countries. This reveals the neccessity of differentiation of EM by countries. The aim of this study is to provide a brief overview of some adaptation problems encountered by expariates, to give information about EM practices and views in the world and to illustrate the EM practices of Turkey and the point it has reached in Turkey though various examples. There have been few studies dealing specifically with expatriate practices in Turkey. It is hoped that the current paper can fill this gap. Putting the barriers to increasing the productivity in EM and offering some examples from the world can be useful for both the success of business employing expatriates and for numerous scholars to study in this field.

© 2015TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof IstanbulUniveristy.

Key Words: Expariate Management, Adaptation, Failure, Human Resources Management, Turkey

* Corresponding author. Tel: +90-532-7037797; fax: +90-384-4113529. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-review under responsibility of Istanbul Univeristy.

doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.06.326

1. Introduction

In the current competitive environment, one of the remarkable issue which is as significant as carriying out successful cross-border operations for multinational enterprises which give priority to international trade is to have human resources who have mobile ability, and who can carry out such activities. In fact, "it has been argued that entrepreneurs have recognised the importance of physically relocating managers who are highly skilled to foreign locations where business operations are based since approximately 1900 B.C" (Collingns et al., 2007). However, "it has been one of the most important competitive advantages since more than two decades ago and it appears that the area is still being discussed in the International Human Resource Management (IHRM) in the 21st century because of the difficulties to manage this workers" (Salleh and Koh, 2013), called expatriates who is sent to work in another unit of the same company located in a foreign country.

The most common and costly problem facing multinationals in doing business in over seas countries is the high level failure of expatriates. Although the effectiveness of expatriate assignments and the success of expatriates are important as there is an increasing number of expatriates due to internationalisation, "it is reported that the failure rate of the assignments is high" (Salleh and Koh, 2013). When people move to a new country and experience a new culture, they bring principles, values and behaviours of their own culture with them and they may possibly experience culture shock if the new culture is substantially different from their own culture. The culturel differences and adaptation problem they encounter can be greater if expariates are married or older. This can reduce their working performance, can be costly rather than profitable for enterprises, and can make it diffucult for expatriates, who return to their country after a while, to adapt to their culture again. Consequently, "the cumulative cost of expatriates failures may be so high. Besides their measurable monetary costs, the detrimental effects can add overall damage to an organisation, such as diminished employees'morale, bad image of the organisation, and missed business opportunities" (Salleh and Koh, 2013).

When expatriates encounter with some culturel adaptation problems in the host country they were sent, the multinational corporations encounter the failure of expatriates. There has been different EM practices from one country to the other in order to reduce the level of expatriates failure. In this paper, first of all the difficulties of working in a foreign country and the causes of expatriate failures are exposed. Secondly, some examples in the world on expatriate practices are reviewed and finally the EM point reached in Turkey are assessed. There have been few studies dealing specifically with expatriate practices in Turkey. It is hoped that the current paper can fill this gap and provide some valuable insights for both academicians and managers.

2. Literature Review

In the past few decades, many researchers and theorists have focused on the study of expatriate management which is one of the most important issues in International Human Resources Management (IHRM). Their topics of study comprise, among others, expatriate assignment management/practices, (Black and Gregersen, 1999; Caligiuri and Colakoglu, 2007; Collings et al., 2007; Dani^man, 2014; Martins and Diaconescu, 2015; Harvey and Novicevic, 2001; Lin et al., 2012; Ntshona, 2007; Tungli and Peiperl, 2009), expatriate performance, success or failure (Ghafoor at al., 2011; McNulty and Chirie, 2011; Deen, 2011; Ren at al, 2015; Goodall et al, 2007; Harzing, 1995; Kartika and Lee, 2014; McCabe, 1993), female expatriates, differences between male and female expatriates (Selmer and Leung, 2003; Lundstrom, 2013), improving expatriate productivity (Bird and Dunbar, 1991), expatriate social networks, country risks (Bader and Schuster, 2014) and so forth.

