Scholarly article on topic 'I * English Language'

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The Year's Work in English Studies
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Academic research paper on topic "I * English Language"

English Language


This chapter has fourteen sections: 1. General; 2. History of English Linguistics; 3. Phonetics and Phonology; 4. Morphology; 5. Syntax; 6. Semantics; 7. Lexicography, Lexicology, and Lexical Semantics; 8. Onomastics; 9. Dialectology and Sociolinguistics; 10. New Englishes and Creolistics; 11. Second Language Acquisition; 12. English as a Lingua Franca; 13. Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis; 14. Stylistics. Section 1 is by Verena Haser; section 2 is by Anita Auer; section 3 is by Bert Botma; sections 4 and 5 are by Marion Elenbaas and Wim van der Wurff; section 6 is by Beata Gyuris; section 7 is by Kathryn Allan; section 8 is by Erin Vobornik; section 9 is by Lieselotte Anderwald; section 10 is by Anne Schroder; section 11 is by Cristobal Lozano; section 12 is by Cornelia Hulmbauer, Anita Santner-Wolfartsberger, Claudio Schekulin, and Astrid Ollinger; section 13 is by Marcus Callies; section 14 is by Rocío Montoro.

1. General

This year has seen the publication of an important volume on studies on the English language. Contours of English and English Language Studies, edited by Michael Adams and Anne Curzan in honour of Richard Bailey, is a treasure trove of contributions highlighting different facets of English, focusing on 'American Dialects' (Part I), the 'History of the English Language' (Part II), 'English Lexicography' (Part III), and 'English Language Studies and Education' (Part IV). Following the editors' introduction, the first chapter by Dennis R. Preston, 'Michigander Talk: God's Own English' (pp. 17-33), is

The Year's Work in English Studies, Volume 92 (2013) © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the English Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: doi:10.1093/ywes/mat006

an intriguing account of different methods used for studying Michiganders' attitudes towards their own as well as different varieties. The next paper, authored by Walt Wolfram, is devoted to 'The African American English Canon in Sociolinguistics' (pp. 34-52, see also Section 9 below), offering a critical overview of core tenets concerning the nature of AAE that should be revisited in future research, such as its supposed homogeneity or its social distribution. William A. Kretzschmar's 'The Beholder's Eye: Using Self-Organizing Maps to Understand American Dialects' (pp. 53-70, see also Section 9) draws on neural network analysis to identify American dialect areas. The response to these three papers by Sonja J. Lanehart ('To Continue Moving Forward in English Language and Linguistics Research in the Twenty-First Century', pp. 71-81) maps out some important future concerns of research on English language and linguistics. Part II opens with an interesting contribution by Lynda Mugglestone on 'Liberman and Michael Faraday: The Principles and Practices of ''Talking Proper'' in Nineteenth-Century England' (pp. 87-107). In another well-argued contribution, Anatoly Liberman expounds 'The Etymology of the Word Wife' (pp. 108-34, see also Section 7). The third paper in this section, by Edgar Schneider ('English into Asia: From Singaporean Ubiquity to Chinese Learners' Features', pp. 135-56), offers a comparison between the status of English in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Japan, and scrutinizes key aspects of the type of English spoken by Chinese learners. Again, the response article, by Colette Moore on the 'History of the English Language in the English Department: Past and Present', puts the foregoing contributions into an interesting perspective. The first paper in Part III is Joan Houston Hall's 'New Suckers from the Old Root' (pp. 173-90, see also Section 7), dealing with processes of creating novel words in the Dictionary of American Regional English, which features many relatively rare or non-standard expressions. Jesse Sheidlower's chapter on 'How Quotation Paragraphs in Historical Dictionaries Work: The Oxford English Dictionary' (pp. 191-212, see also Section 7) concentrates on key issues relating to quotations in historical dictionaries, e.g. the basis for selecting quotations. The next paper, by Michael B. Montgomery on 'The Core or the Periphery? The Lack of a Dictionary of Irish English on Historical Principles' (pp. 213-36, see also Section 7) is concerned with obstacles preventing the compilation of a dictionary of IrE on historical principles. Again, an interesting response, in this case by Marsha L. Dutton, concludes the section ('Embracing the Digital Siren: Collaborative Lexicography in the Twenty-First Century', pp. 237-48). The final part, on education, features three engaging contributions. It opens with a chapter by Geneva Smitherman and Minnie Quartey-Annan on 'African American Language and Education: How Far Have We Come?' (pp. 254-77), followed by Dennis Baron's article on 'Language and Education: The More Things Change' (pp. 278-97), which provides an account of the extent to which American education has been influenced by linguistic research. The last chapter, by Amy J. Devitt, deals with 'Written Language in Use: An Essay on Returning Language to Writing Studies'. The response, by Susanmarie Harrington ('Watch the Language: Scholarship, Teaching, and Change'), concludes this stimulating collection.

The notion of events plays a pivotal role in many linguistic approaches. Yet few studies have addressed the way events are mentally represented and how they are processed. The monograph Event Representation in Language and Cognition, edited by Jürgen Bohnemeyer and Eric Pederson, is designed to close this gap, dealing with the study of event representation from a linguistic and cognitive science perspective. Following a highly informative introduction by the editors to past and present trends in the study of event representation, Andrew Pawley, in 'Event Representation in Serial Verb Constructions' (pp. 13-42), tackles a question that is of fundamental importance: What is the relationship between linguistic and cognitive representations? Specifically, what conclusions can be drawn concerning the cognitive partitioning of events in different languages—English vs. Kalam—on the basis of striking differences in how events are expressed (simple verbs in English typically correspond to serial verbs, i.e. complexes of several verbs, in Kalam)? 'The Macro-Event Property: The Segmentation of Causal Chains' (pp. 43-67), by Jürgen Bohnemeyer, N.J. Enfield, James Essegbey, and Sotaro Kita, uses a relatively novel criterion for identifying single as opposed to multiple events: the so-called macro-event property identifies what counts as a single (macro-)event. This contribution offers evidence for cross-linguistic differences with regard to the types of events which can be expressed as macro-events. The chapter by Mary Carroll and Christiane von Stutterheim on 'Event Representation, Time Event Relations, and Clause Structure: A Cross-linguistic Study of English and German' (pp. 68-83) takes on an issue that has so far been unexplored, expounding the relation between information structuring and the representation of events in English and German. Ash Ozyurek and Pamela Perniss give an interesting account of 'Event Representations in Signed Languages' (pp. 84-107), while Jeff Loucks and Eric Pederson in 'Linguistic and Non-Linguistic Categorization of Complex Motion Events' (pp. 108-33) take a critical look at methodological and other aspects of previous research on motion events. Another important contribution authored by Dan Slobin, Melissa Bowerman, Penelope Brown, Sonja Eisenbeiß and Bhuvana Narasimhan on 'Putting Things in Places: Developmental Consequences of Linguistic Typology' (pp. 134-65) focuses on child language and the ways in which one particular kind of event representation— placement events—is shaped by one's native language. Marianne Gullberg explores 'Language-Specific Encoding of Placement Events in Gestures' (pp. 166-88), using speech-accompanying gestures as a window on event conceptualization. Her work starts out from the observation that typological differences between languages can be observed relating to whether languages employ finer or more coarse-grained distinctions for depicting placement events (e.g. French mettre corresponds to different verbs in Dutch). These linguistic differences are reflected in cognitive differences concerning the extent to which speakers pay attention to details of the relevant events as revealed by different types of gestures. Another intriguing paper by Christian Dobel, Reinhild Glanemann, Helene Kreysa, Pienie Zwitserlood, and Sonja Eisenbeiß (pp. 189-215) on the 'Visual Encoding of Coherent and Non-Coherent Scenes' capitalizes on eye-tracking methodology to throw new light on how events are processed by our visual system during the production of speech.

One interesting finding of their work is that the type of linguistic contributions the participants are expected to produce (e.g. description vs. simple naming of persons in a scene) modulates the way events are perceived. In 'Talking about Events' (pp. 216-27), Barbara Tversky, Jeffrey Zacks, Julie Bauer Morrison, and Bridgette Martin Hard concentrate on the comprehension of the part-whole organization of events. The authors demonstrate that the requirement to use language while observing events impacts on how events are arranged into parts, with a more elaborate hierarchical organization being imposed on events that participants were asked to describe while perceiving them, as opposed to events that the participants were asked to analyse into parts in the absence of language. Finally, Phillip Wolff, Matthew Hausknecht, and Kevin Holmes ('Absent Causes, Present Effects: How Omissions Cause Events', pp. 228-52) deal with the notion of causation, which is an integral part of event comprehension.

In past decades, linguistic anthropology has emerged as a burgeoning field of research on language. Its proponents investigate a gamut of topics ranging from traditional concerns about language and thought to issues that are also of pivotal importance to sociolinguists, such as the relationship between language and gender or language and globalization. The methodology employed is similarly diversified. It will hardly come as a surprise, then, that textbooks in the field expound a wide conspectus of themes, with often merely partial overlap in the topics addressed. Laura Ahearn's Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology is an accessible introduction to the field. The book falls into three parts, the first one addressing, among other things, 'Some Basic Questions' including issues relating to the general theoretical and methodological background in linguistic anthropology. This part also expounds the time-honoured debate on the relation between language and thought. The second part focuses on 'Communities of Speakers, Hearers, Readers, and Writers' and expounds topics such as multilingualism and literacy research. Issues such as the relation between language and gender, and language and ethnicity, take centre-stage in the third part of the book ('Language, Power, and Social Differentiation').

Another valuable introduction to linguistic anthropology has been published in a substantially revised edition, featuring two new authors (James Stanlaw and Nobuko Adachi): Language, Culture and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology by Zdenek Salzmann, James Stanlaw, and Nobuko Adachi complements Ahearn's book nicely and seems to be aimed at novices in the field of linguistics, offering brief introductions to core domains of linguistics such as phonology, morphology and syntax, and language variation. One interesting field not elaborated on in Ahearn's book is linguistic evolution. Other topics are common to both books (e.g. language and gender; language and ethnicity).

The embodied cognition movement, espoused by an ever-growing number of linguists, psychologists, and philosophers, is often portrayed as turning upside down many long-cherished tenets about the nature of human language and thought. Embodied Cognition by Lawrence Shapiro is an excellent overview of the basic assumptions underlying this framework. Reading Shapiro's work brings home most forcefully that the key ingredients of

embodied cognition—for example the idea that cognition/language, the human body, and the environment are inextricably intertwined—are in need of close scrutiny. Shapiro provides a balanced account of major issues in the debate between embodied cognition and traditional approaches to human language and thought, starting out from a succinct overview of the traditional framework. The author also offers a (frequently critical) discussion of how the idea of embodied cognition has been fleshed out in the pertinent literature. Particularly valuable for many linguists will be his thoughts on the idea of linguistic relativism and the cognitivist account of metaphor. Important results of experimental research in psycholinguistics are expounded with a view to answering the question whether and to what extent they actually possess the theoretical significance commonly assigned to them. A case in point is the so-called action-sentence compatibility effect, which embodied cognition theorists commonly interpret as showing that we mentally simulate the actions expressed in sentences. In short, the book is indispensable for anyone occupied with current research on language and thought from an embodied, or indeed a disembodied, perspective.

Embodied cognition, more specifically embodied semantics, is also one of the topics in a new introduction to psycholinguistics, Matthew Traxler's Introduction to Psycholinguistics: Understanding Language Science. Psycho-linguistics is a complex area of research, which many aspiring students find difficult to grasp. Ideally, a textbook should be accessible but at the same time sufficiently detailed, enabling students to conduct their own experiments and to assess the research of others. Fortunately, Traxler's book meets both requirements—it is accessible, if hardly an easy read, and at the same time recommendable for the comparatively detailed exposition of individual issues. All the major themes in psycholinguistics are covered, including speech production, lexical access and representation, syntactic parsing, discourse comprehension, language acquisition, and bilingualism. One of the book's main assets is the inclusion of additional topics that are sometimes given relatively short shrift in other introductions. Among those, I particularly enjoyed the chapters devoted to the comprehension of non-literal language, dialogue, and sign language. Students interested in language disorders will profit from chapters on aphasia and the role of the right hemisphere for language comprehension.

Recursivity has long been recognized as an important and possibly the central characteristic of human language and cognition. Michael C. Corballis's monograph The Recursive Mind: The Origins of Human Language, Thought, and Civilization goes along with this widely shared assumption, but gives it a new twist by challenging the time-honoured tenet associated with Chomsky that language is indispensable for human thought. Corballis's main emphasis is rather on two 'modes of thought' that are recursive and of crucial importance to language and its emergence. The first of these modes is remembering past experiences and projecting oneself into future or hypothetical events. According to Corballis, remembering is a recursive operation 'in that one can insert previous personal experience into present awareness' (p. 84). Corballis proposes that language evolved in order to give expression to this realm of the non-present. The second mode of thought is mind-reading.

Mind-reading is recursive: a person cannot only engage in first-order mind-reading (e.g. John may assume that Sally believes in the Easter Rabbit), but also in second-order mind-reading (John may assume that Sally assumes that he believes in the Easter Rabbit), etc. This ability to project oneself into other persons' minds is part and parcel of our ability to conduct everyday linguistic interactions.

David Crystal's Internet Linguistics: A Student Guide—a textbook on a nascent and increasingly important discipline—explores how the internet affects language. The examples used to illustrate Crystal's points are largely taken from English. The book falls into nine chapters. One of the principal aims of chapter 1 is to correct some widespread beliefs about the putative negative impact of the internet on language (such as its supposed speeding up the dissolution of stylistic standards). Chapter 2 focuses on the peculiarities of the internet as a medium for communication. Language as used on Twitter is dealt with in chapter 3, while chapter 4 tackles linguistic changes triggered by the internet. The next two chapters are devoted to the 'Multilingual Internet' and 'Applied Internet Linguistics', the latter chapter containing thoughts on issues relevant for researchers planning to do praxis-oriented research. One of the most intriguing parts of the book is chapter 7 ('A Forensic Case Study'), which deals with how to detect threats to online security on the basis of linguistic analysis. Chapter 8 ('Towards a Theoretical Internet Linguistics') focuses on the theoretical implications of internet language, for example with regard to theories that can help to illuminate the nature of internet language. The final chapter offers some useful ideas for students and scholars who wish to embark on their own research. This chapter and the book as a whole are bound to pique the curiosity of many linguists and thus contribute to internet linguistics becoming more firmly established as a full-fledged subject in its own right.

Margaret Thomas's Fifty Key Thinkers on Language and Linguistics covers a great number of scholars who have developed ground-breaking ideas on language. The author discusses many famous linguists (Karl Brugmann, Deborah Cameron, James McCawley, Joseph Greenberg, William Labov (also mentioned in Section 9 below), and Noam Chomsky, to name but a few), several important philosophers whose work is relevant to linguistics (e.g. John Austin, Paul Grice, Ludwig Wittgenstein; but also Plato and Aristotle), as well as other scholars whose research has had an impact on the discipline (e.g. the anthropologist Paul Broca and the psychologist Roger Brown). This book is an excellent reference work, which should be accessible to everyone conversant with some core linguistic knowledge.

One of the most difficult challenges linguists face is to get a grip on the philosophical underpinnings of much research on language. A volume edited by Barry Lee offers thirteen lucid chapters plus a substantial introduction on Philosophy of Language: The Key Thinkers. There is relatively little overlap with the work discussed above, given this volume's more narrow focus on philosophy. It not only includes chapters devoted to the 'usual suspects', such as Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Carnap, John Austin, Ludwig Wittgenstein (two separate chapters), William Quine, Noam Chomsky, and Paul Grice, but also offers contributions on influential thinkers who are not

always treated at length in comparable introductions (Michael Dummett, and especially Jacques Derrida). Inevitably, space constraints have prevented the inclusion of some major philosophers, such as John Searle or Jerry Fodor. The chapters are written by experts in the respective areas (e.g. Arif Ahmed, Kent Bach, and Kirk Ludwig, among many others).

Turning from largely theoretical to methodological concerns, the formerly widespread use of introspection for assessing grammaticality or acceptability has fallen out of favour with many linguists. The use of 'magnitude estimation' is one example of a sophisticated method that aims at greater empirical validity. In magnitude estimation, the intensity or magnitude of a given stimulus is evaluated with respect to a reference stimulus, which remains the same throughout a study. Magnitude estimation takes centre stage in a paper by Thomas Weskott and Gisbert Fanselow, 'On the Informativity of Different Measures of Linguistic Acceptability' (Language 87[2011] 249-73), which examines the relative merits and disadvantages of several measures commonly used in acceptability ratings. To address the question whether the method of magnitude estimation offers more reliable results than binary and n-point scale judgements, the authors conducted several acceptability-rating studies involving variation in German word order. Their basic finding is that, contrary to the claims espoused by advocates of magnitude estimation, other methods seem to be superior in terms of informativity and accuracy.

A striking example of how typological research and close attention to a single language can cross-fertilize each other is provided in a paper by Frantisek Lichtenberg, Jyotsna Vaid and Hsin-Chin Chen, 'On the Interpretation of Alienable vs. Inalienable Possession: A Psycholinguistic Investigation' (CogLing 22[2011] 659-89). The authors' goal is to examine the motivation for a common phenomenon in Oceanic (as well as a number of other) languages by having a close look at English. Their focus is on the distinction between alienable and inalienable possession, which is overtly encoded in the grammar of Oceanic languages, but not in English. Examples of inalienable possession typically include equivalents of English John's father or John's head. These expressions illustrate that inalienable constructions are typically used with a possessum that is intrinsically relational, such as husband or head (the latter being relational through functioning as part of a larger whole). Examples of alienable possession include equivalents of English my car, John's book, etc. Finer distinctions between types of alienable posses-sion—though not between types of inalienable possession—are also encoded in many languages. The authors propose that these facts can be explained in terms of salience, pointing out that in the case of inalienable possession, there is generally a 'salient relation' between possessor and possessum (e.g. the relation of kinship or part-whole relations). Given the presence of such a salient relation, a special construction specifying the kind of relation linking possessor and possessed is dispensable. Matters are different in the case of alienable possession, where a construction is often open to different interpretations due to the absence of a specific salient relation—witness examples such as John's book ('the book he wrote', 'the book he bought', etc.). This type of possession therefore profits to a greater extent from special constructions for different subtypes of the possessive relationship. Supporting

this interpretation with findings from a language that does not grammatically encode the distinction between alienable and inalienable possession, the authors conducted a series of experiments using English possessive phrases. Their psycholinguistic and corpus-based studies offer evidence that, in general, a relational possessum has a different impact on how possessive expressions are construed than a non-relational possessum. Constructions involving a relational possessum are almost invariably interpreted in terms of intrinsic possession and usually give rise to a smaller range of interpretations than do constructions involving a non-relational possessum. Furthermore, the type of possessor has a considerable effect on the interpretation of constructions involving a non-relational possessum (compare the authors' example relating to the non-relational possessum house (p. 683): a likely interpretation of the architect's house is 'the house built by the architect', while this interpretation is less probable in expressions such as the governor's house).

An important paper by Ina Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Franziska Kretzsch-mar, Sarah Tune, Luming Wang, Safiye Genc, Markus Philipp, Dietmar Roehm, and Matthias Schlesewsky is likely to have a considerable impact on neuro-linguistic research, notably on the interpretation of event-related potential (ERPs), which capture brain activity measured via electro-encephalography (EEG): 'Think Globally: Cross-Linguistic Variation in Electrophysiological Activity during Sentence Comprehension' (B&A 117[2011] 133-52). The authors investigate so-called semantic reversal anomalies, i.e. constructions that are grammatically correct from a purely syntactic perspective, but semantically implausible; another defining feature of semantic reversal anomalies is that they can be converted to semantically plausible expressions by changing the assignment of thematic roles, e.g. The aria sang the diva can be turned into the plausible sentence The diva sang the aria). These constructions have been shown to elicit so-called P600 effects in English and Dutch (P600 refers to a positive deflection in the EEG, peaking around 600ms after the stimulus triggering the deflection has been presented). This finding is somewhat difficult to accommodate within two assumptions which have long been staples of neuro-linguistic research: P600 effects are commonly held to index syntactic reanalysis, while N400 effects (i.e. negative deflections at 400ms) indicate difficulties of lexical-semantic integration. Contrary to the findings for English and Dutch, semantic reversal anomalies should therefore give rise to N400 effects. Interestingly, however, studies conducted with German materials did find N400 effects as well as a late P300 for semantic reversal anomalies. N400 effects can also be found in such typologically distinct languages as Turkish and Chinese. These findings and previous research lend support to the idea that the N400 found in semantic reversal anomalies is different from well-known lexical N400 effects, though both types of N400 involve the 'sequence-independent combination of meaningful elements' (p. 147). According to the authors' model, the presence or absence of an N400 in semantic reversal anomalies can be traced to the way the process of verb-argument linking is realized in English/Dutch as opposed to German/Turkish/Chinese. Previous work suggests that English heavily relies on word order in assigning the thematic macro-roles actor and undergoer to arguments, i.e. linking is 'sequence-dependent': even in the face

of conflicting agreement cues, the first NP in simple sentence structures (NP-V-NP) is typically construed as the actor. By contrast, the grammatical system of German, Turkish, and Chinese makes more extensive use of different cues, including animacy and case. N400s result when such 'sequence-independent' cues used for linking turn out to be in conflict. In conjunction with their similarly intriguing interpretation of late positivity effects, the paper thus casts a new light on critical issues in neuro-linguistics.

The paper by Bornkessel-Schlesewsky et al. is part of a special issue featuring four papers presented at the first Neurobiology of Language Conference. The other papers in this issue are equally rewarding. The first two contributions will be of particular interest to specialists interested in the role of the temporal lobe. In 'Sub-Centimeter Language Organization in the Human Temporal Lobe' (B&A 117[2011] 103-9), Adeen Flinker, Edward F. Chang, Nicholas M. Barbaro, Mitchel S. Berger, and Robert T. Knight focus on the processing of words and phonemes, offering evidence that the temporal lobe encompasses different areas that can be distinguished on the basis of function. A paper by Grant M. Walker, Myrna F. Schwartz, Daniel Y. Kimberg, Olufunsho Faseyitan, Adelyn Brecher, Gary S. Dell, and H. Branch Coslett presents 'Support for Anterior Temporal Involvement in Semantic Error Production in Aphasia: New Evidence from VLSM' (B&A 117[2011] 110-22). Finally, Giuseppina Rota, Giacomo Handjaras, Ranganatha Sitaram, Niels Birbaumer, and Grzegorz Dogil investigate the 'Reorganization of Functional and Effective Connectivity during Real-Time fMRI-BCI Modulation of Prosody Processing' (B&A 117[2011] 123-32).

2. History of English Linguistics

Most of the publications on the history of English linguistics in 2011, more precisely four monographs and one article, are results of the research project The Codifiers and the English Language, which was carried out at the University of Leiden (Netherlands) under the direction of Professor Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade. The first monograph—The Bishop's Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism—by Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade seeks to dispel the myth that the grammarian Robert Lowth (1710-87) was an icon of prescriptivism. By viewing the person Lowth and his Short Introduction of English Grammar [1762] in the context of his time, Tieken-Boon van Ostade sheds light on the grammarian's social network as well as his aspirations and reading habits, which shaped his approach to grammar writing. The monograph, which consists of eight chapters and a conclusion, starts out with a discussion on 'Prejudice and Misconceptions' (chapter 1) about Lowth and his grammar. Initially, the author points out that it was never Lowth's intention to write a grammar aimed at correcting English usage, but that the work was originally intended for his son. Similar to other early grammars of English, it was strongly based on the Latin grammar-writing tradition, but, at the same time, Lowth was aware of typically English language characteristics, differences between speech and writing as well as stylistic variation. Several of the issues raised return in greater detail in other

chapters. Chapter 2 discusses Robert Lowth's life and career, largely based on primary sources such as his personal memoirs, his correspondence, and his will. It is not only concerned with Lowth as a grammarian but also depicts his family life and his church career. The evidence suggests that Lowth may be considered 'an upwardly mobile philologist' (p. 47). Chapter 3, 'The Grammar: Origin and Publication History', starts with a description of the first edition of the grammar (which does not provide the author's name on the cover), and also provides a detailed discussion of the revisions of the second and subsequent editions, including pirate editions. One section of the chapter is dedicated to the reception and the impact of Lowth's grammar, for example the influence his work had on subsequent grammars (e.g. the work of Lady Ellenor Fenn). An important observation made in this chapter is that Lowth's grammar was in fact a publisher's project. The focus of chapter 4 is on the set-up of the grammar, such as Lowth's system of parts of speech. Apart from a discussion of Lowth's proscriptive approach and the labels given to specific grammatical categories, special attention is paid to his use of footnotes in the syntax section, which constitute a compilation of grammatical errors by earlier authors such as Shakespeare and Dryden and authoritative texts such as the Bible. Chapter 5 reconstructs Lowth's social network, the evidence for which is largely based on his personal correspondence as well as wills, subscription lists, and presentation copies. Based on address forms, the author classifies the correspondents according to the relationship they had with Lowth—relatives, close friends, fellow scholars, patrons, etc. Lowth's correspondence then serves as the basis of investigation in the following chapters. In chapter 6 the focus is on (a) Lowth's different styles of writing, (b) his linguistic repertoire, (c) his linguistic involvement in the correspondence as reflected in the use of first and second person pronouns, evidential verbs and degree adverbs, (d) the spelling in his letters, and (e) special lexis. An important finding of chapter 7, which deals with Lowth's own usage, particularly in comparison to his own norms of correctness and his linguistic awareness, is that Lowth's epistolary language does not consistently follow his own linguistic strictures as provided in the grammar. At the same time, self-corrections in his letters suggest that he was aware of what was considered appropriate language use. Chapter 8 is concerned with the rise of prescrip-tivism and, closely connected with that, the rise of the usage guide, and the role that Lowth may have played in this development. In fact, a comparison of Lowth's prescriptive comments to those made by other grammarians reveals that he 'does not even belong to the ten most prescriptive grammarians of the period'; 'the list is headed by Knowles (1796), with 722 comments' (p. 255). Tieken-Boon van Ostade also pays some attention to the 'birth' of the usage guide and the fact that Lowth's footnotes may be seen as 'a usage guide in embryonic form' (p. 272). In the concluding chapter, it is emphasized again that Lowth was not a prescriptivist in the way that he has been portrayed in the research field. Instead, grammarians after Lowth who based themselves on his work, such as Lindley Murray, are the ones that produced or compiled grammars of a more prescriptive nature.

Lowth's Short Introduction to English Grammar is also the main topic of Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade's paper 'Age and the Codification of the

English Language' (in Anna Duszak and Urszula Okulska, eds., Language, Culture and the Dynamics of Age, pp. 349-74), which discusses the origin of Lowth's grammar, particularly the fact that the grammar was originally intended to teach his eldest son Thomas Henry (1753-78), the approach that Lowth used in the grammar as well as the reception of the work by readers and critics. Even though grammar teaching for his son was Lowth's trigger to write an English grammar, the work turned out not to be suitable to the needs of children, as is also reflected in critical comments by contemporaries. As this criticism was at times used to justify the writing of a grammar for children, for instance by the grammarian Lady Ellenor Fenn (1743-1813), Tieken-Boon van Ostade argues that 'Lowth's grammar may be considered as the source, albeit an indirect one, of a very significant innovation in the history of grammar writing' (p. 167), notably children's grammars, whose publication started and proliferated in the second half of the eighteenth century.

The rise of children's grammars and the role that the grammarian Jon Ash (1724?-79) played in the development of this particular type of grammar is the topic of the monograph John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar by Karlijn Navest, the first study of this particular topic. In the first chapter, serving as introduction, the author sets the scene by explaining that children's grammars increased in popularity during the final decades of the eighteenth century, probably because ambitious middle-class parents aimed at improving their children's economic and social status and the study of English grammar would 'guarantee social mobility' (Lowth [1762]). As also pointed out in Tieken-Boon van Ostade's paper, while Lowth's grammar was intended for his eldest son, it was not received as a grammar for children. The Pershore minister John Ash, whose Grammatical Institutes; or Grammar, Adapted to the Genius of the English Tongue was in the first instance written for his 5-year old daughter, used a different approach to present English grammar, namely brief numbered rules that allowed children to memorize the rules more easily. This explains why Ash's work was more successful as a children's grammar than Lowth's. The second chapter provides background information on John Ash's life and also focuses on the publication history and the reception of the Grammatical Institutes. While not much is known about Ash's life, Navest was successful in reconstructing the publication history of the grammar. Apart from the first [1760] edition published in Worcester, a second [1766] and a third [1768] were published in London. The latter editions were reissued under the direction of Ash's friend Mr Ryland, who required more copies for his boarding school, and marketed by the London booksellers Charles and Edward Dilly. The grammar was, like other grammars at the time, largely a publisher's project; however, Ash was involved in the publication of the fourth edition [1769] in that he corrected and revised the grammar, which had the subtitle An Easy Introduction to Dr. Lowth's English Grammar. Through tracing editions and reprints of the grammar as well as advertisements in local newspapers, Navest shows that Ash's grammar was extremely popular during the late eighteenth and the entire nineteenth century. Chapter 3 is concerned with (a) sources that may have influenced Ash in writing his grammar and (b) a consideration of the terms descriptive and prescriptive. As regards possible sources, it is shown, by way of a comparison of the accounts of parts

of speech/linguistic features, that James Greenwood's Essay Towards a Practical English Grammar [1711] and Royal English Grammar [1737] exerted the greatest influence on Ash. As to the question of how prescriptive/ descriptive Ash's grammar was, Navest concludes that Ash's comments may be considered largely descriptive in the first edition, while the fourth edition contains selected prescriptive remarks, which may be due to the influence of Lowth. Chapter 4 is dedicated to the publication and the influence of Ash's Grammatical Institutes across the Atlantic: the grammar was imported from England before the publication of the first American edition in 1774, which was the first of nineteen pirated editions. Regarding the grammar's influence on American works, it appears, albeit not acknowledged, to have served as a major source for Lindley Murray's English Grammar [1795]. Noah Webster's Grammatical Institutes of the English Language [1784] resembles Ash's grammar only with respect to the title but relied on a different work by Ash, namely his New and Complete Dictionary of the English Language [1775], in terms of content. The focus of chapter 5 is on female users of Ash's Grammatical Institutes, in particular its influence on the grammars written by the female teacher-grammarians Ellin Devis and Mrs M.C. Edwards. Chapter 6 continues to discuss the influence of Ash's grammar on other works, notably on the teaching grammar of the children's writer and grammarian Lady Ellenor Fenn, who had written a whole series of teaching books, also under the pseudonyms Mrs Teachwell or Mrs Lovechild, for example Cobwebs to Catch Flies; or, Dialogues in Short Sentences, Adapted to Children from the Age of Three to Eight Years [1783], A Spelling Book [1787], The Child's Grammar: Designed to Enable Ladies Who May Not Have Attended to the Subject Themselves to Instruct Their Children [1795], The Mother's Grammar. Being a Continuation of the Child's Grammar. With Lessons for Parsing [c. 1795/6]. Navest notes that Fenn 'deserves credit for offering a simpler method of teaching grammar than Ash' (p. 201) and for making learning grammar fun by using portable stiff sheets and illustrated cards; this makes her a pioneer in the field of child-centred pedagogy. Chapter 7 is concerned with the influence that Fenn's innovative approach had on nineteenth-century female grammarians and children's writers. While Navest provides several case studies of nineteenth-century children's grammar books, she also points out that this particular niche in the research field still needs to be thoroughly investigated. To sum up, the monograph convincingly shows that the grammarian John Ash played a significant role in the rise of grammars for children. His work may be seen as an influencing factor in the development of more graded approaches to grammar teaching, as subsequently illustrated in the grammars of Lindley Murray and Lady Ellenor Fenn.

The monograph by Lyda Fens-de Zeeuw is concerned with the American-born Lindley Murray (1745-1826), Quaker and Grammarian. His English Grammar [1795] was translated into many languages and may be considered one of the best-selling grammars in late modern England. The introduction (chapter 1) describes the method used to determine who Lindley Murray was. This was achieved through the study of biographical material, Murray's personal correspondence, and relevant secondary literature. An important aspect of the study is Murray's Quaker roots, which are focused on

at several places in the monograph. Chapter 2 describes Lindley Murray's life and career (1745-1826) in great detail, special attention being paid to his life in America (1745-84) and in England (1785-1826). Murray was born into a wealthy Quaker family and raised in the city of New York. He was trained as a lawyer but later also worked as a merchant. Due to a serious illness, he decided to relocate to the north of England, notably Holdgate near York. There he kept himself busy as a writer and philanthropist and also became an important member of the close-knit Quaker community. Chapter 3 is dedicated to Lindley Murray as a Quaker, providing a historical overview of the Quaker movement and also paying some attention to language use characteristic of the Quaker community, as for instance forms of address, such as the term friend, the use of the personal pronouns thou and you, or the way in which Murray's letters were dated. Murray's adherence to Quaker principles and linguistic characteristics is also reflected in his correspondence (covering the period 1767-1825), which is the topic of chapter 4. Fens-de Zeeuw notes that 'Murray's letters generally have the appearance of great formality and solemnity' (p. 259) and that distinctions in language use between different class, rank, and background can rarely be observed. Chapter 5 discusses the grammarian Lindley Murray in greater detail and also his involvement with the publication and the marketing of his grammatical works, which were the best-selling grammatical works during the late modern English period. Chapter 6 deals with Murray's language usage, as reflected in his letters, and compares it to the grammar rules prescribed in his works, e.g. preposition stranding, shall and will, and the past participle form wrote versus written. Overall, it may be observed that Murray did not always strictly adhere to his own grammatical rules. It is also noteworthy that even though he was strongly influenced by Lowth's grammar, Murray did not adopt all of Lowth's rules. In the conclusion it is once more emphasized that Murray was a member of a close-knit network—the Quakers—that largely determined his language usage.

The final monograph of the Leiden project to be discussed is Joseph Priestley, Grammarian: Late Modern English Normativism and Usage in a Sociohistorical Context by Robin Straaijer. This study, consisting of nine chapters and a conclusion, focuses on Joseph Priestley (1733-1804), who is better known as a scientist (chemistry) and theologian (a Dissenter). In the introduction, Straaijer provides some background information on eighteenth-century England and the current view on eighteenth-century English. He also briefly introduces all the different sources used for the study, as for instance Priestley's grammar, an edition of Priestley's letters, as well as secondary material. Chapter 2, which provides a lot of biographical information about Priestley, particularly focuses on Priestley's Rudiments of English Grammar [1761] and the revised and extended edition, published in 1768. Straaijer notes in view of Priestley's occupations that his grammatical works 'are perhaps no more than brief, necessary excursions into the ''science of language'' ' (p. 59). In chapters 3 and 4 more attention is paid to the origin, the publication, and the distribution of Priestley's grammars; possible sources are determined and influences on Priestley's grammatical works, e.g. Johnson's Dictionary of the English language and Ward's Four Essays upon the English Language. As regards the impact of Priestley's grammatical works,

the author points out that the work was widely disseminated within Great Britain and that it appeared to be relatively popular, as is also reflected in the positive contemporary reviews it received. Chapter 5 is dedicated to Priestley's philosophy with respect to language and grammar. According to Straaijer, 'Priestley believed that humanity and all its endeavours would naturally, and necessarily, work itself towards a perfect state of things' (p. 181), which meant that the ultimate aim was a philosophical language that was perfectly intelligible and universally understood. English, however, viewed as a single instance of language, did not have to attain this level of perfection. Chapter 6 pays attention to Priestley's meta-language, his choice of sources, and ultimately his normative strictures or prescriptions as well as his descriptive comments, which are exemplified with his accounts of shall and will and the use of auxiliary be or have with the past participles of mutative intransitive verbs. Based on a close examination of Priestley's comments in the grammar, Straaijer concludes that Priestley can be described as a language expert, not dissimilar to modern-day linguists. Chapter 7 compares two grammar editions by Priestley and Lowth with the help of statistical tools; this reveals that there was no dichotomy between prescriptivism and descriptivism. Chapter 8 provides a detailed corpus-linguistic account of the construction of Priestley's Letter Corpus, which serves as the basis for the investigation of his language usage in chapter 9. Straaijer selected three linguistic features for this particular study: (a) auxiliary selection with past participles of mutative intransitives, (b) the subjunctive mood, and (c) preposition placement, already discussed in chapter 6. While it appears that Priestley obeyed his own 'rules' with respect to auxiliary selection, his subjunctive usage differs from the prescriptive rule provided in his own and other contemporary grammars; regarding preposition placement, Priestley seems to have preferred pied piping to preposition stranding in his letters, but not in his grammar. Straaijer concludes that even though Priestley was not primarily a grammarian, he must certainly be seen as an important codifier of the English language.

Two more articles dealing with grammars and grammarians were written by Nuria Yanez-Bouza. The first, 'The ''Glaring'' Place of Prepositions: Grammar, Rhetoric and the Scottish Codifiers' (HL 38[2011] 255-92), focuses on the attitudes that Scottish normative grammarians had on preposition stranding, a much-debated and often stigmatized syntactic feature during the eighteenth century. Even though it is well known that the language, i.e. the pronunciation, grammar, and lexicon, of the Scots and Irish was fiercely attacked in the eighteenth century, up until now this group of 'provincial' grammarians has not received much attention. The paper first discusses linguistic awareness in eighteenth-century Scotland, followed by an empirical analysis based on a self-compiled precept database of eighteenth-century normative works and the database of Eighteenth-Century English Grammars, which contains bio-bibliographic information. Yanez-Bouza's study reveals that Scottish grammarians are even more critical and evaluative of preposition stranding than their English colleagues, as reflected in the 'wider range of proscriptive labels' (p. 286), which carry strong negative connotations, and the overall aggressive tone. Considering that Scottish grammarians had a great influence in the late eighteenth century and throughout the nineteenth century,

both on English and on American authors, it may be assumed that their sensitive and critical view on language matters had an effect on the establishment of an StE norm, and their contribution should therefore not be underestimated. The second article, 'Mapping 18th-Century Grammar Writers in the British Isles (and Beyond)', appeared in a special issue of the online journal VARIENG (7[2011]), entitled 'Making the Best of Bad Data in the History of English' and edited by Terttu Nevalainen and Susan M. Fitzmaurice. It contributes to the history of grammar writing by investigating the 'origins and whereabouts of 18th-century grammar writers', in particular the grammarians' place of birth and their place of residence. In line with the monographs discussed earlier in this section, Nuria Yanez-Bouza aims to shed light on the authors of the grammars and on whether their (geographical) background may have influenced their grammar writing. This particular study is based on Maria Rodriguez-Gil and the author's own Eighteenth-Century English Grammars database (ECEG), which contains detailed bibliographical information on c.340 grammars of the English language published between 1700 and 1800 as well as biographical background information about many of the authors. Following a brief description of the aims and the design of the database, Yanez-Bouza turns to grammar writers' place of birth. She notes that it was only possible to locate the place of birth of about 30 per cent of all the grammarians contained in the database, of which most, notably 58 per cent, were born in England, followed by Scotland (22 per cent) and America (12 per cent). Concerning the grammar writers' place of residence, the database compilers consider this information (combined with the place of birth) of great importance in that (a) the place of living, teaching, and grammar writing most likely had 'an influence on the attitudes to language expressed in the grammar' and (b) it may reveal whether there existed any consortia between printers/publishers/booksellers and grammar writers. One significant finding of Yanez-Bouza's study reveals that almost half of the grammar writers lived or worked in London, which is also where most English grammars were printed in the eighteenth century. Finally, the correlation between the place of birth and place(s) of residence is closely scrutinized and illustrated by way of individual cases. Based on these the author suggests that grammar writers in the eighteenth century 'constituted a discourse community who not only shared the ideology to codify the language and displayed a mutual engagement in a joint enterprise (Watts [2008]), but also shared geographical location'. She concludes that studies on grammar writing also need to consider the production and dissemination of grammars. This raises new research questions, also with respect to the geographical factor, that can partly be answered by using the ECEG database.

3. Phonetics and Phonology

One of the challenges in child language phonology is that some phonological phenomena are not attested in adult language. An example is consonant harmony involving major place features (as in [pem], where the intended word is pen). In 'Trajectories of Faithfulness in Child-Specific Phonology'

(Phonology 28[2011] 163-96), Michael Becker and Anne-Michelle Tessier focus on Trevor, an English-speaking child. They observe both U-shaped and S-shaped patterns in his phonological development. Trevor's faithfulness to onset clusters developed along an S-shaped path, which the authors attribute to the presence of markedness constraints in the child's grammar at the onset of speech. Trevor's acquisition of 'KVT' forms (words such as goat and cat, which involved harmonic productions like [gouk] and [tet]) showed a U-shaped path. This is attributed to the introduction of a new constraint, AGREE (KVT), during acquisition, at a point after Trevor had already produced faithful forms. Becker and Tessier point out an interesting relation between the two types of trajectories and the phonological patterns that they represent: a pattern like onset simplification, which is also attested in adult language, involves an S-shaped trajectory, while a pattern like major place consonant harmony, which is not attested in adult language, involves a U-shaped learning curve. In their analysis, they assume a classic OT grammar with a single constraint ranking, and they account for the different stages of acquisition in terms of constraint re-ranking algorithms.

Child language also displays neutralization patterns that are not attested in adult language. This is the focus of Tara McAllister Byun's 'A Gestural Account of a Child-Specific Neutralisation in Strong Position' (Phonology 28[2011] 371-412). In adult language, phonological contrasts are typically preserved in prosodically and perceptually prominent positions, such as the initial position of words. However, some children neutralize fricatives to stops or glides in this position (so that shoe and you are both produced as [ju]), while preserving them in final position. Drawing on data from a 4-year-old boy with phonological delay, McAllister Byun argues that this child-specific pattern of initial neutralization is caused by articulatory limitations. Fricative-vowel sequences require independent control of the jaw and tongue, and so are relatively difficult for developing speakers. It is shown that these sequences are more difficult to produce in initial position than in final position, given the greater degree of gestural overlap in the former.

Previous work on the acoustic correlates of stress has shown that stressed syllables have, among other things, a higher pitch, greater intensity, a longer duration and, possibly, a higher spectral balance than unstressed ones. But how do syllables with primary stress differ from those with secondary stress? In 'Acoustic Correlates of Primary and Secondary Stress in North American English' (JPhon 39[2011] 362-74), Ingo Plag, Gero Kunter, and Mareile Schramm address this question. Data from two production experiments suggest that primary and secondary stress differ from each other only when the words in question are accented. In such cases, left-prominent words such as isolate have a single accent on the first strong syllable (underlined) while right-prominent words such as isolation have two accents, one on each strong syllable. In unaccented positions, on the other hand, isolate and isolation have the same prominence pattern. In such cases, there does not appear to be an acoustic difference between primary and secondary stress.

The proper analysis of English compound stress continues to be a matter of contention. Previous accounts correlated the location of stress to syntactic or semantic factors while marginalizing the role of analogy. However, in

'Towards an Exemplar-Based Model of Stress in English Noun-Noun Compounds' (JL 47[2011] 549-85), Sabine Arndt-Lappe presents a preliminary account of compound stress in which analogy, formalized in terms of an exemplar-based model, takes centre stage. The model is applied to a corpus of more than 3,000 compounds and is seen to outperform earlier rule-based models.

Clipping—a phenomenon of interest to both morphologists and phonolo-gists—is not as erratic as has traditionally been assumed. In 'The Clipping of Common and Proper Nouns' (WStr 4[2011] 1-19), Thomas Berg argues that both fore-clipping (e.g. van < caravan) and back-clipping (e.g. hippo < hippopotamus) are governed by a number of factors, including the location of stress and the length and lexical class of the base word. Berg observes that back-clipping is in general more common than fore-clipping. However, the likelihood of back-clipping decreases if a base word has non-initial stress and/or a high number of syllables. Berg also observes that proper nouns allow for more radical forms of clipping than common nouns, which is likely due to the former being used in restricted pragmatic contexts. Berg's analysis of the attested clipping patterns draws on structural, psycholinguistic and pragmatic-communicative factors. Central to his account is the idea that clipping involves a trade-off between the processing effort of speakers and the comprehension of listeners.

Poetry meets probability in Bruce Hayes and Claire Moore-Cantwell's 'Gerald Manley Hopkins' Sprung Rhythm: Corpus Study and Stochastic Grammar' (Phonology 28[2011] 235-82). The authors apply recent insights from a stochastic OT model to Hopkins' verse, building on an earlier rule-based analysis of Paul Kiparsky. Their analysis is based on a machine scansion of a sprung rhythm corpus which the authors themselves coded for stress, weight, and phrasing. The results lead them to conclude that Kiparsky's analysis of Hopkins' sprung rhythm is too unrestrictive, in that it frequently permits too many scansions for a given line. Their own 'stochastic maxent grammar' does a better job of predicting the scansion, and the metrical parses that their grammar produces match well with the diacritics that Hopkins himself used to mark the intended scansion.

Experimental evidence has shown that speakers display 'sonority projection effects'—that is, that they can distinguish between well-formed onset clusters like /bl/ and ill-formed ones like /lb/ and /tl/. In 'Explaining Sonority Projection Effects' (Phonology 28[2011] 197-234), Robert Daland, Bruce Hayes, James White, Marc Garellek, Andrea Davis, and Ingrid Normann investigate where speakers' knowledge of sonority sequencing comes from. Is it universal (either innate or phonetically grounded), or is it projected from the speakers' lexicon? A potential problem with the latter view is that English speakers would be expected to find /lb/ and /tl/ equally unacceptable as onsets, since neither is attested in actual words. The authors address this question by testing a variety of phonotactic models against a corpus of non-word acceptability ratings. They find that sonority projection is indeed possible from the lexicon alone, provided similarity with existing clusters is calculated not on the basis of shared segments, but shared features.

Natasha Warner and Mirjam Ernestus have put together a special Journal of Phonetics issue on reduction (JPhon 39:iii[2011]). In their introduction, the editors offer an overview of the issues and set the stage for a number of papers, of which we mention one here. In 'Exploring the Role of Exposure Frequency in Recognising Pronunciation Variants' (JPhon 39[2011] 304-11), Mark A. Pitt, Laura Dilley, and Michael Tat investigate the production and perception of AmE allophones of /t/ in different contexts. The results of their experiments show that more frequently used variants, e.g. [f] in words like city and later, are also recognized more easily by listeners. Interestingly, a further finding is that canonical, non-reduced [t] is recognized more easily than would be expected in contexts where [t] would not usually be found (as in city, bounty, and witness).

The phonological highlight of 2011 was probably the publication of the massive Blackwell Companion to Phonology, edited by Marc van Oostendorp, Colin J. Ewen, Elisabeth V. Hume, and Keren Rice. The book comprises five volumes: General Issues and Segmental Phonology, Suprasegmental and Prosodic Phonology, Phonological Processes, Phonological Interfaces, and Phonology Across Languages. The focus of the last volume is on phonological phenomena in individual languages. Here we find two chapters devoted to English. In 'Flapping in American English' (pp. 2711-729), Kenneth J. de Jong takes a detailed look at the segmental and prosodic contexts of AmE flapping and examines the phonetic characteristics and the neutralizing properties of flaps. In 'Sentential Prominence in English' (pp. 2778-2806), Carlos Gussenhoven discusses the representation of prominence. Gussenhoven distinguishes between word stress and accent, and he goes on to consider various accentuation and deaccentuation phenomena in English. It is difficult to think of a topic that is not covered in the more than 3,000 pages of the Blackwell Companion. Every phonologist will want to own a copy of this book—and if they are daunted by the hefty price, they will be pleased to know that Wiley-Blackwell have also published an online version with useful searching, browsing, and cross-referencing capabilities.

The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology, edited by Abigail C. Cohn, Cecile Fougeron, and Marie K. Huffman, is a very welcome survey of this interdisciplinary field. The first part of the book sets out the history and aims of laboratory phonology. The remaining four parts address types of phonological variation, the representation of knowledge of sound structure, insights from perception, production and acquisition, and methodological issues. It is also worth mentioning that the Association of Laboratory Phonology has recently started its own journal, Laboratory Phonology, published by De Gruyter.

Another welcome addition is Phillip Backley's An Introduction to Element Theory, which outlines the main tenets of an approach to segmental structure that has been rather neglected in textbooks. Backley offers a lucid discussion of the limitations of traditional distinctive features and makes a compelling case for an alternative approach in terms of elements.

Cambridge University Press has published two excellent and eagerly awaited monographs. Rachel Walker's Vowel Patterns in Language presents a detailed look at phonological interactions between vowels. A key ingredient of

Walker's approach is the notion of prominence. She observes that many vowel features are restricted to prominent positions (e.g. stems or stressed syllables) but are banned from non-prominent ones, or can occur there only if they are also at the same time present in a prominent position. This observation is formalized in an OT approach that makes use of positional licensing constraints. Walker considers data from a wide range of languages, devoting particular attention to metaphony in Romance dialects and to the diachrony of German umlaut.

In The Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology, B. Elan Dresher makes a strong case for the claim that the phonological component of the grammar computes only contrastive features. In Dresher's view, contrastive feature specifications are governed by language-particular feature hierarchies. Dresher tests this hypothesis against a wealth of cross-linguistic data.

Exactly what do people mean by 'phonological competence'? In Phonological Architecture: A Biolinguistic Perspective, Bridget D. Samuels examines which properties of phonology are also present in non-linguistic domains, and which are unique to humans. She observes that other species, in particular primates and songbirds, also have categorical perception, the ability to extract patterns from data, and the capacity to learn arbitrary relations. This leads Samuels to suggest that phonology involves general cognitive abilities that are linked to the sensory-motor system. She goes on to examine how phonology interfaces with other domains of the language faculty, and how phonological phenomena such as harmony and tone spreading can be seen to fall out from three primitive operations, viz. 'search', 'copy', and 'delete'.

We now move on to the world of English historical phonology. In 'Phonemically Contrastive Fricatives in Old English' (ELL 15[2011] 31-59), Donka Minkova argues in favour of the traditional account, according to which fricative voicing is allophonically conditioned. Minkova finds no convincing evidence for the claim that phonemically voiced fricatives emerged in OE through contact with Celtic, as was recently mooted in Stephen Laker's 'An Explanation for the Early Phonemicisation of a Voice Contrast in Old English', discussed in YWES 90[2010]. The strongest argument against this, Minkova observes, is the complete absence of minimal pairs.

Historical phonology also figures prominently in Analysing Older English, edited by David Denison, Ricardo Bermudez Otero, Chris McCully, and Emma Moore. The book contains a special section on diachronic sound change with an introductory chapter (by Bermudez Otero) and contributions on syllable weight and weak-verb paradigms (by Donka Minkova), weakening and strengthening (by Nikolaus Ritt) and de-gemination (by the late Derek Britton).

Finally, mention must be made of a number of publications that are of obvious interest to phonologists and phoneticians, but which are primarily sociolinguistic in nature. This includes Lynn Clark and Kevin Watson's 'Testing Claims of a Usage-Based Phonology with Liverpool English t-to-r' (ELL 15[2011] 523-47), as well as two new books: Erik R. Thomas's Sociophonetics: An Introduction and Sociophonetics: A Student's Guide, edited

by Marianna Di Paolo and Malcah Yaeger-Dror. These are discussed in more detail in Section 9.

4. Morphology

Mark Aronoff and Kirsten Fudeman have written a new edition of their answer to the question, What is Morphology? The book is still a light-footed but thorough introduction to the study of morphology, with chapters on words and lexemes, the relation between morphology and phonology, derivation and the lexicon, the semantics of derivation, inflection, the relation between morphology and syntax, and morphological productivity. What also remains is the division of each chapter into two parts, the first introducing basic concepts and phenomena and the second illustrating them with data drawn from Kujamaat Joola, a language of Senegal. In this new edition, small changes have been made in style and content in numerous places, there are now suggestions for further reading in each chapter and the authors have revised the final chapter, which now includes discussion not only of productivity but also of the mental lexicon, two topics usually neglected in morphology textbooks. In addition, a website has been developed where suggested answers to the exercises in each chapter can be found. It is good to see the care that authors and publisher have taken to relaunch this book.

Another morphology textbook published this year is Zeki Hamawand's Morphology in English: Word Formation in Cognitive Grammar. It is written for newcomers to morphology, who are given explanations of basic categories like prefixation, suffixation, and compounding. For each of these there is further discussion, of the general category and of large sets of examples, couched in the framework of cognitive grammar. Three introductory chapters present the basics of that model. As might be expected, the later chapters contain extensive and often illuminating discussion of the semantics of the various morphological elements and processes. We applaud the attempt to bring morphological phenomena within the purview of cognitive grammar also at the level of teaching. In addition, the book is also usable on modules that are not cognitive in orientation: not the model but the morphological analyses given are centre-stage, and many of them are straightforwardly translatable into a non-cognitive account. There is just one feature of the book that we found slightly off-putting: a repeatedly manifested tendency on the part of the author to approach the material in terms of how many types can be distinguished, how many categories these can be subdivided into, and how many properties they can be said to have.

A volume on Morphology and its Interfaces has been edited by Alexandra Galani, Glyn Hicks, and George Tsoulas. The three parts contain contributions to the understanding of morphological interfaces with syntax and phonology, with semantics and the lexicon and with psycholinguistics and acquisition. An overview of the issues is given in the editors' introduction, 'Morphology and its Interfaces' (pp. 1-17). The topics covered in the individual contributions range from case conflict in free relatives via the status of tense as a syntactic or semantic interface feature and preconditions for

suppletion to the role of morphology in grammatical gender assignment, with data coming from an array of languages. Of particular relevance to English is Ricardo Bermudez-Otero and John Payne's 'There Are No Special Clitics' (pp. 57-96), which discusses the status and proper analysis of these elements, one instance being English genitive 's, and comes to the conclusion that they are affixes. There is also Melanie Bell, 'At the Boundary of Morphology and Syntax: Noun Noun Constructions in English' (pp. 137-67), who marshals evidence of different types to argue that N-N sequences are compound nouns, not phrases. One of the points she makes concerns intonation, which she argues should be laid to rest as a criterion for distinguishing between syntactic and morphological N-N sequences.

Irregular past tense verb forms in BrE are the topic of two articles by Lieselotte Anderwald. The first is 'Norm vs. Variation in British English Irregular Verbs: The Case of Past Tense Sang vs. Sung' (ELL 15[2011] 85112), which discusses the persistence of non-standard past tense forms (such as drunk/sung, as opposed to the standard past tense forms drank/sang) in traditional and modern dialect data (despite strong prescriptive norms against the use of such forms). Anderwald argues that their persistence is functionally motivated. The second is 'Are Non-Standard Dialects More ''Natural'' than the Standard? A Text Case from English Verb Morphology' (JL 47[2011] 251-74), in which Anderwald argues that the highly frequent non-standard past tense forms in <u> (e.g. in drink—drunk—drunk, compare the standard drink—drank—drunk) are more 'normal' or 'natural' than their StE counterparts. This is because the overall pattern of the non-standard past tense forms conforms to the system-defining structural property in not distinguishing past tense and past participle forms.

Anne Schroder's study On the Productivity of Verbal Prefixation in English: Synchronic and Diachronic Perspectives is the commercial edition of the author's postdoctoral thesis. The study aims to find out to what extent prefixation is really an unproductive pattern of English verb-formation, given recent neologisms such as to upskill for example. Prefixed verbs are often considered to be the predecessors of particle verbs, the latter having become more productive in the course of the history of English at the expense of prefix verbs. After an introductory chapter, chapter 2 discusses the problematic notion of morphological productivity. Schroder concludes that the various approaches to productivity measurement must be combined in a multi-method approach and she points out that, in order to be able to compare the various corpus-based measurements, it is necessary to study a rival process against which verb-prefixation can be measured. This rival verb-formation process is that of the particle verb, which Schroder discusses in chapter 3. She follows the Quirk tradition by viewing particle verbs as a subgroup of multi-word verbs which can be further subdivided into phrasal verbs (where the particle is an adverb, as in to slow down) and prepositional verbs (where the particle is a preposition, as in to refer to). Schroder discusses the similarities and differences between prefix verbs and particle verbs and argues for a morphological network approach to the structure of prefix verbs. Chapter 4 presents the first approach to measurement of productivity, which is the dictionary-based approach, defining productivity 'in terms of the number of

new forms occurring in a specified period of time' (p. 142). Schroder investigates the development of productivity of eight verbal prefixes (up-, down-, in-, out-, over-, under-, on-, off-) by analysing the absolute number of neologisms attested in the OED (from the earliest periods to the present). Chapter 5 presents another approach to measurement of productivity, namely corpus-based approaches, for which Schroder used the BNC. Three definitions of productivity are used: type and token frequency, and statistical measurements of productivity (productivity in the narrow sense, global productivity, and hapax-conditioned productivity). She compares the productivity of the eight prefixes to that of particle verbs, and finds that particle verbs are not always more productive than their corresponding prefix verbs. Chapter 6 presents a third approach to the measurement of productivity: elicitation tests; it shows the results of an online survey in which the participants were asked to rate the acceptability of twenty-one rare or potential prefix verbs. The experiment also tested the influence of context on the degree of acceptability, and Schroder includes a description of the differences in acceptability according to social variables as well. Chapter 7 presents a summary and the conclusions. Schroder's main conclusion is that 'verbal prefixation is not an unproductive or fossilized pattern of verb-formation in English; it has never been unproductive and has never been dead' (p. 245).

Another type of prefixation is discussed by Akiko Nagano in 'The Right-Headedness of Morphology and the Status and Development of Category-Determining Prefixes in English' (ELL 15[2011] 61-83). Nagano argues that so-called category-determining prefixation (e.g. the prefix be- in befool, the prefix de- in delouse) is not in fact category-determining, but instead a type of V-to-V prefixation and as such does not violate the Right-hand Head Rule. We find more on affixation in Laura Esteban-Segura's 'Suffixal Doublets in Late Middle English: -ness vs. -ship' (NM 112[2011] 183-94). Esteban-Segura examines the extent to which the alternation of the same root or base with the two different suffixes -ness and -ship occurs in lME texts, using several corpora (Middle English Medical Texts; Helsinki Corpus of English Texts, ARCHER, and the OED). Rosamund Moon's article 'English Adjectives in -like, and the Interplay of Collocation and Morphology' (IJCL 16[2011] 486-513) presents a corpus-based study of English denominal adjectives in -like (e.g. ladylike) and stresses the importance of collocational and phraseological patterning in studies of morphological productivity. John Bowers, in 'Non-Event Nominals and Argument Structure' (Lingua 121[2011] 1194-1206) shows that the morphosyntactic and semantic properties of three non-event nominals in English correspond to those of the basic argument categories Agent, Theme, and Affectee. Bowers argues that non-event nominals can be derived by syntactic processes such as head movement, in the spirit of Distributed Morphology.

Moving on to compounds, Thomas Berg's 'The Modification of Compounds by Attributive Adjectives' (LangS 33[2011] 725-37) presents a study of such structures as major Cabinet reshuffle (syntactic modification) versus used car trade (morphological modification). It is shown that morphological modification is more similar to syntactic modification than

has hitherto been assumed, denying a strict separation of morphology and syntax (compare also Melanie Bell's contribution, mentioned above). Ekkehard Konig's 'Reflexive Nominal Compounds' (SLang 35[2011] 112-27) offers a detailed analysis of reflexive nominal compounds such as English self-assessment and counterparts in nine other languages, paying attention to productivity and meaning. The compound type with a Sanskrit name is investigated in Antonio Barcelona's 'The Conceptual Motivation of Bahuvrihi Compounds in English and Spanish' (in Mario Brdar, Stefan Th. Gries, and Milena Zic Fuchs, eds., Cognitive Linguistics: Convergence and Expansion, pp. 151-78). He argues that their motivation comes from the metonymy characteristic property for category. The two languages are similar in this respect and in the types of bahuvrihi that they allow but show a grammatical difference, with English allowing fewer combinations of word classes in these compounds.

In the area of historical morphology, Thomas Berg investigates the diachrony of morpho-phonological patterns in 'A Diachronic Frequency Account of the Allomorphy of Some Grammatical Markers' (JL 47[2011] 3164). By using diachrony, Berg is able to shed light on the how and why of allomorphy. More strictly historical is Elzbieta Adamczyk's contribution on 'Morphological Reanalysis and the Old English u-Declension' (Anglia 128[2011] 365-90), which analyses the development by which the identity of the OE u-stem paradigm was largely upset through the impact of the productive inflections, such as a-stems, o-stems, or n-stems.

5. Syntax

(a) Modern English

We begin with several general textbooks. Stanley Dubinsky and Chris Holcomb have written Understanding Language through Humor, which takes the unique approach of introducing linguistic concepts by making use of examples of humour. The result is a very entertaining and informative book that is of interest to a broad range of readers, including not just students, but also friends and family who want to know more about language (p. 4). The book contains twelve chapters. Following the introduction, chapter 2 looks at different communication systems with the aim of finding out what makes human language so special. The next chapter deals with the sounds of language and pays attention to the difference between phonetics and phonology and to sound-spelling discrepancies such as spoonerisms (e.g. 'It is now kisstomary to cuss the bride', p. 36). This is followed by a chapter that looks at various aspects of words, including how they are formed and sometimes (intentionally or unintentionally) malformed, as in the case of Bushisms (referring to various linguistic errors by the former US President George W. Bush, a famous one being 'They misunderestimate me'). Chapter 5 explores the way in which words combine into sentences (syntax) and how this can lead to, often humorous, ambiguities, while chapter 6, aptly called 'Meaning One Thing and Saying Another', discusses what people do with

language and how they do it (pragmatics), also dealing with such concepts as direct versus indirect speech ('Shut that window' vs. 'Brr! It's cold in here') and with speech acts and performatives. Next, the authors take a closer look at the structure of language use above the level of the sentence (discourse), paying attention to various factors that influence discourse, such as information packaging, conversational structure, context, and genre. The two chapters that follow deal with the main aspects of child language acquisition, including caregiver speak and effects of environmental factors (such as exposure to television), and with language variation, discussing aspects of regional and social variation. Chapters 10 and 11 focus on language and culture: on the misunderstandings that often arise when people with different cultural backgrounds interact, and on the role played by prescriptivism in standardizing language variety and preserving rules of grammatical correctness, also showing how humour is sometimes used to evade enforcement by 'the language police'. The epilogue provides suggestions for further reading (books on language and linguistics) and browsing (web resources) for those who are in the mood for more. There is no doubt that many will be, after reading this work.

On a soberer though still appealing note, there is Howard Jackson and Peter Stockwell's An Introduction to the Nature and Functions of Language. It offers a Hallidayan view of its subject, with chapters on the following topics: the basics of sound, word, and sentence patterning; text types, discourse, and textuality; the history of English; acquisition; variation; and pragmatics, discourse, and critical linguistics. Each chapter has suggestions for further reading, a number of activities, and suggestions for larger projects. Explanations given for the many phenomena and concepts are clear, accessible, and sensible. We were somewhat surprised, though, to see that in the historical chapter many OE words with thorn and ash have got mangled in the press. That chapter as whole, we should perhaps also point out, presents a rather traditional and less-than-exciting picture of its topic, in contrast to the other chapters, which have a much more hands-on and engaging feel.

There is a third edition of Koenraad Kuiper and the late Scott Allan's An Introduction to English Language: Word, Sound and Sentence [2010]. In addition to some general updating, the work now has more material on new Englishes and more discussion of variation and change. There is also a supporting website, which contains a variety of materials, including quizzes. The basic structure of the book has remained the same: after a chapter about basic properties of language, there are two chapters about words (covering word syntax and inflections; morphological structure; lexical meanings; and aspects of vocabulary), three chapters about sounds (on basic phonetics; phonological elements and processes; syllables, and supra-segmentals), and two chapters about sentence structure (one about basic clausal patterns and one about more complex phenomena). Each chapter has in-text and end-of-chapter exercises of many different types; an answer key is given at the back of the book.

From Bas Aarts, there is the Oxford Modern English Grammar, which provides an excellent introduction to the grammatical patterns of PDE. After a chapter about basics, there are parts on form and function (with chapters on

word structure and word formation; word classes and phrases; grammatical functions, and semantic roles), phrase and clause patterns (chapters on complex and co-ordinated phrases; clause types and negation; finite subordinate clauses; non-finite clauses), and grammar and meaning (tense and aspect; mood; information structuring). Example sentences are mainly drawn from ICE-GB, developed at UCL by a team including the author, and from a range of—mainly British—daily newspapers. The model of analysis employed is in the tradition of the Quirk grammars, a natural choice given the book's descriptive concerns. No prior grammatical knowledge in the reader is presupposed but by the end of the book she or he will have acquired a good awareness of all kinds of grammatical intricacies in the language, including phenomena like the different types of prehead in prepositional phrases, the different structural and lexical configurations in which object clauses are found, and the complex patterns of modal semantics.

Another textbook that appeared in 2011, this time on syntax and syntactic theory, is Jim Miller's A Critical Introduction to Syntax, which in the words of the author 'has a slightly unorthodox perspective' (p. vii). Miller stresses the importance of good, reliable data and mostly discusses spoken language data. The main empirical focus is on English, but data from languages other than English are discussed as well. He advocates an approach to the study of syntax that combines the use of reliable data with formal models, a point which he stresses in chapter 1, the first of twelve chapters. The next two chapters deal with the notions of head, modifier, and constituent structure, and with NPs in non-configurational languages such as Warlpiri, in which the potential words/ constituents of NPs do not have to come together into the configuration of a NP. English, though not non-configurational, has similar strategies for the avoidance of complex NPs (as in 'this film it does give a real close-up of what goes on behind the scenes'). Chapter 4 focuses on constructions in clauses, in particular their use in different speech acts and their discourse functions. Miller concludes that '[constructions and rules are alive and well' (p. 117), and that the general constraints of generative grammar alone are insufficient. Chapter 5 addresses issues concerning grammaticality and acceptability, such as the question of how reliable intuitions about grammaticality are, while in chapter 6 the value of usage-based models is demonstrated. Chapters 7-10 deal with the relation between grammar and semantics, each chapter focusing on a different construction illustrating this relation. The first two contain a discussion of the properties of the get-passive as well as it origins, and of wh-words, arguing that the crucial property of wh-pronouns is that they are deictics, which explains why they occur in different constructions (including wh-interrogatives, wh-clefts, relatives). The next two discuss word classes and grammatical functions and semantic/thematic roles. In chapter 11, Miller shows that language complexity connects with the contrast between spontaneous spoken language and formal written language and with the topic of linguistic competence, and he raises the question whether all native speakers have the same level of competence. In the final chapter, Miller argues that Chomskyan theory of first language acquisition is not adequate as it does not take into account the characteristics of spontaneous spoken language, nor the properties of written language. Miller once again advocates a usage-based

approach a la Tomasello. In all, Miller's book offers a critical introduction to a number of major areas of debate in the field of syntax. It shows how the concepts that are at the centre of these debates are applied across different models of grammar. It is an accessible and challenging read.

We also welcome the second edition of the popular Syntactic Theory by Geoffrey Poole. Meant for introductory courses in generative syntax, it retains its emphasis on deductive theory-building and problem-solving, thus equipping students with the tools for independent enquiry into syntactic—or indeed other—phenomena. The book keeps much of the material of the first edition, including chapters on X'-theory, Case and theta-roles, binding and empty categories, though all of these have been reworked and revised in the light of classroom experience. It adds chapters that familiarize students with aspects of the minimalist framework, such as vP and the copy theory of movement. The author wisely does not discuss the full intricacies of that framework, instead aiming to include discussion of the main staples of generative syntax over the past thirty or forty years and pointing the students towards more recent work—which itself is perhaps still in too much flux to be suitable for inclusion in an introductory work.

Gereon Miiller's Constraints on Displacement: A Phase-Based Approach is a contribution to the long-standing debate about movement within the generative tradition. It starts off by discussing various constraints on movement that have been proposed over the years, such as the A-over-A principle, the sentential subject constraint, the minimal link condition, and the condition on extraction domains. It then reviews minimalist proposals to derive these constraints, concluding that they are not successful. The heart of the book is an extended argument that they in fact follow from the phrase impenetrability condition (affectionately known by cognoscenti as the PIC), an idea further supported by closer examination of some special cases of movement, including the repair of island effects through sluicing.

For the increasing numbers of linguists with a cognitive interest, Mario Brdar, Stefan Gries, and Milena Zic Fuchs have edited Cognitive Linguistics: Convergence and Expansion (see also Section 4 above). Their introduction (pp. 1-6) highlights the open-ended and dynamic nature of current cognitive linguistic work and provides a preview of the fourteen articles in the volume; we mention the more general ones here and the more topic-focused ones in the appropriate places further on in this section (and ignore the ones that deal with semantic-pragmatic issues). Antonio Barcelona and Javier Valenzuela helpfully provide 'An Overview of Cognitive Linguistics' (pp. 17-44) which, with its clear explanation of the basics of cognitive thinking, its sketches of promising research directions, and its wealth of references to further work, can also be fruitfully used as a brief stand-alone introduction to the field. Thoughts by one of its masters, Ronald Langacker, are found in 'Convergence in Cognitive Linguistics' (pp. 9-16), which provides a short historical and optimistic perspective on its topic. The issue of 'Pattern versus Process Concepts of Grammar and Mind: A Cognitive-Functional Perspective' is addressed by Jan Nuyts (pp. 47-66). He contrasts the pattern- or construction-based view that is usual in cognitive linguistics with the more process-oriented thinking found in functional approaches to language, arguing

that they are to some extent complementary and to some extent notationally equivalent, thus boding well for the further convergence of the field.

In 2011, the second volume of the multi-volume set A Comparative Grammar of British English Dialects appeared, subtitled Modals, Pronouns and Complement Clauses and written by Nuria Hernandez, Daniela Kolbe, and Monika Edith Schulz. This volume offers qualitative as well as corpus-based quantitative studies on grammatical variation in the British Isles, focusing on modals (by Monika Edith Schulz), pronouns (by Nuria Hernandez), and complement clauses (by Daniela Kolbe). The database common to all three studies, the Freiburg Corpus of English Dialects (FRED), a spoken-language dialect corpus, is introduced in the general introduction to the volume. The study of modals (Schulz) investigates variable past possession and past obligation marking with had, had got, had to, and had got to in the Midlands and the north. These dialects were selected because their statuses as a transitional dialect area (Midlands) and a relic dialect area (north) allows a comparison of the spread of phonological innovations to the spread of morphosyntactic innovations. Schulz finds categorical variation in past possession and past obligation: in the north, both are marked invariably by had and had got, but in the Midlands there is stable variation between had and had got for possession, and between had to and had got to for obligation. Schulz interprets these findings in terms of grammaticalization, arguing that past possession and past obligation marking are more grammaticalized in the transitional area of the Midlands and less in the relic area of the north. The study of pronouns (Hernandez) offers a variationist account of non-standard uses of pronouns, such as independent self-forms ('... he was a bit apprehended about miself), singular us ('... give us a couple of pints'), and generic question tags such as innit and wunnit ('... when they had Woodstock gloves, innit,...'). The study, which comprises the four dialect areas north, Midlands, south-east and south-west, provides new information about the geographical distribution of non-standard pronouns and about their underlying functions in spontaneous discourse. The study of complement clauses (Kolbe) analyses a number of features in complement clauses, including the use of subject-verb inversion in embedded interrogative clauses ('... to see what is he going to do with it'), the use of as instead of the complementizer/ relativizer that ('Well, to think as we drink water as is pumped through these pipes'), and the use of for to instead of to as an infinitive marker or complementizer ('He would try for to tell her'). Kolbe investigates whether these features can be considered truly dialectal, or whether they should be considered as non-standard features of a general BrE vernacular. Her results show that embedded inversion and the complementizer as are regionally restricted dialect features and that the infinite marker for to is more widespread throughout the UK. The volume provides valuable information on the grammar of BrE dialects.

A detailed study of different aspects of NPs with an N-N head is found in The Status and Development of N + N Sequences in Contemporary English Noun Phrases by Iria Pastor-Gomez. The author starts by giving an overview of NP elements, focusing on the use of pre- and postmodifiers, with the former being preferred for items that are in some way linked to previous context. This

is followed by a chapter examining many aspects of nominal premodifiers, including their stress patterns, the morphology of prenominal Ns, the motivations for their use, their possible ambiguity, the formal status (syntactic or morphological) of N-N units, and the differences between modification by N and by other elements. There is also a chapter presenting corpus data for N-N sequences in PDE, drawing on the Brown family of corpora, which shows that frequent use of N-N is associated with non-narrative text types, with writing rather than speech, and with American rather than British English. It is also demonstrated that there has been an increase in the frequency of N-N sequences, in particular non-lexicalized ones, over the period 1960-1990. Altogether, this is a useful volume for anyone interested in NP usage in PDE.

The volume Layering of Size and Type Noun Constructions in English, by Lieselotte Brems, investigates binominal Size Noun (SN) constructions (e.g. 'a bunch of flowers') and binominal Type Noun (TN) constructions (e.g. 'this kind of life'). These constructions are of interest both theoretically and descriptively, the central issue being the headedness of these constructions: which of the two nouns in these constructions is the head? The constructions display structural ambiguity in that the SN/TN can either be analysed as the head or as the non-head (modifier) of the construction. The study consists of two parts. The first part (chapters 1-3) is devoted to preliminaries: in the first chapter Brems introduces the topic and provides a literature survey, arguing for a multidimensional description of the characteristics of SN and TN constructions; next, she presents a cognitive-functional constructional model of the NP, which she integrates with grammaticalization, (inter)subjectification, and delexicalization in chapter 3. The second part (chapters 4-7) contains synchronic and diachronic corpus studies. First, case studies of SN constructions are presented, with particular attention paid, in chapter 4, to heap(s) versus pile(s) and lot(s), load/loads of and bunch/ bunches of (English heap(s) and bunch are also compared to Dutch hoop/ hopen, stel/stelletje, and zooi/zooitje), and, in chapter 5, to small SN constructions such as bit of, jot of, which apart from bit of are all infrequent and rare items. The next chapter deals with TN constructions and presents a synchronic classification as well as a diachronic case study focusing on sort(s), kind(s), and type(s). One of the main points argued for in the volume is that both SN constructions and TN constructions display (ongoing) delexicaliza-tion and grammaticalization. Chapter 7 presents conclusions and an outlook for future research.

There is more on NPs. Dolores Gonzalez-Alvarez, Ana Elina Martinez-Insua, Javier Perez-Guerra, and Esperanza Rama-Martínez have edited a special issue 'The Structure of the Noun Phrase in English: Synchronic and Diachronic Explorations' (ELL 15:ii[2011]). Their introductory article, 'An Open-Sesame Approach to English Noun Phrases: Defining the NP (with an Introduction to the Special Issue)' (ELL 15[2011] 201-21), provides an overview of the main issues of English NPs as well as an outlook on the contributions. In 'Noun Ellipsis in English: Adjectival Modifiers and the Role of Context' (ELL 15[2011] 279-301), Christine Giinther demonstrates that, contrary to what is often believed, headless NPs which are interpreted with the help of an antecedent are attested in English (e.g. '... unemployed but taking

the bad days as cheerfully as the good). Evelien Keizer's contribution, 'English Proforms: An Alternative Account' (ELL 15[2011] 303-34), set within the perspective of Functional Discourse Grammar, offers a novel definition of proforms in terms of a pragmatico-semantic function and a syntactic function, and points out that using proforms as a constituency test must be done with caution. Jong-Bok Kim and Peter Sells, in 'The Big Mess Construction: Interactions between the Lexicon and Constructions' (ELL 15[2011] 335-62), attribute the peculiarities of the so-called Big Mess Construction (e.g. 'so prominent a punctuation') to an interaction between the lexical properties of the degree words (e.g. so) and constructional constraints. John Payne's 'Genitive Coordinations with Personal Pronouns' (ELL 15[2011] 363-85) examines the syntactic and sociolinguistic factors that play a role in the choice between either the single genitive (e.g. 'Pat and Kim's children') or the multiple genitive (e.g. 'Pat's and Kim's children') when one of the co-ordinates is a personal pronoun (e.g. 'Pat's and her children/Her and Pat's children').

Tine Breban, in her article 'Secondary Determiners as Markers of Generalized Instantiation in English Noun Phrases' (CogLing 22[2011] 511-34), discusses four sets of lexical items that can be used as secondary determiners, namely the adjectives usual, same/identical, similar/comparable, and the type-noun constructions sort of X/kind of X/type of X. Michael T. Putnam and Marjo van Koppen, in 'All There is to Know about the Alls-Construction' (JCGL 14[2011] 81-109), offer a minimalist analysis of the enclitic s-inflection on the all in certain dialects of Midwestern AmE (Ohio and Northern Kentucky), as in 'Alls I know about Cindy is that she likes to tattle on her siblings' (p. 82).

A cognitive take 'On the Subject of Impersonals' is presented by Ronald Langacker (in Brdar et al., eds., pp. 179-217). His view, echoing that of some earlier writers, is that it in sentences like It is foul outside or It is strange that he didn't tell us is always referential: it profiles (in the cognitive sense) a thing whose identity is evident in the discourse or general context. However, it provides no more information than that the thing is non-human and non-plural, leaving the possibility of maximum vagueness. Langacker also suggests a beginning of a cognitive analysis of impersonal constructions and points at existential there and impersonal 'it' in pro-drop languages as important areas for further research. Matthew Peacock, in 'A Comparative Study of Introductory It in Research Articles across Eight Disciplines' (IJCL 16[2011] 72-100), offers a corpus-based analysis of variations in the form, function, and frequency of introductory it plus that-clause (e.g. 'It is possible that...') and introductory it plus to-clause complementation (e.g. 'It is possible to ...') in academic and non-academic writing.

Moving on to verb-related issues, we meet Ann-Kathrin Trommer, who is 'Wondering about the Intersection of Speech Acts, Politeness and Deixis: I Wondered and I Was Wondering in the BNC' (ICAME 35[2011] 185-204). She analyses the use of the two forms of Attitudinal Past (AP) I wondered and I was wondering in the BNC, showing that AP provides evidence for the connection between politeness and deixis. In 'Temporal Specifiers and Markers of Futurity: Rethinking Factors of Variation' (ICAME 35[2011] 117-34), Nadja Nesselhauf examines patterns of co-occurrence of time

specifiers with future time expressions and finds that the choice of future marker is the most important factor influencing this co-occurrence. In 'Verbal and Adjectival Participles: Position and Internal Structure' (Lingua 121[2011] 1569-87), Petra Sleeman distinguishes a fourth type of participle in English, that of prenominal eventive participles (as in 'recently opened restaurants'), in addition to the three commonly distinguished types in the literature (statives, resultatives, and postnominal eventive participles). Jack Grieve, 'A Regional Analysis of Contraction Rate in Written Standard American English' (IJCL 16[2011] 514-46), uncovers regional variation in contraction rate in written Standard AmE, focusing on be not, do not, modal not, to, and non-standard not contraction.

The ordering of subjects and verbs is the topic of Carlos Prado-Alonso's Full-Verb Inversion in Written and Spoken English. It starts with issues of definition and structural classification, distinguishing inversions with initial adverbs ('Therein lie the reasons for his confidence'), adjective phrases ('Also important will be the decomposition of the formula into three parts'), prepositional phrases ('Among them was the seriously injured driver of the other car'), noun phrases (a difficult case, which includes examples like 'Counties are Wolfe, Magoffin, and Floyd'), verbal phrases ('Gathered together are paintings that reveal...') and subordinators ('...., as is the verbal suffix in Barbare'). This is followed by a review of the sizeable literature on inversion in PDE and a corpus study of its use. The results are presented in terms of the frequencies of obligatory and non-obligatory inversions in the different structural types in different genres. On the theoretical side, the author argues that the inversion data that he has gathered can be profitably analysed with the use of the model of Construction Grammar; we are briefly shown how this could be done for the category of obligatory inversion. From the same author, there is 'Text Structuring in Written English: The Role of Inversion' (ES 92[2011] 449-63). This presents a corpus-based analysis of NP inversion in present-day written English texts showing that NP inversion is most commonly attested in non-fictional texts, which can be explained by the degree of abstractness of these texts. Drawing on concepts from the field of Artificial Intelligence, Gert Webelhuth's article 'Motivating Non-Canonicality in Construction Grammar: The Case of Locative Inversion' (CogLing 22[2011] 81-106) explains the use of Locative Inversion in English by viewing it as being associated with a communicative plan.

Complementation patterns are addressed in several contributions. Anatol Stefanowitsch's 'Constructional Preemption by Contextual Mismatch: A Corpus-Linguistic Investigation' (CogLing 22[2011] 107-30) shows that there is no reliable difference in the information-structural profile of alternating verbs (e.g. 'John sang a song to Mary/John sang Mary a song') and non-alternating verbs (e.g. 'John said goodnight to Mary/*John said Mary goodnight'). Stefanowitsch concludes that pre-emption by contextual mismatch cannot drive speakers' choice in these cases. More on pre-emption can be found in Adele E. Goldberg's 'Corpus Evidence of the Viability of Statistical Preemption' (CogLing 22[2011] 131-54), in which she shows that there is abundant corpus evidence of statistical pre-emption that learners can

use. For example, there is a clear preference for the ditransitive 'She told me the news' over the dative 'She told the news to me\

Also on the topic of ditransitives is Stefan Gries's 'Corpus Data in Usage-Based Linguistics: What's the Right Degree of Granularity for the Analysis of Argument Structure Constructions?' (in Brdar et al., eds., pp. 237-56). The method used is collexeme analysis, which considers to what extent specific lexical items tend to occur in a specific construction in a given corpus, allowing statements like the following: item A is found in X per cent of all tokens of construction B and construction B is found in Y per cent of all tokens of item A. Applying this method to the interaction between verbal lexemes (like give) and the ditransitive construction, the author finds (i) that separate analysis of different inflected forms of the verb does not result in different construction association patterns; and (ii) that separate analysis of speech-based and written materials shows up big differences but not in the ranking of lexemes based on ditransitive association patterns. In the same volume, Anatol Stefanowitsch contributes 'Cognitive Linguistics Meets the Corpus' (pp. 257-90), using the alternation between the ditransitive and to-constructions to demonstrate how corpus linguistics and cognitive linguistics can form a mutually enriching relationship. Beate Hampe's article 'Discovering Constructions by Means of Collostruction Analysis: The English Denominative Construction' (CogLing 22[2011] 211-45) reveals a new constructional distinction between the resultative construction (e.g. 'The people crowned him king') and the denominative construction (e.g. 'They baptized him Jim').

A study of independent that-clauses, as in 'That it should have come to this!', are analysed by Klaus-Uwe Panther and Linda Thornburg in 'Emotion and Desire in Independent Complement Clauses: A Case Study from German' (in Brdar et al., eds., pp. 87-114). Most of the data, obviously, comes from German but the analysis, which is in terms of source and target meanings linked though metonymy, is also applicable to the corresponding English facts. Dependent that-clauses are studied in Ilka Mindt's Adjective Complementation: An Empirical Analysis of Adjectives Followed by That-Clauses. This corpus-driven study offers a detailed description and explanation of adjectives complemented by that-clauses on the basis of data collected from the BNC. After setting out this main objective in chapter 1, Mindt introduces the two formal patterns that are distinguished in the study in chapter 2. The first is 'adjective + that-clause' (as in 'be sure that...'), the second is 'verb make + adjective certain, clear, sure' (as in 'make sure that...'). Mindt also outlines the linear approach that she adopts in the study: each of the following chapters deals with one aspect of the adjective complementation pattern. Chapter 3 analyses the first of these aspects, namely the subject in the matrix clause as well as that in the that-clause (e.g. you in 'You've made it pretty clear (that) you couldn't care less'); it uncovers co-occurrence types on the basis of subject type (such as intentional versus unintentional subject) and it identifies two constructions: the explanative construction and the resultative construction. Chapter 4 deals with the second aspect, the verbs in the matrix clause (which Mindt refers to as the VP, but excluding any objects, so strictly speaking she is referring to the verb string); a distinction is made between verbs

that are not followed by an object (verb + adjective + that-clause) and verbs that are followed by an object (verb + object + adjective + that-clause), whereby the co-occurrence patterns of the two most frequent verbs (be and make) and the strong link between make and the adjectives certain, clear, and sure are examined. Chapter 5 focuses specifically on 'adjective + that-clause' patterns which contain a direct object in the matrix clause ('it' in 'You've made it pretty clear that...'); on the basis of a hierarchical cluster analysis, Mindt shows that, as with subjects and adjectives (chapter 3), experiential adjectives favour intentional objects and evaluative adjectives favour non-intentional objects. The next chapter, focusing on adverbs that precede the adjective, distinguishes two types of adverb: adverbs that modify the adjective (e.g. 'very' in 'He is very confident that...') and adverbs that do not but simply precede the adjective (e.g. 'now' in 'It is now clear that...'). Chapter 7 investigates the variation between the presence or absence of the complementizer that (overt that versus zero that); Mindt shows that the realization of that is triggered by a number of criteria, such as type of adjective (evaluative adjectives prefer overt that, experiential adjectives zero that), type of subject (non-intentional subjects prefer overt that, intentional ones prefer zero that), and register (formal speech prefers overt that, informal speech zero that). Chapter 8 deals with the verbs in the that-clause ('couldn't care' in the example above) and the results show that there is no indication for a connection between the semantics of the adjectives and the realization of the verbs in the that-clause. The volume closes with an overview and summary of the account.