The literature is largely unanimous in recognizing the importance of expatriate performance and provide productivity on EM or international assignments. Therefore, many researchers have studied on common adaptation problems encountered by expariates, followed policies in different countries in EM on the basis of similar problems and they have reached some results. For example, Arthur and Bennett (1995) stated that expatriate performance may be determined by many factors such as motivation, flexibility, extra-cultural openness, and family situation and the expatriate performance equally determines the success of international business. Personnel adaptability to foreign culture (Miao et al., 2011; Wang and Fang, 2014; Huff et al., 2014; Li and Scullion, 2010; Koveshnikov et al., 2014; Mahajan and Toh, 2014; Yamazaki, 2010; Ntshona, 2007) , knowledge of host country-local- language,

training on cross culture, interest in overseas expariences, willingness of spouse to live abroad -for married expatriates- (Ntshona, 2007; Riusaia, 2000), attractive compensations (Ntshona, 2007; Hon and Lu, 2015; McNulty, 2014;) are accepted among the conditions to increasing the productivity of expatriate management. Expatriates' repatriation has also been treated as well as all mentioned factors. Black (1991) reports that although expatriate managers are coming back to what they consider 'home', more than 60 percent experience significant 'reverse culture shock'. Harris (1989) recommends that cross-cultural training should be provided for the repatriate too.

According to Kartika and Lee (2014), emotional and cultural inteligence, expatriates' experience in abroad, family support, family adaptability, parental demand and social capital have positively significant influence on expatriate adjustment. There have been some factors except the individual and social factors. For example, Boyacigiller (1990) analyzes motivating factors based on subsidiary characteristics that influence an international appointment. These are; a) the political risk of the country where the subsidiary is located; b) the subsidiary's complexity; c) the cultural distance between the parent country and that of the subsidiary; d) the interdependence between the parent company and subsidiaries.

By integrating all the above mentioned views, it would be reasonable to state that the productivity of expatriate management is associated with expatriates' personal attibutes, family situation, the cultural differencies between the host and parent country, other environmental factors in host country, past experiences, job opportunities especially about compensation and suchlike motivation factors. If the conditions do not appropriate and attractive for living abroad for a determined period, the multinational firms may be encourage the high level expatriate failure. Successful multinational operations partly depand on the successful managements of expatriates which is one of the functions of IHRM.

3. The Barriers to Increasing The Productivity in EM and Expatriate Practices in The World and Turkey

3.1. The Most Common Reasons of Expatriate Failure

Management of expatriation has become a significant research area that has been studied extensively in recent literature. Living in a different culture for work is a result of globalization and expatriate assignments are cross-cultural transfers of companies' human resources (Dani^man, 2014). In this cross-culturel transfer period, 'expatriates should not only learn how to adjust to new working conditions, but also about interacting with the culture of a new country' (Andreason 2003). It has been suggested that between 16 and 40 per cent of all expatriate managers end their foreign assignments early because of poor performance or their inability to adjust to the foreign environment. In addition, nearly fifty percent of the expatriates who do not return at an early stage perform at a relatively low level of effectiveness (Goodall et al, 2007).

When working in foreign countries, the employees have often encouraged to several barriers which have caused unwillingness for living in a foreign country or decline to their motivation and consequently their effectiveness in assigments. The most common barriers may be listed in following 8 groups:

• Cultural differencies: It is human nature to gravitate toward the familiar. Successful adaptation is impacted by value similarity, verbal and nonverbal pattern similarity, second language competence, and one's own self-concept. Additionally, a person's length of stay and motivation to adapt are also significant indicators of success. The more the expatriate managers 'fits' in with the crosscultural context in which he or she find themselves, the greater their managerial. (Ghafoor et al., 2011; Black and Gregersen, 1999; Danisman, 2014; Ren et al., 2014; Goodall et al, 2007; Jackson II and Hogg, 2010; Lin et al., 2012; Sinangil and Ones, 2001; The Economist, 2010).