On the basis of data from the BNC, Arne Lohmann's 'Help vs. Help to: A Multifactorial, Mixed-Effects Account of Infinitive Marker Omission' (ELL 15[2011] 499-521) shows that avoidance of identity is the most important factor influencing the choice between the bare and the full infinitive with the verb help in English. The bare infinitive is preferred after cases of to help, as in 'Your job as an interviewer is to help the candidate relax...'. Sara Gesuato and Roberta Facchinetti's study of 'GOING TO vs. GOING TO BE V-Ing: Two Equivalent Patterns?' (ICAME 35[2011] 59-94) finds that, while be {going to/gonna} V and be {going to/gonna} be V-ing show a number of similarities, the latter is not as well established as the former and appears to be an emerging construction.

Matthew Reeve, in 'The Syntactic Structure of English Clefts' (Lingua 121[2011] 142-71), presents new evidence in favour of the syntax/semantics mismatch analysis of English proposed in earlier work by Hedberg, which holds that the cleft clause semantically modifies the initial pronoun it but syntactically modifies the clefted XP. Rajesh Bhatt and Shoichi Takahashi, 'Reduced and Unreduced Phrasal Comparatives' (NL&LT 29[2011] 581-620), show that languages, among which is English, differ with respect to the meaning of the degree head than in reduced (e.g. 'John is taller than Mary') and unreduced (e.g. 'John is taller than Mary is') phrasal comparatives, which they adduce to the morphosyntactic properties of than in each of the languages.

Based primarily on data from the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language (COLT), Ignacio M. Palacios Martinez's article 'The Expression of Negation in British Teenagers' Language: A Preliminary Study'

(JEngL 39[2011] 4-35) demonstrates that the language of British teenagers is characterized by a high frequency of negative expressions and by the innovative use of new negative items (e.g. uncool). Lena Heine, in 'Non-Coordination-Based Ellipsis from a Construction Grammar Perspective: The Case of the Coffee Construction' (CogLing 22[2011] 55-80), demonstrates the value of a Construction Grammar approach for an analysis of non-co-ordination-based ellipsis examples such as 'You like some coffee?/ Like some coffee?/Some coffee?/Coffee?' (as opposed to the non-elliptical variant 'Would you like some coffee?').

Using Hebrew and English data, 'Predication vs. Aboutness in Copy Raising' (NL&LT29[2011] 779-813) by Idan Landau shows that a pronominal copy in the complement of copy-raising sentences such as 'Charlie looks like his prospects are bright' is necessary if and only if the matrix subject is not thematic. Karin Axelsson, in her 'A Cross-Linguistic Study of Grammatically-Dependent Question Tags: Data and Theoretical Implications' (SLang 35[2011] 793-851), proposes a new categorization of confirmation-seeking question tags (such as 'He was here, wasn't he?') on the basis of data from English and ten other languages.

(b) Early English

The importance of corpora in the study of early syntax is beyond doubt. Detail on how they can be explored is provided in the volume Corpus-Based Analysis and Diachronic Linguistics edited by Yuji Kawaguchi, Makoto Minegishi, and Wolfgang Viereck. The case studies deal with various kinds of phenomena in different languages and make use of a wide range corpora and analyses. In their introduction (pp. 7-19), the editors provide brief synopses of the articles, highlighting two elements of modern thinking underlying diachronic corpus work: a view of synchrony as a dynamic system and recognition of the need to do justice in corpus analyses to the real-time properties of printed texts and manuscripts.

The importance of theory is highlighted in Gary Miller's Language Change and Linguistic Theory, volume 1 of which deals with Approaches, Methodology, and Sound Change, while volume 2 covers Morphological, Syntactic, and Typological Change. Both volumes cover myriad changes, viewed from many different angles—the author clearly does not believe in mono-causality. This means the volumes are a rich source of facts and interpretations, though here and there they do make heavy demands on the reader due to the breadth of the material and the very focused nature of the argumentation. Volume 1 has chapters on methods of investigating language change, on language reconstruction, on the neogrammarian and lexical diffusionist views of change, on analogy, on the motivations of change, on natural processes in change, on hypercorrective types of change, on tempo in phonological change, and on vowel shifts. Volume 2 covers word order typology and change, grammat-icalization, morphological change, gender in proto-Indo-European languages, changes in the medio-passive in Romance, the history of English dummy do, and several other syntactic changes, as well as changes in creole languages.

As this summing up makes clear, it is fair to say that there is no overarching argument that is being made in the book, except for the insistence that each change and each explanation of it needs to be judged—very carefully and critically judged—on its own merits.

Other general contributions to the study of change include Martin Hilpert's 'Dynamic Visualizations of Language Change: Motion Charts on the Basis of Bivariate and Multivariate Data from Diachronic Corpora' (IJCL 16[2011] 435-61), which shows how a dynamic representation of a linguistic change in the form of a motion chart can bundle large amounts of information in a single bird's-eye view and is maximally flexible with respect to what needs to be measured. Erwin Komen's article 'New Changes in English: A Diachronic Perspective on the Relation between Newness and Syntax' (LIN 28[2011] 74-85) reports on the results of a pilot study on diachronic changes in the syntactic expression of newness in English. There is more on the relation between syntactic change and information structure in Svetlana Petrova and Augustin Speyer's 'Focus Movement and Focus Interpretation in Old English' (Lingua 121[2011] 1751-65). Petrova and Speyer investigate to what extent word-order variation in OE can be explained as the result of information-structurally motivated syntactic movement, showing that the early stages of the Germanic languages provide positive evidence for the mapping between focus type and focus realization.

A second edition has appeared of Laurel Brinton and Leslie Arnovick's textbook The English Language: A Linguistic History, first published in 2006. One of the new features of the second edition is a Quick Reference Guide, which includes an overview of the line of descent of English, the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), and phonological, morphological, and syntactic inventories. The second edition also has updated print and web references and offers a more detailed discussion of a number of topics, such as the effects of media. There is special attention for the regional dialects of Canada and the United States, which is unique for a textbook on the history of English language and linguistics. The book has thirteen chapters, the first three of which introduce students to the study of the history of English, the sounds and writing of English, and the causes and mechanisms of language change. The remaining chapters trace the development of English through each of its major periods, starting with a chapter on the Indo-European language family (chapter 4). Chapters 5-7 deal with OE: its development from Germanic, its words and sounds, and its grammar. Chapters 8 and 9 are on the rise of ME and the grammar of ME respectively, including the rise of a written standard. Chapters 10 and 11 deal with eModE, discussing eModE words, sounds, and inflections, and changes in eModE verbal constructions as well as eighteenth-century prescriptivism. Chapter 12 is on ModE and studies grammatical changes since the eModE period. The last chapter (13), describes national varieties of English; it includes a discussion of the distinguishing features of North AmE and BrE, of national or regional dialects such as CanE, AusE, NZE, SAE, LibE, and CarE, as well as of some regional dialects of the British Isles and the United States. Each chapter contains a number of exercises, for which there is a key at the end of the book. Apart from the Quick Reference Guide already mentioned above, there is also an appendix

presenting a timeline of historical, literary, and linguistic events in the history of English, as well as a glossary of linguistic terms. The companion website ( offers additional resources for both students and instructors (the instructor resources can only be accessed with a password). The students resources include OED tutorials and sound files (readings of a number of historical texts). All in all, this textbook has lots to offer students and instructors of the history of English.

Thomas Hoffmann and Graeme Trousdale's 'Variation, Change and Constructions in English' (CogLing 22:i[2011] 1-24) is an introductory article to a special issue on this topic and gives an overview of constructionist approaches to language variation and change, as well as of the topics addressed by the papers in the special issue. We discuss here and below the contributions that deal with grammatical issues. Lobke Ghesquiere and Freek Van de Velde offer a comparison of English such and Dutch zulk in their article 'A Corpus-Based Account of the Development of English Such and Dutch Zulk: Identification, Intensification and (Inter)Subjectification' (CogLing 22[2011] 765-98). They show that the diachronic development of both these items involves a change from identification to intensification, but also that their development does not run strictly parallel, which is attributed to differences in the syntax of such and zulk.

Also on the topic of the NP, Richard Epstein, in 'The Distal Demonstrative as Discourse Marker in Beowulf (ELL 15[2011] 113-35), argues that the distal demonstrative determiner se in OE serves a number of discourse-pragmatic functions, including indicating the relative importance of referents, topic continuity, and chapter boundaries. Douglas Biber and Bethany Gray, 'Grammatical Change in the Noun Phrase: The Influence of Written Language Use' (ELL 15[2011] 223-50), present a diachronic study of two grammatical features: nouns as nominal premodifiers and PPs as nominal postmodifiers. They argue that grammatical innovation can also emerge out of the communicative demands of written discourse, not just of spoken discourse as is often assumed. There is more on the diachrony of NP-internal modification in Freek Van de Velde's article 'Left-Peripheral Expansion of the English NP' (ELL 15[2011] 387-415), in which he argues that peripheral modifiers in the English NP (such as focus markers, as in even the government) are an eModE innovation. Van de Velde also shows that the peripheral modifier slot was analogically extended to other interpersonal adverbs. Sara Myers, in 'Innovation in a Conservative Region: The Kentish Sermons Genitive System' (ELL 15[2011] 417-39), shows that the genitive system of the eME Kentish Sermons, far advanced toward the ModE system despite the linguistically conservative nature of Kent, largely developed independently of French influence.

In a special issue on the diachrony of gender marking (FoLi 45:ii[2011]), Peter Siemund and Florian Dolberg's article 'From Lexical to Referential Gender: An Analysis of Gender Change in Medieval English Based on Two Historical Documents' (FoLi 45[2011] 489-534) investigates gender variation and change in Orosius and the Peterborough Chronicle. Gender marking in more recent English is discussed in Laura Louise Paterson's article 'Epicene Pronouns in UK National Newspapers: A Diachronic Study'

(ICAME 35[2011] 171-84). Paterson investigates the quantitative usage patterns of two pronominal candidates for gender-neutral marking, generic he and singular they, finding a decrease in the use of generic he and an increase in the use of singular they. Margarita Mele-Marrero and Francisco Alonso-Almeida, 'The Role of the Pronouns He and She in Seventeenth-Century Obstetric Directives' (SN 83[2011] 169-81), find that the third person singular is used by the instructor to elicit an action or opinion from the learner.

In 'The Northern Subject Rule in First-Person Singular Contexts in Early Modern English' (FoLi 32[2011] 89-114), Julia Fernandez Cuesta demonstrates that the Northern Subject Rule (NSR) in first-person singular contexts (e.g. I often finds) was operative in northern English and Scots until the eighteenth century and finds that the adjacency constraint appears to have been less robust than the type of subject constraint. Maria Jose; Lopez-Couso, in 'Developmental Parallels in Diachronic and Ontogenetic Grammaticalization: Existential There as a Test Case' (FoLi 45[2011] 81-101), shows that there is a diachronic relation between deictic and existential there-constructions ('There's the dog running around' and 'There's a dog in the yard' respectively), which had previously been shown to exist in child language acquisition as well.

Nikolas Gisborne's 'Constructions, Word Grammar, and Grammaticaliza-tion' (CogLing 22[2011] 155-82) offers a Word Grammar approach to the development of will as a future tense marker in English and to the loss of the impersonal construction in English. Geoffrey N. Leech, in 'The Modals ARE Declining: Reply to Neil Millar's ''Modal Verbs in TIME: Frequency Changes 1923-2006'', IJCL 14[2009] 191-220' (IJCL 16[2011] 547-64), argues against Millar's [2009] claim that the core modal auxiliaries of English have overall been increasing in the recent past, and presents evidence to the contrary. Tracing the history of usage-based comments on the split infinitive, Moisees D. Perales-Escudero's 'To Split or Not to Split: The Split Infinitive Past and Present' (JEngL 39[2011] 313-34) finds a number of acceptable idiomatic patterns involving the split infinitive in contemporary spoken and written registers of AmE (e.g. to better understand). Michiko Ogura, in 'The Grammaticalization of the Old English Imperatives Weald and Loca' (N&Q 58[2011] 10-4), considers the status of OE loca and weald, hinting that they may be grammaticalized.

In 'English Sentence Adverbials in a Discourse and Cognitive Perspective' (ES 92[2011] 679-92), Toril Swan and Leiv Egil Breivik argue that the gravitation of sentence adverbials (such as frankly) towards the initial position in the history of English is related to the fact that the initial position may be used for various discourse purposes. Heeleene Margerie's corpus-driven study 'Grammaticalising Constructions: To Death as a Peripheral Degree Modifier' (FoLi 32[2011] 115-47) suggests that, in contrast to intensifiers which grammaticalize from adverbs, to death developed its booster function from various constructions (NP1 verb NP2 to death and NP be adjective to death), often occurring in bridging contexts. In 'Prepositional Following Revisited' (SN 83[2011] 5-20), Arne Olofsson examines the spread in the usage of prepositional following in four BrE corpora (BLOB, LOB, FLOB, and BE06), covering the period 1931-2006 and finds that it was established earlier than

previously known. Luis Iglesias-Rabade's 'Collocations in Law Texts in Late Middle English: Some Evidence Concerning Adverbs Ending in -HT (SN 83[2011] 54-66) studies the collocational patterns of these elements in a legal corpus of lME, as well as in a reference corpus of non-technical language. Heike Pichler and Stephen Levey's article 'In Search of Grammaticalization in Synchronic Dialect Data: General Extenders in Northeast England' (ELL 15[2011] 441-71) elucidates patterns of variation and change in general extenders (such as... or whatever,... and stuff like that) in a peripheral variety of north-east England. Contrary to earlier work by others, Pichler and Levey's data do not reveal any evidence for ongoing grammaticalization. Juhani Rudanko's Changes in Complementation in British and American English: Corpus-Based Studies on Non-Finite Complements in Recent English investigates change and variation in recent BrE and AmE complementation patterns, sometimes referred to as the Great Complement Shift, a term coined by Gunther Rohdenburg. The introduction (chapter 1) is followed by three chapters that deal with the transitive into -ing pattern, as in 'They fooled him into believing he was fast enough' (p. 2). One aspect of this pattern is that there is a correlation between the matrix verb and the type of predicate in the sentential complement. This receives attention in chapter 2, which examines the basic properties of the transitive into -ing pattern in recent English on the basis of data drawn from electronic corpora. In chapter 3, Rudanko probes the productivity of the transitive into -ing pattern in current English, focusing on the innovative use of matrix verbs in this pattern (as in 'He bleats that Chancellor Gordon Brown has outsmarted the prime minister into retreating over the euro'). Chapter 4 investigates matrix verbs expressing unflavoured causation that select the transitive into -ing pattern. These are manner-neutral verbs such as influence, which do not express the specific nature of the verbal sub-event (as opposed to, for instance, verbs like frighten), and they are commonly found with to-infinitive complements. Rudanko's findings show that the innovative use of the transitive into -ing pattern is emerging more strongly in BrE than in AmE, which runs counter to the view that grammatical change is always spearheaded by AmE. Chapter 5 focuses on another complementation pattern parallel to the transitive into -ing pattern: the transitive out of -ing pattern (as in '... his friends and family talked him out of leaving the sport'). Rudanko shows that, in contrast to the transitive into -ing pattern, which has flourished in recent and current English, the transitive out of-ing pattern has remained rare. Chapters 6-8 take as their point of departure not the complementation pattern, but the individual matrix predicate. Chapter 6 focuses on the adjective accustomed, showing that this adjective, which in current English only selects the to -ing pattern (as in '... they are not accustomed to winning on the road...'), was also attested with to-infinitive complements in the past three centuries. Rudanko also discusses two principles, the Extraction Principle and a semantic principle concerning the [+/- Choice] nature of the lower subject, which help to explain the development of the to -ing pattern. In chapter 7, the same is shown for the verb object (compare current English 'They objected to granting an export licence...' to *'They objected to grant an export licence...'). Chapter 8 looks at the innovative use of the verb commit with sentential complements, as

in '... parents had to commit to helping their children with homework...', which is shown to be much more frequent in current AmE than in BrE. Chapter 9 presents the conclusions of the study, which has revealed a considerable amount of change and variation in the predicate complementation system of recent English.

Robert Truswell's 'Relatives with a Leftward Island in Early Modern English' (NL&LT 29[2011] 291-332) argues that constructions like 'a man, whom if you know you must love', found in sixteenth- to nineteenth-century English, are left-adjunction structures with a definite anaphoric wh-pronoun adjoined within the left-adjoined constituent.

6. Semantics

Introducing Semantics [2010] by Nick Riemer is among the best textbooks ever written on the subject, succeeding in presenting central topics of semantics research from the perspectives of formal, cognitive, definitional, typological, structural, speech-act, and computational approaches, without displaying an obvious bias towards any of these or hiding their weaknesses. The individual chapters discuss the issue of meaning in the empirical study of language, the role of definition in the description of meaning, the role of the external and the interpersonal contexts in the determination of meaning, possibilities and methods for analysing and distinguishing meanings, the role of logic as a representation of meaning, the relation between cognitive operations and meaning, ways of formalizing and simulating conceptual representations, the semantics of grammatical categories, issues of verb meaning and argument structure, and questions of semantic variation and change. The special advantages of the work, in addition to its balanced structure and non-dogmatic approach, reside in its ability to present notoriously difficult concepts (like that of mental representations or the aspect/Aktionsart distinction) in a comprehensive manner, and in managing to convey enthusiasm towards the subject while retaining a critical attitude to certain aspects of the individual theories. The author aimed to increase the appeal of the work to an audience interested in languages by discussing examples from major world languages as well as from lesser-known ones (though in the latter case reliance on possibly incomplete descriptions has led to certain inaccuracies and simplifications). Well-written introductions to the individual chapters, chapter summaries, a glossary, as well as a large number of varied exercises enhance learnability, and make the book appropriate for both individual study as well as a course companion.

Another excellent reference work is the research survey Quantification [also from 2010] by Anna Szabolcsi, which focuses on two issues. The first concerns the way the understanding of the notions of quantification and quantifier has changed since Richard Montague's [1974] seminal work 'The Proper Treatment of Quantification in Ordinary English', and the second relates to the notion of scope and its implementation in several varieties of generative syntax and categorial grammar. The work outlines the basic assumptions of the 'grand uniformity' approach, according to which all natural language

quantification can be modelled with the help of generalized quantifiers (characteristic of the 1970s and 1980s), followed by the description of the stage (in the 1980s and 1990s) where the focus was on accounting for the diverse scope behaviour of different quantificational expressions—like indefinites versus universals or bare versus modified numeral expressions—the distinction between existential scope and distributive scope playing an important role in the explanations. The final chapters summarize the most recent developments since the beginning of the 2000s, which attribute various contrasts between the syntactic and semantic behaviour of different quantificational expressions to differences in their internal composition. The author, one of the key authorities in the field, manages to explain highly technical notions by keeping formalization to a minimum, though without compromising on precision, thus making the volume an accessible introduction to this rapidly changing field.

One of the questions addressed in a collection of essays by Eli Hirsch, entitled Quantifier Variance and Realism, concerns the interdependence of ontological assumptions, i.e. what objects are taken to exist in the world, and the interpretation of quantifiers. At the heart of Hirsch's discussion is the notion of 'quantifier variance', i.e. the idea that it depends on linguistic rules of quantifier interpretation whether or not complexes of things can be accepted as single objects or must be taken as multiple objects. Issues of reference, vagueness, and precisification are brought to bear on sorting out conflicting theoretical positions.

Among journal articles on quantification and scope, 'Distributivity, Collectivity, and Cumulativity in Terms of (In)dependence and Maximality' (JLLI 20[2011] 233-71), by Livio Robaldo, proposes a new 'wide-coverage' logical framework, which relies on Generalized Quantifier Theory and integrates Roger Schwarzchild's [1996] and the author's [2009] proposal, where any kind of readings of natural language sentences containing any number of quantifiers are claimed to be representable, irrespective of whether the quantifiers are linearly ordered or not. 'How Indefinites Choose their Scope' (Ling&P 34[2011] 1-55), by Adrian Brasoveanu and Donka F. Farkas, puts forth a novel account of the exceptional scope taking properties of indefinites as compared to bona fide quantifiers (characterized by relative scopal freedom on the one side and syntactic sensitivity on the other), in terms of a semantics that follows Independence-Friendly Logic. Adrian Brasoveanu, in another article, 'Sentence-Internal Different as Quantifier-Internal Anaphora' (Ling&P 34[2011] 93-168), outlines the first unified, compositional account for deictic (sentence-external) and sentence-internal readings of morphologically singular different. Still on quantifiers, Nathan Klinedinst proposes a new formal analysis of 'Quantified Conditionals and Conditional Excluded Middle' (JSem 28[2011] 149-70).

Negative Indefinites, by Doris Penka, argues that it is possible to give a cross-linguistically unified analysis of negative indefinites (NIs), in spite of superficial differences in their behaviour in different languages. The class of NIs includes the English expressions nobody, nothing, no (as determiner), never, and nowhere, and their counterparts in other languages, which can be used as negative fragmentary answers, as opposed to NPIs. The main claim of the

work is that, contrary to general wisdom about NIs that treats them as negative quantifiers (denoting negative existential quantification), they are semantically non-negative indefinites that have to be licensed by (possibly covert) semantic negation. The licensing relation is assumed to be syntactic, technically implemented as feature checking. The differences between the behaviour of NIs in double negation and negative concord languages are then attributed to differences between the interpretable features on the negation operator checking the uninterpretable features of the NI. The analysis, according to which the negation is not a lexical component of NIs, is supported by the existence of negative concord itself, and the possibility of splitting the scope of NIs in various languages by another operator taking scope between the negative and the indefinite meaning component. It is claimed that scope-splitting in the case of downward entailing quantifiers is the result of different factors (in the case of less/fewer, little/few, the involvement of a degree quantifier, in the case of only and at most, the presence of a focus-sensitive particle); this argues in favour of decompositional analyses of the latter (cf. Martin Hackl [2000]) and against traditional analyses based on generalized quantifiers.

The Grammar of Polarity by Michael Israel approaches the question of why polarity items have the peculiar distributions that they do and why there are polarity items at, all from a lexical-pragmatic perspective. It puts forth the 'Scalar Model of Polarity', which holds that polarity sensitivity is essentially a sensitivity to scalar inferencing, and therefore is based on a general feature of human conceptual and perceptual systems: the ability to reason in terms of scales. Polarity items are claimed to require both that the proposition expressed occupies a fixed (that is, low or high) position within a scalar model, defined as a 'structured set of propositions organized in a way that supports scalar inferencing', and that this proposition 'stand[s] in a fixed inferential relationship to a scalar norm' (p. 256) (resulting in an emphatic or attenuating conventional informative value). Among its predecessors, the theory relies most closely on the ingenious proposal by Manfred Krifka [1995], also given credit in the literature review in chapter 8 of this volume. The proposal is tested on a wide range of polarity elements in the 'scalar lexicon', including modal polarity items, connective polarity items, aspectual polarity items, and the family of English indefinite polarity items. (A more complete 'Catalogue of English Polarity Items' is added as an appendix.) Although, as the author admits, there are idiosyncratic properties of certain individual polarity items that the above typology cannot account for, the majority of items behave as predicted. Still on this topic, 'Modularity and Intuitions in Formal Semantics: The Case of Polarity Items' (Ling&P 34[2011] 537-70) by Emmanuel Chemla, Vincent Homer, and Daniel Rothschild provides experimental evidence for a well-known claim within model-theoretic semantics, according to which the decisive concept underlying the syntactic acceptability of NPIs is monoton-icity, although the authors argue that the relevant notion is in fact perceived monotonicity. Jon R. Gajewski shows in 'Licensing Strong NPIs' (NLS 19[2011] 109-48) that the differences between weak and strong NPIs can be captured with reference to the formal property of downward entailingness (or monotonicity) alone, the difference between them residing in which aspects

of the meaning of an NPI's environment are relevant to licensing: strong NPIs are sensitive to the implicatures and presuppositions triggered by their licenser, whereas weak NPIs are not.

We turn now to the semantics of VPs. Epistemic Modality, edited by Andy Egan and Brian Weatherson, presents foundational work such as 'The Nature of Epistemic Space' by David Chalmers (pp. 60-107), as well as case studies like '''Might'' Made Right' (pp. 108-30) by Kai von Fintel and Anthony Gilles. In order to refine notions of 'possible worlds', the former investigates principles for constructing and constraining rich descriptions of ways the world may (be known to) be. The latter appeals to pragmatic exploitation of built-in ambiguity to defend a standard approach to modality against more recent contextualist and relativist ones. Relevant background notions like perspectivity, subjective (un)certainty, and assessment-sensitivity are dealt with in several additional chapters by Kent Bach and John MacFarlane, among others.

Three collections contain selections of papers presented at the 7th Chronos Colloquium on the interaction of tense, aspect, and modality in Antwerp in 2006. In the Mood for Mood, a collection focusing on modality and related categories, was edited by Tanja and Jesse Mortelmans together with Walter de Mulder. Among the contributed chapters, 'Non-Root Past Modals' (pp. 43-60) by Hamida Demirdache and Myriam Uribe-Etxebarria explores the (non-)interpretation of tense morphology on modals and how it guides selection of synthetic vs. analytic forms. An Verhulst and Renaat Declerck discuss 'Constraints on the Meanings of Modal Auxiliaries in Counterfactual Clauses' (pp. 21-42). They argue that counterfactuality has to be sharply distinguished from other 'epistemic values' like logical necessity and epistemic (im)possibility. Also, different mechanisms for deriving counterfactual readings of root vs. epistemic modals are identified. The collection From Now to Eternity, also edited by Jesse Mortelmans, Tanja Mortelmans, and Walter De Mulder, contains contributions discussing Aktionsart, aspect, and tense and their interactions. In 'Revisiting the Distinction between Accomplishments and Achievements' (pp. 43-64), Fabienne Martin lists some new arguments for maintaining the distinction between the two Vendlerian classes of predicates in the title, in spite of the fact that so-called 'right achievements' (e.g. arrive) can all be coerced into accomplishments. She identifies two-achievement-like subclasses of accomplishments and argues for the relevance of the iterative/ non-iterative distinction within the class of accomplishments. Matti Miestamo and Johan van der Auwera, 'Negation and Perfective vs. Imperfective Aspect' (pp. 65-84), make a case, on the basis of investigating a large number of languages, against the generalization that perfective aspect is less compatible with negation than imperfective aspect. Bjorn Rothstein's 'Why the Present Perfect Differs Cross-Linguistically. Some New Insights' (pp. 123-37) takes a fresh look at the 'present perfect puzzle' (the question of why the present perfect in German can be modified by temporal adverbials expressing a definite position on the time axis, as opposed to Swedish or English), and the 'pluperfect puzzle' (the question of why the pluperfect allows for modification with the same adverbials in all three languages), arguing that they are the

result of a competitional process between the present perfect and the present tense.

The papers in the collection Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality, edited by Adeline Patard and Frank Brisard, represent a less formal viewpoint (though not necessarily that of Cognitive Grammar, as the title would suggest). Renaat Declerck claims in 'The Definition of Modality' (pp. 21-44) that 'there is modality whenever there is reference to actualization of a situation in a world that is not represented as being the factual world (p. 21). Ronald W. Langacker offers a comparison between accounts of the English present that treat it as tense and those that treat it as modality in 'The English Present. Temporal Coincidence vs. Epistemic Immediacy' (pp. 45-86). 'Imperfective Aspect and Epistemic Modality' (pp. 217-48), by Ronny Boogaart and Radoslava Trnavac, looks at the well-known affinity between imperfective aspect and epistemic modality in Germanic and Romance languages, illustrated by the fact, among others, that epistemic readings of modal verbs are only available with imperfective complements, as the contrast between He must read that book and He must be reading that book indicates. In 'Communicating about the Past through Modality in English and Thai' (pp. 249-78), Katarzyna M. Jaszczolt and Jiranthara Srioutai argue for treating the category of temporality as a species of modality, 'understood as a degree of detachment from the content of the expressed proposition' (p. 249). Adeline Patard advocates a contrary view in 'The Epistemic Uses of the English Simple Past and the French Imparfait: When Temporality Conveys Modality' (pp. 279-310).

In the volume Tense Across Languages, edited by Renate Musan and Monika Rathert, Magdalena Schwager, 'Imperatives and Tense' (pp. 37-58), spells out a formal theory combining temporal operators with a modal semantics for imperatives, which is used to account for the puzzle of present perfect imperatives (e.g. Don't have broken the vase!), among others. The 'future-shift' of volitional modals like English will is addressed in Eva-Maria Remberger's contribution, 'Tense and Volitionality' (pp. 9-35), to the same volume. The analysis is couched in a Reichenbachian framework for temporal interpretation enriched with an 'anchoring' function for the treatment of tense in dependent infinitival clauses. In addition, the approach is extended to cover evidential readings of volitionals.

The journal article 'Reference Time and the English Past Tenses' (Ling&P 34[2011] 223-56), by W.P.M. Meyer-Viol and H.S. Jones, offers a unified formal account of the English perfect and preterite tenses, which makes use of the assumption that they are associated with different reference times, but also specifies a set of constraints that must be satisfied at reference time. The paper accounts for individual features of the perfect and the preterite, such as the 'definiteness effect' and the 'lifetime effect', the unacceptability of examples like *Gutenberg has discovered the art of printing, the 'up-to-now' reading of the perfect as in She has been living in Paris for ten years, or the imperfective paradox. Hendrik de Smet and Liesbet Heyvaert take a fresh look at 'The Meaning of the English Present Participle' (ELL 15[2011] 473-98), aiming to account for its variety in interpretations starting from the observation that 'many... present participle clauses/phrases are paradigmatically related to

adjectival phrases, as manifested in their distributional properties' (p. 473). In 'Counterfactual-Style Revisions in the Semantics of Deontic Modals' (JSem 28[2011] 171-210), Ana Arregui argues that the proper analysis of deontic modals must take dependencies between facts into account, which makes the phenomena above similar to counterfactuals, for which an analogous analysis was proposed by Angelika Kratzer [1981] and Frank Veltman [2005]. 'Modal Entailments' (JSem 28[2011] 451-84), by Tom Werner, argues for the existence of certain properties that cross boundaries of modal types. 'Towards a More Explicit Taxonomy of Root Possibility' (ELL 15[2011] 1-29), by Ilse Depreatere and Susan Reed, identifies three criteria that are claimed to be necessary and sufficient to distinguish five root (non-epistemic) possibility meanings.

Several papers are concerned with the interpretation of comparative structures. In 'Reduced and Unreduced Phrasal Comparatives' (NL&LT 29[2011] 581-620), Rajesh Bhatt and Shoichi Takahashi look at the possible answers to the question whether the degree head in clausal comparatives such as John is taller than Mary is and in phrasal comparatives such as John is taller than Mary has the same interpretation or not, and argue that for different languages the answers are also different though derivable from the morpho-syntactic properties of than and a preference for minimal structure. Marcin Morzycki's 'Metalinguistic Comparison in an Alternative Semantics for Imprecision' (NLS 19[2011] 39-86) proposes an analysis of metalinguistic comparatives such as more dumb than crazy, in which they are claimed to differ from ordinary comparatives as to the scale on which they compare: whereas ordinary comparatives use scales lexically determined by particular adjectives, metalinguistic ones use a scale of (im)precision, assumed to be generally available. 'Measurement and Interadjective Comparisons' (JSem 28[2011] 335-58) by Robert van Rooij emphasizes the relevance of measurement theory in accounting for the interpretation of comparative statements, in particular, the so-called 'interadjective comparatives' such as 'x is P-er than y is Q' and comparatives involving multidimensional adjectives. Alan Clinton Bale compares three theories of comparison classes, defined as 'sets that relativize the interpretation of gradable adjectives' (p. 169), in 'Scales and Comparison Classes' (NLS 19[2011] 169-90).

The division of labour between semantics and syntax is addressed in several publications. The monograph Dissolving Binding Theory by Johan Rooryck and Guido van den Wyngaerd, to begin with, is devoted to defending the assumption that syntax contains no binding-specific mechanisms. Instead, the behaviour of pronouns and reflexives is to be reduced to the interplay of movement, (agreement) feature-sharing, morphological realization, and semantic(o-pragmatic) construal. On this view, 'self-anaphors' like himself get reanalysed as floating quantifiers, such as all in The children were all tired. Reflexives functioning as intensifiers are taken to independently support this view. The overall proposal is worked out in technical detail with an eye on cross-linguistic adequacy.

Two contributions to the Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Minimalism, edited by Cedric Boeckx, namely, 'Minimalist Semantics' (pp. 449-71) by Gillian Ramchand and 'Minimal Semantic Instructions' (pp. 472-98) by Paul

Pietroski, sketch out ways of making interpretation congruent with structural aspects of Chomskyan minimalist syntax. In the former case, decomposition into layers of functional projections is used to build a uniform lexicon-syntax interface capable of defining argument structure and thematic roles in predominantly structural terms. In the latter case, a method is outlined for uniformly interpreting the structure-building operation 'Merge' in terms of semantic conjunction. Both papers rely heavily on neo-Davidsonian semantics, which crucially involves quantification over event variables.

To properly interface syntax and information structure is one of the main objectives of Discourse-Related Features and Functional Projections by Silvio Cruschina. At the core of the proposal lies recognition of a form-function correspondence sharply distinguishing between information focus and con-trastive focus. Couched within the so-called 'cartographic' approach to grammar developed by Luigi Rizzi and Guglielmo Cinque, the analysis pays particular attention to evidence from word-order asymmetries. Crosslinguistic validity is another design goal. Objects and Information Structure, by Mary Dalrymple and Irina Nikolaeva is concerned with the phenomenon of differential object marking (DOM), which covers cases of non-uniform grammatical marking of objects and non-uniform agreement patterns. The authors argue, as opposed to previous views that connect DOM to features like definiteness, animacy, or specificity, that the factor behind all phenomena of DOM is information structure: marked objects are associated with the topic role, very often with the role of secondary topic. In spite of the centrality of the latter concept in the theory proposed by the authors, the definition they offer is rather imprecise. As a result, although the array of data discussed is definitely impressive, the question whether the proposal really supersedes previous explanations of the phenomena is particularly difficult to decide, given that definiteness, animacy, and specificity, the concepts associated with DOM in previous work, all enhance topic-worthiness.

Events, Phrases, and Questions by Robert Truswell starts out from the observation that 'in many cases, patterns of extraction out of adjuncts [are]substantially different from the typical patterns determined by... syntactic accounts of locality' (p. 43). It develops a new theory to account for the data, whose centrepiece is what the author calls the Single Event Condition. It predicts that wh-movement out of an adjunct is possible only if the constituent containing the head and the foot of the chain describes no more than one event; thus, the events described by the matrix VP and the adjunct VP can be construed as describing parts of a single larger event. In the theory of event structure developed by the author, two sub-events can form a single macro-event if they are assumed to be related by a 'contingent' relation, where the class of the latter includes at least direct causation and a relation concerned with plan formation. It is shown that the Single Event Condition, which does not assume a systematic correspondence between events and particular syntactic units, can provide an empirically adequate description of the different patterns of extraction from different types of adjuncts and can also be applied to cases of successive-cyclic A'-movement.

'Semantics and Grammar in Clause Linking' (pp. 380-402) is the title of Alexandra Aikhenvald's closing chapter to the volume The Semantics of

Clause Linking, co-edited by her and Robert Dixon. In it she reflects upon what, from a typological perspective, must count as 'core' as opposed to 'marginal' semantic relations between propositions, with temporal and consequence relations counting among the former, alternativity and manner relations among the latter. Particular attention is paid to the polysemy of clause-linking devices and the impact of the type of complement (NP vs. clause) on the interpretation of prepositions/conjunctions like since. The semantics of apposition is also touched on briefly.

Reciprocals and Semantic Typology, edited by Nicholas Evans, Alice Gaby, Stephen C. Levinson, and Asifa Majid, is an exemplary work in semantic typology based entirely on systematic data-gathering. The aim was to investigate the range and interpretational features of constructions available to encode reciprocity in a selection of twenty (mostly lesser-studied) languages, coming from fifteen language families, which also included English and a sign language. Although reciprocals are highly grammaticalized in spite of their low textual frequency, the constructions that have been treated as reciprocals in different languages in the literature are far from being intertranslatable. Thus, instead of predetermining what constructions count as reciprocal in the languages under investigation, the project participants decided to elicit data from native speakers. Speakers were asked to describe the events displayed in video sketches, which differed according to the number of participants, the configuration of the event (ranging from those where all participants act on all others symmetrically to those involving a linear series of events or interactions in pairs but no interactions between pairs), the symmetry vs. asymmetry of the event, the temporal organization (simultaneous, sequential), and the event type. The editors' introduction explains that the findings contradict the generalization offered by Mary Dalrymple, Makoto Kanazawa, Yookyung Kim, Sam Mchombo, and Stanley Peters [1998]: instead of having an invariant, universal meaning, which has to be read in the 'strongest way possible' in all contexts, the meanings of reciprocal constructions investigated were never totally identical, and in some cases diverged significantly. One chapter presents the comparative analysis of the data using multivariate statistics, which is followed by systematic descriptions of the findings for the individual languages, and the chapter 'Reciprocals and Semantic Typology: Some Concluding Remarks' (pp. 329-39), by Ekkehard Konig, summarizes the theoretical background and the implications of the project.

The semantics (and pragmatics) of non-declaratives were addressed in several publications. In 'Exclamatives, Degrees and Speech Acts' (Ling&P 34 [2011] 411-42), Jessica Rett provides an account of the semantics and pragmatics of sentence exclamations (exclamations formed with a declarative sentence) such as Wow, John bakes delicious desserts! and exclamatives (exclamations formed with something other than a declarative sentence), such as What delicious desserts John bakes! (wh-exclamative), Does John bake delicious desserts! (inversion exclamative) and The delicious desserts John bakes! (nominal exclamative). The two core components of the account are that the utterance of an exclamation expresses a violation of the speaker's expectation and that exclamatives (as opposed to sentence-exclamations) are semantically restricted in that they can only receive degree interpretations.

The illocutionary force of exclamation is claimed to be a function from propositions to speech acts of exclamation. Rosja Mastop, 'Imperatives as Semantic Primitives' (Ling&P 34[2011] 305-40), proposes a formal semantic analysis of imperatives in the framework of Update Semantics (Frank Veltman [1996]), which treats imperatives as irreducible semantic entities, on a par with propositions, contrary to most previous work that analyses them in terms of propositional semantics and the pragmatics of mood.

Maria Aloni and Floris Roelofsen put forward an account of 'Interpreting Concealed Questions' (Ling&P 34[2011] 443-78), which are formed by NPs that are naturally paraphrased as embedded questions (cf. John knows the capital of Italy & John knows what the capital of Italy is), making use of a novel kind of type-shifting mechanism. 'Exhaustivity in Questions with Non-Factives' (S&Prag 4[2011] 1-23) by Nathan Klinedinst and Daniel Rothschild, argues for an intermediate reading of interrogatives embedded under non-factive verbs like tell and predict that is stronger than the weakly exhaustive reading but weaker than the strongly exhaustive reading, attributed to the presence of the same operator that is responsible for the strongly exhaustive reading (though under a different scope ordering).

Marta Abrusan and Benjamin Spector claim in 'A Semantics for Degree Questions Based on Intervals: Negative Islands and Their Obviation' (JSem 28[2011] 107-47) that the logical form of a degree question contains a variable that ranges over intervals of degrees and is bound by the degree question operator how, following Roger Schwarzschild and Karina Wilkinson's [2002] proposal on the semantics of comparative clauses. In 'Wh-Islands in Degree Questions: A Semantic Approach' (S&Prag 4[2011] 1-44), the first author proposes that the unacceptability of wh-islands with degree questions, as in *How much wine do you know whether you should poison? is not due to syntactic reasons, as previously argued in the literature, but to the fact that they cannot be given a most informative true answer, following Danny Fox and Martin Hackl's [2007] theory for negative islands. 'Presuppositional and Negative islands: A Semantic Account' (NLS 19[2011] 257-321), also by Abrusan, argues that islands created by presuppositional items (factive verbs, extraposition), as well as islands created by adverbs of quantification and the adverb only, are unacceptable because they lead to a contradiction which arises at the level of presuppositions, whereas negative islands like *How didn't John behave at the party? are unacceptable because they cannot have a maximally informative true answer. The proposal, which also accounts for the fact that these islands can be obviated by certain quantificational elements, is based on the assumptions that the domain of manners contains contraries and that degree expressions range over intervals.

The interaction of semantics and pragmatics is of interest to several authors. Notions from speech-act and dialogue-act theory continue to be influential. Two book-length studies, a monograph by Mark Jary [2010] and a collection of papers edited by Jessica Brown and Herman Cappelen, both bear the title Assertion. Among the core topics treated in the former are the relation of assertion to belief and knowledge, the analysis of (declarative) mood, and the role of common ground in dynamic semantics. The overall thrust of Jary's approach is to privilege a commitment-based perspective over an

intention-based one. The other volume features the contribution 'Information and Assertoric Force' (pp. 97-135) by Peter Pagin. Here, informativeness, defined as a property of (prima facie) truthful representations, is identified as the core ingredient of a new account of assertion.

Revisiting the difference between truth-conditional negation and acts of denial is part of the agenda pursued by Jean-Philippe Narboux in ' ''There's many a slip between cup and lip'': Dimension and Negation in Austin' (pp. 204-40), a contribution to The Philosophy of J.L. Austin, edited by Martin Gustafsson and Richard Sarli. In it, the author revisits the Austinian take on felicity assessments as a central tool in the analysis of meaning. Another contribution, 'Knowing Knowing (that Such and Such)' (pp. 146-74) by Avner Baz scrutinizes Austin's perspective on ordinary language in interpreting the expression to know that, which he defends against its critics.

Bidirectional Optimality Theory, edited by Anton Benz and Jason Mattausch, presents the results of some current work in this new theory, which emerged in Reinhard Blutner [2000] as a fusion of Radical Pragmatics and Optimality Theoretic Semantics, and which has since become an important framework, also for modelling diachronic processes and language acquisition, summarized in an accessible introduction by the editors

(pp. 1-31).

The contributions to Making Semantics Pragmatic, edited by Ken Turner, examine the division of labour between semantics and pragmatics from a variety of perspectives, paying close attention to the relations between meanings, propositions, and truth-conditions, between meaning and reference, meaning and context, meaning and use, and between what is said and what is implicated, through the analysis of linguistic phenomena like the interpretation of conditionals, relational words, or pragmatic markers.

In Meaning, Logic and Ludics, Alain Lecomte sketches a program for non-denotational semantics reconciling the meaning-as-proof approach with Jaakko Hintikka's game semantics. The underlying framework is called 'ludics', a logic that can be interpreted in terms of (antagonistic) dialogue strategies. In addition to a fully explicit formal apparatus, Lecomte provides applications in the areas of quantification and the semantics of questions.

Scott Soames carefully argues in What is Meaning? that the meaning of sentences cannot be captured in terms of sets of truth-conditions, but only in terms of propositions, which, however, cannot be defined in terms of 'truth-supporting circumstances'. He introduces and compares two possible notions of propositions. According to the 'deflationary account', propositions are to be viewed as 'hierarchical structure[s] paralleling the syntactic structure of the sentence itself. The constituents of the proposition are the objects, properties, relations, and propositional function that are, or encode, the meanings of the constituents of the sentence' (p. 70). On the second, 'realist account', propositions are viewed as types of acts of predicating properties.

'Meaning and Misconception' (pp. 164-95) is one of the collected papers by Anil Gupta published under the title Truth, Meaning, Experience. In it, Gupta develops a non-representational discursive approach to meaning, capable of making sense of the exploratory role of language applied in situations underdetermined by facts. Use of spatial expressions like up under varying

epistemic circumstances—varying stocks of knowledge about the world—is one of the examples studied in detail.

Foundational studies of meaning make up the majority of the fourteen essays reprinted in Meaning, Mind, & Matter by Ernest Lepore and Barry Loewer. Prime examples are 'Translational Semantics' (pp. 9-18), 'What Model-Theoretic Semantics Cannot Do' (pp. 31-46), 'The Role of'Conceptual Role Semantics'' (pp. 47-57), 'Dual-Aspect Semantics' (59-85), and 'Solipsistic Semantics' (131-49). Among the core themes laid out here are the viability of a theory of truth as underlying a theory of meaning, a theory of interpretation as an irreplaceable link between language and thought, and a non-reductionist theory of the mental. Lepore and Loewer take particularly great pains with reconstructing and evaluating influential approaches on meaning by, among others, Donald Davidson, Jerry Fodor, David Lewis, Willard Quine, and Hilary Putnam.

Familiar topics, such as the meaning of names, indexicality, pronominal anaphora, and the cognitive basis of meaning, are presented from an unfamiliar angle in Artha: Meaning by Jonardon Ganeri. This is because the monograph is devoted to elucidating these areas from the perspective of the classical Indian theory of language. It is shown how, properly construed, notions like direct reference, and the extension/intension dichotomy can be traced back to their traditional Indian counterparts. Ganeri's exposition carefully weaves in strands from modern analytic approaches to meaning, such as the ones by Gottlob Frege, Bertrand Russell, and P.F. Strawson.

Interpreted Languages and Compositionality is referred to by its author, Marcus Kracht, as an outline of a 'metatheory of linguistics', which aims not at discovering properties that a language has but offering methods of establishing properties that a given language has. In the course of investigating the empirical potential of certain principles of language, it is argued, in particular, that the Principle of Compositionality has empirical content, since there also exist non-compositional languages.

Experimental methods of data collection are relatively new to formal linguistics. Jeffrey T. Runner, editor of Experiments at the Interfaces, argues for the particular utility of using experimental methods 'for investigating phenomena at the interfaces of the components of grammar, where the sources of multiple types of information need to be carefully controlled' (p. 1). The three novel experiments involving sentence verification tasks presented in the paper 'Most Meanings are Superlative', by Hadas Kotek, Yasutada Sudo, Edwin Howard, and Martin Hackl (pp. 101-45) show that bare most in subject position in English is ambiguous between a dominant proportional reading (equivalent to that of more than half) and a latent superlative reading, a fact not noticed before. The results argue for the importance of carefully designed verification experiments that can bring latent readings to the foreground, and they support a decompositional analysis of most under which it is uniformly analysed as a superlative construction (Martin Hackl [2009]) instead of proposing a lexical ambiguity. 'Seeing What You Mean, Mostly', by Paul Pietroski, Jeff Lidz, Tim Hunter, Darko Odic, and Justin Halberda (pp. 181-217), discusses how the interpretation of sentences like Most of the dots are blue is related to the perception of numerosity, by reviewing a series of

experiments. In 'Tracking the Preference for Bound-Variable Dependencies in Ambiguous Ellipses and Only-Structures' (pp. 67-100), Arnout W. Koornneef, Sergey Avrutin, Frank Wijnen, and Eric Reuland present new eye-tracking data that support the preference for bound-variable interpretations of pronouns in ellipses to choosing their value from the discourse through co-reference. The authors argue that the preference of the language processor for bound-variable readings extends to structures involving the only-operator (contra Lyn Frazier and Charles Clifton [2000]), but suggest that the choice between the alternative interpretations is intrinsically free and depends on contextual information and, possibly, reader strategy.

The list of contributions to the volume Experimental Pragmatics/Semantics, edited by Jorg Meibauer and Markus Steinbach, includes 'The Role of QUD and Focus on the Scalar Implicature of Most', by Arjen Zondervan (pp. 221-38), which argues, on the basis of findings of Truth Value Judgment Tasks (cf. Stephen Crain and Rosalind Thornton [1998]), that more scalar implicatures are calculated for the scalar term most within a sentence when it is taken to be part of the focus (achieved by manipulating the explicit question under discussion), not only in answers to wh-questions but also in answers to yes/no-questions and possibly even in yes/no-questions themselves. In 'Numerals and Scalar Implicatures' (pp. 129-50), Daniele Panizza and Gennaro Chierchia claim, on the basis of an offline semantic judgement test and an online reading task where eye movements were recorded, that numerals receive upper-bounded ('exactly') readings preferably in positive ('Upper Entailing') contexts and lower-bounded ('at least') readings in negative ('Downward Entailing') contexts. Leah R. Paltiel-Gedalyovich, 'Adult Response Uniformity Distinguishes Semantics from Pragmatics' (pp. 101-27), suggests, on the basis of results of Truth/Felicity Judgment Tasks investigating the interpretation of sentences containing the counterparts of and, or, and but in Hebrew that response uniformity among adults should be considered as an experimental test for a phenomenon being 'semantic' as opposed to it being 'pragmatic'. Thus, the truth-conditional meaning of the counterparts of and and or are predicted to be semantic; this also applies to the non-truth conditional meaning of the contrastive coordinator but. 'Pragmatic Children: How German Children Interpret Sentences with and without the Focus Particle Only' (pp. 79-100), by Anja Miiller, Petra Schulz, and Barbara Hohle, challenges the conclusions reached by Kevin B. Paterson, Simon P. Liversedge, Caroline Rowland, and Ruth Filik [2003], who attribute the fact that 6-year-old children interpret sentences containing only in the same way as their counterparts without only, to the children's insensitivity to information that is not verbally given. The present authors show that German children of the same age do not ignore information that is presented only visually, although they were more sensitive to the under-informativeness of a sentence when asked to judge whether it matched a picture than adults were.

'Interface Transparency and the Psychosemantics of Most' (NLS 19[2011] 227-56), by Jeffrey Lidz, Paul Pietroski, Justin Halberda, and Tim Hunter, investigates the relation between cognitive and linguistic representations of quantification, comparison, and measurement by studying how the meaning of the quantificational determiner most constrains the way the visual system is

used to evaluate the truth of sentences containing it; they advance, on the basis of experimental findings, the Interface Transparency Thesis (p. 233), according to which '[t]he verification procedures employed in understanding a declarative sentence are biased towards algorithms that directly compute the relations and operations expressed by the semantic representation of that sentence' (p. 233)

Further journal articles of importance on topics not covered above include 'Generic Predicates and Interest-Relativity' (CanJL 57[2011] 303-33), by Sally McConnell-Ginet, which argues against the possibility to provide truth conditions for simple generics independent of the interests of interlocutors, and 'On the Characterization of Alternatives' (NLS 19[2011] 87-107), by Danny Fox and Roni Katzir, which rejects the standard type-based approach to determining alternatives, proposing instead that the grammar determines a set of formal alternatives, which are further restricted by the context. Floris Roelofsen's 'Free Variable Economy' (LI 42[2011] 682-97) argues for the claim that semantic interpretation is subject to economy constraints, and proposes the constraint referred to in the title, which disfavours free variables rather than nonlocal binding. Finally, in 'Concept Types and Determination' (JSem 28[2011] 279-333), Sebastian Lobner outlines a semantic theory of determination, which is based on a distinction between four basic conceptual lexical types of nouns (sortal, individual, relational, and functional), and four basic types of nominal determination, as well as interactions between noun type and determination type.

7. Lexicography, Lexicology, and Lexical Semantics

This section begins with a discussion of publications in the field of lexicography. OED-related work and work on etymology are considered after other lexicographical studies. The section then goes on to look at work in lexicology and lexical semantics, including some relevant work on metaphor. In each part, broadly synchronic work is considered before historical, and the general precedes the specific.

Lynda Mugglestone's Dictionaries: A Very Short Introduction offers an excellent starting point for work on lexicography this year. This is a brief but wide-ranging introduction to the nature and history of dictionaries from Sumerian wordlists dating to around 2000 BC to Urban Dictionary and similar internet resources: the final section 'Last Words' concludes by noting that 'a form that began... on clay tablets 3,000 years ago is triumphantly continuing to adapt and to evolve' (p. 132). Sections on 'Identity', 'Craft', 'Authority', and 'Truth' are included, and the volume interrogates both the content and cultural status of the dictionary now and in the past. Overall, the volume offers an extremely accessible but nonetheless sophisticated account for students or non-experts, which encourages readers to pursue the various strands of the discussion further.

In 'Linking Up: The Role of Networking in Disciplinary Contacts within and around Lexicography, with Special Reference to Four European Countries' (DJDSNA 32[2011] 33-65), R.K. Hartmann surveys the institutions

and bodies involved in lexicographical work in the UK, Spain, France, and Germany, and considers the interaction between these organizations. The paper concludes that although there is considerable interaction within and across countries, the discipline would benefit from more networking and a more outward-looking approach. David E. Vancil compares the relative merits and accessibility of 'Seven North American Dictionary Collections' (DJDSNA 32[2011] 111-28), giving detailed descriptions of collections housed or sponsored by public or academic libraries which are intended to make uncommon or hard-to-find resources available to a greater number of readers. David Bullock examines a dictionary designed to avoid the problem of circularity and test the usefulness of Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) to explain meanings in 'NSM + LDOCE: A Non-Circular Dictionary of English' (IJL 24[2011] 226-40). The work he presents defines the 2,352-word defining vocabulary used by the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English and updates, using NSM primitives and a short list of 947 additional words. Julie Coleman discusses 'Online Dictionaries of English Slang' from the UK and US (in Olga Timofeeva and Tanja Saily, eds., Words in Dictionaries and History: Essays in Honour of R.W. McConchie, pp. 109-28). She concludes that the slang dictionaries that are available currently vary widely in quality, content, and functionality, but that even the least sophisticated have something to offer for scholars and lexicographers of slang.

Recent developments in the field are also considered in E-lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography, a collection of papers edited by Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera and Henning Bergenholtz. The editors' introduction states that the starting point for the volume is the fact that '[e]lectronic dictionaries are typical products of what we call the knowledge and information society, which demand a different approach to electronic lexicography from the one which started at the beginning of the electronic-dictionary age' (p. 1). The collection is highly theoretical and does not focus particularly on English dictionaries, but engages with electronic resources of different kinds and relating to different languages; it will therefore be reviewed partially here, only including papers which include discussion of English-language data, though the whole collection may be of interest to scholars of lexicography. Rufus H. Gouws's paper, 'Learning, Unlearning and Innovation in the Planning of Electronic Dictionaries' (pp. 17-29), examines how much this 'different approach' can learn from existing print dictionaries but at the same time strive for innovation and 'intelligent boldness' (p. 18). He concludes that although existing theories of lexicography have value, there is a great deal of 'unlearning' to be done if e-lexicographers are to establish a coherent, medium-specific theory for future work. Henning Bergenholtz's paper, 'Access to and Presentation of Needs-Adapted Data in Monofunctional Internet Dictionaries' (pp. 30-53), examines the sophisticated data-retrieval opportunities that can be offered by monolingual and bilingual specialist e-dictionaries, including dictionaries of fixed expressions and idioms. He focuses on users' needs, discussing access times for particular pieces of information and search facilities. 'Lexicographical and Other e-Tools for Consultation Purposes: Towards the Individualization of Needs Satisfaction', by Sven Tarp (pp. 54-70), surveys lexicographical works available via

electronic platforms, and considers the way users interact with e-tools. He sets out a hierarchy of current e-works: 'copycats', the least technologically advanced e-dictionaries, are simply print dictionaries available in electronic form which are minimally user-friendly, whereas 'Rolls Royces' belong to the most sophisticated group, creating new custom-designed technologies to enhance usability. Theo J.D. Bothma goes further in interrogating the different types of needs that users have in 'Filtering and Adapting Data and Information in an Online Environment in Response to User Needs' (pp. 71-102), and tracks what he terms a typical 'information needs life cycle'. The paper specifically examines information technologies that emerged in response to user needs in different web contexts, but which have not yet been widely adopted in e-dictionaries. 'A Multi-Layer Architecture for ''Pluri-Monofunctional Dictionaries'' by Dennis Spohr (pp. 103-20) looks particularly at ways of dynamically tailoring e-dictionaries to the individual user, concluding that building a filtering layer between the user interface and the lexicographic database is an important step forward in individualization of e-works. Sandro Neilsen and Richard Almind's paper, 'From Data to Dictionary' (pp. 141-67), describes the Accounting Dictionaries project, outlining the practical and theoretical issues that have been addressed while compiling a number of specialized dictionaries of Danish, English, and Spanish financial terminology. The paper concludes by highlighting the difference between a dictionary and a database, and the significance of this difference for user needs. In 'The Technical Realization of Three Monofunctional Phrasal Verb Dictionaries' (pp. 208-29), Birger Andersen and Richard Almind outline a project to produce a dictionary of phrasal verbs, multi-word units which are particularly problematic for non-native speakers. This dictionary aims to be useful for users who wish to understand the meaning of phrasal verbs, or translate them from English into Danish, and use the English correctly; as such, it needs to be able to cope with different demands as if it were three different resources. Robert Lew's paper, 'Online Dictionaries of English' (pp. 230-50), focuses exclusively on monolingual English dictionaries, presenting a critical and fairly fine-grained classification of currently available resources of different types, from large-scale institutional works for general users or particular groups such as learners, to more democratic 'user-involved' dictionaries such as Urban Dictionary and Wiktionary, as well as published dictionaries which straddle this distinction by encouraging collaboration by users. In 'E-dictionaries in the Information Age: The Lexical Constellation Model (LCM) and the Definitional Construct' (pp. 251-74), Aquilino Sanchez and Pascual Cantos consider a model of meaning analysis which visually represents the semantic relationships between the senses of a lexeme. The paper focuses on data from Spanish, but spends some time comparing the features specified in definitions in different English dictionaries. The collection is drawn to a close by Eva Samaniego and Beatriz Perez Cabello de Alba's conclusion, 'Ten Key Issues in e-Lexicography for the Future' (pp. 305-11). The issues they discuss range from fundamental, overarching questions about the nature of a 'good' dictionary and who can be considered a lexicographer, to more specific concerns like the precise consultation use situations that apply to e-dictionaries and related resources,

and the relationship between an information tool and an information database. Some similar points are also addressed in a paper which is a response to several others on more traditional lexicography, 'Embracing the Digital Siren: Collaborative Lexicography in the Twenty-first Century' by Marsha L. Dutton (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 237-48).

Amongst other work on lexicographical theory this year are a number of papers on specialist dictionaries in a collection edited by Isabel Balteiro, New Approaches to Specialized English Lexicology and Lexicography. Raquel Martínez Motos takes the experiences of the authors of the Terminological Dictionary of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Ingles-Español, Spanish-English) as the starting point for a discussion of 'The Role of Interdisciplinarity in Lexicography and Lexicology' (pp. 3-13). Marian Aleson gives 'An Overview of the Evolution of English Lexicography in the Industries of Leisure and Tourism' (pp. 15-46), considering data from twelve specialist dictionaries published in the second half of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; the article concludes that the lexicography of tourism has developed and changed as tourism itself has evolved as a sector. Moises Almela, Pascual Cantos, and Aquilino Sanchez use corpora as the basis for a study of types of collocate in 'From Collocation to Meaning: Revising Corpus-Based Techniques of Lexical Semantic Analysis' (pp. 47-62). They argue that 'lexical constellations', hierarchical networks of collocates, 'represent surface manifestations of higher-level, also hierarchically organised conceptual structures' (p. 48); building hierarchical levels into collocational data allows for a more sophisticated interpretation of that data. Isabel Balteiro's paper, 'A Few Notes on the Vocabulary of Textiles and Fashion' (pp. 65-81), looks at a particular area of the lexis of English, considering technical, semi-technical, and general terms with both native and non-native origins. Balteiro argues that these terms belong to a 'specific' English, which gives an insight into the textile industry and its cross-cultural nature, and is a promising area for applied research 'aimed at improving multilingual communication among professionals' in the sector (p. 79). Miguel Angel Campos-Pardillos considers the mutual influence between English and other languages in 'False Anglicisms in Legal and Business English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): A Process of Back-Borrowing' (pp. 83-96); the article notes the difficulties of terminology in this area, and the changes in sense shown by words which are borrowed and/or re-borrowed.

Lexicographical work which examines dictionaries for EFL and ESL speakers continues to flourish. Bilingual dictionaries are the focus of Isabel Balteiro's paper 'Prescriptivism and Descriptivism in the Treatment of Anglicisms in a Series of Bilingual Spanish-English Dictionaries' (IJL 24[2011] 277-305). The dictionaries she examines are not consistent in the Anglicisms they include, or in how these are defined; Balteiro pays particular attention to 'false Anglicisms' and their treatment. Anna Dziemianko is concerned with a different group of bilinguals in 'User-Friendliness of Noun and Verb Coding Systems in Pedagogical Dictionaries of English: A Case of Polish Learners' (IJL 24[2011] 50-78), comparing 'minimal' mainstream systems of coding, such as that used in the Oxford Advanced Learner's Dictionary of Current English, with less economical but more fine-grained alternative systems, including that used for nouns in the Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary;

although they may seem complex, the study suggests that alternative systems are helpful to Polish learners.

Yuzhen Chen discusses dictionaries which present entries in both L1 and L2 in 'Studies on Bilingualized Dictionaries: The User Perspective' (IJL 24[2011] 161-97), considering how well users comprehend, produce, and retain unfamiliar words after consulting a bilingualized dictionary compared to monolingual and bilingual dictionaries. The paper concludes that bilingualized dictionaries may have some advantages for learners of English, but more advanced students tend to use this kind of dictionary most effectively. In 'The Representation of Multidimensionality in a Bilingualized English-Spanish Thesaurus of Learners in Architecture and Building Construction' (IJL 24[2011] 198-225), Trinidad Fernandez and Pamela Faber describe a thesaurus designed to help engineering students both decode and encode texts, the Bilingualized English Spanish Thesaurus. This work is 'multidimensional' in that it classifies concepts in more than one way, in order to better show the relationships between different terms. Zohreh Gharaei and Abbas Eslamirasek explore strategies to present pragmatic information, including pragmatically equivalent translation, labelling, and usage notes, in 'The Pragmatics of English-Persian Dictionaries: Problems and Solutions' (IJEL 1[2011] 83-90). They conclude that, although pragmatic information is vital for learners of English, the level and type of information provided by the dictionaries they examine is inadequate and inappropriate.

Batia Laufer considers 'The Contribution of Dictionary Use to the Production and Retention of Collocations in a Second Language' (IJL 24[2011] 29-49), based on a study of English learners whose first language is either Hebrew or Arabic. Participants were tested for their knowledge of verb-noun collocations, and then given entries from bilingual-ized and monolingual dictionaries and retested, in order to observe their look-up strategies and retention. Laufer concludes that learners would benefit from teaching on dictionary use. Ana Frankenberg-Garcia explores the way that learners' preferences for different kinds of language resources can shift away from bilingual dictionaries when they are forced to find information beyond individual word translation, in 'Beyond L1-L2 Equivalents: Where Do Users of English as a Foreign Language Turn for Help?' (IJL 24[2011] 97-123). Based on her findings, she also argues that training in dictionary use can offer learners of English significant advantages. Hilary Nesi and Kim Hua Tan evaluate 'The Effect of Menus and Signposting on the Speed and Accuracy of Sense Selection' (IJL 24[2011] 79-96), based on a study which presented Malaysian participants with different versions of the Macmillan English Dictionary for Advanced Learners in which the formatting had either been preserved or changed. Their results suggest both that signposting and menus are beneficial to users, but also that information in the middle of entries is the least salient for users. The paper 'Application of Eye-Tracking in EFL Learners' Dictionary Look-Up Process Research', by Yukio Tono (IJL 24[2011] 124-53), also examines how learners negotiate the structures of entries, considering how a number of variables (monolingual vs. bilingual, position of target definition in entry) affect the success of users in finding information.

Dictionary history is also an important area for research this year. In 'The Flores of Ouide (1513): An Early Tudor Latin-English Textbook' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 3-16), Ian Lancashire discusses an early modern textbook which includes English-Latin and Latin-English lexical tables, and gives an account of its author, Walter. In the same volume, Jukka Tyrkko suggests that the glossary of a medical translation is an important early lexicographical work, in ' ''Halles Lanfranke'' and its Most Excellent and Learned Expositive Table' (pp. 17-39). Tyrkko shows that the author of this work, Halle, was a keen linguist, and the 'expositive table' that he produced is a skilled and learned resource. John Considine explores the nature and author of a lexicographical project that predates Cawdrey's Table Alphabeticall, but which appears never to have been completed, in 'John Lane's Verball' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 41-54). This is not the only paper which discusses a project which has never come to fruition: two papers in DJDSNA discuss Boswell's planned dictionary of Scots, to a certain extent modelled on Johnson's Dictionary. Susan Rennie gives an account of the history and content of recent rediscovered manuscript materials for such a project in 'Boswell's Scottish Dictionary Rediscovered' (DJDSNA 32[2011] 94-110), and suggests that even in its unfinished state this work offers valuable evidence for Scots lexicography, which supplements and in many cases antedates existing data. James J. Caudle focuses on the cultural importance of the work in 'James Boswell (1740-1795) and his Design for A Dictionary of the Scot[t]ish Language, 1764-1825' (DJDSNA 32[2011] 1-32). He describes Boswell's dictionary as 'a totem of Scottish national culture in general, and of Boswell's Scottishness in particular' (p. 5), which was conceived as a way to preserve a language under threat of extinction; however, despite Boswell's careful methodological planning, only around 10 per cent appears to have been completed.

Peter Gilliver gives details of a potential Philological Society project earlier than the New English Dictionary which would collect together dialect material from glossaries and related works to build a coherent national dictionary of 'provincialisms', in 'Harvesting England's Ancient Treasure: Dialect Lexicography and the Philological Society's First Plans for a National Dictionary' (DJDSNA 32[2011] 82-92). It is unclear whether the considerable enthusiasm for such a work, which Gilliver documents, was redirected when plans for the New English Dictionary became concrete. Michael B. Montgomery laments the lack of a dictionary of IrE comparable to the OED in 'The Core or the Periphery? The Lack of a Dictionary of Irish English on Historical Principles' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 213-36). Montgomery suggests that such a work is conspicuous by its absence in the context of other projects such as the Dictionary of the Older Scots Tongue and the Dictionary of American English, and discusses political, theoretical, and practical issues that might account for its non-existence (see also Section 1 above).

Gabriele Stein discusses the formulations of definitions in a sixteenth-century work in 'The Linking of Lemma to Gloss in Elyot's Dictionary' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 55-78), showing Elyot's care and caution and his adaptation of techniques from Latin lexicography. 'Music Amidst the

Tumult', by Giles Goodland (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 79-89), discusses Johnson's treatment of poetry, and suggests why there are number of words in Johnson's own poetry that are not included in his Dictionary. Elizabeth Knowles traces the uses of a quotation from Milton's Paradise Lost and its treatment in dictionaries of quotations in 'Chaos and Old Night: A Case Study in Quotation Usage' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 91-107).

A historical survey of a particular kind of specialist dictionary is presented in Olga Karpova's English Author Dictionaries (The XVIth—the XXIst cc.), which engages with a type of lexicographical work which has been 'neglected in dictionary research, criticism reviewing and especially dictionary use practice' (p. ix). The volume gives a brief account of the origins and development of author dictionaries from the earliest Bible concordances in the eleventh century onwards, and then describes works starting with Shakespeare concordances published in the late eighteenth century and ending with current internet lexicons of the Harry Potter series. Part I considers linguistic dictionaries to English writers, and is further divided into sections. 'Concordances and Indices' discusses the dominance of works on Shakespeare, Milton, and Chaucer, and the emergence of concordances of Dickens, Wordsworth, and Coleridge in the twentieth century. A similar pattern is seen in 'Author Glossaries and Lexicons', though perhaps with even more focus on Shakespeare, and 'Linguistic Author Dictionaries in Internet' includes works on a much wider range of writers. The second part of the volume deals with 'Encyclopedic Reference Works to English Writers', and is much lengthier, treating author encyclopedias and related works, dictionaries of characters and place names, dictionaries of quotations and proverbs, and (briefly) internet encyclopedias. The spread and thoroughness of the volume, which is organized chronologically within each section, will make it a useful reference volume for those interested in the topic, though the range of dictionaries covered necessarily means that each work is only described briefly.

Various aspects of the OED and its history are considered in work published this year. Philip Durkin considers Eduard Sievers's contribution to English historical lexicography in 'An Influential Voice in the Germanic Etymologies in the First Edition of the OED: Correspondence between Early Editors and Eduard Sievers' (in Renate Bauer and Ulrike Krischke, eds., More than Words: English Lexicography and Lexicology Past and Present. Essays Presented to Hans Sauer on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Part I, pp. 23-34). The paper examines a series of letters between Sievers and Murray, which testify to the extent of Sievers's input in early OED etymologies, and Durkin concludes that there may still be much of value in the letters for modern scholars. Jesse Sheidlower discusses the 'crowning achievement of the historical lexicographer's art' (p. 212) in 'How Quotation Paragraphs in Historical Dictionaries Work: The Oxford English Dictionary' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 191-212; see also Section 1 above). Interestingly, the number and length of quotations included in entries have grown significantly during the OED's history, and Sheidlower discusses the criteria for selection, particularly focusing on the importance of illustrating 'typical' rather than unusual or idiosyncratic uses of a lexeme.

As always, the OED has also been the stimulus for a great deal of work on individual word histories, particularly etymologies. William Sayers presents a number of suggestions. He discusses 'The Etymologies of Some Terms of Disparagement: Culprit, Get (and Brat), Gull, Job, Niggle, Prig, Vagrant (N&Q 58[2011] 31-42), in each case suggesting a supplement or modification to OED's treatment; in the case of niggle, Sayers suggests that OED makes an unnecessary division of the form into two homonyms. In 'More Nautical Etymologies: Tack, Luff, Beat to the Windward, and Cruise' (N&Q 58[2011] 42-50), Sayers considers medieval evidence from a range of languages including ON, Middle Dutch, and Anglo-Norman; his piece 'Ahoy! and Jury-Rigging: Etymologies' (N&Q 58[2011] 188-91) also has a nautical theme, as does the shorter discussion of 'Jib, Gybe, Jibe (US)—and Gibbet' (N&Q 58[2011] 191-2). Sayers examines hunting terms in 'Three Paired Etymologies: Chevy-chase and Chevy ¡Chivy' (N&Q 58[2011] 50-6), and derogatory names in 'Three Rustic Etymologies: Lout, Oaf, Dolt' (N&Q 58[2011] 493-5). Finally, he suggests a Celtic etymon in 'Lewd: An Etymology' (N&Q 58[2011] 495-6). Similarly, Andrew Breeze suggests an etymology involving an Irish loan in ' Slammakin ' ' Slovenly Female'' and Irish' (N&Q 58[2011] 368-9). He also looks at a possible Celtic borrowing in ' Scots In a Rane ' ' Continuously'' and Gaelic' (N&Q 58[2011] 192-3). Breeze offers a definition rather than a new etymology for Hiberno-English strone, marked as of obscure meaning in OED, arguing that it represents the diminutive of Irish struthin (N&Q 58[2011] 56). Richard Coates speculates on a Welsh origin for a bird name which is an 'acknowledged mystery' (p. 403) in 'A Possible Etymology for Aberdevine ' ' Siskin''' (N&Q 58[2011] 403-8). Jonathan Pritchard presents sixteenth-century attestations in reconsidering an OED entry which he criticizes as not sufficiently detailed in 'Drink-corn: Revising the Entry in the Oxford English Dictionary' (N&Q 58[2011] 371-4). A.G. Rigg suggests a very specific connection between a Latin phrase found in English sources and the Rose window in Merton College, Oxford, in Sub Rosa: A Confidential Note' (N&Q 58[2011] 367-8). Finally, John Considine revisits W.B. Lockwood's etymological treatment of a simile in As thin as a rake'': But What is a Rake?' (N&Q 58[2011] 490-1).

Rafal Molencki explores ' The Evolution of Forward in Medieval English' (in Bauer and Krischke, eds., Part I, pp. 225-43), discussing particularly the different meanings of forward diachronically and their relationships, and the changing syntactical uses of the term. Anatoly Liberman examines protohistory' (p. 109) in The Etymology of the Word Wife' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 108-34), surveying early attempts to account for the word's origins from the Edda onwards, and proposing a connection between wife and the proto-form of Sif, the name of a Scandinavian goddess. Liberman also makes a suggestion about' The Origin of the Word Yeoman' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 153-68), contending that previous attempts to trace the etymology of the form are flawed and proposing an alternative which relies on the relationship between yeoman and yeomath. Alfred Bammesberger looks at the poems Beowulf and Exodus and their different translations in The Meaning of Old English Anp^b' (NM 1[2011] 3-7), and suggests on the basis of related forms and etymological data the original meaning of the form is

'ascending path'. Eric Stanley also takes an approach that is both literary and linguistic in 'Old English -reord-: ''Language, Speech, Speak''; Reordberend(e' (NM 1[2011] 9-36). The paper considers the variant spellings, derivatives, and compounds of the noun reord, gereord and its verbs reordian, gereordian, tracing the meanings of each form in a wide range of texts accessed via the Toronto Old English Corpus. Samuli Kaislaniemi investigates a hapax legomenon found in the records of the British East India Company, in 'Early East India Company Merchants and a Rare Word for Sex' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 169-92). The paper presents a detailed account of definitions of lapidable 'mature for sexual intercourse' in dictionaries published between the 1650s and 1800s, and concludes that the word must have been used in satirical texts which provided a model for this use.

Also with an etymological focus, Michiko Ogura's paper 'Hap, Happen and Happy: Their Borrowing and Development through Rivalry' (in Bauer and Krischke, eds., Part I, pp. 207-23) surveys textual evidence to trace the adoption of a group of etymologically related lexemes into the basic vocabulary of English. Ogura looks at contexts of use and semantically overlapping lexemes through time, and speculates that the evidence from OE which might account for at least one semantic development is incomplete. Matti Kilpio presents a detailed examination of the English etymons proposed in an eighteenth-century Finnish dictionary in 'Old English Etymologies in Christfrid Ganander's Nytt Finskt Lexicon (1787)' (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 131-52), suggesting that this was a sophisticated work by the standards of its time, which shows that 'Old English was already a presence in eighteenth-century Finland' (p. 151). Mark Forsyth's The Etymologicon: A Circular Stroll Around the Hidden Connections of the English Language is a more wide-ranging but far less scholarly examination treatment of a large number of word histories and etymological relationships. At the end of the volume, various sources, including the OED and the Dictionary of National Biography, are listed, although individual sections are not referenced and the source material is used selectively (as the author notes) and greatly simplified. As its bestseller status testifies, the volume is an engaging and entertaining work, though it is unlikely to satisfy those with a serious interest in etymology.

Moving away from lexicographical work and towards lexical semantics and lexicology, this year sees a second edition of a monograph first published in 1998, Cliff Goddard's Semantic Analysis: A Practical Introduction. Like the first edition, the volume gives priority to the NSM approach throughout, comparing and discussing data from a range of world languages, and this makes it different from many other textbook-style works with similar interests. A major change is the loss of a chapter on colour terms which featured in the first edition; in its place is a discussion of physical activity verbs which draws on recent, not yet published work by Goddard, Anna Wierzbicka, and Jock Wong. Like its predecessor, this is an interesting and accessibly written volume, which is helpfully referenced throughout and is likely to be of great interest to students, although its emphasis on NSM will not appeal to everyone. Another revised monograph out this year is a third edition of Alan Cruse's textbook Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, which includes new chapters on the semantics of prepositions and

the semantics of derivational affixes. Like previous editions, the volume describes and discusses a range of theoretical approaches, and only one part is devoted to lexical semantics, but this remains very helpful for students and anyone new to the discipline.

Colouring Meaning: Collocation and Connotation in Figurative Language, by Gill Philip, is an engagingly written study of the semantics of phrases, with a particular focus on phrases which feature colour terms. Philip's starting point is the notion of the empty' or underspecified' lexicon, particularly influenced by John Sinclair, but taken up by other scholars in the neo-Firthian tradition: word meaning is fundamentally determined by co-selection, i.e. by context. Using corpus data from the BNC, the Bank of English and (occasionally) the Corpus di Italiano Scritto, the volume interrogates the notions of the idiom and idiomaticity, and looks in detail at conventional and unconventional uses of colour idioms (e.g. the grass is always greener vs. variants such as the grass is always browner, pp. 188-95). Throughout, there is attention to how and why colour idioms arise, and how they are processed by speakers. Particularly interesting are chapter 6, 'Variation, Metaphor and Semantic Association', and chapter 7, Punning, Word Play and Other Linguistic Special Effects'. Here Philip discusses the most creative uses of colour idioms, which are difficult to find in corpora, but which show how different constituents can be substituted, extended, or exploited to create different effects. There is a great deal to explore in this volume, and it will be of interest to scholars in many areas of the discipline, including corpus linguistics, metaphor studies, phraseology, and lexical semantics.

As its title testifies, Magnus Ljung's short work Swearing: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Study explores data from a range of languages and cultures including English, and so will only be considered briefly here. The study begins by examining the nature of swearing and taboo language, before suggesting typologies which divide swearing by function (e.g. interjection, curse, intensifier) and then theme (e.g. religious, scatological, sex organ). After a brief account of the history of swearing, it goes on to discuss each of the functions and themes that have been identified, comparing what is found in different languages and considering the findings of a wide range of studies in relation to each type. The author is very widely read and the volume well referenced, and in this respect it will be helpful to anyone in the field. It ends rather abruptly, though, and it seems a shame that no attempt is made to draw together the themes that are explored.

Work on metaphor and metonymy continues to be an important area within lexical semantics, and one of this year's most interesting volumes is a collection edited by Sandra Handl and Hans-Jorg Schmid, Windows to the Mind: Metaphor, Metonymy and Conceptual Blending. Only papers which concentrate on English data will be reviewed here. In the first section, three papers address fundamental issues related to metaphor and metonymy. Zoltan Kovecses discusses 'Methodological Issues in Conceptual Metaphor Theory' (pp. 23-39), focusing particularly on 'traditional' research that identifies and analyses metaphor via intuition rather than elicitation or corpus-based methods. Kovecses examines recent criticisms of this kind of research, and concludes that more recent, more objective approaches are timely and valuable,

but that they should supplement rather than replace traditional approaches. Dmitrij Dobrovol'skij's paper 'The Structure of Metaphor and Idiom Semantics (A Cognitive Approach)' (pp. 41-62) reflects a growing interest in the nature of fixed phrases, and particularly considers the semantic analysability of idioms involving metaphor such as let the cat out of the bag and spill the beans. Although some earlier studies equate the motivation of idioms with their analysability, this paper argues that these characteristics do not always correspond closely, though both are cognitively based phenomena. Sandra Handl discusses 'Salience and the Conventionality of Metonymies' (pp. 85-112), investigating the notion of conventionality as it can be applied to metonymy, and using BNC data to assess the relative conventionality of individual examples of metonymy as well as more general patterns (e.g. material for object). Handl proposes that a full account of conventionality must consider both ontological and cognitive salience. The second section of the collection presents usage-based investigations of metaphor and metonymy, beginning with Brigitte Nerlich's study of 'The Role of Metaphor Scenarios in Disease Management Discourses: Foot and Mouth Disease and Avian Influenza' (pp. 115-37). This paper examines UK media coverage of an epidemic in the early 2000s, and identifies three principal scenarios which build a narrative frame for this coverage: the journey/invasion scenario, the war scenario, and the house scenario, i.e. the idea of avian flu as a 'monster at the door'. '''Overt'' vs. ''Covert'' Cultural Variance in Metaphor Usage: ''Europe'' vs. Malta and the EU-Membership Debate', by Monica Petrica (pp. 143-66), also looks at the English-language press, but uses data from outside the UK. The paper compares the metaphors used of Malta with those used of Europe, concluding that, though some metaphors used of the two bodies overlap, these differ significantly in their conceptualizations and entailments, and in some cases are highly culture-specific. Kathleen Ahrens's 'Examining Conceptual Metaphor Models through Lexical Frequency Patterns: A Case Study of U.S. Presidential Speeches' (pp. 167-84) draws from work by George Lakoff and a number of other scholars to compare the lexical choices made in 'State of the Union' speeches between 1981 and 2006. The study supports Lakoff's view that a key difference between Democrat and Republican ideology is the use of the nurturing parent vs. strict father paradigms respectively. Beate Hampe uses data from the ICE-GB and CHILDES corpora to examine lexical and grammatical patterns in adult language in 'Metaphor, Constructional Ambiguity and the Causative Resultatives' (pp. 185-215). The paper shows interesting interactions between different argument structures and the lexemes associated with these, and looks at the role of metaphor in motivating particular patterns. The final section of the volume concentrates on blending theory, beginning with Hans-Jorg Schmid's 'Conceptual Blending, Relevance and Novel N + N Compounds' (pp. 219-45). Schmid uses a number of N + N compounds, 'the smallest-sized linguistic triggers of conceptual combination available' (p. 220), in order to examine the explanatory power of blending theory, and more specifically the usefulness of the governing principles and vital relations proposed by Giles Fauconnier and Mark Turner. The paper concludes that blending theory may have more potential as a model for word-formation theory than has hitherto

been recognized. In ' Blending and Creativity in Metaphorical Compounds: A Diachronic Investigation' (pp. 247-67) Reka Benczes also looks at N + N compounds, specifically novel compounds of sandwich. Benczes traces the process by which the meaning of sandwich generalized and considers the role of blending in this process, also concluding that blending theory offers a feasible model for word-formation patterns. Elena Tribushinina discusses adjective-noun combinations which involve colour adjectives in ' Reference Points in Adjective-Noun Conceptual Integration Networks' (pp. 269-90), and suggests that blending can account for combinations which do not appear to have straightforward compositional meanings. Context-specific aspects of combinations, such as the different shades of particular colours intended, can also be explained as emergent properties in the resulting blends. Finally, Siaohui Kok and Wolfram Bublitz use markedly different data in their ' Blending, Evaluation and Common Ground: George W. Bush and Saddam as Friend or Foe?' (pp. 291-309). They argue that, although further work is needed, blending theory may succeed in providing an explanation for the emergence of evaluative meaning, which has been a particular problem for theories of semantics, grammar, and pragmatics.

At the more popular end of the market, I is an Other: The Secret Life of Metaphor and How it Shapes the Way We See the World, by James Geary, introduces many of the ideas that have shaped metaphor studies in cognitive linguistics and related disciplines in recent decades. Geary examines metaphor as a pervasive feature of language and thought, drawing examples from literary and non-literary texts and including chapters on etymology, advertising, politics, and psychology. Although this is not a scholarly book, it does refer to a range of research, for example mentioning Joseph Grady's work on primary metaphor in an early chapter.

Richard Trim takes a longer view in his cognitively oriented monograph Metaphor and the Historical Evolution of Conceptual Mapping, which draws on a wide range of literary and non-literary texts, as well as (to a more limited extent) images and non-visual material. Trim is very much concerned with the connection between language and thought, and in the first part of the volume he explores the relationship between these. He proposes a global evolutionary model of conceptual mapping' (p. 24), which sets out six major parameters, i.e. 'major features or aspects involved in the language change process' (p. 217): these are conceptualization processes, language, universal mechanisms, culture, salience, and semantic fields (cognitive domains). A strength of the volume is the recognition of the importance of cultural context; he concentrates on linguistic metaphor in Western society, but is careful not to make claims about the universality of particular conceptual metaphors. This is one of the concerns of Part II, Diachronic Conceptual Systems', in which he considers both universality and variation in conceptual metaphors, focusing particularly on mappings related to love and colour. Part III is an extended case study of mappings in war rhetoric, in which Trim examines long- and short-term trends, looking particularly at texts from the period of the Crusades and then at political language in the United States in modern times. In Part IV he returns to the model proposed at the outset of the volume, considering how this might be applied to the protection=shield mapping. He concludes by

returning to a discussion of the role of cultural history, arguing (like Ray Gibbs and others, who are acknowledged) that it is not always possible to neatly separate culture and cognition: 'the human mind needs to conceptualize within a cultural framework which... is adapted to its age' (p. 218). This is a fitting end to a volume which is so historically well informed.

Antonette diPaolo Healey also takes a diachronic perspective, considering the multiple and changing meanings of a single lexeme and the relationship between these meanings, in 'Taking Hand in Hand: Mapping its Meaning in Old English and Later' (in Bauer and Krischke, eds., Part I, pp. 39-58). This detailed paper shows the value of fine-grained analysis and close textual study in showing the complexities of a single lexeme, and Healey very successfully argues against George Lakoff's view (which she quotes) that body metaphors are marginal or unsystematic. In 'New Suckers from the Old Root' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 173-90; see also Section 1 above), Joan Houston Hall examines data from the Dictionary of American Regional English, arguing that recent developments within regional dialects are as important to our understanding of language change as more remote changes: dialect forms 'illustrate the continuing vitality and diversity of our language, even if they ultimately prove to be ephemeral and exert no pressure on the structure of the system' (p. 177). Hall considers linguistic creativity, including back formation and folk etymology.