• Language difference: The language barrier is the most obvious negative factor encountered by expatriates. Unfortunately, language training, which should be a part of the preparations for expatriate assignments, is very often neglected by the multinationals (Goodall et al, 2007; McCabe, 1993; The Economist, 2010).

• Miscommunication with local staff: Just as language interpreters are necessary to ensure accurate linguistic communication, 'culture interpreters' can be essential when people from different cultures are attempting to resolve a problem. Culture interpreters, who are individuals with considerable experience in, for example, both home and host cultures, can explain the meaning of each side's communication behavior and serve as a cultural bridge. Also, team power should be expose to sustainable success and the quality of the teamwork between expatriates and local staff is critical to building and sustaining competitive advantage in the multinational firms. The harmony of team is very important (Goodall et al, 2007).

• Family support/spouses: Relevant research has repeatedly shown that spouses play a crucial role in the successful assignees' adjustment to and completion of a global assignment. Studies exploring spouses' willingness to relocate can be grouped into three types, namely, individual factors -e.g., spouse job involvement, spouse adventurousness, spouse adjustment, and spouse stressors-, family factors -e.g., elderly relatives, age of children, and number of children at home-, and organizational factors -e.g., importance of career support from the home company- (Lin et al., 2012; McCabe, 1993; Sinangil and Ones, 2001; The Economist, 2010 )

• Gender: Accordingly to Adler (1987); traditionally, three reasons have been put forth for the low number of female expatriates: (1) women are not interested in international careers; (2) organizations refuse to send women employees abroad for fear of poor job performance in foreign cultures; and (3) foreign cultures discriminate against women. Selmer and Leung refer that (2003), although women are generally treated as equals to men in Western societies -e.g., Germany, the U.K., Japan, and the U.S.-, it less likely to have female expatriates in Asia societies -e.g., Taiwan-. It is determined that it is because of generally insufficient social support, work-family conflicts, having children/ages of children, self-perceived barriers in international careers, the competitive disadvantages of female expatriates against to competitive advantages of male expatriates, cross-cultural adjustment difficulties (Selmer and Leung, 2003; Lin et al., 2012; Lundstrom, 2013; Sinangil and Ones, 2001).

• Personnel adabtability: One of the most important factors is to select the right person to send to work in another unit of the same company located in a foreign country. The right person has to have personal adaptability. "Adaptation skill or the other individual skills include sufficient knowledge, job satisfaction, self-confidence, interpersonal skills, perception skills, interest to host country or past experiences in abroad" (Ren et al., 2014; Sinangil and Ones, 2001; The Economist, 2010).

• Mismanagement: To constitute a good balance between delegation and guidance, to provide empowerment and to motivate staff to produce their own action plans, to make ready staff for difference living conditions such as by training have strong important for successful EM.

• Other host-country factors: Besides the values, beliefs, and attitudes of the host culture, also safety and health risks that expatriates do not face in their home countries, politic, legal and economic factors represent a part of the puzzle that can advance understanding of other host-country factors contribute to expatriate adjustment and overseas job performance (Bader and Schuster, 2014; Lin et al., 2012; McCabe, 1993; Sinangil and Ones, 2001; The Economist, 2010 ).

According to an Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) report (The Economist, 2010) "cultural sensitivity" is the most important attribute for an expatriate, 70% of respondents (418 executives from 77 different countries) agree that it is more difficult to identify and recruit managers for an overseas posting than it is to recruit managers in their home market. The other attributes are namely; experience of living and working abroad (%39), ability to lead by example (%38), foreign language skills (%32), ability to network effectively (%27), experience of operating in difficult or fast-moving markets (%22), expertise in the company's products (%16), loyalty to the company and its values (%12), being a good ambassador for the brand (%11), having originated from the country in question (%6) and others (%2).