In 'Culinary and Other Pairs: Lexical Borrowing and Conceptual Differentiation in Early English Food Terminology' (in Bauer and Krischke, eds., Part I, pp. 179-206) Lucia Kornexl and Ursula Lenker revisit a 'commonplace' (p. 179) in historical linguistics, the idea that pairs of native English animal names and corresponding meat names borrowed from French in PDE are a reflection of the social roles of speakers of each language in medieval England. The paper concludes that textbook accounts oversimplify and distort the historical picture, and that the specialization of the French terms is very much later than is often assumed. Allen J. Frantzen examines lexis from the same semantic field in 'Food Words in the Anglo-Saxon Penitentials' (in Bauer and Krischke, eds., Fact and Fiction: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times. Essays Presented to Hans Sauer on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Part II, pp. 83-99), and explores whether food vocabulary changes and reflects cultural change across time. The paper concludes that the radical revision of the penitential itself is not matched by changes in lexis, since 'conservatism is an appropriate term for the ecclesiastical regulation of food culture in late Anglo-Saxon England' (p. 97). Hans-Jurgen Diller uses data from the HTOED to survey a lexical field in 'Contempt: The Main Growth Area in the Elizabethan Emotion Lexicon (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 247-68), and concludes that from the sixteenth century 'a need was felt to name an increasing number of contempt-related activities' (p. 266), and this might reflect sociocultural change. Another area of the lexicon is discussed in 'A Lexical Skirmish: OED3 and the Vocabulary of Swordplay', by Joshua Pendragon and Maggie Scott (in Timofeeva and Saily, eds., pp. 269-86). Textual evidence and the cultural context of fencing around Europe provide a backdrop for the study of lexemes including measure and lunge, and the paper

argues that expert historical opinion is a vital ingredient in a detailed consideration of the histories of specialist terms.

M. Lynne Murphy and Roberta Piazza explore the relationship between semantic analysis and conceptual history in Linguistic Semantics and Historical Semantics' (in Kay Junge and Kirill Postoutenko, eds., Asymmetrical Concepts after Reinhart Koselleck: Historical Semantics and Beyond, pp. 51-80), considering different notions of the 'concept' inside and outside linguistics and arguing for the potential for mutually beneficial collaboration across disciplines. The paper discusses oppositions in the meanings of socionyms', terms that identify different social groups, and which raise issues about the representation of the self and the other. Paul Baker takes the view that lexical change has the potential to be revealing about societal change, though he focuses on more recent lexical change, in Times May Change, But We Will Always Have Money: Diachronic Variation in Recent British English' (JEL 39[2011] 65-88). The study uses data from the BrE components of the Brown family of corpora to examine patterns of frequency of lexemes through time, hypothesizing that changes in frequency might be culturally significant.

8. Onomastics

This year has seen books on topics ranging from traditional place-name studies to an in-depth investigation into the surname Smith'. Much of the research to be discussed below follows the traditional onomastics studies of the past, but there is an increase in what I will call human rights onomastics. This focuses on the human aspect behind place names, linking them to the status and rights of certain linguistic groups within a state. There also seems to be a new trend that is difficult to ignore: marital names. Of the eighteen articles published in Names this year, three are primarily concerned with women's choices regarding their marital name. Last year a couple articles dealt with this same topic, but the variables studied have become more complex. Myleah Kerns, in North American Women's Surname Choice Based on Ethnicity and Self-Identification as Feminists' (Names 59[2011] 104-17), attempts to clarify the naming patterns of women in North America by investigating whether the choice is related to feminist ideologies. As implied by the title, Kerns also looks at the role that ethnicity plays in a woman's surname choice. Kerns created a survey asking participants why they did or did not change their surname after marriage, and then grouped them into various categories. Some of the reasons given by women who changed their surnames are: convenience, respect for her partner, to ensure that all family members will have the same last name, and tradition. Reasons for not changing surnames are: aesthetics, familial reverence, feminist stance, and second marriage. Kerns found that there is a significant difference between the surname retention decisions made by white and black women. Kerns also mentions that very few of the women who participated in the study would attribute the retention of their maiden name to feminist ideologies. While one might expect more women in the 30-to-50 age range to retain their maiden name, it was found that it is more common for

women between 16 and 29 to keep their maiden name. Overall, Kerns offers data contrary to past ideas that feminist ideologies shape the pattern of women's surname retention.

Baby-naming patterns have often been a topic of interest to onomasticians. 'Names and Narcissism: A Clinical Perspective on How Parents Choose Names for Their Newborn' (Names 59[2011] 90-103) by Meir Nadav, Michal Ephratt, Stanley Rabin, and Asher Shiber, investigates the interplay between self-image and baby naming patterns. The authors hypothesize that 'patients with narcissistic deprivation, in particular, tend to give their children names which often reflect their own deprivations' (p. 90). This article is a prime example of how psychiatry and onomastics can overlap in an intricate and fascinating way. The authors refer to Harvey Goldberg, in which the perception of one's own name is investigated. Later research (Charles Joubert and D.J. Strumpfer) showed that a person who likes his/her first name is more likely to report higher self-esteem, confidence, and social standing than one who dislikes a given name. The majority of the authors are psychiatrists, and they draw on their experiences with patients: 'Our clinical experience has shown that issues related to name-giving can often help us investigate and diagnose the name-giver's emotional, psychological, and psychopathological dispositions' (p. 92). They provide a brief history and explanation of narcissism, adding that naming one's child is a method by which a narcissistic parent can exhibit this behaviour. From careful questioning of patients, Nadav et al. narrow down the main reasons for narcissist naming patterns as the following: idealization and glorification of the self, glorifying names as manic defence, names presenting parental empathetic deprivation, and names representing devaluation. This study opens a new door for onomasticians: psychopathology.

Research in onomastics allows for a seamless extension into literature. Christopher Robinson's article 'Onomaturgy vs. Onomastics: An Introduction to the Namecraft of Ursula K. Le Guin' (Names 59[2011] 129-38) is an example of the detail and precision such a study may have. Robinson begins by explaining the difference between onomaturgy and onomastics: 'Where literary onomastics focuses on names in the context of a narrative, literary onomaturgy focuses on ensembles of names that share common features in their construction, over and beyond the texts in which the individual name appears' (p. 129). According to Robinson, Le Guin is very aware of the characteristics, feelings, and ideas that a character name may represent. Le Guin uses similar constructions for the names of two worlds which mimic the plot within each chapter. Robinson uncovers the highly formulaic pattern that Le Guin uses in the construction of her character names, even down to the patterns of consonants and vowels. He states that not all her names are structured in such a way. In fact, some of the names have a 'blank association' (p. 134) in that they do not correspond to some salient entity, theme, or characteristic within the story. Robinson's research on literary onomastics and onomaturgy evidences the rigour and precision with which one can conduct contemporary studies in onomastics and literature.

Literary onomastics can adopt many different faces. 'Sense and Serendipity: Some Ways Fiction Writers Choose Character Names' (Names 59[2011]

152-163) by Sharon Black and Brad Wilcox presents five themes derived from research on four authors of children's and adolescents' literature (Shannon Hale, Bradon Mull, Michael O. Tunnell, and Chris Crowe). The authors provide an overview of each of these themes and show how they affect the naming patterns of characters used by these authors. Black and Wilcox draw a parallel between the process a parent follows to choose a baby name to the process that an author faces when deciding on a character name. They identify this process as varying for each author and note that the true difficulty arises in trying to understand how the patterns work. They therefore conducted interviews with each of the authors for further insight into these patterns and to avoid the danger of only working backwards from the character names. The five methods uncovered are: recognizing the importance of character names; creating easily accessible names for the target audience; matching the character's personality and attributes to the name; using outside resources to find an appropriate name; adopting names of people that the author knows personally. Black and Wilcox find that the processes vary by author, but that each of them understands the essential nature of choosing an appropriate character name, often using multiple methods before finding the one that corresponds to the character.

Traditional place-name studies follow a particular formula, detailing the source of each fact and example by using standard abbreviations and format. The present diversification in onomastic studies offers enthusiasts different styles and formats for place-name studies. The Dictionary of City Names in American Slang by Maciej Widawski and Malgorzata Kowalcyzk document the various city names in Canada and the United States that have slang names . . The authors mark every entry as either Canadian or American, nationwide or regional, potentially offensive or very offensive, and they provide dating. The compilation of terms is organized alphabetically by the slang name. Each entry consists of a few examples of the term in context, often cited from blogs and online newspaper articles. This dictionary does not provide any etymological information about the terms themselves; rather, it offers a survey of American slang place names at the beginning of the twenty-first century. A great addition to this dictionary is the index, offering an alphabetical listing of the toponyms, followed by a list of every slang place name associated with the toponym. If one were to search for Chicago, Illinois', one would find: Big C, Chi, Chi-town, City of the Big Shoulders, City That Works, C-Town, Gold Coast, Loop, Magnificent Mile, Miracle Mile, Polish Broadway, Second City, Windy, and Windy City (p. 108). As mentioned in the introduction, the book is meant to be an introductory compilation of American slang names and not a complete list.

In Origin of New York City's Nickname 'The Big Apple', Gerald Leonard Cohen and Barry A. Popik trace the term Big Apple' to its first usage. This book reads like a collection of vignettes organized so as to give a broad view of the various ways the term has historically been used, with images of old cartoons and newspapers articles (not generally available) adding to the overall understanding. They trace its first usage back to 1920 when an African American stablehand at a New York racetrack mentioned it in a context in which it is used today. A journalist overheard this and began to apply it in his

writing. Throughout the years, the reference of the term fluctuated, for example referring to Harlem when used by jazz musicians in the 1930s. Cohen and Popik not only trace the usage of 'the Big Apple' but also investigate the various incorrect claims to the term's first usage. John J. Fitz Gerald referred to New York as 'the Big Apple' in May 1921 (p. 45). Fitz Gerald continued to use the term in his articles discussing the New York City racetracks. The general population was not quick to accept this new term until Charles Gillett revived the term in 1971 while acting as the president of the New York Convention and Visitors Bureau. Perhaps more interesting than the actual etymology of the term itself is the rich literature on false etymologies and the stories connected to them. Speculation connected 'the Big Apple' to aqueducts, Spanish manzana apples, and prostitution. The authors take ample time to discuss prior claims to the origins of the term, often citing multiple sources and newspapers from the era in question. Each concern, question, and counter-theory is addressed in due course and qualified with various historical examples.

While onomastics is used to investigate past prejudices and inequalities in the world, it does not often focus on current issues. In Topographical Names and Protection of Linguistic Minorities, edited by Giuseppe de Vergottini and Valeria Piergigli, the delicate balance between onomastics and the legal rights of linguistic minorities is documented. Comprising essays written by lawyers, linguists, glottologists, and historians around the world, this book is both an introduction to and a broad summary of the current issues in topography and human rights. Giuseppe de Vergottini explains its aim as follows: 'By historical-legal study and comparative view, it is hoped to contribute to the development of a mature and conscious approach to the topic of protection of minority identity through the maintenance and valorization of place names, which not only express and epitomise the symbolic and cultural heritage of the communities involved, but of humanity in general' (p. 11). The foreword explains the importance of such studies by illuminating the process of changing state boundaries and how it affects the citizens of the former state. Often their place names are changed to fit the new dominant language and government. While this creates an interesting study of the changing landscape, the important issue is how the new linguistic minorities fit into the new state.

Peter Hipold's contribution to the above volume, 'Topographic Name and International Law' (pp. 85-112), is an important yet challenging read for those without a training in law. Hipold begins by stating that it is difficult to judge who has the right to change a geographical name. State lines can be redrawn, but the question of whether the place names within the new borders should be altered is subject to debate. International law is gradually working on provisions to protect minorities in these shifting border areas. As seen throughout history, one group of people will become the dominant class, causing minorities to suffer emotionally, socially, and politically because of their reduced status. One way in which international law attempts to counteract the negative effects of border alteration is consistency; it aims to create a standard regarding geographical names. Interestingly, Hipold states that laws attempting to maintain consistent geographical names have been in effect since the 1950s. These laws require steps that mimic the checks and

balances in the passing of laws in other countries. In 1968 a group of experts was assigned duties relating to these laws and given the title the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names. Hipold details the various organizations, conferences, and laws that act to resolve disputes over geographical names. He concludes by contextualizing the information, stating that globalization requires that laws be in place to protect not only the geographical names, but also the linguistic minorities who may be affected by such changes.

Staying true to the quality and tradition of the English Place-Name Society's work, Barrie Cox published The Place Names of Leicestershire, volume 5. Cox focuses on the Guthlaxton Hundred. The name itself is derived from OE and has hardly changed. The preface provides the context, drawing attention to the fact that Guthlaxton Wapentake was included in a survey of land dating back to 1130. The rich history of this area offers readers a glimpse into the past through a study of the place names. Most names are of OE origin; however, there exist two pre-English place names: Leire and Glen. As is to be expected, Scandinavian place names are found in the northern parts of the Hundred. The town of Wigston is an example of a blend between English Wicing and Scandinavian Vikingr (p. xiv). Elements from the medieval period can still be found in the names of the Hundred showing a connection between certain place names and tales originating in this period. For those who are not apt at reading place-name studies, the preface offered by Cox provides sufficient context for the rest of the book. The maps provided are also a great help.

For those fascinated by place names but preferring a more contemporary discourse on the topic, JEPNS 43 offers a wide array of studies that are shorter and composed primarily of narrative prose rather than short fragments and abbreviations. James Kremble's 'The Lost Essex Domesday Estate Geddesduna' (JEPNS 43[2011] 18-24) provides a clearer view of an old mystery. The estate Geddesduna had a rather uncertain history, but Kremble works through every detail to provide a clearer view of its past. He reveals that part of the problem is that the estate exchanged hands a few times, which complicated the records to this estate. These date back to 1065 and the charter of Edward the Confessor and seemingly locate the estate in the Aveley Parish (p. 18). The name Geddesduna did not appear in documents later than the twelfth century, but there are other names in later years that could be a reference to the same estate. Around 1245, a widow left an estate to the Knights of St John of Jerusalem; the translated name of this estate is roughly land called Dune in the parish Aveley'. This place name is very similar to that of the Geddesduna estate in question. Kremble provides further evidence suggesting that the widow's estate was, in fact, the sought-after estate due to records stating that the Knight of St John of Jerusalem later owned Geddesduna. All in all, Kremble offers an expertly researched and highly compelling history of Geddesduna.

In ' The Black Country' (JEPNS 43[2011] 25-34), David Horovitz examines the usage of Black Country' before it acquired its now more common uses in the nineteenth century. Horovitz notes that the term has been used in various situations to describe land, to refer to the colour of the skin of its inhabitants,

the quality and type of rock in an area, and the level of industrialization. By the 1850s, it is clear that the usage of the term is confined to one of three contexts: the grime of industrialized areas, a lack of Christian beliefs, or underground coal. As one can see from the options, the term 'the Black Country' was not used to denote a favourable plot of land. Rather than just listing facts and dates, Horovitz includes information from newspapers articles supporting his views. Apart from providing context, this evidence illuminates the religious and social landscape in the mid-nineteenth century. He also describes the various twentieth-century attempts to define the boundaries of 'the Black Country', but no single account provides enough detail. According to Horovitz, the first usage of the term applied to 'the nebulous area of mines and furnaces to the north-west of Birmingham notorious for its resultant dirt and grime' (p. 32). He points at the seemingly contradictory nature of knowledge: everyone knows where 'the Black Country' is, but no one knows its boundaries . .

Place-name studies have long been a British preoccupation, but more recent years have seen the rise of American place-name studies. Kevin Reynolds offers Native North Carolina: The What, Why and Where of Native American Place Names. Reynolds's book provides the reader with not only the Native American etymologies of terms, but also the tales and stories behind certain landmarks. American place-name studies tend to follow a more narrative formula, as compared to the highly technical and scientific method seen in British studies. This is evident from the way in which Reynolds weaves in information about the native peoples of this region. He begins by examining river and lakes, then moves to cities and town, and finally to counties. Within each section, the place names are alphabetized, placed in bold print, and followed by a paragraph or two of the Native American language and history behind the name. The book appears to be written for the hobbyist onomastician rather than the specialist. Further proof of this can be found at the end of the book in the Travel Guide section. Throughout the volume, one can see the valleys, lakes, mountains, and waterfalls that exemplify the state of North Carolina. Reynolds presents a book that indicates the current path of American place-name studies, which are intended to be read by a wide range of people.

Place-Names, Language and the Anglo-Saxon Landscape, edited by Nicholas J. Higham and Martin J. Ryan, consists of research that was presented at or inspired by the 2007 Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies (MANCASS) conference. As Ryan states in the introductory material, the book is intended to 'explore, in different ways, how the inhabitants of Anglo-Saxon England described and understood their physical environment' (p. 1). Ryan introduces Anglo-Saxon place names by providing a brief history. The Anglo-Saxons took great pride in their history, and the usages and meanings of place names allowed them to track their past. Onomastic compilations and studies of Anglo-Saxon place names date back to the 1600s. These studies were very different from the place-name studies presented in this book. The foundation of the English Place-Name Society in 1923 brought a new standard to the study of place names, exemplified by many of the place-name studies published annually. Chapters in this volume focus on some

particular part of the Anglo-Saxon landscape and language. In chapter 3, 'Place-Names as Travellers' Landmarks' (pp. 51-68), Ann Cole describes travel from an onomastic viewpoint. She begins by clarifying that many people were illiterate at this time, so maps and written directions were of little help for finding one's way. Instead, one would memorize the names of towns and landmarks. Thus, a consistent naming pattern was highly important so as not to cause confusion and mislead travellers. Cole states that many of the original place names have since been lost or changed, or are otherwise unaccounted for, but those that remain show a pattern. The place names typically bear some relation to the various types of landscapes found in the area. Cole writes that [t]he place-names of value to travellers can be categorised into terms for roads, crossing places, facilities en route, those used in water transport and signposts' (p. 52). In her survey, Cole includes various maps that aid in conceptualizing the ancient landscape. Perhaps the most interesting of these maps is the one depicting the crossing places used by the Romans and ancients. Apart from surveying the place names, Cole suggests that these place names make clear the more well-travelled paths. From this information, she gathers that the Roman roads were not adequate at this time since there are other roads that exhibit the same place-name consistency. Cole has also found that these roads and routes were most likely a late Anglo-Saxon phenomenon. She concludes by informing readers that many of these routes are still in use and can be travelled in lieu of busier streets. In chapter 11, That Dreary Old Question'': The Hide in Early Anglo-Saxon England' (pp. 207-24), Martin J. Ryan examines the meaning behind the word hide. The question, What is the hide?' was an emergent theme in the late nineteenth century, and Ryan reconsiders this question today. The answer is relevant for the origins of Anglo-Saxon England and whether or not the Anglo-Saxons were more reliant on the Romans than is currently believed. Ryan does not attempt to answer this question himself, but he offers the available data, provides some suggestions, and brings the question back to the stage of research. He begins by citing one of the more common definitions of the hide from Bosworth and Toller, as much land as will support one family' (p. 208). According to the Domesday Book, 120 acres is the typical amount of land in a hide. Ryan further explains that this seems adequate for a liberated peasant, but not for a lord or serf. The hide appears to be a word of Germanic origin. Thus, the hide is believed to be a measurement of land, but Ryan weaves the many points of reference to the hide to create a rich history of data and speculation. Chapter 12,' Boroughs and Socio-Political Reconstruction in Late Anglo-Saxon England' (pp. 225-40) by Dorn Van Dommelen, provides the reader with a clearer view of the political climate in Anglo-Saxon England. The author examines the socio-political landscape as it relates to the borough reforms following the Viking raids of the ninth century. He argues that the changes to Anglo-Saxon societal organization came about as a result of institutional adjustment through legal code and borough construction rather than via some grand upheaval of the social order' (p. 225). He finds, counter to previous claims, that the boroughs were overseen by the king himself and not free from administrative demands. Dommelen provides ample evidence that the very rules put in place to reform the boroughs created a change in the

social and political climate. His chapter offers not only an introduction to the Anglo-Saxon governing system, but also to politics in general. Dommelen notes that his study is only the very tip of the reconstruction of Anglo-Saxon England.

Many of the onomasticians who focus on place names in England refer to the Domesday Book, a survey of the land and place names written in 1086. This book was compiled a mere twenty years after the Battle of Hastings. In the past, the Domesday Book was only available in the National Archives in London. For a limited time, one had the option to pay £2 for a view of one scanned page online. This year has brought a major development for those who wish to make use of this resource: it has now been published in its entirety online ( One can view a map of the desired area, translated information from the original page, and a scanned version of the page itself. One also has the option to zoom in on the specific entry searched or the whole page on which the entry is found. The website it worth visiting, if only to bask in the wonder of viewing something written nearly a thousand years ago.

9. Dialectology and Sociolinguistics

As in previous years, this section will move from the general to the specific, starting with textbooks and handbooks related to dialectology and/or sociolinguistics, before looking at studies done on individual regional varieties, ending with ethnicity and gender. In this general section, we note the second edition of Miriam Meyerhoffs Introducing Sociolinguistics (the first edition was from 2006). The main innovation is the compendium reader presented in this section last year (The Routledge Sociolinguistics Reader edited by Miriam Meyerhoff and Eric Schleef: YWES 91[2012] 75), and chapters from the reader are referenced in the margins of this textbook wherever additional reading is recommended. The interconnection between the two books goes further, though, and the authors have developed a companion website with exercises, and audio and video data. While the substance of the textbook has not really changed, then, this threefold combination (textbook, reader, interactive website) will allow many new ways of teaching and learning about sociolin-guistics for beginners, both classroom-based, but also for exploring topics in more depth on their own.

Another introduction to at least some aspects of sociolinguistics is the third edition of Language, Society and Power, co-written by Annabelle Mooney, Jean Stilwell Peccei, Suzanne LaBelle, Berit Engay Henriksen, Eva Eppler, Anthea Irwin, Pia Pichler, Sian Preece, and Satori Soden. Although in part also an introduction to basic concepts of linguistics, there are useful overview chapters on 'Language and Gender' (chapter 5), 'Language and Ethnicity' (chapter 6), 'Language and Age' (chapter 7), 'Language and Social Class' (chapter 8), 'Language and Identity' (chapter 9), and possibly 'Language Standardi[s/z]ation' (chapter 10) that could serve as a starting point in classes on sociolinguistics and/or variation. The book is full of student-centred activities, each chapter has suggestions for further reading, and the whole

book is complemented by a reader, edited by the same team: The Language, Society and Power Reader. Texts (mostly extracts) included here are cross-referenced in the textbook, and encompass three texts per section. This probably makes sense, since not much more can be handled by students in a week.

Approaching the field of sociolinguistics from a different angle is the textbook by Sharon K. Deckert and Caroline H. Vickers, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Society and Identity. The subtitle indicates that the emphasis here is on Identity as a Central Theme in Linguistics' (also the title of chapter 2)—well, arguably it is not, and the authors' overview of earlier scholarship in sociolinguistics actually entails recasting many classical studies in identity terms. Most of the remainder of this book contains qualitative analyses of individual conversational acts—in other words, it is an exercise in discourse analysis rather than mainstream sociolinguistics. The studies and researchers cited as a rule are rather more marginal to variationist sociolinguistics, a choice that may be welcome or annoying, depending on your personal taste in the quirky. As an introduction to variationist sociolinguistics, though, this textbook is not suitable.

On the other hand, for much more advanced students and young researchers, we recommend Scott F. Kiesling's textbook on Linguistic Variation and Change. Where Meyerhoff is introductory and explanatory, Kiesling is critical and challenging. Although quite short (the text only amounts to 176 pages), Kiesling manages to take issue with all aspects of variationist sociolinguistics. He gives good summaries of earlier studies, and most of the 'classics' are mentioned here. Based on these earlier results, he discusses underlying questions of language variation (chapter 1), the linguistic variable (chapter 2), and patterns of variation (chapter 3). He then deals with the traditional sociolinguistic variables in terms of inter-speaker variation (chapter 4) and intra-speaker variation (chapter 5) as carrying social meaning (chapter 6). This part is perhaps the most interesting, because Kiesling, as one of the main authors behind the new trend of analysing linguistic variation with the help of ordered indexicality, here combines his survey of studies with in-depth reanalyses of what it all means'. The acquisition of variation (chapter 7), by contrast, is dealt with in only four pages, but we have to admit that only very few sociolinguistic studies have ever engaged with this topic—young researchers to the fore! In the last parts of his book Kiesling then takes the converse view and deals with structural patterns in phonology, morphology, syntax, and lexis (chapters 8 and 9). The breadth covered in this book is astonishing, even though Kiesling's expertise is clearly on US-American research. In a field that has been dominated by Americans this emphasis is perhaps to be expected; however, a complete disregard for areas like historical sociolinguistics, with studies that would clearly be relevant for many of the questions at hand, is slightly annoying, even though this oversight does not distract from the overall usefulness of this book. It is intended for advanced students and postgraduates, and we would agree that a familiarity with sociolinguistic research is probably necessary to profit from the advanced discussions. As we have said, a challenging book, yet well written and engaging, and Kiesling does have a point. Many of them, in fact.

The 'youthful' field of socio-phonetics has already produced two textbooks this year, Erik R. Thomas's monograph Sociophonetics: An Introduction, and Sociophonetics: A Student's Guide, a collection of essays edited by Marianna Di Paolo and Malcah Yaeger-Dror, intended as 'a practical how-to manual' for studies of acoustic phonetics or speech perception in sociolinguistics. Thomas defines the field as 'the interface of sociolinguistics and phonetics' (p. 1), and indeed the topics dealt with in detail in his introduction are highly phonetic in nature. His chapters deal with 'Production' (chapter 2), 'Perception' (chapter 3), 'Consonants' (chapter 4), 'Vowels' (chapter 5), 'Prosody' (chapter 6), 'Voice Quality' (chapter 7), 'Combinations of Different Types of Variables' (chapter 8), and 'Variation and the Cognitive Processing of Sounds' (chapter 9), before they come to less experimental-phonetic questions of 'Sound Change' (chapter 10), and the summarizing 'Social Factors and Phonetics' (chapter 11). This is not to say that the socio- in socio-phonetics plays no role for Thomas: it is integrated into every chapter. In character, however, this book is very much an introduction to experimental phonetics, and readers mustn't be scared of measuring fundamental frequencies, perception experiments, measuring voice onset times, or plotting vowel formants. On the other hand, now is as good a time as any to get familiar with all new, wonderful measuring and interpreting techniques! Di Paolo and Yaeger-Dror, in the other volume, have commissioned chapters out to other authors, or co-authors. (To name just a few: William A. Kretzschmar Jr., Paul Foulkes, Gerard Docherty, Jane Stuart-Smith, James M. Scobbie, Alicia Beckford Wassink, Dominic Watt, Tyler Kendall, Jennifer Hay.) The Students' Guide also has chapters dealing with stops, liquids, vowels, prosody, voice quality and perception as Thomas above, but the authors also discuss in detail how to gather data and create a corpus (chapter 2), how to transcribe the data (chapter 4), or deal with 'Issues in Using Legacy Data' (chapter 5). Besides other aspects of methodology ('Working with Children', chapter 13, 'Checking for Reliability' chapter 15, or 'Statistical Analyses' in chapter 16—the chapter starts off by saying: 'relax' ©), they also deal with some topics beyond phonetics ('Ascertaining Word Classes', chapter 14—since the frequency of words may have an effect—or perceptual dialectology in chapter 12). This book is more clearly geared to students, with much commonsense advice, and it does indeed have the character of a manual. Thomas on the other hand is more serious, and perhaps more suitable as an in-depth introduction, or for interested colleagues in the field. Both volumes have a companion website (we boldly identify this as the new trend with textbooks this year)—however, only the Routledge ones seem to work, and in fact work well. As one can imagine, especially with an almost purely phonetic subject, it is very useful (and indeed much fun) to actually hear some speakers do what otherwise you only see as more or less cryptic black marks on the page.

Besides these textbooks, there are also various handbooks that need to be mentioned this year. Rajend Mesthrie has edited The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics, a moderately wide survey of the field. The handbook deals with the 'Foundations of Sociolinguistics' (Part I), which lie in differences in power (according to John Baugh, pp. 17-27), linguistic anthropology (Alessandro Duranti, pp. 28-46), social psychology (W. Peter Robinson and

Abigail Locke, pp. 47-69), and the difference between orality and literacy (Lowry Hemphill, pp. 70-82). Part II is entitled Interaction, Style and Discourse', and has three chapters on these three items (by Cynthia Gordon, Jan Blommaert, and Nikolas Coupland respectively). Part III is the central part, concerned with variationism. Entitled Social and Regional Dialectology', we find Gregory R. Guy discussing Language, Social Class, and Status' (pp. 159-85). This is an interesting contribution, since Guy also critically looks at how to define class in non-industrial economies, or how to include pidgins and creoles, a notoriously problematical notion. The chapter as a whole also relates sociolinguistics to political notions of class (Marxist or Weberian?), a perspective that is otherwise often left implicit. William A. Kretzschmar Jr. in ' Language and Region' (pp. 186-202) tries 'to make region work as a part of our sociolinguistic inquiries' (p. 186), and like Guy engages with the topic he discusses in a critical way. Besides traditional regions, Kretzschmar also looks at voluntary regions and perceptual regions (notions developed by the cultural geographer Wilbur Zelinsky), which very much depend on self-conscious participants who create these entities, also linguistically, and Kretzschmar calls on researchers for due consideration of spatial variables, problems of perception, and the logic of scale dependency' (p. 202). Barbara Johnstone gives a rather brief overview of Language and Place' (pp. 203-17) in dialectology and sociolinguistics, moving from the earlier atlas projects to metaphorical uses of place in social networks, or in the workplace. Her survey extends up to linguistic landscapes and includes much of what is not explicitly mentioned by Kretzschmar in the chapter before hers, but the complementarity of the two contributions is somewhat puzzling, since the content could perhaps have been combined in one chapter. Natalie Schilling writes on 'Language, Gender, and Sexuality' (pp. 218-37) and gives an overview of the four D's of gender studies (deficit, difference, dominance, and discourse theories)—but not much more, and nothing much new. Carmen Fought contributes a chapter on Language and Ethnicity' (pp. 238-57), where she looks especially at the interaction of ethnicity with other sociolinguistic factors like social class, gender, age, networks, or region, also identifying where there is still much room for further research. Part IV of the Handbook deals with Multilingualism and Language Contact' and is thus not directly relevant here. Ana Deumert summarizes research on multilingualism (pp. 261-82), Silvia Kouwenberg and John Victor Singler, themselves editors of the Handbook of Pidgin and Creole Studies (YWES 89[2010] 114, 130-1), contribute an article on pidgins and creoles (pp. 283-300), Pieter Muysken addresses code-switching (pp. 301-14), Nicholas Ostler writes on language endangerment (pp. 315-34), and Edgar W. Schneider has an excellent contribution on Colonization, Globalization, and the Sociolinguistics of World Englishes' (pp. 335-53). Part V of this handbook turns to questions of Applied Sociolinguistics', in particular language planning (James W. Tollefson, pp. 357-76), the law (Diana Eades, pp. 377-95), the media (Susan McKay, pp. 377-412), and education (Christopher Stroud and Kathleen Heugh, pp. 413-29). While clearly some contributions may be more relevant than others, it will be difficult to use this handbook in class and pick out individual chapters, because there is only a single eighty-page-long

bibliography. A shame, because otherwise this up-to-date collection might prove quite useful in the classroom.

One term already mentioned by Edgar W. Schneider in the context of World Englishes is globalization', and on this topic we have also seen a handbook recently: The Handbook of Language and Globalization, edited by Nikolas Coupland [2010]. Contributions are not restricted to English, but some may be relevant to more narrowly sociolinguistic concerns, in particular Barbara Johnstone's chapter on ' Indexing the Local' (pp. 386-405). If you are in need of a quick introduction to, or a reminder or summary of, dialect awareness, ordered indexicality, and the re-semioticization of regional forms, through which the simultaneous contradictory existence can be explained of dialect levelling and dialect resurgence (in the form of stereotypes' in Labov's trichotomy), this chapter is the chapter for you. There is also an interesting chapter on Metroethnicities and Metrolanguages' by John C. Maher (pp. 575-91), where he claims that 'ludic ethnicity invites metrolinguistic play' (p. 576) and sees ethnicity as a more fluid concept that can be engaged in (or discarded) at will (much like Rampton's crossing', see below) because putting on ethnic markers is a nice thing. It's cool. [It's] doing metrolanguage' (p. 577). Again this phenomenon is not restricted to English, but some examples are particularly telling, as when employees of a Thai airline are told to put on stronger Thai accents in their English (even though some were educated at British boarding schools) because this is what the customer expects. (We will come back to ethnic urban varieties of English below.)

Language contact is another field that has produced a handbook recently, the Handbook of Language Contact [2010], edited by Raymond Hickey. Again, of course, the coverage is not restricted to English, but there are a number of relevant contributions that may be of interest to scholars of English sociolinguistics and/or dialectology. For example, in ' Contact and Dialectology' (pp. 208-29), David Britain shows how surprisingly few studies there are of actual accommodation processes between speakers of different dialects, surely the mechanism taken to underlie processes from koineization, dialect levelling, or supra-localization, to dialect attrition (not to mention the observer's paradox) that affects much work in dialectology and sociolinguis-tics. Paul Kerswill draws up a rather deterministic model of Contact and New Varieties' (pp. 230-51), which applies in the establishment of new varieties in tabula rasa situations (e.g. in New Zealand), in new towns (e.g. Milton Keynes), and for new ethnolects (e.g. in Hackney). Carmen Fought, in ' Ethnic Identity and Linguistic Contact' (pp. 282-98), finds that 'dialect accommodation stems more from issues of cultural identity than from the direct impact of interethnic contact' (p. 286), with examples ranging from minimum to maximum convergence, but she also looks at the interesting situation of contact between minority and majority groups, in particular influences of the (often socially disfavoured) minority group on the majority dialect (cf. the influence of AAVE lexemes on mainstream English, and beyond). Peter Trudgill points out, in ' Contact and Sociolinguistic Typology' (pp. 299-319), the paradoxical situation that contact between languages can lead to complexification, but contact can also lead to simplification, depending on the kind of contact (slow, through child bilingualism, or rapid, through

incomplete adult learning). Thus the degree of complexity of a language (or a dialect) also depends on the state of isolation of the speech community. In a way following on from Trudgill is Joseph C. Salmons and Thomas C. Purnell's chapter on 'Contact and the Development of American English' (pp. 454-77). Contrary to popular perceptions, Salmons and Purnell argue, 'English spoken in the present-day United States has been forged by language contact to a greater extent than is widely appreciated' (p. 455), and that features originally stemming from L1 interference may become ethnically unmarked and turn into regional phenomena, such as German-influenced features like interdental stopping, final fortition, or the verbal particle with (are you coming with?) in the Upper Midwest.

Peter Trudgill has expanded his thoughts on Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity in book-length format, so if you are not pressed for time this might be the reading of your choice. Although it is more typological than (English) sociolinguistic in nature, Trudgill also gives many examples from the history of English and from English dialects. The paradoxical situation that, typologically, language contact has been shown to lead to very complex systems (e.g. in the case of Sprachbund phenomena), whereas sociolinguistically, contact is typically seen as a cause of simplification (e.g. dialect levelling, koineeization, etc.), is solved by Trudgill by positing two kinds of contact, as already noted above (essentially relating to the distinction of L1 and L2 acquisition). In addition, he claims that in stable, isolated communities we can observe active processes of complexification (in this case not contact-induced, answering the question of where complexity originally comes from). Complexification for Trudgill encompasses 'irregularization, increase in opacity, increase in syntagmatic redundancy, and the addition of morphological categories' (p. 62); the locus classicus for English would be the traditional dialects, even though these might be 'increasingly hard to find' (p. 66). As examples Trudgill cites the south-west of England, which has developed new distinctions of transitive vs. intransitive infinitives, pronoun exchange, or gendered pronouns encoding a count/mass distinction, or East Anglia with features like presentational be, double tense marking, nominative pronoun that, and new irregular past tense forms. Essentially, according to Trudgill, mature, complex features like these preferably develop in small, isolated communities with close-knit social networks. Food for thought, and possibly an impetus for much further interesting research on the role of contact (or indeed the lack of it) in sociolinguistics.

Peter Garrett has produced a monograph on something that is still under-researched in sociolinguistics, Attitudes to Language [2010]. Garrett first defines attitudes as cognitive, affective, and part of (learned) behaviour, next gives a survey of methods of studying attitudes (directly, indirectly, and by studying the societal treatment), and then looks at many studies in more detail. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with matched-guise techniques, chapter 9 with 'Societal Treatment Studies', chapter 10 looks at the 'Direct Approach', and chapter 11 at 'Folklinguistics', where attitude studies overlap with perceptual dialectology. Garrett situates attitudes in 'Communication Accommodation Theory' (chapter 7), in a way harking back to factors that Fought identified as also influencing ethnic contact: according to Garrett, accommodation is

determined by social approval, communicative efficiency, and social identity issues on both sides. Although Garrett quotes widely from studies on a variety of languages, he also includes much material from English sociolinguistics. Each chapter is clearly structured, with a short introduction and a concise conclusion, and contains suggestions for further reading as well as a number of questions, both on text comprehension and going beyond this into little research projects. This book thus seems well suited as the text basis for an undergraduate course of ten to twelve weeks, but through its breadth of coverage should also be of interest to fellow researchers from fields like sociolinguistics, dialectology, language planning, etc.

Also from last year, and highly relevant to this section, is the long-awaited third volume by William Labov in his Principles of Linguistic Change series, this volume dealing with Cognitive and Cultural Factors [2010]. As the author writes himself, the publication of the Atlas of North American English (ANAE) has delayed this work, since Labov tries to account for the nationwide developments charted there. Expressed as the fundamental riddle of language change—since sound change interferes significantly with the primary function of the linguistic system (sc. the transmission of information), why is it so pervasive?—Labov investigates in chapters 2 to 4 how frequent are actual misunderstandings due to dialect differences (porn shop for pawn shop, rock for rack, youth misheard as yeast, block as black etc.). The error rates are highest for words in isolation, and lowest for whole sentences in controlled tasks, but the experiments clearly show that speakers have only limited machinery for processing dialect differences' (p. 85); in other words, sound change does significantly interfere with comprehension. Labov then asks about Triggering Events' (chapter 5) that can cause neighbouring dialects to diverge from each other, taking the Northern Cities Shift as his main example. He identifies the social and economic ferment' caused by the building of the Erie canal in the nineteenth century as the trigger for the NCS. In Governing Principles' (chapter 6), the author looks at mergers and chain shifts more generally, and in Forks in the Road' and Divergence' (chapters 7 and 8) he cites data from phoneme splits (where some processes are bi-directional, and thus reversible). In the controversial chapter on Driving Forces' (chapter 9) Labov discusses (and ultimately rejects) explanations based on local identity, social networks, socio-economic class, acts of identity, age, and gender, and regional dialect. The interesting phenomenon is the wide geographical spread of the NCS, and its uniformity across speakers, which makes all local explanations unconvincing. (At one stage Labov likens the NCS to an ' ocean current... flowing with irresistible force' (p. 374).) As an alternative, Labov turns to 'ideological patterns specific to this region' (p. 207), which he traces back to the settlement history (chapter 10). The dichotomy Yankee-Upland South evident from cultural differences historically, and still visible in political cultures today, can explain the sharp boundary between the North and the Midland regions, as well as the linguistic homogeneity of the Inland North. This is an intriguing suggestion for a link between linguistic forms and their (probably unconscious) ideological evaluation (in this case indexing a liberal, anti-racist, pro-abortionist, etc. stance), which is briefly tested in chapter 11. Labov also turns to the question whether it is phonemes or lexemes that change (chapter

13), and briefly looks at the diffusion of sound change (chapter 15), beside the NCS also discussing the New Yorker 'short-a' pattern, which he claims has diffused to Philadelphia, and even New Orleans, undergoing simplification in the process. Although couched in general terms, this monograph could also be seen as an in-depth discussion of the ANAE material, and of the Northern Cities Shift in particular, and will certainly generate much controversy among the scholars dealing with this phenomenon. (Some individual studies on the NCS are reported below.) The more general questions touched upon, however, make it worthwhile reading for sociolinguists interested in phonological questions. However, Labov says next to nothing on features of change besides phonetic ones, cementing the central position that the study of sound change still has in sociolinguistics and dialectology.

An interesting general question is how sensitive speakers are to frequencies of linguistic features around them, and Labov, Sharon Ash, Maya Ravindranath, Tracey Weldon, Maciej Baranowski, and Naomi Nagy test this in their article 'Properties of the Sociolinguistic Monitor' (JSoc 15[2011] 431-63), the monitor being an 'observable property of speakers' that is said to 'track, store and process information on linguistic variation' (p. 435). The authors use the highly salient (ING) variable (dunkin' vs. dunking) as a test across various locales. Surprisingly, subjects were extremely sensitive to frequency shifts (down to changes around the 10 per cent mark), and their responses followed a logarithmic curve (so that initial data had a proportionately larger effect). Interestingly, schoolchildren behaved a little differently, suggesting that sociolinguistic norms are only gradually acquired.

Another interesting general point is made by John C. Paolillo, who points out that 'Independence Claims in Linguistics' (LVC 23[2011] 257-74) are not empirically verifiable. Particularly important for sociolinguistics, Paolillo shows that 'assumed independence of internal and external factors... is vacuous' (p. 263) (as are assumptions of a 'constant rate effect' in historical linguistics, implicational relations in functional-typological linguistics, or harmonic alignment in Optimality Theory), and that they 'make little useful contribution to the empirical side of the research' (p. 272).