A high proportion of expatriate assignment failures or early repatriation are the result of similar difficulties which is listed above. A survey by the Employee Benefit Plan Review in 2001 suggested that 20% of expatriates return home early (Ghafoor et al., 2011). Early or after completed the task, "repatriation at the end of an assignment represents another potential area of difficulty for the expatriate, their family and the organisation. The individual

will have probably developed whilst they were working overseas and would naturally wish to capitalise on the additional competency gained - perhaps by moving into a more senior role. However, there may not be a suitable role available at the time of this repatriation; employees who have remained 'at home' will have expectations of career development and may resent the 'sudden' promotion of a returnee; the returnee may have difficulty settling back into their 'old' location; the returnee may have lost both touch and their place within previous social, business, professional and support networks; company focus, policies, practices and procedures are likely to have changed during the absence of the expatriate and so they may not be as effective or able to deliver a previously high performance until they become re-established again. Problems of readjustment are also likely for the partner and children when they return to what to them should be familiar surroundings, friends and activities, only to find that things and people have changed during their absence" (Martin, 2010). Human resources management (HRM) departments of multinational enterprisers should develop difference management methods both repatriates and expatriates staff to overcome mentioned difficulties and create beneficial work relationships between foreign and local staff.

3.2. The Expatriate Management in the World

According to Harvey and Novicevic (2001); if organizations are going to be effective global competitors, the competence repertoire of expatriate managers will play an integral role in the effective development and implementation of the organizations' strategies. In the 2012 Global Relocation Trends Survey report (Brookfield, 2012), growth in international assignee populations continues to be strong and, in fact, has strengthened well beyond what has been reported in the last 3 Global Relocation Trends Survey reports before 2012. According to report results, 64% of respondents who were senior human resource professionals and/or managers of international relocation programs, indicated their assignee population increased and only 11% of companies saw a decline in their international assignee populations, compared to last years.

2012 Global Relocation Trends Survey report has also shown international assignee demographics have the following characteristics (Brookfield, 2012):

• The percentage of female assignees increased to 20%, which is up 2% from the year before (female assignees continues to rise).

• There was a marked jump in assignees aged 20-29 years-old, from 9% to 13% while the 20-29 and 30-49 year-old groups declined to the previous year.

• There are far fewer married international assignees than in the past. The percentage of international assignees that are married was 60%, the lowest in the last four years of the survey.

• The percentage of assignees accompanied by children is also dropping (%43), which is the lowest reported in the history of the survey (historical average is 56%). This decrease can be correlated with the increase in the number of assignees who fall in the 20-29 year old age group and the decrease in the number of married international assignees.

• According to 2012 results; employee leaves to work for another company (a new response) as the top reason at 19%. Other factors that were cited were spouse/partner dissatisfaction (17%) and other family concerns (11%). Respondents also ranked job does not meet expectations, inability to adapt and inadequate job performance, all at 10%. The corresponding percentages for these responses in 2011 were N/A, 18%, 8%, 10%, 12%, 13%.

• As to when repatriation is addressed, 20% of respondents discussed repatriation/re-entry with assignees before the assignees left on assignment, 26% did so at least six months before the assignees' return, 48% discussed it less than six months before assignment completion and 6% did not discuss. The historical averages were 24%, 27% 43% and 7% respectively.