Warren Maguire and April McMahon have edited a variegated collection of articles on Analysing Variation in English. The first part, 'Investigating Variation in English: How Do We Know What We Know?', is more hands-on (or methodological) but not necessarily purely sociolinguistic in outlook. Erik R. Thomas has a contribution on 'Collecting Data on Phonology' (pp. 7-29), which is useful because it also reports on the evolution of the field since the early days of Labov. Isabelle Buchstaller and Karen Corrigan discuss 'How to Make Intuitions Succeed: Testing Methods for Analysing Syntactic Microvariation' (pp. 30-48); if you know anything about sociolinguistics, you will know that eliciting grammaticality judgements on constructed examples is not how the majority of sociolinguists typically proceed. Buchstaller and Corrigan try to establish their method as valid, but clearly do not represent the sociolinguistic mainstream. This is a shame, since there is valuable work done on dialect grammar outside a generative framework, but none of this is acknowledged in this collection. Incidentally, Buchstaller and Corrigan also report on their methodology in ' ''Judge not lest ye be judged'':

Exploring Methods of the Collection of Socio-Syntactic Data' (in Frans Gregersen, Jeffrey K. Parrott, and Pia Quist, eds., Language Variation— European Perspectives III: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 5), Copenhagen, June 2009, pp. 149-60), taking the thorny morphosyntactic feature of the Northern Subject Rule in Britain as an example. Unfortunately, they find that different tasks (Pictorial Elicitation Task, Indirect Judgment, Direct Judgment, and Reformulation) result in different results regarding the acceptability of this construction as a problem that they cannot solve yet.

Back to Analysing Variation. Alexandra D'Arcy gives an overview of available and not so available Corpora: Capturing Language in Use' (in Maguire and McMahon, eds., pp. 49-71). The questions she poses are important to think about, yet the contribution contains some factual errors that make the overall value of this chapter more than questionable (for example, she claims that varied speech-based texts can be found in... LOB, FLOB, and Frown', where these contain only written texts). In two rather technical contributions, Hermann Moisl discusses Hypothesis Generation' (pp. 72-92) and how to use a variety of computational methods for vector analysis, and Warren Maguire and April McMahon themselves write on ' Quantifying Relations Between Dialects' (pp. 93-119), in particular the mathematical models that lead to tree-diagrams of similarity or difference in their own work on comparing varieties. Much less technical is Chris Montgomery and Joan Beal's contribution on Perceptual Dialectology' (pp. 121-48), where they discuss the lack of studies in Britain, something Montgomery has apparently tried to remedy. The interesting results are mismatches in informants who recognize no difference in a particular dialect ( sounds like from here'), but at the same time perceptually place it further away, suggesting that they (the informants) do not want to be associated with it, something the authors call 'denial'. Again, food for thought, and clearly much remains to be done in this field. Part II of Maguire and McMahon's collection deals with more theoretical questions, and is appropriately entitled Why Does it Matter? Variation and Other Fields'. Patrick Honeybone, in 'Variation and Linguistic Theory' (pp. 151-77), tries to convince generativists of the relevance of variation more generally, but as we have argued before, this is probably a futile endeavour: hard-core generativists will not read this article, and will not find the arguments valid, while variationists will probably not see the point of engaging with a theory that denies their basis of existence. What is annoying, though, is the suggestion (by omission) that theory equals generativism, since theories beyond Optimality Theory and Principles and Parameters are not even mentioned. Gregory Guy, however, in Variation and Change' (pp. 178-98), points out that ' language does not fit neatly into the analytic boxes that observers often use' (p. 178) and thus provides a much-needed antidote. Guy gives a useful overview of how (synchronic) variation is the flip side of the same coin of (diachronic) change, recapitulates how the two have been studied, and combines them in the analysis of real and apparent time; amazingly, though, he does not mention the work done in historical sociolinguistics, although it would again appear directly relevant here. Overall, then, Maguire and McMahon's collection contains some

interesting contributions, not all directly from the field of sociolinguistics or dialectology, but it adds some interesting (if controversial) theoretical perspectives that admittedly are sometimes missing from more empirical approaches to language variation and change.

In a different vein from the handbooks and collections mentioned above, Margaret Thomas has written a collection of biographical sketches on the Fifty Key Thinkers on Language and Linguistics. An Anglo-American slant in the choice is undeniable, but satisfyingly—from a sociolinguistic perspective— William Labov is included as one of the fifty 'key' thinkers. Of his biography and writing nothing new emerges, but the summary of his main achievements (as well as criticism of individual points) seems fair, and may be used as a concise introduction to this important linguist—perhaps for students who have never heard of him before (more sketches are given in Section 1 above).

Moving to the field of historical sociolinguistics, Richard J. Watts has contributed a monograph-length study on Language Myths and the History of English. Of the many myths he identifies (the myth of the legitimate language, of the perfect language, of the polite language, of the superiority of English, etc.), the following are particularly relevant for English sociolinguistics: the myth of linguistic homogeneity, which has subsequently served to denigrate any deviations from this 'homogenous' language, e.g. regional varieties, and the 'myth of the pure language of the South and the corrupted language of the North' (p. 127) in Britain, which is by no means a new construction, but which Watts traces back to William of Malmesbury (twelfth century). Overall, Watts is more concerned with an analysis of how the myth of standard English was (and is) constructed, but this in reverse may of course also be relevant for dialectologists and sociolinguists as the foil against which dialect speakers have to struggle.

Elizabeth Closs Traugott is concerned with 'Constructing the Audiences of the Old Bailey Trials 1674-1834' (in Paivi Pahta and Andreas Jucker, eds., Communicating Early English Manuscripts, pp. 69-80)—she does not mean the real-life audiences in the trials, but the readership of the published versions. This changed from middle- and upper-class readers in the beginning to lawyers and public officials later on, and Traugott finds that this shift is reflected in the early 'active and intersubjective construction of the reader' (p. 79), which later gave way to a presentation of the material as objectively as possible.

Terttu Nevalainen, Helena Raumolin-Brunberg, and Heikki Mannila investigate 'The Diffusion of Language Change in Real Time: Progressive and Conservative Individuals and the Time Depth of Change' (LVC 23[2011] 1-43). Based on the Corpus of Early English Correspondence (CEEC), they find that the number of writers with variable grammars correlates with the stage of a change (mid-range), the rate of change (slower rather than quicker), and with the type of change (syntactic rather than morphological). Particularly interesting is their observation that social aspirers are characterized by first avoiding a new variant, but use it extensively once it has become the majority form. Confirming present-day sociolinguistic results, speakers might be progressive with respect to one or several features, but conservative or in-between for others, and the social networks they belong to also play a role, in particular 'the Royal Court and top administrators' (p. 36).

Moving to present-day varieties of English, two years ago, J.K. Chambers, in 'Your Vernacular Roots are Showing: Where Variation Intrudes on Standard, and Why' (in Esa Penttila and Heli Paulasto, eds., Language Contact Meets English Dialects: Studies in Honour of Markku Filppula [2009], pp. 3-17, which somehow slipped through our net then—our apologies) claimed that the use of is/was in plural existentials (as in There's a couple of doves mating on your window sill) and the use of between you and I are vernacular universals, and as such are 'excrescences of the language faculty' (p. 4) because they both need a 'look-ahead mechanism' which inevitably leads to 'cognitive overload'. Chambers's idea of searching for vernacular universals has been taken up on several aspects, among others in contributions to Linguistic Universals and Language Variation, edited by Peter Siemund. There, Sali A. Tagliamonte regards 'Variation as a Window on Universals' (pp. 128-68). In her sample study of past tense be across a large number of varieties, she uses 'consistency of the order of constraints ... the strength of favoring or disfavoring constraints, and the degrees of contrast between [promoting or inhibiting] factors' (p. 128) as criteria to determine whether varieties behave the same or differently. Not surprisingly, most constraints apply only locally, but default agreement (i.e. the StE singular forms) with existentials is indeed a widespread phenomenon, whereas she identifies the use of was with personal pronouns as a feature of 'rural, isolated, or peripheral communities' (p. 161). In contrast to Tagliamonte, Bernd Kortmann and Benedikt Szmrecsanyi argue, in 'Parameters of Morphosyntactic Variation in World Englishes: Prospects and Limitations of Searching for Universals' (pp. 264-90), that, rather than searching for individual vernacular features, investigating 'conspiracies' of feature bundles might be a more fruitful way of pursuing the search for vernacular universals, and they claim that these feature bundles correlate with variety types (in particular, L1 vs. L2 variety of English, traditional dialect vs. creole, and spoken vs. written varieties). Julia Davydova, Michaela Hilbert, Lukas Pietsch, and Peter Siemund, in 'Comparing Varieties of English: Problems and Perspectives' (pp. 291-323), suggest three avenues: (i) investigating varieties with the help of models and predictions from language typology might 'provide... some structured space of variation' (p. 299), (ii) comparing features across varieties (similar to Tagliamonte's constraint hierarchies, but less statistically sophisticated), and (iii) investigating shared historical developments, or in other words, contact effects. Siemund, with Georg Maier and Martin Schweinberger, also proposes a way 'Towards a More Fine-Grained Analysis of the Areal Distributions of Non-Standard Features of English' (in Penttila and Paulasto, eds., pp. 19-45). The idea is that in addition to a binary assessment of features in a variety (i.e. present/not present), we also need to know something of their structural and functional parameters (or constraints)—an approach which they illustrate with the discourse marker like, and the distribution of pronominal forms. In the same collection, Terence Odlin cautions readers to the possibility 'When Different Sources Lead to the Same Outcome: Some Reflections on Contact Vernaculars' (in Penttila and Paulasto, eds., pp. 49-63), for example with double modals or relative what, where convergent explanations seem plausible.

Talking of double modals already moves us to IrE, where we start our overview of the regional varieties of English, as usual moving from north to south, and from Britain to North America. Michael B. Montgomery, in The Core or the Periphery?', deplores ' The Lack of a Dictionary of Irish English on Historical Principles' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 213-36). In particular, Montgomery illustrates that the compilers of the OED systematically excluded most sources from Ireland, and even in the current revisions the OED editors ... have been myopic about Ireland as a source of citations' (p. 220). As a consequence, a separate dictionary project seems to be called for, and Montgomery carefully lays out potential problems and pitfalls, from whether to include Ulster Scots, to lemmatizing, to funding (more on this in sections 1 and 7).

Orla Lowry discusses Belfast Intonation and Speaker Gender' (JEngL 39[2011] 209-32), and finds that here, contrary to popular stereotype, falling nuclear patterns are employed occasionally, in particular by women, to convey expressivity, emotional engagement, and enthusiasm' (p. 209). Robert Moore, in 'Overhearing Ireland: Mediatized Personae in Irish Accent Culture' (L&C 31[2011] 229-42), looks at the historical development of (stereotypical) representations of IrE over the past 400 years or so as the 'charming— funny, yet abhorrent—mis-speakingfulness of Irish Others' (p. 230), and identifies the double agency of the overhearer (who becomes the faithful reporter) as an important element that links the genre of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Irish Bulls' with present-day popular publications.

Moving to the Scottish islands, up in the very north Jennifer Smith and Mercedes Durham ask whether they are observing A Tipping Point in Dialect Obsolescence? Change Across the Generations in Lerwick, Shetland' (JSoc 15[2011] 197-225). Their investigation of six variables suggests that while all phenomena decline over time, especially in the young generation, this seems to have led to a polarization, with about half the young informants using dialect features very frequently, and the others not at all. Since none of the typical influences of language use... can explain the split in the younger speakers' (p. 217), the authors link this heterogeneity to dialect attrition, which we know can be characterized by extreme variability.

For Glasgow, Robert Lawson investigates Patterns of Linguistic Variation among Glaswegian Adolescent Males' (JSoc 15[2011] 226-55), a group so far not much investigated. Lawson's communities-of-practice approach finds that the trap-vowel is most distinct between the fronted and lowered realizations of the neds' (who are associated with deviant behaviour, and who are most critical of school) and the raised variants of the schoolies' (characterized by high academic aptitude, and rather middle-class aspirations), who each stand to lose most by being linguistically associated with the other group. Over on the east coast, Ole Schutzler discusses a new method of ' Charting Vowel Spaces in Edinburgh Middle-Class Speech' (EWW 32[2011] 24-45), combining psycho-acoustic transformation and vowel-extrinsic normalization. Schutzler finds that in his six speakers, /u/ is acoustically front rather than back in all speakers' (p. 41), /i/ is ' surprisingly open' (p. 41), and /e/ and /o/ are almost always monophthongs, according well with impressionistic data of the

Standard ScE vowel system, and also indicating that even these middle-class speakers do not orient towards RP as the prestige norm.

For Wales, Heli Paulasto discusses ' Regional Effects of the Mode of Transmission in Welsh English' (in Penttila and Paulasto, eds., pp. 211-29). She distinguishes in particular those regions where the shift to English happened relatively late, and coincided with large-scale formal education, resulting in few linguistic transfers, and regions where English was acquired more informally, and where more contact features can be expected. Her examples are focus fronting and the use of the progressive in stative contexts, and indeed she can show interesting regional differences for these phenomena across Wales, but the difference in the mode of transmission can also more globally explain why Welsh English is much less distinctive than, say, IrE.

Moving to England, based on the SED recordings Juhani Klemola gives an overview of different Infinitive Markers in the Traditional Dialects of England' (in Penttila and Paulasto, eds., pp. 199-209). In this short, but descriptively very interesting article Klemola looks at for to (it took them a long time for to put these stones up), for (for go to church), and zero (I told her 0 move). He finds that for to is used all over England, except along the eastern coast, for is a minority option only found in pockets of the south-west and in the north Midlands, and zero is found in a coherent Midland area. Klemola does not say much about further questions, but since for to is extremely widespread, a purported Irish origin does not seem very likely, and this phenomenon clearly deserves a fuller study.

Linking Ireland and northern England, John C. Beal and Karen P. Corrigan look at The Impact of Nineteenth-Century Irish-English Migrations on Contemporary Northern Englishes: Tyneside and Sheffield Compared' (in Penttila and Paulasto, eds., pp. 231-58). Beal and Corrigan find that social conditions were quite different in these two northern regions, and as a result only in Tyneside do we now see plausible Irish influence through koineization in the nineteenth century.

Emma Moore and Julia Snell deal with a syntactic feature in Oh, they're top, them'': Right Dislocated Tags and Interactional Stance' (in Gregersen et al., eds., pp. 97-109) in north-east England. Right dislocation in their data of adolescents and pre-adolescents can do complex interactional work such as positioning oneself, or, in certain circumstances, giving an uncompromising evaluation of others. Mercedes Durham investigates the same feature in Right Dislocation in Northern England: Frequency and Use—Perception Meets Reality' (EWW 32[2011] 257-79), using data from York. She distinguishes canonical right dislocation (as investigated in Moore and Snell's paper) from expanded right dislocation (with a repetition of the operator: He stayed with this other woman John did) from reverse right dislocation, where operator and subject are inverted (She was an Irish lady was my grandma). In particular the last two have only been attested since the nineteenth century, and the reverse form is seen as a stereotypical northern feature. The interesting results are that, overall, strategies of right dislocation are used noticeably less by younger speakers, but men show a curvilinear pattern, using right dislocation much less in middle age. Possibly, this might indicate the recycling of this syntactic marker by younger speakers for constructing a northern identity.

On the subject of 'general extenders', Heike Pichler and Stephen Levey are 'In Search of Grammaticalization in Synchronic Dialect Data: General Extenders in Northeast England' (ELL 15[2011] 441-71), more specifically in thirty-six speakers from Berwick-upon-Tweed. Rather than a system undergoing grammaticalization, the authors claim that the highly fragmented group of general extenders is a 'reflex of incomplete and asynchronous grammatical-ization processes' where variants were fossilized at different points in the grammaticalization cline (p. 462). Although there is variation, then, there probably is no change, and the higher use especially of and that by young males is probably indicative of age-grading only.

Lynn Clark and Kevin Watson are 'Testing Claims of a Usage-Based Phonology with Liverpool English t-to-r' (ELL 15[2011] 523-47), where /t/ can be realized as a tap or a rhotic approximant. In contrast to earlier studies, they find that lexical and phrasal frequencies cannot fully account for this phenomenon. In particular, there is neither a correlation with bigram strength, collocate strength, or constituent structure; instead, the t-to-r process seems to correlate with the productivity of a more abstract schema. It is also interesting that this phenomenon seems to be on the rise in Liverpool, and is becoming categorical for adolescents.

In his Investigations in Sociohistorical Linguistics: Stories of Colonisation and Contact Peter Trudgill has collected (and rewritten) some earlier papers; most relate to varieties outside Britain, but relevant for English dialectology is chapter 2, which links 'East Anglian English and the Spanish Inquisition' (pp. 36-60). The East Anglian dialect feature of zero marking in the third person singular (it seem, she look), according to Trudgill, is a contact phenomenon which dates back to large-scale Dutch immigration at just the time when the English system switched from -th to -s.

For the south, Jonathan Harrington, Felicitas Kleber, and Ulrich Reubold discuss 'The Contribution of the Lips and the Tongue to the Diachronic Fronting of High Back Vowels in Standard Southern British English' (JIPA 41[2011] 137-56) (also known as goose-fronting), one of the striking phonetic changes of the past fifty years or so (and not restricted to southern British English, but also encountered in the southern hemisphere and in the American southern states). In a battery of experiments, Harrington and his co-authors find that for /u/ the tongue 'position of present-day SSBE is now so front that lip-protrusion is the principal feature for its differentiation from /i/' (p. 153). Fronting for short /u/ is not as advanced, suggesting a later start for this feature of diachronic change. Another rather standard feature, but still one with an interesting sociolinguistic distribution, is studied by Gunnel Tottie: ' Uh and Um as Sociolinguistic Markers in British English' (IJCL 16[2011] 173-97). Based on the (by now rather dated) London-Lund Corpus as well as the BNC, Tottie finds that the use of the ' fillers' erjuh and ermjum is differentiated by register, gender, age, and class, such that men, older people and educated speakers use more fillers' (p. 173), but she does not comment on this correlation further or interpret it in terms of symbolic power, or status.

Based on the Corpus of London Teenage Speech from the 1990s, Ignacio M. Palacios Martinez investigates 'The Expression of Negation in British Teenagers' Language: A Preliminary Study' (JEngL 39[2011] 4-35), and

finds a high frequency of negatives overall, of negative concord, and of never as a past tense negator, as well as of negative intensification. Hedges on the other hand are avoided by the teenagers Martinez investigates, all of which he links to the 'psychological and cognitive condition' of being a teenager. Another paper by the same author also based on this corpus is discussed in Section 13.

Ethnic varieties in Britain play a large role in studies this year, in the south-east, but also beyond. Relating to London and Birmingham, Sue Fox, Arfaan Khan, and Eivind Torgersen investigate ' The Emergence and Diffusion of Multicultural English' (in Friederike Kern and Margret Selting, eds., Ethnic Styles of Speaking in European Metropolitan Areas, pp. 19-44), by which they mean a mixed or levelled variety that is spoken by adolescents irrespective of ethnic background, recalling Maher's Metroethnicities' above. As the authors show, contact in multi-ethnic friendship groups is probably a requisite for this development to take place, since ethnic speakers seem to be the innovators. Jenny Cheshire, Paul Kerswill, Sue Fox, and Eivind Torgersen expand on this topic in ' Contact, the Feature Pool and the Speech Community: The Emergence of Multicultural London English' (JSoc 15[2011] 151-96). They find that this new urban variety is characterized phonetically by extreme goose-fronting, high, almost monophthongized realizations of face and goat, and mouth and price lowering (and also monophthongization). As they write, all the young speakers show these changes, regardless of ethnicity' (p. 158), whereas such a hybrid variety was not documented in the 1980s. Some of these features can be traced back to (Jamaican-based) creole, whereas others come from wider south-eastern trends (especially goose-fronting). This suggests a pool of features, rather than a single source. Nevertheless, the general perception is that young Londoners today sound black'. Beyond phonology, speakers use a range of other features, such as the new quotative this is + speaker (This is them 'what area are you from?'), past-tense be levelling, and the glottal stop as a hiatus-resolution strategy.

Also in London, Devyani Sharma reports on Style Repertoire and Social Change in British Asian English' (JSoc 15[2011] 464-92), more specifically on second-generation Punjabi English in Southall. The term ' second-generation' masks some age differences here because of ongoing adult immigration, and these differences are actually relevant, because Sharma can show that the older men and the younger women have much wider style repertoires (from strongly Asian English to vernacular London English or RP), whereas the older women (for cultural reasons) and the younger men (for ideological reasons) use a more homogeneous, hybrid Asian English variety throughout. This study is also methodologically very interesting, because Sharma shows that a traditional variationist analysis comes to the wrong conclusions, it also cannot discover the variation she finds and could not explain it. The same distribution of features across generations and genders is the basis for Devyani Sharma and Lavanya Sandaran's discussion of Cognitive and Social Forces in Dialect Shift: Gradual Change in London Asian Speech' (LVC 23[2011] 399-428), relating to the two features t-retroflexion (a Punjabi feature) and t-glottaling (a local London feature). Pace Chambers, who claimed that children do not

retain their parents' non-native traits, they can show that the two are not mutually exclusive since speakers develop complete bi-dialectalism. In other words, social rather than cognitive factors are crucial in determining whether and which of these traits are retained, reallocated, or scrapped.

The intersection of ethnicities and styles is discussed further by Ben Rampton in ' Style Contrasts, Migration and Social Class' (JPrag 43[2011] 1236-50). Rampton's adolescent speakers position themselves in settings that contrast posh' language and Cockney on the one hand (essentially a contrast based on perceptions of class differences), and Creole and Asian English on the other (a contrast derived from ethnicity and migration, but adapted and reworked). Rampton claims that the adolescents in his London study deconstruct a system of individual differentiation' by stylized shifting into posh or Cockney, whereas in his data from the south Midlands from the 1980s, crossing into ethnic varieties domesticated these differences and made them orderly, familiar and acceptable' (p. 1246). It is interesting that Rampton also describes how Creole got revalorized, probably also linked to the rise of a globalized hip-hop culture (more on which below). Rampton also asks what happens when the adolescents described above with their stylized heteroglos-sic speech practices' grow older, and in order to find this out, in From Multi-Ethnic Adolescent Heteroglossia'' to Contemporary Urban Vernaculars''' (L&C 43[2011] 276-94), he links his older studies with results from Sharma and Sankaran's studies reported above. Rampton can show that multi-ethnic heteroglossia was not an ephemeral phenomenon, but is still employed by the (by now) middle-aged speakers. Thus a dense vernacular mix of Creole, Cockney, and Punjabi' (p. 288) has become a ' style... adjusted to the concerns and constraints of adulthood' (p. 287). Since this style still lacks a label, Rampton proposes contemporary urban vernacular', on the assumption that vernacular' already includes stylization, crossing, and other meta-pragmatic activities—a term that now seems to stand in competition with Cheshire et al.'s 'multicultural English', and perhaps Maher's 'metrolanguage'.

A place never studied before in terms of its Caribbean inhabitants is Ipswich, but Michelle C. Brafia-Straw rectifies this oversight in ' Putting Individuals Back in Contact: Accommodation Strategies by Barbadians in Ipswich' (in Lars Hinrichs and Joseph T. Farquharson, eds., Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency, pp. 57-78). In contrast to most other studies, she concentrates on the language of the first (adult) immigrant generation, now quite elderly, and finds instances of accommodation to local (white) norms for some vocalic features, partial accommodation for others, and the maintenance of Barbadian features for yet others, also depending on the kinds of social ties speakers have contracted. Particularly interesting is the fact that in Ipswich, (first-generation) Barbadians attempt to sharply differentiate themselves from Jamaicans elsewhere, originally for political reasons (some more on this in Section 10 below).

British Creole'' and Youth Language in a British Inner-City Community', more specifically in Manchester, is also the topic of Susan Dray and Mark Sebba's contribution to Hinrichs and Farquharson, eds. (pp. 231-50). Surprisingly, the authors find no consistent use of creole in Manchester (any more?); instead, Manchester is characterized by widespread intermarriage, and

today creole features are used by young speakers from all ethnic backgrounds. These features (e.g. the use of man, the verbs vex and mash up, th-stopping, or the practice of verbal duelling) are not perceived as creole, but as ' slang', and Dray and Sebba suggest that rather than ethnicity, this indicates speakers' involvement in specific language-based practices valued by the peer group' (p. 231), like international hip-hop culture, from which forms are locally appropriated.

Jane Stuart-Smith, Claire Timmins, and Farhana Alam also report on a variety not represented in these pages before, Glasgow Asian, in Hybridity and Ethnic Accents: A Sociophonetic Analysis of Glaswasian'' ' (in Gregersen et al., eds., pp. 43-57). They investigate the vowel qualities of the face and goat vowels, as well as syllable-initial /l/, and find that the Asian variety has closer and fronter vowels, and a clearer syllable-initial /l/. However, in contrast to the studies from London and Manchester, there does not seem to be any more general use of these ethnic markers by other ethnic groups, and the hybridity of the title refers to the hybrid character of the ethnolect itself only.

When we move across the Atlantic ocean to North America more generally, Stefan Dollinger and Luanne von Schneidemesser attempt to distinguish Canadianism, Americanism, North Americanism: DARE and DCHP as Dialectological Research Tools' (AS 86[2011] 115-51). Since these two resources are not really comparable, the authors conduct a semantic field analysis of a small subset of entries, which shows that the Dictionary of Canadianiswis on Historical Principles includes in particular lexemes from the fields of hunting and fur trading, geography, lumbering, sledding, and fishing. The authors also look at areas of overlap, but find that the term North Americanism' is not well defined, and not used consistently. In addition, ways of mining for new entries (e.g. through Facebook) are suggested, in the absence of funding, perhaps taking (some) dialectology into the Web 2.0.

Another 'Web 2.0' idea is presented by Jack Grieve, Dirk Speelman, and Dirk Geeraerts in A Statistical Method for the Identification and Aggregation of Regional Linguistic Variation' (LVC 23[2011] 193-221). From online resources, the authors have compiled a corpus of letters to the editor (comprising 26 million words), and they analyse this material for lexical variation (e.g. anybody—anyone, though—although, be going to—will), using three statistical procedures (spatial auto-correlation, factor analysis, and then cluster analysis). This results in some striking regional distributions, showing that anybody is particularly frequent in the west, whereas although is almost completely restricted to the north-east, and the identification of five large dialect regions overall (the north-east, the south-east, the midwest, a central area, and the west). This is all the more remarkable since all variants are part of the standard, which might open up new methods for the analysis of regional variation.

A more general dialectological contribution comes from William R. Kretzschmar, Jr., who discusses 'The Beholder's Eye: Using Self-Organizing Maps to Understand American Dialects' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 53-70, see also Section 1 above). In particular, Kretzschmar champions an inductive, data-driven method of computational neural network analysis

(leading to the self-organizing maps mentioned in the title) vs. the more traditional deductivism of Hans Kurath or even William Labov in the ANAE. The maps produced indeed show little similarity to the dialect areas proposed by Kurath or Labov; instead, they illustrate general midland/southern patterns, or the specific influence of individual fieldworkers (what Kretzschmar calls the McDavid distribution, after the fieldworker Raven McDavid). Kretzschmar concludes that American dialect areas may well be an artefact of ' our perceptions of American culture... conceived on cognitive grounds, and only later furnished with selected language variation data to accompany our cultural judgments' (p. 67).

Dennis R. Preston reports on his investigations of Michiganders Talk: God's Own English' (their assessment, not Preston's; in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 17-33), and refines some of his earlier results. Speakers from Michigan are known in the literature for their extreme linguistic security (hence the subtitle), and as Preston shows, this has not changed over the past twenty years. Michiganders still regard their own dialect as normal, 'good' English, without a twang' or a drawl', and they see themselves as smart' and educated' (note the folk-linguistic categories here). However, in their perception, speakers from the south are more friendly, casual, and more polite, as well as more down-to-earth, leading Preston to speculate on some chinks in the armor of Michigan linguistic security as regards certain dimensions' (p. 30f.).

If you read nonsense sentences composed of monosyllables with short vowels, you know the subject can only be the Northern Cities Vowel Shift, and indeed Erica J. Benson, Michael J. Fox, and Jared Balkman discuss 'The Bag that Scott Bought: The Low Vowels in Northwest Wisconsin' (AS 86[2011] 271-311). The core NCS areas have no cot-caught merger, but the authors find that in north-western Wisconsin, on the margin of the NCS area, /s/ raises, although the low back merger is present. This challenges the established literature that sees the absence of the low back merger as a precondition for the NCS. However, general /^/-raising in Wisconsin seems to have preceded the low back merger, and thus may be related to more than one sound change' (p. 274). Also on these two variables, Aaron J. Dinkin diagnoses Weakening Resistance: Progress toward the Low Back Merger in New York State' (LVC 23[2011] 315-45), an area on the fringe of the inland north (an NCS area), and the cot-caught merger, although present in neighbouring areas, should therefore be resisted. However, Dinkin finds apparent-time evidence that the merger is progressing, and cot is backing, contrary to its movement in the NCS, both on the fringe and in the core inland north. In other words, the cot vowel... is not sufficient to withstand the spread of the merger because fronting a low vowel is a ' ' reversible'' sound change' (p. 315). Staying with the NCS, Corrine McCarthy studies The Northern Cities Shift in Chicago' (JEngL 39[2011] 166-87). Pace ANAE, McCarthy finds only limited evidence for the shift as still ongoing and vigorous, since at least the low vowels (bat, bot, bought) show no evidence of continued movement in the expected direction, indicating that the NCS in Chicago (for these vowels) may have come to a standstill.

Almost exactly the opposite of the NCS, Ewa Jacewicz, Robert A. Fox, and Joseph Salmons report on what they call the 'New North American Shift' in two publications this year, ' Cross-Generational Vowel Change in American English' (LVC 23[2011] 45-86), and 'Vowel Change across Three Age Groups of Speakers in Three Regional Varieties of American English' (JPhon 39[2011] 683-93). The first study is based on 239 speakers (male and female) from North Carolina, Ohio, and Wisconsin from three generations, and the authors find evidence that' neither NCS nor Southern Shift appear to be active in the selected regions' (p. 59) any longer, coincidentally mirroring McCarthy's results from Chicago in this respect. Instead, across the generations, irrespective of the original systems, there is a chainlike anticlockwise rotation of all four vowels' (p. 66), (i.e. /i/, /e/, /s/, and /a/), as well as a striking reduction in trajectory length (i.e. of diphthongized realizations of these monophthongs'). Since females seem to be leading this change, the second study is based on 123 female speakers from the same locations, and the authors confirm an anti-clockwise lowering of /i/, /e/, and /s/ as well as increased monophthongization (instead of the typical southern breaking, for instance), especially in the elicited emphatic (hyper-articulated) tokens. This is interesting because the localities do not form a coherent dialect area, but span the south, midland, and the north, and in fact the change seems to be quite identical to the Canadian Shift, which has been reported on slightly longer, and which the authors attempt to include in their new term, the New North American Shift'.

Jim Wood continues with a vowel that is sometimes regarded as one of the pivots' of the NCS, short-a, and discusses Short-a in Northern New England' (JEngL 39[2011] 135-65), an area where this phoneme displays laxing, tensing (especially before nasals), or breaking (roughly transcribed as [es]). Wood shows that in using more pre-nasal tensing, younger speakers in New Hampshire move away from both older speakers (who tend to lax) and speakers in Boston (who tend to break), possibly due to processes of dialect levelling, since northern New Hampshire has been experiencing enormous in-migration.

On a more symbolic topic, Barbara Johnstone reports on 'Dialect Enregisterment in Performance' (JSoc 15[2011] 657-79) in some Pittsburgh radio comedy sketches, and finds that, since many different characteristics are conveyed (besides sounding local'), linguistic features quite possibly may become linked to an array of different non-linguistic features, and indeed come to index different pragmatic and social meanings. Johnstone also discusses the role of the media in Making Pittsburghese: Communication Technology, Expertise, and the Discursive Construction of a Regional Dialect' (L&C 31[2011] 3-15), where she looks at the emergence of this discourse in several print newspapers, a website, an online discussion board, and a Wikipedia entry. The discursive construction of the (imagined) dialect of Pittsburgh in the new media, according to Johnstone, typically privileges laypersons' opinions over those of experts' (read: linguists), and as a result a Wikipedia entry was launched 'to reclaim expertise about Pittsburgh speech' (p. 12).

Over in the west, Betsy Evans notes differences in the perception of Washington State English, ranging from Seattletonian'' to Faux Hick'': Perceptions of English in Washington State' (AS 86[2011] 383-414). Evans

finds that eastern Washington is seen as being different, and the rural-urban dichotomy is particularly salient. Interestingly, the Native American presence, on the other hand, is not perceived as influencing local varieties.

Moving to the south, Cynthia G. Clopper and Rajka Smiljanic compare midland and southern speakers and discuss Effects of Gender and Regional Dialect on Prosodic Patterns in American English' (JPhon 39[2011] 237-45). Based on reading passages by twenty speakers, they find that even in StE, speaking rate and pitch movement are notably different, showing that regional and gender identity features are encoded in part through prosody' (p. 237). Contrary to stereotype, southern speakers do not speak more slowly than midland speakers, but make more pauses, whereas pitch accent patterns are differentiated more by gender.

Using set reading passages in experiments is justified by Hayley Heaton and Lynne C. Nygaard, who discover ' Charm or Harm: Effect of Passage Content on Listener Attitudes Toward American English Accents' (JLSP 30[2011] 202-11). They point out that it has not really been investigated much how informants react to what is being said, but find striking evidence that content plays an important part. Their informants judge speakers reading passages on hunting and cooking (perceived as typical Southern activities) as less intelligent, less educated, less important, poorer, and having worse English, than the same speakers reading passages on medicine and investment.

Kirk Hazen, Sarah Hamilton, and Sarah Vacovsky study ' The Fall of Demonstrative Them: Evidence from Appalachia' (EWW 32[2011] 74-103), as in Them apples are best, and find that this non-standard feature is mostly used instead of the distal demonstrative those (but not exclusively so). The difference between the two is mainly one of social evaluation, so that it is not surprising that with increasing contact with outsiders, and their negative evaluation of Appalachian speech, Appalachians are rapidly losing this feature of non-standard morphology. Quite a different picture is painted by Kirk Hazen in Flying High above the Social Radar: Coronal Stop Deletion [CSD] in Modern Appalachia' (LVC 23[2011] 105-37). Here, Hazen analyses another ubiquitous Appalachian feature in data from sixty-seven speakers from West Virginia. The most important factors influencing CSD are the following phonological environment (consonants and glides), the preceding phonological environment (especially alveolars), and the morphological type (mono-morphemic non-verbs, and di-morphemic adjectives pattern before verbs). The influence of social factors is slight by comparison, and only ethnicity really plays a role here. These results indicate that CSD is not heavily stigmatized in Appalachia and is not undergoing any change, quite in contrast to demonstrative them above, although its high frequency may contribute to speakers being heard as vernacular by outsiders.

On a historical note, Michael Ellis and Michael Montgomery present their Corpus of American Civil War Letters, which allows them to say something About All: Studies in Nineteenth-Century American English' (AS 86[2011] 340-54). Ellis and Montgomery look at the plural pronoun you all, and the preposition all to (in the sense of 'except for'). You all occurs widely in southern Civil War letters, antedating earlier claims of this pronoun's

widespread use in the literature by several decades. All to (as in Joseph is well all to the toothache), on the other hand, has not really been investigated before, and there are only tentative suggestions that it might be derived from a calque of a Gaelic construction, so that the authors conclude that it looks like nothing else documented in North America' (p. 352).

Ethnic varieties play a large part this year, partly cross-cutting gender studies as well. A useful reminder that Language Diversity in the USA is not a recent phenomenon is provided by the collection of essays of this title edited by Kim Potowski this year. In it, Suzanne Romaine gives a more general overview of ' Language Contact in the USA' (pp. 25-46), after which the top twelve ' LOTE's (Languages other than English) are presented in more detail. After Native American languages, these are Spanish, Chinese, Tagalog, French, Vietnamese, German, Korean, Russian, Italian, Arabic, Portuguese, and Polish (ordered by the number of speakers). Each chapter gives a historical overview of how (speakers of) the language entered North America, who still speaks the language, to whom, and in what circumstances, and which changes can be documented as speakers switch to English. As such, these are excellent background chapters for more in-depth studies of any of these contact situations.

Django Paris and Arnetha F. Ball report more generally on African American Language in the U.S. Education and Society: A Story of Success and Failure' (in Joshua Fishman and Ofelia Garcia, eds., Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, vol. 2: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts, pp. 85-95), where despite the vitality of this variety they diagnose continuing prevailing negative attitudes in US schools, and in society more generally (including large parts of the AAE community themselves). However, on the upside, the authors also point out that AAE is now reaching new communities, among other things through hip-hop, and features may be spreading beyond the traditional ethnic boundaries. Walt Wolfram, in The African American English Canon in Sociolinguistics' (in Adams and Curzan, eds., pp. 34-52, see also Section 1 above), claims that ' sociolinguists have... unwittingly participated in the creation of a type of sociolinguistic folklore about the nature of AAE' (p. 34). This includes the alleged uniformity of AAE, reducing it to a set of morphosyntactic features, its non-regional character, concentrating on the basilectal end, and on its use in urban contexts (more specifically, on young, urban, working-class males). Wolfram cautions us that sociolinguists need to be careful not to over-extend a harmonious authoritative voice' (p. 51), and that the current consensus needs to be examined critically—something that more recent studies have indeed already begun to do, as we reported last year (cf. YWES 91[2012] 95-8).

Quite a large number of contributions deal with white speakers this year, either as appropriating features of AAVE, or investigating the construction of Whiteness as such. In the first category, Gregory R. Guy and Cecelia Cutler, in Speech Style and Authenticity: Quantitative Evidence for the Performance of Identity' (LVC 23[2011] 139-62), ask: what constitutes an authentic speaker? This is a question that is particularly pertinent in the age of world-wide phenomena like hip-hop, where features of AAVE are emulated by other

ethnic groups. Guy and Cutler claim they can measure the degree and direction of style shifting based on level-ordering in Lexical Phonology, since according to them style-shifting operates post-lexically. This allows them to conclude that the white hip-hoppers they investigate put on' a speech style that they do not speak natively. The feature investigated is Coronal Stop Deletion as by Hazen above, because it is 'a stylistically salient variable that speakers can manipulate to express their affiliation with hip-hop as well as qualities they associate with male hip-hop-affiliated AAVE speakers' (p. 156)—these stereotypical qualities being ' toughness' or ' street-smartness' (Bucholtz would probably add hypersexuality' as well here). Mary Bucholtz deals with essentially the same phenomenon in Race and the Re-embodied Voice in Hollywood Film' (L&C 31[2011] 255-65) but, in contrast to Guy and Cutler, she investigates Hollywood's treatment of white hip-hoppers in so-called wigger' (for white nigger') films from the 1990s and early 2000s. Through the use of White Hollywood AAE, often a crude, stereotypical, and highly distorted linguistic representation' (p. 261) of actual AAE, white hip-hoppers are portrayed as ridiculous caricatures, wannabes who illegitimately borrow blackness in order to overcome an inadequate white masculinity' (p. 264). In this way, these films contain and mitigate the racial threat potentially inherent in white participation in hip-hop culture. Widening the focus, Mary Bucholtz and Qiuana Lopez in 'Performing Blackness, Forming Whiteness: Linguistic Minstrelsy in Hollywood Film' (JSoc 15[2011] 680-706) investigate the use of Mock-AAE by (male) white actors in some other Hollywood films. Although these transgressions' are seemingly problematized inside the films, Bucholtz and Lopez show in detail how these performances ultimately rely on the replication of racial stereotypes (of physical working-class blackness, vs. rational middle-class whiteness), and how the semiotic resources of blackness are necessary in order for whiteness to claim authenticity and thereby retain its authority' (p. 701), ironically in this way helping white speakers to ' buttress... an increasingly unstable white masculinity' (p. 702).

The active construction of something often taken as the unmarked default is investigated by Mary Bucholtz in her monograph White Kids: Language, Race, and Styles of Youth Identity. Based on extensive fieldwork in a multi-ethnic Californian high school in the late 1990s, Bucholtz points out that white youth develop their own styles in reaction to, or in contradistinction to, the highest authority in the school's stylistic landscape' (p. 43), African American hip-hop. Bucholtz picks out three white groups she presents in more detail, the cool mainstream preppy teenagers (chapter 5), the cool, non-mainstream white hip-hop fans (chapter 6), and the uncool, mainstream white nerds (chapter 7). She finds that the preppy, popular' girls (not necessarily a positive term) define themselves in particular through their use of quotatives (be like and the new be all), which are then also taken up by other groups as markers of negative evaluation (indexing meanness'). In contrast, the male white hip-hop fans borrow lexical, phonological, and grammatical features from AAE that emblematically link hip-hop with cool black masculinity'. Interestingly, the appropriation of black' features is seen as illegitimate by most observers (constructing hip-hop in racial terms), whereas the practitioners themselves see

hip-hop as a style; thus the features are available to all participants, irrespective of race. The nerds, reported on before (e.g. YWES 80[2001] 84), consciously reject attempts at trendiness, and use superstandard English' to project their alternative valuation of intelligence and knowledge. This includes the avoidance of slang, of colloquial forms, and of the new quotatives, the active use of an extra-careful articulation, sometimes with hypercorrect forms, and the use of formal lexical items and extremely standard grammar. Since the nerds spurn coolness, their stance is implicitly constrained by race, because it places them in opposition to both the cool white and the cool black kids, and they are in fact perceived by others as hyperwhite', which is quite ironic given their often enlightened and reflective political stances. Overall, none of the kids want to portray themselves as racist, and chapter 8 discusses the strategies of colorblindness in talk' (p. 164) that are employed across the board: evasion of racial terms, disavowal of racism, displacement of race by other issues. On the other hand, chapter 9 investigates narratives of fear, conflict, and resentment, and it is here that white teenagers can construct themselves as racially disadvantaged and disempowered in relation to African American youth' (p. 186), despite the fact that they hold considerable institutional power at school and have considerable advantages due to their race. The same points from chapter 9 are incidentally also reiterated by Bucholtz in It's different for guys'': Gendered Narratives of Racial Conflict among White California Youth' (D&S 22[2011] 385-402). Overall, this monograph is a very sensitive and intelligent analysis of these problems. Bucholtz obviously takes the teenage culture she observes very seriously, and comes to important insights into how race, style, and teenage culture intersect that are clearly relevant beyond the Californian high school that is portrayed here. She is also a very good narrator so that this book provides not only a serious in-depth analysis, but also a very good read. Highly recommended.

As for Britain, other ethnicities also play a role for the US this year. Michael Newman and Angela Wu ask: Do you sound Asian when you speak English?'': Racial Identification and Voice in Chinese and Korean American's English' (AS 86[2011] 152-78), two racial groups that could not be distinguished auditorily by their New Yorker informants, but are quite consistently identified as Asian'. The authors identify several features that contribute to this identification, such as the use of a breathier voice, more syllable-timing, longer voice-onset times after voiceless stops, a lower realization of /e/, and of /r/, although they do not speak of a systematic ethnic Asian variety of AmE yet.