According to an other report which has been offered by Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) (The Economist, 2010); Asia is the most likely emerging market destination for expatriates. Companies are far more likely to send

expatriate staff to China, India and other Asian countries than to any other emerging market region. The Middle East, Russia and Eastern Europe combined are the next most common destinations. However, companies are also increasingly selecting managers from emerging markets to run other regions. More than one-half of expatriate (%53) postings still last the traditional length of between two and five years.Goodall and friends (2007) explain expatriates wiews in China which is most likely emerging market destination for expatriates according to EIU Report- in one of their studies: Learning Chinese is too difficult task for foreign expatriates. Team does not exist in China. Local staff don't know how to work with other people at all. There is no open communication. Turnover rates are so high (e.g. 22, 30 or 35 percent) and patience and persist are the essence of successful management in China. Chinese people come from a relatively high power distance culture, often expects to be told in detail everything that they have to do. An expatriate manager say that "The local staff will not tell you when they don't understand. They may say something like, 'I'll see what I can do,' or 'I'll do my best' which usually means 'no' but leaves things open so you can raise the issue at a later date". He also emphasizes the importance of praising people for doing a good job, and of building up their sense of pride and self-confidence. Some of the employees express their dissatisfaction with the inequality between expatriates and local staff when it came to compensation and promotion opportunities in China.The other most likely emerging market destination for expatriates is Japan Compare to United States and European multinationals, Japanese firms are found to have a greater tendency to rely on expatriates to manage their overseas subsidiaries. The existence of management development programmes have a strong influence on the loyalty of expatriates during and after their international assignments (Mahoney and Tan, 2006). As to decide the right person to send abroad; Martins and Diaconescus' study (2014) shows that in Portuguese companies, the key criteria are: trust from managers, years of service, technical and languages' competences, organisational knowledge and availability of candidates in the expatriates' recruitment and selection process. Expatriates' selection criteria vary significantly between American, European or Japanese companies. In Germany the candidate's availability for expatriation is the major selection criterion. In Japan it is the experience in the company, while in the UK and the USA, the technical and adequate abilities are the most appreciated ones. The relational abilities, the personality and the ability to work in teams are also important criteria in all countries, although differently valued.According to "The Expat Explorer" by HSBC Switzerland is the first country among those where foreigners wish to work in while best opportunities in terms of wage are provided by Asian countries. 19 % of those participated in this questionnaire from that region gain money equal to or more than 200000 dollars per year while China takes the first place with the percentage 38 % for those gaining money equal to or more than 200000 dollars per year. Ratio of those gaining an amount equal to or more than 200000 dollars in India is 24 %, in Hong Kong is 23 %. 56 % of those working in Middle East prefer that regions due to career opportunities and ratio of those who state that greater income had a role in such preference is 35 per cent. According to the same questionnaire New Zealand takes the first place in terms of work-life balance. New Zealand which is also preferred in terms of climate and friendly local people is also at the top in terms of health, educational opportunities and safety (Ceylan, 2014).

In todays' global economy, having a workforce that is fluent in the ways of the world isn't a luxury. It's a competitive necessity. It has been seen that the companies have tried to manage their expatriates effectively in different ways all over the world. Although there are several different methods to ensure the success of expatriates from one country to the other, the main goal does not change. Indeed, the only way to change fundamentally how people think about doing business globally is by having them work abroad for several months at a time.

3.3. The Expatriate Management in Turkey

Turkey's dynamic structure which is open to perpetual change, development and competition makes Turkish workers inclined to and competent in terms of adaptation to different markets, cultures and dynamics and increases the change of being successful in such roles. Turkish managers experienced in working in development and crisis environment are successful in management of change, developing and applying dynamic strategies (HRdergi, 2008). Turkish companies are providing expatriates send by them to foreign countries with great support (HRdergi, 2013).

Assignment as mobile labor force in foreign countries has existed since 2000 in Turkey. According to "Questionnaire for Management of International Assignment and Mobile Labor force" (2014) conducted by

PERYON and Mercer, an increase of 60 % in international assignments in Turkey is expected until the end of 2016. Major part of the assignments is composed of long-term (between 1 to 5 years) assignments. The countries to which the highest amount of assignments is made by Turkey are Germany, Russia and Kazakhstan while the countries least preferred by Turkish expatriates are Egypt, Iraq and Algeria. According to a study to which 23 companies from Turkey had participated main criteria used for determining personnel to be assigned by HR departments in Turkey to work in foreign countries are skills and competencies, language, performance, cost of employee and international experience. Main obstacles against international assignment are family matters, problems in career management, lack of standardization in total rewarding for international assignments and inequality of opportunity after project/assignment (Sabah, 2014).

According the results of questionnaire conducted for the 2nd Expatriate Management Summit organized by HRdergi on 5 February 2014 in istanbul with participation of large companies (HRdergi, 2014) the participants state that the most significant problem experienced in expatriate assignment are contradiction and difficulties caused by legal legislation. Major part of the participants state "expatriate management is in general compatible with skills management strategies of companies, and 52 % of them say while determining expatriate candidate objective assessment were carried out based on certain criteria. Ratio of companies which state that they had a written expat policy is 75 %.

Numerous consulting firms in Turkey provide trainings on adaptation to the country for foreigners working in Turkey (e.g. Relocation Management Services). At the same time companies in Turkey which employ expatriates fulfil such duty through their human resources management departments (HRdergi, 2008; HRdergi, 2014; HRdergi, 2014a). Some of the problems experienced by expatriates assigned by various countries around world and came to Turkey and start living in big provinces in Turkey namely istanbul are: (1) Locals not acting in accordance with traffic rules, (2) intense traffic density especially in istanbul, (3) high living costs, and (4) slow bureucratic procedures, especially those relating to work permits (HRdergi, 2008).

One of the points which draw attention of foreigners working in Turkey is the great importance attached to hierarchical order. Power distance is substantially great. Many foreign workers think that respect shown by Turkish employees to their supervisors is excessive. Place works of top managers and those working at lower levels are designed to be far away from each other (for example in different floors) and offices of such top managers are designed to be luxurious to reflect power (HRdergi, 2008). In addition to such impressions of foreigners there are also concerns resulting from having wrong knowledge about Turkey. For instance, "Female expatriates and wives of male expatriates think that they would face problems in Turkey as a woman and should restrict their behaviors. However after arriving in Turkey modernism seen in urbanization and socialization made them astonished" (HRdergi, 2008).

According to results of a questionnaire called "The Expatriate Explorer" carried out by HSBC for 9288 foreigners working in 100 different countries, foreigners working in Turkey like most the Turkish cuisine and climate. According to the same results 85 % of foreigners working in Turkey can easily get used to the local cuisine and 82 % to Turkish climate. Ratio of foreigners working in Mediterranean countries and do shopping from local shops and markets is 68 %; Turkey in this respect takes the first place among 100 countries with the ratio 84 %. 4 of each 5 foreigners working in Turkey state that they got used to local cuisine easily. This ratio for Italy is 83 %, for France is 80 %. World average is 73 % (Ceylan, 2014).

§ebnem Ustaoglu, the Administrative Affairs Director of British American Tobacco engaged in commercial activities in Turkey says they were applying many planned practices in order to make their foreign employees and their families fell happy and peaceful throughout the period they lived in Turkey (HRdergi, 2008). Turkey with the target to be one of the 10 strongest economies of the world as of 2023 tries to increase its development and export volume significantly. "Developing an attractive environment for expatriates" and "Qualified human resources" which take place among the policies set forth for the above-mentioned purpose rank among the first four priorities (Yased, 2014).

4. Suggests to Ensure Success and Conclusion

Globalisation is pushing companies to make their workers more mobile than ever before. Management of this mobile personnel is a crucial ingredient for achieving success in the global marketplace (Black and Gregersen, 1999). One key question in expatriate management is how to ensure expatriate success in global assignments. The answer to this question has involved suggestions for better expatriate selection, training, and other interventions (Sinangil and Ones, 2001).