After the varieties overview, let us turn to gender. Julia T. Wood has produced the ninth edition of the textbook Gendered Lives: Communication, Gender, and Culture—we guess that we missed the earlier ones since the early 1990s because no international edition seems to have been available—our apologies. We have to say here that this textbook is a thought-provoking introduction to the topic that will probably succeed in making students aware of the social construction of inequality. The book is clearly geared to unsettling many truths held dear. Wood takes the readers through different ' Theoretical Approaches to Gender Development' (chapter 2), and then deals with the women's movement in the US (chapter 3), an overview that goes up to

the present-day, including the anti-feminist backlash. Wood also looks at the Men's Movement' (chapter 4) and then provides an overview of studies done on gendered communication, both verbal (chapter 5) and non-verbal (chapter 6). Wood deals with the acquisition of gendered behaviour, in The Early Years' (chapter 7), in schools (chapter 8), and in relationships (chapter 9), she looks at gender in the workplace (chapter 10) and in the media (chapter 11), and finally investigates 'Gendered Power and Violence' (chapter 12). Throughout the text, former students comment on aspects of the text, showing their serious engagement with it. The book is in part disturbing, thought-provoking, and deeply engaged with its subject. Although we have to note that it is not primarily a linguistics book, it is probably the best concrete introduction to the complex problems of gender, gendered identities, gender theory, gender acquisition, feminism, and masculinism we have come across in recent years. However, if you are not based in the United States you may at the same time experience some culture shock, as the book is clearly geared towards a home US market, and relies on much extra-linguistic knowledge that is culture-specific (such as Title IX, the concept of unpaid baby leave, or the Fourteenth Amendment). All this information is explained clearly in the text, though, so perhaps you can utilize the culture-shock experience and teach cultural relativity at the same time.

Sally McConnell-Ginet has collected some of her writing over the past thirty-odd years in Gender, Sexuality, and Meaning. As Mary Bucholtz states in the foreword, this is a veritable biography of language and gender studies over the last three decades' (p. vi) of one of the founding figures of this discipline. Since all studies have appeared before, they will not be presented here in detail. However, the collection makes for fascinating reading, and McConnell-Ginet's accessible style carries the reader through questions of the legitimacy of feminist linguistics, researching gender in communities of practice, the semantics and pragmatics of gender research, and the question of whether gender awareness can be relevant for wider moral and economic issues.

The papers collected in Conversation and Gender, edited by Susan A. Speer and Elizabeth Stokoe, look at the study of gender in the frame of conversation analysis. The book is divided into four parts, Gender, Person Reference and Self-Categorization' (three contributions), Gender, Repair and Recipient Design' (three contributions), Gender and Action Formation' (three contributions), and Gender Identities and Membership Categorization Practices' (four contributions). We will not review all contributions here, but pick out those that might be relevant for sociolinguistics more widely. Victoria Land and Celia Kitzinger, in ' Categories in Talk-in-Interaction: Gendering Speaker and Recipient' (pp. 48-63), point out the importance of self-reference categories (i.e. those used by the speakers themselves) and that restricting speakers to the dichotomy male-female risks missing meaningful other categories. Jack Sidnell, in '' ' D'you understand that honey?'': Gender and Participation in Conversation' (pp. 183-209), shows how participants (also non-verbally) invoke the notion of gender as different subcultures. In Accomplishing a Cross-Gender Identity: A Case of Passing in Children's Talk-in-Interaction' (pp. 231-49), Carly W. Butler and Ann Weatherall discuss

the case of one 6-year-old boy who temporarily adopts a female identity, and his class-mates' reactions to this temporary cross-gender category membership. As the authors point out, whatever gender membership William... claimed was correct was largely irrelevant if the other members did not share an understanding and recognition of this membership as being relevant and correct...'' doing gender'' was a collaborative accomplishment' (p. 249). Finally, Marjorie Harness Goodwin, in ' Engendering Children's Play: Person Reference in Children's Conflict Interaction' (pp. 250-71), points out that the unmarked default in children's assumptions is a heterosexual ordering of males and females, which shows both in their routine interactions, and in dramatic play.

Sara Mills and Louise Mullany have written a book on Language, Gender and Feminism: Theory, Methodology and Practice, which intends to put Feminism (with a capital F) back into gender studies. With this aim, the authors take the clear political stance that gender studies have a responsibility to contribute to the struggle against unjust and oppressive gender relations' (p. 7, partly quoting Deborah Cameron). This is a claim they need to justify, and chapter 2 deals with the question of Why We Still Need Feminism' (pp. 23-39), despite this being the era (arguably) of post-feminism. For the Western world, they mention the gendered pay gap, the glass ceiling, rape, domestic violence, getting sacked for being pregnant, or the return of sexism more generally, and the situation in the Third World is quite clearly even more in need of gender equality. The book moves on to Theorising Gender' (chapter 3),' Feminist Linguistic Approaches' (chapter 4), naming as examples the communities-of-practice approach in sociolinguistics, discourse analysis, CDA, poststructuralist discourse analysis, and conversation analysis. The chapter on Methodological Approaches' (chapter 5) includes transcription conventions and ethical guidelines, before some studies on Sexuality' (chapter 6) and Sexism' (chapter 7) are discussed. Chapter 8 gives a brief outlook on ' Future Directions', suggesting fields of study like exceptional gender, the third sex, communities of practice, or performativity (all of which we believe are already under way). This is an interesting book, and it makes its point forcefully that we still need feminism (or Feminism) today, not just in the Third World, but also in our supposedly post-feminist Western paradise, but it is slightly unbalanced between theory, methodology, and the actual studies that are either already done or that the authors would like to see, and just when you think the book will start, it already comes to a close. On the other hand, this may just be its raison d'etre.

Carrying straight on from this textbook introduction, there is an interesting experiment reported in Femininity, Feminism and Gendered Discourse: A Selected and Edited Collection of Papers from the Fifth International Language and Gender Association Conference (IGALA 5) [2010], edited by Janet Holmes and Meredith Marra. In the last chapter, Conversation Analysis and CDA in Language and Gender Research: Approaches in Dialogue' (pp. 213-43), Ann Weatherall, Maria Stubbe, Jane Sunderland, and Judith Baxter take one short text excerpt (a radio dialogue on the topic of sexuality) and interpret it in the frameworks of Discursive Psychology and CA, CDA, and Feminist Post-Structuralist Discourse Analysis. In the juxtaposition of these

interpretations you can see very nicely how the different approaches work, which illustrates some of the points made by Mills and Mullany above. In the same collection, Don Kulick takes up the stereotype of the Humorless Lesbian' (pp. 59-81). As for other groups of speakers who are said to be humourless (Germans, Jews at some point in history), Kulick warns that to perceive a group of people as humorless can be a way to diminish that group's claims to a common humanity' (p. 76). Carrying on from this stereotype (pp. 83-107, still in the same volume), Christie Bird looks at the similarly unfounded claim that Women can't tell jokes'': A Gender Ideology in Interaction'. Bird finds that many women have indeed internalized this stereotype ( I can't tell jokes'), but then use this to their own advantage, by employing self-deprecatory humour which might even destabilize norms.

Completely non-illuminating by comparison is John L. Locke's monograph Duels and Duets: Why Men and Women Talk So Differently. The author's main claim is already apparent from the title, and the book is grounded in evolutionary biology pseudo-babble, mixed with anecdotes, unfounded general claims, and an uncritical acceptance of the popular and slightly more linguistic literature on the subject (from John Gray's Men Are From Mars to Deborah Tannen's You Just Don't Understand). Locke's main idea is that men ' duel' (a form of physical fighting sublimated by words), and that this confers some advantage on them, ultimately promising more reproductive success. Women on the other hand duet' (a form of verbal grooming). His intellectually appealing conclusion is why not celebrate it, and do what we can to benefit from it?' (p. 179). We would like to refer Mr Locke to the intelligent discussion of many of his underlying claims by Deborah Cameron a few years ago (YWES 87[2008] 103), and say no more on this topic.

Much more serious work on gender has been done this year, though. For example, Robert J. Podesva and Penelope Eckert have edited a special issue of American Speech (86:i[2011]) on ' Sociophonetics and Sexuality', and in the introduction (AS 86[2011] 6-13) they say their motivation is to 'bring together the more complex models of social variation... with the phonetic and experimental advances of laboratory phonetics' (p. 6) and especially to transcend the easy binarism of male-female, gay-straight by incorporating insights from social constructivism and advanced cognitive models, combined with methodological rigour. In this issue, Benjamin Munson in Lavender Lessons Learned; or, What Sexuality Can Teach Us about Phonetic Variation' (AS 86[2011] 14-31) calls for sub-phonetic details to be included in analyses— a daunting task', as he admits, but a broad spectrum of features plays a strong role in conveying sexuality' (p. 17). In addition, according to Munson, listeners are willing to speculate on many attributes of speakers, so that researchers have to be careful about how to phrase tasks, and listeners may also be influenced by prejudices. Robert J. Podesva himself links The California Vowel Shift and Gay Identity' (AS 86[2011] 32-51). In particular, Californian ways of speaking are enregistered as indexing stereotypical California character traits such as laid back, or fun, and can then be used, through hyper-articulation, to index a specific kind of gay persona (party-goer, flamboyant)—at least in the one speaker Podesva investigated. Podesva also expands this study in Salience and the Social Meaning of Declarative

Contours: Three Case Studies of Gay Professionals' (JEngL 39[2011] 233-64). One of the three speakers uses uptalk' (rising contours) to construct the persona of caring doctor' who is nonthreatening to his patients, another uses level intonation as a marker of uncertainty in an exam-like situation, and the third employs extreme falls to index animated emotions (happiness, surprise, anger) in the context of his life of the party' persona. That these kinds of social meanings are fluid, and not mapped one-to-one on intonation contours, is shown by another case study where a different speaker uses extreme falls to portray himself as a diva', possibly via the shared connotation of animation'.

Kathryn Campbell-Kibler moves to the perceptual flipside of pretty much the same coin, and relates 'Intersecting Variables and Perceived Sexual Orientation in Men' (AS 86[2011] 52-68). She looks in particular at /s/-fronting and our old-time favourite, the (ING) variable, both of which have become stereotypes. Through indexical fields, these variables can also be heard as indexing gayness (in particular the gay lisp'), whereas in the case of (ING), the link is mediated via sounding ' smart and knowledgeable'. Penelope Eckert shows in Language and Power in the Preadolescent Heterosexual Market' (AS 86[2011] 85-97) that heterosexuality is just as constructed as homosexuality is, and that children have to learn this, starting in pre-adolescence. In her example, in particular a local Californian vowel change (fronting of /ow/) is used to construct 'trendiness' through hetero-sexuality. The same pre-adolescent population also appears in her study 'Where Does the Social Stop?' (in Gregersen et al., eds., pp. 13-29), where Eckert makes the point that for (pre)adolescents, linguistic variants are tied to affect, and since girls are expected to engage in social drama, while boys are expected not to' (p. 28), social drama can explain more high and back pronunciations of /o/ and /ay/ of certain girls in certain contexts.

In the summarizing discussion (AS 86[2011] 98-103), Deborah Cameron warns readers (and colleagues) against assuming binary categories. In particular, she points out that lesbians construct their identities very differently from gay men: while gay men tend to orient to linguistic stereotypes, lesbians do not necessarily do so, and an essentialized linguistic construct' of lesbian speech (as distinct from women's speech) is still lacking— ultimately for historical reasons, Cameron says, and for reasons of differences in power: ' the construction of a self or a persona... is constrained by the resources available to do it' (p. 103). And on this note we end this year's overview of work done in sociolinguistics and dialectology.

10. New Englishes and Creolistics

This year has seen the publication of five books, three monographs and two edited books, dealing with several varieties of English around the world as well as with theoretical and more general issues concerning New Englishes. We welcome the second, thoroughly updated, edition of Gunnel Melchers and Philip Shaw's introductory textbook, World Englishes, a classic among the wide array of textbooks now available to those of us teaching university classes on varieties of English around the world. This new edition takes into account

the many recent publications on New Englishes and the authors acknowledge (in the preface) the use of major handbooks published since its first edition. Thus, with the addition of descriptions of varieties such as China English (pp. 203-6) and some 'lesser-known' varieties such as Manx English, Channel Islands English, Pitkern, Falkland Islands English, St Helenian English, and Tristan da Cunha English (pp. 127-33) or Euro-English (pp. 206-8), the inclusion of Schneider's Dynamic Model of Postcolonial Englishes (pp. 31-2), the expanded discussion of ELF (chapter 6), and a supporting website with useful audio samples, this textbook will remain one of the main sources for beginning students of World Englishes.

Another introductory book providing an overview of several varieties of English published this year is English around the World: An Introduction by Edgar Schneider. This books aims at a similar readership, assuming little or no prior knowledge of the topic. The first chapter introduces key topics in the study of New Englishes, such as globalization, localization, and nativization, while the second chapter explains important theoretical notions such as language variation, language change, and language contact and the various models for the categorization of World Englishes. Chapter 3 discusses the historical background to the varieties of English, most notably the expansion of the British empire, different types of colonies or settlement patterns and the resultant varieties of English, and the recent further spread of English around the world. In the following three chapters the author provides accounts of individual varieties of English as spoken in major world regions: chapter 4 looks at the early expansion in the British Isles and thus at some major dialects in the so-called 'Old World'. It continues with the history and description of Englishes in North America and closes with an account of the development of Englishes and English-based creoles in the Caribbean. In chapter 5 Schneider describes the development of southern hemisphere Englishes, including Black SAE. Chapter 6 deals with Sub-Saharan Africa, South and South-East Asia, and the Pacific region—world regions in which English has been adopted as a second language by large parts of the indigenous populations. This chapter also includes a section on East Asia, with a particular focus on China, and thus a discussion of the global spread of ELF. Finally, in chapter 7 the reader is provided with an overview of the characteristic features of World Englishes and shown how these can be explained as outcomes of language contact, while in chapter 8 major sociocultural, pedagogical, political, and conflicting issues such as language attitudes, language norms, cultural domination and hybridity, language ownership, and similar topics are examined. This book provides an excellent read for beginning students as it is written in a very accessible manner and is well structured. The individual chapters start with a brief overview of what to expect and close with a chapter summary consisting of the chief points and most important issues within the chapter. Each chapter is structured from more general issues explaining major developments in particular world regions to more individual case studies providing the reader with detailed information about particular varieties of English. The book is accompanied by a very helpful website, including audio samples of texts provided in the book.

Cecil L. Nelson's Intelligibility in World Englishes: Theory and Application may be used as a complement to the introductory textbooks just presented as it explores in detail the question of intelligibility across the three circles of English, including issues of normativity, hybridity and creativity, pedagogical implications, and models for teaching English as well as the ownership' of English. The book thus thoroughly discusses many of the issues only partly or superficially dealt with in chapter 8 of Schneider's introductory volume.

Raymond Hickey's edited volume entitled Legacies of Colonial English: Studies in Transported Dialects, originally published in 2004, reprinted in 2006, and this year first published as a paperback edition, will be helpful in complementing introductory textbooks as it provides very useful survey articles on dialect input to the different varieties in the British Isles (Part I), North America and the Caribbean (Part II), the southern hemisphere, including some of the lesser-known' varieties added to Melchers and Shaw's book (Part III), and in Asia (Part IV). The book also proves very helpful as it contains an extensive list of the chief phonological, morphological, and syntactic characteristics of varieties of English (pp. 586-615), as well as a timeline for varieties of English (pp. 621-6) and maps of anglophone locations (pp. 627-51) in the appendix. A more detailed evaluation and description of this monumental volume can be found in YWES (85[2006] 69-105, passim).

Finally, Joybrato Mukherjee and Marianne Hundt aim at a different readership in Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap, presenting an impressive and well-chosen selection of papers, which emerged from the 2008 ISLE workshop on Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes'. With this edited volume, the editors intend to bridge the paradigm gap between traditional SLA research and second-language varieties in former British colonies and to trigger off a renewed interest in an integrated approach to second-language varieties of English and learner Englishes' (p. 5). The selected articles address a wide range of issues concerning the empirical, mainly corpus-linguistic, analysis and comparison of ESL varieties and learner Englishes. The features considered range from the use of modal auxiliaries, interrogative inversion, the preposition into and the (over-)use of the progressive via formulaic sequences in spoken language to typological profiling; the varieties/variants discussed are as diverse as varieties of African, Asian, and southern Pacific Englishes or English in Cyprus. Interestingly, the book closes with a summary of the main points of an online discussion forum in which the contributors agreed to participate after the original conference. As the editors conclude: the corpus-based approach... has its limitations. Future studies are likely to profit from a methodologically integrated approach that combines corpus-based descriptions with sociolinguistics data on the one hand and psycholinguistic evidence on the other hand' (p. 216).

In addition to the five books just presented, we find three articles dealing with New Englishes at a general level. In his meta-linguistic article Revisiting CEWIGs: A Reflection on the Usage of Collocations of English'' with ' 'World'', ' ' International'' and ' ' Global''' (EnT 27:i[2011] 42-51), Matthew Watterson investigates whether labels for varieties of English and their

semantic associations have changed since Tom McArthur's programmatic article from 2004 (see YWES 85[2006] 89). The author concludes that his study largely confirms McArthur's findings, pointing out that the discussion around labels or definitions of varieties of English and the reflection on the usage of these labels should be taken up at regular intervals. Kingsley Bolton, David Graddol, and Christiane Meierkord aim Towards Developmental World Englishes' (WEn 30 [2011] 459-80), trying to counter the imbalance existing between researchers and educators from developed and developing countries when it comes to publishing facilities and research resources. Finally, in English on the Internet and a Post-Varieties'' Approach to Language' (WEn 30[2011] 496-514) Philip Seargeant and Caroline Tagg challenge a monolithic view of English as well as the three-circle model by examining data from computer-mediated discourse between Thai speakers and suggest a post-varieties approach in order to accommodate the mixed language practices found in the new media.

We will now continue with the survey of individual varieties and will start, as in previous years, with those of the southern hemisphere. CUP has reissued R.M.W. Dixon's impressive monograph on The Languages of Australia, first published in 1980, a book rightly referred to as a masterpiece' and an invaluable resource for anybody doing linguistic research in Australia. Chapter 1 provides the reader with an introduction to the nature, the history of ideas and misconceptions about Australia's indigenous languages and the Australian language family, while chapter 2 discusses tribal organization, naming practices, and the connection between tribal split and language split. Chapter 3 describes the rich tradition of oral literature, song styles, taboo language, secret styles, and mystic languages. Chapter 4 is the one of primary interest for scholars of English as it explains the role of language in Aboriginal society and devotes one section (pp. 69-77) to Aboriginal English and another one to bilingual education (pp. 86-96). The remainder of the book is a detailed linguistic description of Australian Aboriginal languages, surveying the semantic properties of Aboriginal vocabularies (chapter 5), the phonetics and phonologies of Australian languages and phonological change (chapters 6 and 7), classifying the languages on typological grounds (chapter 8) and detailing the grammatical structures of Australian languages (chapters 9 to 13). Thus the book is an indispensable resource for any work on English in Australia, providing all the background knowledge needed to describe language contact in the area and to understand Aboriginal culture and language practices.

In Learning through Standard English: Cognitive Implications for Post-Pidgin/-Creole Speakers' (L&E 22[2011] 261-72), Ian G. Malcolm suggests that Aboriginal English is not only a linguistic but also a conceptual tool for Aboriginals, which should be used to facilitate Australian indigenous communities' access to StE. Similarly, in her article Spaced Out: Intergenerational Changes in the Expression of Spatial Relations by Gurindji People'' (AJL 31[2011] 43-77), Felicity Meakins reports on the expression of spatial relations in Gurindji Kriol, a mixed Australian language, and explains that speakers have not adopted the English egocentric system but maintained a system of fixed bearings. Furthermore, Caroline Jones, Felicity

Meakins, and Heather Buchan look at the phonetics and phonology of Gurindji Kriol by ' Comparing Vowels in Gurindji Kriol and Katherine English: Citation Speech Data' (AJL 31[2011] 305-26) thus filling a gap in the study of this mixed language, whose phonetic system has so far been comparatively underexplored.

Felicity Meakins also presents a monograph on Case Marking in Contact: The Development of Case Morphology in Gurindji Kriol. In the introductory chapter (pp. 1-54), the author gives an overview on previous studies on Gurindji Kriol as well as on the origins and structure of this language, explains the forms and functions of case suffixes, and classifies it as a mixed language; she also outlines the data and research methodology applied in the present study. Chapter 2 (pp. 55-83) gives a diachronic account of the ecological factors contributing to the formation of this mixed language, while chapter 3 (pp. 85-107) explores the diachronic development of the inflectional morphology in language contact situations. Chapter 4 (pp. 109-28) looks at code-switching as the source of case marking in Gurindji Kriol, which is followed by a description of the development from code-switching to a mixed language in chapter 5 (pp. 129-53). The next four chapters present the changes investigated in the development of individual case markers from their Gurindji origins: chapter 6 (pp. 155-73) discusses constructions marking possession, chapter 7 (pp. 175-87) examines locative case markers, chapter 8 (pp. 189-207) focuses on the marking of goals in locomotion events, and chapter 9 (pp. 209-39) on ergative markers. The book closes with chapter 10 (pp. 241-57), a summary of the most important findings. The volume thus offers both a history of the development of case morphology in Gurindji Kriol and an account of the present function of cases in this mixed language. It is a valuable contribution to the study of the synchronic status of a mixed language as well as of the evolution from code-switching practices to the stabilization of these usages forming a separate language and thus interesting for anybody generally interested in language contact phenomena and mixed languages.

With ' Location, Location, Location! Regional Characteristics and National Patterns of Change in the Vowels of Melbourne Adolescents' (AJL 31[2011] 275-303), Rosey Billington contributes to the study of AusE vowels by examining data from male and female adolescents and comparing them to data from Sydney, Adelaide, and New South Wales, thus providing evidence of regional and gender-determined vowel differences and vowel shifting in AusE vowel production. Finally, with her lexical semantic investigation of The Bush'' in Australian English' (AJL 31[2011] 445-71), employing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage approach, Helen Bromhead conclusively demonstrates how this cultural keyword may help to understand the relationships between the settlers and their new natural environment and provides insights into the culture of AusE speakers.

We continue with publications dealing with Asian varieties of English. We would like to draw readers' attention to Lisa Lim and Nikolas Gisborne's edited volume The Typology of Asian Englishes, which is an excellent contribution to the study of Asian varieties of English on typological grounds, taking substrate languages and the linguistic environments of the individual

varieties into account. However, as this collection of articles is a reproduction of the special issue of EWW 30:ii[2009] and thus the six individual articles were already presented in YWES (90[2011] 106-7), it will not be further discussed here.

Mina Tokumoto and Miki Shibata examined Asian Varieties of English: Attitudes towards Pronunciation' (WEn 30[2011] 392-408) through self-assessment in Japan, South Korea, and Malaysia. The results of this survey revealed striking differences between the attitudes towards their own English pronunciations of Malaysian students, on the one hand, and Japanese and South Korean students on the other: while the latter preferred native English pronunciations over their L1-accented English, Malaysians seem to value their own accents of English.

Coming to South Asian Englishes, another monograph on the most important L2 variety of English—in terms of numbers of speakers—has been published this year: Marco Schilk describes Structural Nativization in Indian English Lexicogrammar and presents an insightful corpus-based study at the lexis-grammar interface in IndE. He compares the collocational and verb-complementational profiles of the three ditransitive verbs give', send', and ' offer' in ICE-India and ICE-GB as well as in a newspaper corpus self-compiled on the basis of texts from The Times of India and the periodicals section of the BNC. After a short introduction in chapter 1 outlining the structure of the book, chapter 2 gives an overview of the development from English in India to IndE and places IndE in the framework of Edgar Schneider's Dynamic Model. As Schilk points out, Schneider's model is at times better suited to describe the development of settler-strand dominated varieties, such as Australian English, since there is a certain amount of emphasis on the sociolinguistic factors in the settler-strand' (p. 13), and (as does Schneider in his 2007 monograph) classifies IndE as exhibiting symptoms of Phase 4, i.e. ' Endormative stabilization'. In chapter 3, Schilk lays the theoretical foundations of his investigation, giving evidence for the interdependence of lexis and grammar. First, he introduces the notion of collocation as well as quantitative and phraseological approaches to this linguistic structure. Second, the author concerns himself with the notion of verb-complementation and summarizes the descriptions of this linguistic area, putting special emphasis on di-transitive verbs, as provided in influential reference grammars to the English language (i.e. Randolph Quirk et al. 1985 and Douglas Biber et al. 1999) as well as in cognitive grammar and construction grammar. Having thus described collocations and verb-complementation as different points within a lexis-grammar continuum in more general terms, Schilk next surveys previous research on collocations and verb-complementation in IndE. Chapter 4 introduces in detail the methodology applied in the study; it describes the four corpora and the analysis software used, explains and exemplifies the concepts of collocational and verb-complementational profiles which form the basis of the analyses of the three di-transitive verbs give/send/offer'. In the following three chapters the results of the investigation are presented, each chapter dealing with one of the verbs. These chapters are almost parallel in structure and discuss the similarities as well as the differences between IndE and BrE with regard to

their verb-complementational and collocational profiles. Chapter 8 evaluates and discusses the analysis and methodological tools applied and relates the results of the present study to previous lexico-grammatical descriptions and even proposes a model for the lexico-grammatical nativization of the linguistic encoding in CAUSE-RECEIVE processes. The book is rounded off with a brief summary of the central findings of the study presented and highlighting prospects for further research.

In ' English in Film Songs from India: An Overview' (EnT 27:iii[2011] 21-4) Aysha Iqbal Viswamohan reports on the increasing use of English words in Indian films due to the increasingly urban settings of these films, but also due to the association of the English language with youth and pop culture as well as its general influence in all spheres of Indian culture.

Another South Asian variety of English is investigated by Farhat Jabeen, M. Asim Rai, and Sara Arif, who conducted A Corpus Based Study of Discourse Markers in British and Pakistani Speech' (IJLS 5:iv[2011] 69-86) on the basis of parts of ICE-GB and a self-collected corpus of Pakistani Spoken English, the latter comprising 42,755 words and containing data from PakE channels available on The results of this preliminary study suggest that the eight discourse markers investigated occur more frequently in BrE than in PakE.

Coming to South-East Asian varieties of English, Azirah Hashim and Gerhard Leitner present tentative results from a study on Contact Expressions in Contemporary English (WEn 30[2011] 551-68), comparing the currency of older and more recent loanwords from various local languages and Arabic in Malaysian English. Bao Zhiming explains the grammatical properties and usage patterns of One'' in Singapore English' (in Clements and Gooden, eds., Language Change in Contact Languages, pp. 79-106), proposing an exemplar-based model of re-lexification and bringing together substratist, superstratist, and universalist explanations for language contact phenomena. In Radical Pro Drop and Fusional Pronominal Morphology in Colloquial Singapore English: Reply to Neeleman and Szendroi' (LingI 42[2011] 356-65),Yosuke Sato shows that Colloquial SingE can serve as a good testing ground for the predictions of Radical-Pro-Drop generalizations. Viniti Vaish and Mardiana Roslan present a very interesting case study on '' ' Crossing'' in Singapore' (WEn 30[2011] 317-31) in a friendship network of Malay and Chinese pre-teens in Singapore, showing that hybrid cultural and multi-racial spaces are created bridging racial boundaries and that Singlish rather than StE functions as a language of in-group identity. In their paper Contact-Induced Grammaticalization: Evidence from Bilingual Acquisition' (in Clements and Gooden, eds., pp. 107-35), Stephen Matthews and Virginia Yip investigate the relationship between individual bilingual acquisition and contact-induced grammaticalization on the basis of data from colloquial SingE and the Hong Kong Bilingual Corpus, arguing that bilingual L1 acquisition can be seen as a possible route for substrate influence.

This brings us to East Asia, with Stephan Evans arguing in his paper Hong Kong English and the Professional World' (WEn 30[2011] 293-316) for the recognition of a HKE as a distinct variety and presenting results from a large-scale survey on English-language use among Hong Kong professionals.

As he conclusively shows, Cantonese may be the primary means of intra-ethnic communication, as claimed in previous studies, but these studies seem to have overlooked the fact that English is the unmarked language of written communication in the professional world, while Cantonese is the usual medium of oral communication' (p. 308) and that 'the need for English grows as a professional rises through the ranks'. Similarly, Julie M. Groves also discusses the linguistic status of HKE in her paper Linguistic Schizophrenia'' in Hong Kong' (EnT 27:iv[2011] 33-42) and concludes that on linguistic grounds and with regard to the attitudes of the speakers HKE may be 'present in Hong Kong society in an embryonic form' (p. 40). In a similar vein, in ' English, Chinglish or China English?' (EnT 27:iv[2011] 64-70), Megan Evans considers different forms of English in China: She defines Chinglish as an erroneous form of language that is the result of poor translation' and which exists almost exclusively in writing; Chinese English is considered to be an interlanguage used by Mandarin-speaking English learners in China' showing many features of interference from Mandarin; and finally China English is described as a developing world variety of English' (p. 70) exhibiting unique characteristics at all levels of linguistic description.

Moving on to the African continent, it seems as if the bulk of this year's publications on individual varieties of English in Africa is concerned with West African varieties of English. In their article Standard Nigerian English Phonemes: The Crisis of Modelling and Harmonization' (WEn 30[2011] 533-50), Ubong Ekerete Josiah and Sola Timothy Babatunde survey a range of publications on phonemes in NigE and conclude that this variety of English does not yet have a standard phonology but that a developing, endonormative standard pronunciation for pedagogical purposes may be formulated. Adesina B. Sunday presents an empirical study on Compound Stress in Nigerian English' (EnT 27:iii[2011] 43-51) based on the elicited recordings of fifty informants as well as on radio programmes and recordings of casual conversations. The results of this study suggest that NigE speakers almost consistently apply the Compound Prominence Rule, assigning primary stress to the first node and that in this, NigE seems to be more regular than RP. The Pragmatic Roles of As In'' in Nigerian English Usage' (WEn 30[2011] 200-10) are analysed by Felix Nwabeze Ogoanah, who shows that this discourse marker has acquired additional meanings in NigE, where it is frequently accompanied by a brief pause and thus indicates that the speaker wishes to emphasize the importance and relevance of what is to follow. M.O. Ayeomoni looks at Migration and Culture: Implications on Nigerian Languages' (IJEL 2:ix[2011] 195-9) and reports on the development of new varieties within NigE, such as a Yoruba or a Hausa variety of English, which exhibit strong interference features from the indigenous languages.

Miriam Ayafor analyses the use of non-standard features in two Cameroonian novels, which are used in some Cameroonian secondary schools. She presents her results in Non-Standard Features in English in Anglophone Cameroon New Writing: Dilemmas for the Education System' (EnT 27:iii[2011] 52-61) and points out some of the educational problems arising from the selection of literary texts, which—in addition to localized,

indigenized, and recognized features of CamE—contain many typographic and grammatical errors due to poor proof-reading. Alain Flaubert Takam investigates 'Article Use in Cameroon English and in Non-Standard British English' (WEn 30[2011] 269-79) and claims that some characteristics of present-day CamE article use parallel those of the non-standard dialects spoken by Irish and Scottish missionaries, priests, educators, and administrators, who served in Cameroon until the early 1970s and thus seem to have been very influential in the formation of a distinct Cameroonian variety of English. Aloysius Ngefac looks at the relationship between CamE and CamP in 'Globalising a Local Language and Localising a Global Language: The Case of Kamtok and English in Cameroon' (EnT 27:i[2011] 16-21) and reports on localizing efforts put forth to make English a suitable means of Cameroonian expression whereas CamP, a language which the author believes 'carr[ies] the identity and ecology of Cameroon' (p. 20), is being neglected, both by Cameroonian officials and researchers. The author claims that this is because of an inferiority complex and colonial indoctrination to reject everything local. (More on pidgins below.)

Mohammed A. Albakry and Dominic M. Ofori investigate 'Ghanaian English and Code-Switching in Catholic Churches' (WEn 30[2011] 515-32) in Accra, using participation-observation in ten selected churches in Ghana's capital. They observe an overall trend towards English monolingualism in the church services, particularly in the higher socioeconomic classes, whereas outside church, in informal contexts, code-switching and the use of newly created mixed languages seem to be the norm.

With apparently no publication on East African varieties this year, we now come to publications on South African Englishes. Cathleen O'Grady and Ian Bekker tested the hypothesis that fronting of alveolar consonants is a marked feature of General SAE, especially of the speech of wealthy white young females from the northern suburbs of Johannesburg. To this end, they investigated the speech of five female informants from Johannesburg and five female informants from Cape Town, all of them attending prestigious private schools and belonging to the middle class. Their results, presented in 'Dentalisation as Regional Indicator in General South African English: An Acoustic Analysis of /z/, /d/ and /t/' (SALALS 29[2011] 77-88) suggest that only the production of the fricatives /s/ and /z/ confirms the hypothesis, while the data for the plosives /t/ and /d/ reveal no significant difference between the two groups of informants. In their article 'South African Indian English: A Qualitative Study of Attitudes' (WEn 30[2011] 251-68) Lisa Wiebesiek, Stephanie Rudwick, and Jochen Zeller report on the ambivalent attitudes their young South African Indian informants displayed towards South African Indian English; while acknowledging the existence of this variety and linking it to the South African Indian community and its culture, the informants admitted to using it only reluctantly, although a discrepancy between reported and actual usage could be noted. Maristi Partridge makes 'A Comparison of Lexical Specificity in the Communication Verbs of L1 English and TE Student Writing' (SALALS 29[2011] 135-47) based on data from the Louvain Corpus of Native English Essays and the Tswana Learner English Corpus, and concludes that Setswana English speakers use communication verbs less

frequently and with less lexical specificity than L1 speakers of English. Finally, Silvester Ron Simango presents a study on 'When English Meets isiXhosa in the Clause: An Exploration into the Grammar of Code-Switching' (SALALS 29[2011] 127-34), the results of which suggest that code-switching gives birth to new grammatical structures with, for instance, some English verbal lexemes losing abstractness.

Turning to varieties of English in the Caribbean, we find Elisabeth Bruckmaier and Stephanie Hackert attempting to characterize Bahamian Standard English: A First Approach' (EWW 32[2011] 174-205), presenting orthographic, lexical, and morphosyntactic features of this variety of English which seem to indicate that Bahamian English is one of the emergent standards of English in the region. Based on their analysis of a newspaper corpus of 100,000 words, the authors conclude that Bahamian StE can be described as a unique blend of features showing influence from BrE, AmE, and Bahamian Creole' (p. 201) and 'has acquired a specific local flavor' (p. 202). Similarly, Ulrike Gut looks at the influence of JamC on JamE with regard to Relative Markers in Spoken Standard Jamaican English' (in Hinrichs and Farquharson, eds., pp. 79-103). Analysing data from ICE-JA, she observes that this aspect of JamE syntax seems not to be influenced by JamC but, rather, reflects influences from written StE. Dagmar Deuber also studies creole influence on educated spoken JamE in her paper The Creole Continuum and Individual Agency: Approaches to Stylistic Variation in Jamaica' (in Hinrichs and Farquharson, eds., pp. 133-61). Presenting data from informal types of interaction of ICE-JA and comparing it to more formal types of spoken JamE in the corpus and to data from JamC, she concludes that the creole continuum and individual agency complement each other as approaches to stylistic variation in Jamaican speech' (p. 160). Furthermore, Andrea Sand investigates Language Attitudes and Linguistic Awareness in Jamaican English' (in Hinrichs and Farquharson, eds., pp. 163-87), testing the acceptability of a number of lexical and morphosyntactic characteristics of educated JamE on seventy-two informants from the University of the West Indies, Mona. As her study conclusively shows, not all features are equally acceptable to JamE speakers, and the author is therefore right in claiming that such differences need to be taken into consideration in the codification process of Standard JamE. Michelle C. Brana-Straw explores language behaviour of first generation Barbadians in the British diaspora in her contribution Putting Individuals Back in Contact: Accommodation Strategies by Barbadians in Ipswich' (in Hinrichs and Farquharson, eds., pp. 57-78) and conclusively shows that the speech of Barbadians changes in the process of acquiring Ipswich English and that an interdialect is emerging among Barbadian females which may lead to the formation of a new dialect in subsequent generations (see also Section 9 above).

This takes us to our last section and to this year's publications on Creolistics. The volume on Language Change in Contact Languages, edited by J. Clancy Clements and Shelome Gooden and originally published as a special issue of SLang 33 in 2009, contains studies on morphosyntactic and prosodic phenomena in a number of English-lexified Caribbean creoles. Thus, Claire Lefebvre looks at The Contribution of Relexification, Grammaticalization,

and Reanalysis to Creole Genesis and Development' (pp. 19-52), concluding that 'relexification is the main process in the creation of a creole's lexicon', while grammaticalization is 'less important than has generally [been] assumed' (p. 44) and the contribution of reanalysis needs to be further researched. A cross-linguistic comparison of the prosodic systems of Caribbean creoles is undertaken by Shelome Gooden, Kathy-Ann Drayton, and Mary Beckman in 'Tone Inventories and Tune-Text Alignments: Prosodic Variation in ''Hybrid'' Prosodic Systems' (pp. 137-76), adopting the Autosegmental-Metrical account as a general framework; among other things, the authors advocate that '[i]n investigating the possibilities contact-induced change on the prosodic sys-tem(s) of Creole languages, the analyst must shift from purely diachronic- and corpora-based approaches to theoretically grounded methods that incorporate experimental techniques tested on synchronic data' (p. 172). The papers by Adrienne Bruyn (on grammaticalization in creoles) and Jeff Good (on a unique prosodic feature in Saramaccan) were already discussed in YWES 90[2011] 120-1, so these will not be further discussed here.

Lars Hinrichs and Joseph T. Farquharson's impressive volume on Variation in the Caribbean, already referred to above, sets a framework in which creole studies on the Caribbean and a wide range of sociolinguistic approaches to language variation meet, reconciling discussions on creole continua and the concepts of individual agency and identity. The outcome is a very interesting collection of papers, organized in three parts. The first part looks at 'Variation in Linguistic Systems' and thus, with articles by Donald Winford on the variation between sa and o in Sranan (pp. 13-38), James A. Walker and Jack Sidnell on negation in Bequia (pp. 39-55), and the contributions by Brana-Straw and Gut listed above, investigates variation in morphosyntactic and phonological features in a number of Caribbean English or creole varieties. Part II, 'Variation and Identity', concerns itself with studies on individual language use and the speaker as a locus of language variation. In addition to the papers by Sand and Deuber discussed above, this part of the book contains a study by Janina Feigen on orthographies in Bajan (pp. 107-32). The last part addresses the ways of explaining language variation at the community level. Thus, Valerie Youssef investigates 'The Varilingual Repertoire of Tobagonian Speakers' (pp. 191-205), challenging the accuracy of DeCamp's formulation of the creole continuum with decreolization as the necessary outcome of language contact and language change in the Caribbean. Similarly, Bettina Migge and Isabelle Leglise (pp. 207-29) question the unidirectionality and unidimensionality implied in DeCamp's model when looking at current sociolinguistic data from French Guiana. Dray and Sebba's contribution was discussed in Section 9 above. The last paper in Part II is John Rickford's evaluation of Robert 'LePage's Theoretical and Applied Legacy in Sociolinguistics and Creole Studies' (pp. 251-71), appraising his Acts of Identity model. With this collection of articles by prominent and well-known experts in the field, Hinrichs and Farquharson have managed to publish a volume representing a valuable overview on the state of the art of variation studies in the Caribbean (and in creole studies) as well as to stimulate further research in the area.

An equally impressive and even more voluminous book has been edited by Claire Lefebvre: Creoles, Their Substrates, and Language Typology contains twenty-five articles comparing individual creole languages with their substrate languages. An instructive and comprehensive introductory chapter on ' The Problem of the Typological Classification of Creoles' (pp. 3-33) by the editor herself sets the scene, and a concluding chapter by Bernard Comrie on ' Creoles and Language Typology' (pp. 599-611) points out further perspectives on research and interaction between creole and typological studies. The articles on individual creoles are organized in three sections, according to geographical regions; there is one section on ' Creoles Spoken in Africa and in the Caribbean' (pp. 35-249), another on ' Creoles Spoken in Asia' (pp. 251-409), and finally one on ' Creoles Spoken in the Pacific' (pp. 411-595). However, as Lefebvre points out in her introduction, the creole languages discussed in the present volume are very diverse and do not seem to constitute a typological class as such' (p. 30), but apparently 'generally manifest the typological features of their substrate languages' (p. 31). The question whether this means that creole languages should therefore be classified with their substrate languages remains unanswered, but the concluding chapter by Comrie indicates that with the forthcoming publication of The Atlas of Pidgin and Creole Language Structures (Susanne Michaelis et al.) we might be coming closer to an answer.

Language typology and creole languages is also the topic of a special issue of JPCL (26:i[2011]), edited by Part Bhatt and Tonjes Veenstra. Contrary to Claire Lefebvre's standpoint expressed in the introduction to the book presented in the preceding paragraph, Peter Bakker, Aymeric Daval-Markussen, Mikael Parkvall, and Ingo Plag provide ample evidence for the fact that' Creoles are Typologically Distinct from Non-Creoles' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 5-42), using statistical modelling and computational tools of quantitative typology. Similarly, in their article A Phylogenetic Approach to the Classification of English-Based Atlantic Creoles' (EWW 32[2011] 115-46), Aymeric Daval-Markussen and Peter Bakker illustrate how creole languages can be classified with the help of a method borrowed from biology, i.e. the network-based method of split decomposition for computing phylogenies. Alain Kihm views 'Pidgin-Creoles as a Scattered Sprachbund: Comparing Kriyol and Nubi' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 43-88); he assumes that creole languages constitute a virtual and mental area formed by similar settings in the minds of the individuals who never entered into any physical contact' (p. 81) thus explaining the similarities and the differences between these languages, which he believes constitute neither a typological group nor a genetic family. In ' Creolization and Admixture: Typology, Feature Pools, and Second Language Acquisition' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 89-110), Ingo Plag takes a critical view on the feature-pool approach to creolization, presenting the findings of three case studies and contrasting them to an SLA approach. This is taken up in his article on Pidgins and Creoles' in the volume Studying Processability Theory, edited by Manfred Pienemann and Jorg-U. Keßler (pp. 106-20), in which Plag applies Processability Theory to pidgin and creole language structures and demonstrates that universal SLA processes can account for some structural similarities existing between pidgin and creole languages. Thomas B. Klein

investigates the 'Typology of Creole Phonology: Phoneme Inventories and Syllable Templates' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 155-93) in a representative sample of thirty creole languages and demonstrates that the phonological structure of these languages is of average complexity and thus ranges in the typological middle. 'The Typology of Caribbean Creole Reduplication' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 194-218) is looked at by Silvia Kouwenberg and Darlene LaCharite, who compare morphological reduplication in a sample of seven creole languages of five different lexifiers (Dutch, English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish), their results revealing 'a surprising lack of uniformity', which suggests that 'reduplication, though widespread in creole languages, is unlikely to be a structural property that can be used to define them as a linguistic type' (p. 215).