According to a survey result, 92% of multinational corporations make expatriate selection decisions based on managerial recommendations; over half do not use any structured procedures; and less than 10% do not use any type of screening (Human Resource Institute, 1998). Academic and practitioner literature is replete with calls not to use technical skills as the basis for selecting expatriates. We prefer interpreting this literature to mean that organizations should not make expatriate selection decisions based solely on technical expertise, also should be considered as one factor in a selection system that includes other variables such as personality. There is ample evidence that ability, knowledge and skills are valid predictors of performance in any performance domain (Harvey and Novicevic, 2001; Sinagil and Ones, 2001). Regardless of the culture you are working in the truth that should be always kept in mind is that you can be successful only through humans. Whereas it should not be forgotten too that besides sending the right person, sending people for the right reasons is quitely important to ensure success.

Cross-cultural training has been widely discussed in Western studies. Lin and friends (2012) have separated training function in three groups: "The first is professional knowledge training, including understanding the mission, technology, and innovation. The second is skill training, such as supervisory skills, administrative skills, cross-cultural skills, decision-making skills, communication skills, and negotiation skills. The third is language and etiquette training, and the last is host-country cultural sensitivity training, including political issues and family adaptation". Some foreign companies such as Nokia, Andrew and Upjohn provide their expatriate managers with pre-departure culture training to help them better adapt to the new environment (Goodall at al, 2007). It has seen that human resource management departmans of multinational enterprisers have to lead to the comprehensive training programs as well as provide good compensation packages and development opportunities. It has been also recommeded bilateral mentoring programmes to human resources management practisers for assignees. "The concept of mentoring has been identified into two sources, host country mentoring and home country mentoring. Host country mentors are host country nationals who have the knowledge about the lifestyle and culture of the host country that could help the expatriates' adjustment process. Home country mentors are parent country nationals who have been expatriated to the same country and are supposed to have knowledge about both the home and host countries. The mentoring network enhances expatriate adjustment and development for a successful transformation" (Kartika and Lee, 2014; McCabe, 1993).

Getting the right people in the right place for the right length of time to execute that international strategy is no simple matter. A successful expat program should include intercultural qualification and/or individual assessment tools, career planning, language education, a program for support to spouses, information about relevant country, cultural trainings, cultural coaching support, employee support programs, safety recommendations and trainings for intercultural skills to be provided after arriving in relevant country. Expatriate failure rates are rather high and extremely costly. Virtually all the literature points to inappropriate candidate selection procedures and inadequate cross-cultural training for the candidate and his/her family as the causes of high failure rates, and yet there remains a reluctance among management to commit the resources necessary to prepare expatriate assignees adequately (McCabe, 1993). To reduce parental demand and family to work conflict, multinationals may need to offer more opportunities for social networking during international assignments to provide informational and psychological support to the expatriate and the family. Understanding and knowing well the factors which can influence and be influenced by expatriate adjustment are very important for the MNCs, especially for human resource managers who engage in EM (Kartika and Lee, 2014). In global period multinationals should be receptive which is the main condition for competitive advantage and a successful business performance in global era. And they should be prepared to barter the roles with the expatriate in some parts of the assignment process. For example, the strong

process of expatriate selection may be finish soon. According to Dr McNulty (2014); "Expatriate assignments used to be very much company-generated. Companies selected individuals. This tradition has now been turned on its head, and many assignments are now self-initiated. Employees say to themselves that they need to do this for the sake of their future career, either within this company or within the industry as a whole.Although expatriate failure rates and adjustment have been studied and written about for over 20 years, they have not been sufficiently deal with expatriates in Turkey or Turkeys' EM. This study have briefly explain the causes of expatriate failures and give an opinion about expatriate practices in Turkey. We hope that this coverage can serve as a basis for future research about EM in Turkey. As to future research, we highly recommend that EM literature involve expanding the research findings from mostly Western expatriates to expatriates from other parts of the world (e.g.Turk expatriates working in America) and to other occupational groups (non-managerial, non-professional guest workers). The global work culture facilitates the coexistence of and cooperation among all occupational groups in all multiple subsidiaries located in diverse cultures and geographical zones.


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