Reduplication is also focused on in Mercy Ugot's and Afolabi Ogundipe's article 'Reduplication in Nigerian Pidgin: A Versatile Communication Tool?' (PJSS 8[2011] 227-33), illustrating how the lexicon of NigP is creatively enlarged and enriched by this morphological process. 'The Morphology and Compositionality of Particle Verb Constructions in Vincentian Creole' (CanJL 56[2011] 87-107) is described by Paula Prescod, who shows that verbal lexical innovation in Vincentian Creole 'draws heavily on the potential meanings that can be gleaned from the extant English items' (p. 106). 'The Expression of Number in Jamaican Creole' (JPCL 26:ii[2011] 363-85) is discussed by Michele M. Stewart, who argues that 'there is no plural morphology' in JamC and that therefore dem, traditionally referred to as plural morpheme in JamC, 'ought not to be characterized as plural morpheme at all' (p. 382). Creole plural morphology is also the topic of Ekaterina Bobyleva's paper, which looks at 'Variable Plural Marking in Jamaican Patwa and Tok Pisin: A Linguistic Perspective' (CanJL 56[2011] 37-60) and shows that the variability in use of analytic plural marking, i.e. postnominal dem in JamC and pronominal ol in Tok Pisin, and of inflectional plural marking, i.e. the affix -s in both languages or the occurrence of bare nouns without overt plural marking, can be accounted for by the lexical semantics of the nouns. Viveka Velupillai investigates the VP and 'The ''Had VERB'' Construction in Hawai'i Creole English' (GAGL 53:ii[2011] 119-38), a construction that seems to be comparatively rare in this creole language and has previously been regarded as a regional anterior or simple past tense marker. However, the present analysis of spoken and written data of Hawai'i Creole English suggests that had plus the bare form of the lexical verb does not locate a situation in time but specifies the internal temporal constituency of a situation and should therefore be analysed as a marker of aspect. The use of Hawai'i Creole English in the media is reported on in 'Consuming the Consumers: Semiotics of Hawai in Advertisements' (JPCL 26:ii[2011] 247-75) by Mie Hiramoto, who notes that attitudes towards Hawai'i Creole seem to be changing, the language increasingly being seen more positively as a marker of local culture and identity, hence its increasing use in local advertisements, although basilectal forms are still being avoided. In 'The Blackness of ''Broken English'' ' (JLA 21:ii[2011] 230-46), Rudolf P. Gaudio looks at the use of NigP in Nigerian popular music and the 'cultural linkages to Black diasporic communities in the U.S., Jamaica, and the United Kingdom' (p. 242), which are engendered

through the use of this stigmatized language variety. Silvia Kouwenberg's Linguistics in the Caribbean: Empowerment through Creole Language Awareness' (JPCL 26:ii[2011] 387-403) is an impressive account of how the linguistic research on JamC has contributed to the liberation and empowerment of Jamaican students being able to take pride in their native language. Her report on Linguistics in the Caribbean: Between Theory and Practice' (JPCL 26:i[2011] 219-33) gives an overview on past research on creole languages, with a particular focus on JamC. The orthography of JamC in computer-mediated communication is analysed by Lars Hinrichs and Jessica White-Sustaita in ' Global Englishes and the Sociolinguistics of Spelling: A Study of Jamaican Blog and Email Writing' (EWW 32[2011] 46-73), observing differences in the spelling choices of Jamaicans in the diaspora and those living in Jamaica. While the former seem to apply non-standard spellings to disambiguate lexical items with a creole-only function, the latter use non-standard spellings as a symbolic resource to construct the two varieties as distinct from one another' (p. 61); the authors also note gender differences, with women apparently applying non-standard spellings more systematically and with more regard to the context-dependent uses than men. Joseph Nkwain describes politeness strategies in CamP, focusing on Complimenting and Face: A Pragma-Stylistic Analysis of Appraisal Speech Acts in Cameroon Pidgin English' (ALH 43[2011] 60-79), thus enriching the body of literature on this language by a study of an aspect of language use that has not yet received much attention. Samuel Atechi looks at language attitudes and language policy in Cameroon and the question of Pidgin English in Cameroon: To Teach or Not to Teach' (IJLS 5[2011] 17-30), not adding much that is new to this ongoing debate. This also holds for his article on the question Is Cameroon Pidgin Flourishing and Dying?' (EnT 27:iii[2011] 30-34), which is basically a review of previous publications asking (and hardly answering) the very same question.

11. Second Language Acquisition

Since this is a new section in the YWES chapter on language, I will begin with some introductory words. Applied linguistics has been traditionally understood as embracing both second language acquisition (SLA) research and second language teaching (SLT) research. SLA is a discipline that dates back to the 1970s, when research showed that learners construct their own mental grammatical representations (interlanguage grammars) worth investigating in their own right, irrespective of pedagogical concerns. This review therefore focuses on L2 (inter)language as a system and it covers child and adult L2 acquisition, with a focus on L2 English empirical studies. The general term L2 acquisition will be used to refer both to the acquisition of English as a second language (L2) in naturalistic settings and as a foreign language (EFL) in instructed settings. I will exclude other acquisition contexts, for example heritage speakers of English, third language (L3) learners of English, simultaneous child bilingualism, English first language (L1) acquisition and L1 English attrition/loss. In short, the range of studies reviewed here responds

to this question: how is knowledge of the L2 interlanguage acquired (L2 acquisition) and put to use (L2 processing)?

I will first pay attention to L2 English acquisition (and processing) of the different interlanguage grammar competence (broadly understood as phonology, lexicon, semantics, morphosyntax, and the interface between these modules) and interactional competence. Next, some studies on individual learner differences will be reviewed, followed by a series of studies coming from the field of learner corpus research, a relatively new discipline. The review finishes with L2 English studies conducted within alternative approaches to SLA.

To start off with phonology, in 'The Development of Coda Perception in Second Language Phonology: A Variationist Perspective' (SLR 27[2011]433-65), Walcir Cardoso explores L2 phonological perception in L1 Brazilian Portuguese (BP)-L2 English learners, divided according to their proficiency: those without any formal exposure to L2 English, and those with L2 English instruction in a formal setting (beginner, intermediate, and advanced). BP speakers typically perceive English consonantal codas as being followed by an illusory epenthetic [i] vowel as codas are illicit in BP. In a phone identification task, the learners listened to English pseudo-words and then decided on whether each word ended in a consonant or a vowel. The pseudo-words met several criteria: (i) they were either monosyllabic [fip] or disyllabic [ms.'lep]; (ii) the place of articulation of the word-final coda could be labial [p b], coronal [t d], or dorsal [k b]; (iii) the quantity of the preceding vowel was tense/ long [i u a] as in [zit] 'zeet' or lax/short [i u e] as in [vit] 'vit'; (iv) the stress always fell on the coda-bearing, rightmost syllable [ms.'lep]. As previously reported for coda production, coda perception and proficiency are associated (codas are more likely to be perceived in advanced levels), but, unlike production, perception develops faster and then reaches a plateau around intermediate-advanced levels of proficiency, as in child L1 English acquisition. Additionally, codas are perceived better with coronals [t d] and labials [p b] and also when preceded by a lax/short vowel than by a tense/long vowel. No word-size (mono-/bisyllabic) effect was found. Cardoso concludes that 'speech perception precedes production in the development of second language codas' (p. 453).

L2 perception has been traditionally associated with vocabulary size: L2 phonological perception occurs in the early stages when the L2 vocabulary is still small. This is akin to L1 acquisition since children's L1 perception is established before the lexical spurt. Rikke L. Bundgaard-Nielsen, Catherine T. Best, and Michael D. Tyler, however, show that this may not be the case in L2 English: 'Vocabulary Size is Associated with Second-Language Vowel Perception Performance in Adult Learners' (SSLA 33[2011] 433-61). AusE vowel perception was explored in L1 Japanese-L2 English. Learners rated contrasts and completed an L2 vocabulary size test after less than twelve weeks' exposure to L2 English in Australia in a study-abroad programme. Results showed a positive association between vocabulary size and vowel discrimination: learners with larger vocabularies showed more accurate discriminations than those with smaller vocabularies. In a second experiment, vowels perception was compared after four to eight weeks of exposure vs. six

to eight months. A positive association was found again for L2 vocabulary size and vowel perception, independent of length of residence (LoR). It is concluded that vocabulary size is a better predictor for L2 phonological perception than LoR. On the other hand, LoR has been shown to be positively correlated with L2 vowel production in the paper ' The Acquisition of Phonetic Details: Evidence from the Production of English Reduced Vowels by Korean Learners' (SLR 27[2011] 535-57) by Jeong-Im Han, Jong-Bai Hwang, and Tae-Hwan Choi. They tested two groups of L1 Korean-L2 English learners based on LoR: a no-residence abroad (NRA) group vs. a residence abroad (RA) group who, on average, lived in an English-speaking country for thirty-five months. They were compared against an English native control group. The test stimuli contained bisyllabic words where a reduced vowel (schwa [a] or barred-i [i]) can occur either word-initially (assist), word-internally (roses) or word-finally (sofa). Learners were presented with similar words and were required to produce them. The NRA group showed fewer reduction rates than the RA group as they tended to produce each variant of the reduced vowel as a full vowel, probably as a result of either (i) L1 transfer since Korean contains only full (but not reduced) vowels (so learners tend to match the English reduced vowel to the closest Korean full vowel) or (ii) English orthography since learners might have been misled by the English orthographic conventions or by the transliteration system of Korean. For example, word-initial [a] in assist was pronounced as a mid back [a], and word-final schwa in sofa was pronounced as a low-central [a]. By contrast, the RA group behaved in a native-like fashion by showing more temporal reduction of the target vowels than the NRA group. This study shows that 'it is possible for second language (L2) learners to learn the [phonological] statistical properties in L2' (p. 535).

A welcome collection in the field of phonology is a volume edited by Jausz Arabski and Adam Wojtaszek, The Acquisition of L2 Phonology, in the well-known Second Language Acquisition series published by Multilingual Matters. This volume contains theoretical, empirical, and pedagogical papers. Of interest are the studies in Section 1, which deal with L2 English phonological interlanguage. In 'On Phonetic Negative Transfer from Chinese to English' (pp. 16-26), Luo Xiaorong and Gao Jian report that different dialectal varieties of L1 Chinese have differential transfer effects in L2 English, e.g. native Chinese speakers from Tonghua (Jilin province), who articulate the Chinese fricative palatal [J] as [s] in their dialect, are likely to pronounce English [0] as [s]. L1 dialectal differences can thus have systematic effects on L2 phonological attainment. Linda Shokey ('Understanding L2 and the Perspicacious Pole', pp. 26-36) tested four groups: English natives, L1 Greek-L2 English learners studying in England, L1 Polish-L2 English learners studying in England, and L1 Polish-L2 English studying in Poland. Results from a casual-speech comprehension test (elicited via a gating technique) show that Poles (whether they are studying English in England or in Poland) outperform the Greek natives because 'they are looking for overall shapes as well as small details' (p. 28) due to the fact that Poles 'have a mental model of what is easy and what is difficult for the vocal tract to achieve' (p. 34). While suggestive, these claims need future empirical support. In 'Perception of the

English Voice Onset Time Continuum by Polish Learners' (pp. 37-58), Arkadiusz Rojczyk presents evidence from a widely investigated phenomenon in language acquisition studies: the Voice Onset Time (VOT). Two groups of advanced and beginner L1 Polish-L2 English learners were compared against English-speaking natives on VOT perception. Rojczyk manipulated the VOT of the word keef [ki:f] so that the velar stop [k] was released at 10 millisecond (ms) intervals, ranging from +70 ms to 0 ms. In a forced-choice identification task, subjects were required to decide whether they heard either a voiced or unvoiced velar sound. As expected, English natives showed a categorical perception since the +50 ms VOT marks the cut-off point between voiceless to voiced plosive. Advanced learners had a rather late categorization point (between + 20 and + 10 ms). By contrast, beginners did not show a categorical perception peak but rather a decreased perception in voiceless judgements as VOT decreased. This study importantly suggests that native-like categorical VOT in L2 English must develop at near-native proficiency levels. Finally, Marta Nowacka investigates L1 Polish-L2 English learners in 'The Productive and Receptive Acquisition of Consonants and Connected Speech by Polish Students of English' (pp. 59-73). Productive test results reveal that formal phonetic training enhances the learners' pronunciation of some phonemes, but not others (particularly dental fricatives, linking r, and yod-coalescence, which are particularly problematic), whereas receptive test results show successful perception in all phonemes. This attests to a well-known phenomenon in SLA: attainment in perception precedes attainment in production.

As for interlanguage vocabulary, in 'Guessing and Risk Attitude in L2 Vocabulary Tests' (ESLA Yb 11[2011] 53-74), Dieter Thoma investigates lexical categories to ascertain whether more proficient learners guess less and guess more successfully. Results from advanced L1 German-L2 English learners show that vocabulary guesses could not be attributed to general lexical proficiency and risk-taking factors (as previous research had claimed), but to inadequate or lack of semantic word knowledge.

In Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing, Maria Pilar Agustin Llach investigates the relationship between vocabulary acquisition and writing quality in young L1 Spanish-L2 English learners in a primary school EFL context (fourth to sixth grades). Lexical error frequency decreases as proficiency increases, as also attested in previous research. The most common error type is misspelling. She concludes that there is a correlation between lexical error and essay score, which indicates that lexical errors are a good indicator to predict writing quality.

Though lexical diversity has been extensively researched in SLA, researchers have been recently concerned with lexical quality rather than quantity. In this line, Tom Salsbury, Scott A. Crossley, and Danielle S. McNamara's 'Psycholinguistic Word Information in Second Language Oral Discourse' (SLR 27[2011] 343-60) explores depth of word knowledge as measured by psycholinguistic factors such as concreteness, imagability (ability to construct a mental image of the word), meaningfulness (degree of association of a word with other words), and familiarity. A longitudinal study was conducted: six learners of L2 English (with different L1s: Spanish, Japanese, Korean, and Arabic) were interviewed every two weeks over a one-year period.

The researchers analysed the incidence of shared words between the learners' spoken data and the psycholinguistic MRC database. Results reveal that learners' productive vocabularies become more abstract, less dependent on physical, visual, and semantic contexts, and more tightly associated over time (though no significant results were found for familiarity). The authors conclude that 'psycholinguistic properties of words impact the learnability of those words' (p. 357) since more concrete/imagable/meaningful words emerge earlier in L2 development.

The issue of lexical quality and quantity has been also explored with age of onset (AoO) to L2 English as an additional factor. In 'Vocabulary Size and Depth of Word Knowledge in Adult-Onset Second Language Acquisition' (IJAL 21[2011]162-81) Andrea B. Hellman investigated vocabulary size and depth of word knowledge as measured via the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test and a word association test respectively. She compared two groups of learners based on AoO (a highly successful adult-onset L2 English group and a balanced bilingual childhood-onset L2 English group) against a control group of English natives. Results showed that native-like L2 vocabulary size and depth are attainable in those learners who started acquiring their L2 after puberty (i.e. the adult-onset group), which indicates that Critical Period effects for lexicon are not observable in an L2, unlike what has been found for phonology and morphosyntax, suggesting that 'the L2 lexicon, its size and depth, are independent from both L2 phonological and grammatical competence' (p. 177).

The role of L1 influence on the L2 lexicon has been a recurring topic in SLA. In New Trends in Crosslinguistic Influence and Multilingualism Research, edited by Gessica De Angelis and Jean-Marc Dewaele, a series of papers explore the influence of languages other than the L1 on other-known languages (L2 and L3) (see papers by Cheung et al. and Gibson and Hufeisen, below). In this volume, Agnieszka Otwinowska-Kasztelanic explores whether multilinguals (L3 learners) have an advantage over bilinguals (L2 learners) in cognate vocabulary learning in 'Awareness and Affordances: Multilinguals versus Bilinguals and their Perceptions of Cognates' (pp. 1-18). Results from L1 Polish-L2 English learners (some of which had an additional European language as their L3) show that (i) there is a positive correlation between proficiency level and knowledge of cognates between Polish and English, and that (ii) multilinguals are advantaged over bilinguals in noticing the role of lexical similarities (cognates).

We will now turn to morphosyntax. A recurring topic in L2 inflectional morphology is the acquisition of subject-verb (S-V) agreement as realized by the third person singular -s morpheme. In 'The Nature of Variable Sensitivity to Agreement Violations in L2 English' (ESLA Yb 11[2011] 113-37), Masanori Bannai shows that L1 Japanese-L2 English learners are insensitive to agreement violation with omission of -s (* The doctor drink a lot of coffee) but sensitive to overuse violations (*Those two sisters makes a lot of money). In the latter case, sensitivity decreases with an intervening ADV between the S and the V (*The doctor of ten drink... / *The two sisters of ten make...), which is taken as evidence that S-V agreement is independent of the Agree operation in intermediate learners. Nominal plural morphology is also a recurring topic.

Helen Charters, Loan Dao, and Louise Jansen tested its acquisition in a Processability Theory framework in 'Reassessing the Applicability of Processability Theory (PT): The Case of Nominal Plural' (SLR 27[2011] 509-33). PT stipulates that in L2 English plural marking emerges first in lexical contexts (bare nouns) and later in phrasal contexts (numeric expressions), but the authors found the reverse pattern in a cross-sectional study of L1 Vietnamese-L2 English learners. Overall, the learners' stages for plural marking are: (1) absence of overt marking: *book-0, *five book-0; (2) overt marking in numeric expressions: five book-s; (3) overt marking in bare nouns: book-s. The authors conclude that 'numeric contexts are not appropriate for testing PT's principle that feature unification forced by the syntax incurs a higher processing cost than lexical selection' (p. 529) as a result of L1 influence, which implies that some tenets of PT cannot be extended to any (X) language in L1 X-L2 English pairs.

The effects of an intervening element are also explored by Soo-Ok Kewon and Robert Bley-Vroman's 'Acquisition of the Constraints on wanna Contraction by Advanced Second Language Learners: Universal Grammar and Imperfect Knowledge' (SLR 27[2011] 207-28). Contraction of want to to wanna has traditionally been claimed to be constrained by UG since young L1 English children disallow the contraction when the trace (t) of an extracted wh-word intervenes between want and to, as in subject extraction (SE) (Whot do you {want t; to/*wanna} kiss?), but not in object extraction (OE) (Whot do you {want to/wanna} kiss t?). Results from three tasks (elicited production, oral repair, and grammaticality judgement) showed that adult English native speakers' obey the contraction constraint, as predicted. L1 Korean-L2 English advanced learners were also sensitive to the SE/OE constraint, but many tolerated ungrammatical contractions (*Who do you wanna kiss?). The authors conclude that 'learners are indeed sensitive to the syntactic difference, but their knowledge is ''imperfect''' (p. 221). These findings do not fully settle the issue of whether UG constrains the knowledge of poverty-of-the-stimulus syntactic structures in SLA.

In 'Syntactic Creativity in Second Language English: wh-Scope Marking in Japanese-English Interlanguage' (SLR 27[2011] 313-41) Barbara Schulz presents evidence for the well-known fact that L2 learners' interlanguage grammars sometimes exhibit properties that cannot be accounted for by transfer from either their L1 or L2 input. Typologically, there are three ways to form complex wh-questions: (i) the wh- phrase remains in its base position (Tim thinks [Anne should invite who?]), as in Japanese and also English echo questions; (ii) the wh- phrase is overtly displaced to sentence-initial position, as in StE (Whoi does Tim think [ti Anne should invite ti]?); (iii) Wh-scope marking (a.k.a. partial wh-movement), as in the German counterpart for this ungrammatical English sentence (*What does Tim think [whoi Anne should invite ti]?), where the wh-word moves partially to embedded-clause initial position. Results from three tests (elicited production, online and offline acceptability) reveal that the interlanguage grammars of L1 Japanese-L2 English learners tolerate wh-scope marking, which cannot be accounted for by L1 transfer (as Japanese does not have overt wh-movement or wh-scope marking) or by the L2 input, but rather by the learners adopting a

simplification strategy to ease the processing burden due to their limited L2 processing resources.

The idea that learners' processing is somehow limited when compared to that of natives is a controversially classic topic in SLA. This debate gained momentum several years ago after a seminal psycholinguistic paper by Harald Clahsen and Claudia Felser (AppPsycholing 27[2006] 3-42), who postulated the Shallow Structure Hypothesis (SSH). Basically, during online L2 comprehension, the learners' parser constructs shallow representations containing basic argument-predicate relations but lacking detailed syntactic information. Unlike natives, learners heavily rely on lexical and semantic information in L2 processing. Akirai Omaki and Barbara Schultz challenge the SSH in 'Filler-gap Dependencies and Island Constraints in Second-language Sentence Processing' (SSLA 33[2011] 563-88). They tested relative clause island constraints. In native English processing, the parser shows a strong bias for active gap creation (e.g. The {city/book}i that the author wrote regularly about ti was named for an explorer): as soon as the verb is encountered (wrote), the parser immediately creates a gap and analyses the filler (i.e. the extracted constituent the city/the book) as the object of the verb wrote (probably as a strategy to reduce the cost of retaining the filler in memory), instead of waiting until it encounters the missing argument after the preposition (i.e. trace t left at the extraction site) to identify the correct gap position. English natives show a plausibility mismatch effect here: processing time increases when the filler is an implausible object (city) of the verb (wrote) compared to when it is plausible (book). In native English, however, there are domains (called 'islands') that are opaque to filler-gap dependency formation: relative clauses are islands and thus the mismatch effect (city/book) disappears when the critical verb (wrote) is embedded in the relative clause (The {city/book}i that the author [who wrote regularly] saw ti was named for an explorer). Omaki and Schultz show data from advanced L1 Spanish-L2 English learners in four conditions: Non-island implausible (N-I) (The city that the author wrote regularly about was named for an explorer), Non-island plausible (N-P) (The book that the author wrote regularly about was named for an explorer), Island implausible (I-I) (The city that the author who wrote regularly saw was named for an explorer), and Island plausible (I-P) (The book that the author who wrote regularly saw was named for an explorer). Results from an acceptability judgement task and a self-paced reading task clearly show that advanced learners behaved like natives: the plausibility effect occurred only in the non-island conditions since an active-gap creation effect appears (reading time for both groups: N-I > N-P; I-I ^ I-P). Learners thus obey island constraints and are sensitive to plausibility mismatch effects as natives are. These findings are important for SLA theory as they suggest that 'L1 and L2 linguistic systems are not qualitatively different' (p. 585) and 'cast doubt on the view that L2 learners are unable to build abstract structural representations in real-time processing' (p. 585).

The accumulated bulk of research on L2 morphosyntax over the past decades has led some researchers such as Patti Spinner to propose measures or indices of grammatical L2 development/proficiency. In 'Second Language Assessment and Morphosyntactic Development' (SSLA 33[2011] 529-61), she proposes such an index based on previous theoretical research on

processability theory and the emergence of phrase structure grammar. Adult L2 English learners (with different L1 backgrounds) were administered a rapid profile scale. Results indicate that an implicational scale (which contains linguistic properties known to be problematic for L2 learners) can account for learners' grammatical development.

Regarding the grammar-pragmatics interface, Krassimira D. Charkova and Laura J. Halliday investigated 'Second- and Foreign-Language Variation in Tense Backshifting in Indirect Reported Speech' (SSLA 33[2011] 1-32). They tested the effects of two learning environments (second language (SL) vs. foreign language (FL)) on L2 English tense backshifting because it is not entirely clear yet whether there exists 'a clear-cut distinction between the influence of FL and SL environments on the acquisition of grammar and pragmatics' (p. 2). Three groups of learners participated in the study: thirty-five ESL learners with different L1 backgrounds, thirty-seven Bulgarian EFL learners and thirty-eight Bosnian EFL learners, plus an English native control group. The ESL learners were graduate students in an American university while the EFL learners were final-year students in an English department in their respective countries. Learners were shown a context containing actual speech and were then asked to report it in indirect speech. There were contexts for simple present, simple past, and future. Overall, similar to the English natives, the ESL learners' tense backshifting rates were low (also confirmed by the ESL learners' negative correlation between length of residence and backshift score), whereas the EFL learners show very high rates of backshifting, independently of their L1. The authors conclude that the learning environment (SL vs. FL) has an effect on grammar and pragmatics: while SL learners' behaviour is native-like, the EFL learners adhered to the standard backshift rules from textbooks, 'with little consideration for pragmatic and semantic factors that cancel its appropriateness' (p. 24). The acquisition of tense has also been investigated by Anna S.C. Cheung, Stephen Matthews, and Wai Lan Tsang in 'Transfer from L3 German to L2 English in the Domain of Tense/Aspect' (in De Angelis and Dewaele, eds., pp. 53-73). They explored reverse or backward transfer (i.e. transfer from the L3 to the L2), which is an underexplored area in SLA. L2 English learners with L1 Chinese (Cantonese) and L3 German were hypothesized to have a negative influence in the acquisition of the present perfect/past simple contrast in L2 English due to L3 German influence. Results confirmed that L2 English learners who had previously studied German as an L3 tend to produce and accept the use of the present perfect to refer to the past (e.g. * Yesterday, I have celebrated my friend's birthday with his parents) more often than those who had not previously studied German. This paper sheds new light on the role of the L3 on the L2. In the same volume, Martha Gibson and Britta Hufeisen explore the acquisition of prepositions in L2 English in 'Perception of Preposition Errors in Semantically Correct versus Erroneous Contexts by Multilingual Advanced English as a Foreign Language Learners: Measuring Metalinguistic Awareness' (pp. 74-85). They tested a group of L1 German-L2 English multilinguals (i.e. those who had learnt (an) additional language(s) after their L2 English). An association was found between the number of languages learnt and the learners' accuracy in judging prepositional errors involving in,

at, on, and of in L2 English. The authors conclude that 'more FL [foreign language] experience translates into more efficient linguistic abilities at the grammatical level' (p. 83).

Learning an L2 implies learning how to combine a finite set of grammatical elements to generate (unlimited) new expressions. Recently, however, SLA researchers have been interested in the rote-learnt aspects of L2. One such study is Stuart Webb and Eve Kagimoto's 'Learning Collocations: Do the Number of Collocates, Position of the Node Word, and Synonymy Affect Learning?' (AppLing 32[2011] 259-76). They explored the acquisition of collocations in L1 Japanese-L2 English with a minimum of six years of EFL experience. Learners were given sixty frequent collocations (e.g. deep respect, good laugh, thick hair, etc.) taken from the Bank of English, together with their corresponding Japanese gloss. This was followed by an illustrative sentence used as an example, drawn from the BNC and the Bank of English. Only those learners who showed no knowledge of the collocations were given three minutes to learn each collocation. Results showed that productive knowledge of collocations increased as the number of collocates per node word increased, i.e. learners significantly acquired more collocates when the node word was repeated six times (deep {respect/feelings/end/sleep/voice/ divisions}) than three times (good {laugh/reason/behaviour}) or than once (simple truth). The position of the node word did not affect L2 collocation learning. The implication is that it is more effective to acquire a (relatively) large number of collocates for a small number of node words than a small number of collocates for a large number of node words. Obviously, an intervening factor here could be whether the L2 English collocation is equivalent/related/unrelated to the learners' L1. This was tested in Brent Wolter and Henrik Gyllstad's 'Collocational Links in the L2 Mental Lexicon and the Influence of L1 Intralexical Knowledge' (AppLing 32[2011] 430-49), whose results reveal that L1 Swedish-L2 English learners process faster and recognize collocations more easily with translation equivalents in Swedish and English (get ett svar/give an answer), than collocations that were acceptable in English but not in Swedish (*betala ett besok/pay a visit). L1 influence is therefore a key factor in the successful acquisition of L2 collocations.

The role of the interfaces in L2 acquisition is one of the most active research areas in SLA. Basically, several versions of the Interface Hypothesis postulate that L2 learners tend to show persistent deficits and difficulties where the syntax interfaces with language-external cognitive modules such as semantics (syntax-semantic interface) and discourse/information structure (syntax discourse-interface), but not with language-internal modules (lexicon-syntax interface)—see 'Pinning Down the Concept of ''Interface'' in Bilingualism' by Antonella Sorace (LAB 1[2011] 1-33) and papers in that volume. This hypothesis is controversial, though, since ample empirical evidence has demonstrated that interfaced properties are not necessarily problematic—see overviews in Lydia White's 'Second Language Acquisition at the Interfaces' (Lingua 121[2011] 577-90) and Silvina Montrul's 'Multiple Interfaces and Incomplete Acquisition' (Lingua 121[2011] 591-604). This year, there are two notable studies showing that learners can acquire properties at the interfaces in L2 English. In the first study, 'No Time Like the Present: Examining Transfer

at the Interfaces in Second Language Acquisition' (Lingua 121[2011] 670-87) Alison Gabriele and Alonso Canales tested L1 Spanish-Japanese-L2 English learners on the extended range of meanings associated with simple present and present progressive. Overall, learners could successfully integrate contextual information in the interpretation of aspectual forms, which indicates that learners are indeed sensitive to constraints at the syntax-pragmatics interface. The second paper, 'Straight on through to Universal Grammar: Spatial Modifiers in Second Language Acquisition' (SLR 27[2011] 289-311) by David Stringer, Beatrix Burghardt, Hyun-Kyoung Seo, and Yi-Ting Wang shows that 121 learners of L2 English (with differing L1 backgrounds) can attain native-like competence at the syntax-semantics interface with multiple spatial modifiers (e.g. He flies {right up out of the cave/on through to the outside/etc.}). This applies independently of (i) their proficiency level (lower intermediate to advanced), (ii) the presence/absence of the relevant functional categories in their L1, and (iii) the task type (preference and grammaticality judgement tests), (iv) the lack of formal instruction, and (v) the paucity of combinations of multiple modifiers in the L2 English input, which represents a clear case of the poverty of the stimulus. It is argued that such knowledge derives from a functional hierarchy of adpositional modifiers which is constrained by Universal Grammar.

Another recent area of interest in SLA is bilingual education in European CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) classroom settings, as reflected by the publication of many collections on L2 English, such as, for instance, Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning: Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts, edited by Yolanda Ruiz de Zarobe, Juan Manuel Sierra, and Francisco Gallardo del Puerto. Of particular interest here are studies investigating the beneficial effects of CLIL instruction (as opposed to mainstream EFL instruction) on L2 interlanguage competence. In 'Which Language Competencies Benefit from CLIL? An Insight into Applied Linguistics Research' (pp. 129-54), Yolanda Ruiz de Zarobe reviews empirical studies (most of them on L2 English) conducted in European CLIL settings and shows that, while CLIL has a beneficial effects on some L2 linguistic areas (receptive vocabulary, fluency, and some morphological phenomena), other areas are impervious to the alleged benefits of CLIL (syntax, productive vocabulary, writing accuracy, and pronunciation). Teresa Naves's 'How Promising are the Results of Integrating Content and Language for EFL Writing and Overall EFL Proficiency?' (pp. 155-86), presents empirical evidence showing that CLIL learners typically outperform mainstream EFL learners (who were two or three grades ahead) on overall L2 English proficiency (except listening comprehension), which largely supports previous published research. However, there are important methodological limitations in most of these studies, so that 'more refined empirical research is needed to explore the real benefits of CLIL provision' (p. 182).

Though most studies reviewed here deal with grammatical competence in a broad sense, interactional competence (IC) is also addressed. L2 Interactional Competence and Development, edited by Joan Kelly Hall, John Hellermann, and Simona Pekarek Doehler, draws on a variety of L1s and L2, two of which are relevant for this review. Arja Piirainen-Marsh investigates (in 'Enacting

Interactional Competence in Gaming Activities: Coproducing Talk with Virtual Others', pp. 19-44) how adolescent L1 Finnish-L2 English console-operated videogame players attend to the talk produced by the game characters in English. Learners sustain joint attention to the game and are able to build alignments and manage shifts in attention focus. The author concludes that such co-productions are effective for the development of IC. In 'Members' Methods, Members' Competencies: Looking for Evidence of Language Learning in Longitudinal Investigations of Other-initiated Repair' (pp. 147-72), John Hellermann explores interactions between two adult learners of L2 English in a longitudinal study taken over five terms. While lexical/pronunciation/grammatical repairs remain consistent over time, their other-initiated repairs develop over time and only their action-related repairs emerge later. In short, their repair repertoire increases with proficiency.

We next consider learner corpus (LC) research, i.e. the use of corpora in the study of L2 acquisition, which is a relatively new approach in SLA. The number of publications in the field has risen steadily over the past ten years. An example of this increase is Anna Frankenberg-Garcia, Lynne Flowerdew, and Guy Aston's edited volume: New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. The first section is dedicated to corpora and language teaching, and the second deals with corpora as a tool. Only some chapters in the third section are of interest here as they deal with corpora and learner language, i.e. the investigation of interlanguage through corpora. John Osborne's 'Oral Learner Corpora and the Assessment of Fluency in the Common European Framework' (pp. 181-97) uses the parallel PAROLE corpus (L1 French/ Italian-L2 English) to measure overall L2 oral fluency, which is made up of factors such as speech rate, pauses, and length of utterance. Corpus results were then correlated against results from independent raters' perception of the learners' proficiency based on the CEFR scales. While an overall measure of fluency is not an accurate index of learners' proficiency, such a measure correlates with CEFR proficiency scales, which indicate that oral fluency factors in learner corpora can be used as a measure to determine proficiency, though '[t]he measures described above are time-consuming to carry out... [and] are therefore not a practical option for day-to-day oral production' (p. 193). Sylvie de Cock's 'Preferred Patterns of Use of Positive and Negative Evaluative Adjectives in Native and Learner Speech: An ELT Perspective' (pp. 198-212) investigates the syntactic and collocational pattern of evaluative adjectives (e.g. good, great, nice). Results from three LINDSEI subcorpora (L1 French/German/Chinese-L2 English) and the comparable English native LOCNEC corpus indicate that natives prefer the predicative position for 'good' (it was really good) whereas learners favour the attributive position (very good experience). A well-known problem with the written ICLE corpus (and its equivalent spoken LINDSEI corpus) is that there is not an independent and standardized measure of proficiency. Hence, '[i]t does not seem unreasonable to expect similar differences across and within the various LINDSEI components' (p. 210), which could explain why the German speakers (assumed to be in the C1/C2 level) behaved closer to natives than the Chinese speakers (assumed to have a B2 level). Anna-Maria Hatzitheodorou and Marina Mattheoudakis's 'The Impact of Culture on the Use of Stance

Exponents as Persuasive Devices: The Case of GRICLE and English Native Speaker Corpora' (pp. 229-46) compares two written corpora of university student essays: GRICLE (L1 Greek-L2 English) and an equivalent American English native corpus. Results reveal that learners prefer boosters (of course, undoubtedly) and attitude markers (unfortunately) to hedges (perhaps) as a result of (both linguistic and cultural) L1 transfer.

While both of the above studies analyse learner corpora with a pedagogical aim in mind, the SLA literature on interlanguage is full of empirical evidence that instruction does not necessarily lead to acquisition, a fact not always taken into account by corpus researchers. This is indeed shown in a volume edited by Fanny Meunier, Sylvie de Cock, Gaetanelle Gilquin, and Magali Paquot's A Taste for Corpora: In Honour of Sylviane Granger, which is primarily concerned with the rise of learner corpora but it also contains many contributions on pedagogical issues in learner corpora and the role played by other types of corpora (a study from this volume on the relation between learner corpora and ELF corpora is discussed in Section 12 below). Of particular interest here are chapters that have implications for L2 English interlanguage. In 'Frequency, Corpora and Language Learning (pp. 33-62), Geoffrey N. Leech argues that the most frequent structures in a corpus are those that should be given priority in learning and teaching (i.e. the 'more frequent = more important to learn' argument). This argument, however, ignores two well-known SLA facts: (i) that frequency of input does not necessarily equate acquisition, which has been known since the 1970s; (ii) that teaching does not necessarily lead to acquisition, which has been known since the Teachability Hypothesis. Hilde Hasselgard and Stig Johansson's 'Learner Corpora and Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis' (pp. 33-62) discusses the historical development of Contrastive Interlanguage Analysis (CIA) and the Integrated Contrastive Model (ICM) as explored via learner corpora and, in particular, the International Corpus of Learner English (ICLE). This is illustrated by two case studies of the L2 English learners' interlanguage of quite and I would say. In 'Automatic Error Tagging of Spelling Mistakes in Learner Corpora' (pp. 109-26), Paul Rayson and Alistair Baron address a key issue in learner corpus research: error tagging. They argue that, since manual error tagging is time-consuming, a hybrid system (i.e. a combination of manual and automatic tagging as implemented in the Variant Detector (VARD) software) is ideal for learner corpus error tagging. They illustrate this with a 50,000-word corpus sample (L1 Spanish/German/French-L2 English) of spelling mistakes. In 'Learner Knowledge of Phrasal Verbs: A Corpus-Informed Study' (pp. 173-208), Norbert Schmitt and Stephen Redwood show that there is a correlation between learners' (productive and receptive) knowledge of phrasal verbs (PVs) and the frequency of those PVs. This correlation between L2 knowledge and L2 input frequency led the researchers to postulate that learners' knowledge of PVs would benefit from ample exposure to English via the mass media. Once again, it is necessary to remember the caveat stated above, i.e. that high input frequency does not necessarily lead to L2 acquisition.

A third edited volume reflecting the rise of learner corpora is Joybrato Mukherjee and Marianne Hundt's Exploring Second-Language Varieties of

English and Learner Englishes. As the title indicates, the volume encompasses corpus-based studies on institutionalized L2 English and on L2 English varieties in former colonial territories (aka 'New Englishes'), both reflecting non-native varieties of English (see also the discussion in Section 10 above). Of particular interest here are a few chapters dealing with L2 English interlan-guage. Carolin Biewer's 'Modal Auxiliaries in Second Language Varieties of English: A Learner's Perspective' (pp. 7-34), discusses how SLA theory can be applied to 'New English' studies. She illustrates this with a corpus study of modals of obligation and necessity in learner Englishes in Africa, Asia and the South Pacific. A truly seminal paper is Gaetanelle Gilquin and Sylviane Granger's 'From EFL to ESL: Evidence from the International Corpus of Learner English' (pp. 55-78), addressing a long-standing controversial dichotomy in SLA: the differences/similarities between L2 English when acquired in different settings i.e. in an instructed foreign-language setting (EFL) or in a naturalistic setting (ESL). Taking the preposition into as a case in point, the authors analyse four different subcorpora from the ICLE corpus based on the type of quantitative-qualitative exposure received (L1 Spanish/ French/Dutch/Tswana-L2 English) arguing that that the traditional EFL/ESL dichotomy should be seen as a continuum instead of an opposed dichotomic division. In 'Formulaic Sequences in Spoken ENL, ESL and EFL: Focus on the British English, Indian English and Learner English of Advanced German Learners' (pp. 79-100), Sandra Gotz and Marco Schilk analyse formulaic sequences (3-grams) in three different corpora: comprising ENL, ESL (drawn from spoken Indian English) and EFL (drawn from L1 German-L2 English learners). Results show that 3-grams are less frequent in EFL than in ESL and that both non-native speakers (EFL and ESL) overuse them compared to native speakers (ENL). Finally, Michaella Hilbert's 'Interrogative Inversion as a Learner Phenomenon in English Contact Varieties: A Case of Angloversals?' (pp. 125-44), discusses a well-studied phenomenon in the L2 literature: subject-verb inversion in interrogative main and embedded clauses in three varieties of English: IndE, SingE, and IrE. Hilbert argues, against previous quantitative studies, that it is the frequency of certain lexical chunks in interrogative structures that provides the syntactic factor governing the inversion/non-inversion structures in these three varieties.

Apart from the language-internal factors that shape L2 acquisition and processing, researchers have also been interested in language-external factors to determine why learners vary in their L2 attainment patterns. This area of research is known as 'individual differences' and includes factors such as age, learning strategies, affective factors, and intelligence. A recurring topic here is language-learning strategies (LLS), covering more than thirty years of theoretical and empirical research. While most published research on L2 English has used Rebecca Oxford's well-known SILL questionnaire to measure LLS, her new book (Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies) is not yet another book on LLS based on her previous model, but is rather an attempt to provide a new theoretical framework for LLS—the Strategic Self-Regulation Model of Language Learning (S2R). It integrates theoretical constructs from three major traditions of learning theory and research: cognitive, affective, and sociocultural-interactive. The main

advantage of this model is that it is based on tried-and-tested theoretical models from several disciplines (educational and cognitive psychology, self-regulation theory, neuro-biology, social-cognitive theory, sociocultural theory, etc.). The author also includes a useful thirty-four-page appendix with a summary of strategy type illustrating them with real examples as reported by learners. Of particular interest is chapter 8, 'What We Know from L2 Learning Strategy Research' (pp. 241-62), which presents an overview of empirical research on the effects of LLS on the four skills (reading, writing, listening, speaking) and on language (vocabulary, grammar). Crucially, LLS have been shown to be beneficial for L2 vocabulary acquisition, but 'grammar strategies have had very little attention... [and] they have garnered the least interest and concern of any area of L2 learning strategies' (p. 256). This is unfortunate as it means that, after over thirty years of research, we still do not know whether LLS are beneficial in the acquisition of the core properties of interlanguage (i.e. grammar). Obviously, SLA researchers have been interested in investigating some of those strategies in isolation (e.g. transfer) more than as a group of somewhat unrelated cognitive strategies (e.g. transfer, imagery, repetition, deduction) because it makes little sense to group them from a linguistic point of view given that each of them is accounted for by different and unrelated L2 processes and factors. Hence, the divorce from LLS research and L2 interlanguage research in the 1980s is understandable. While this book is a welcome attempt in the field, Oxford acknowledges that the S2R model 'deserves further empirical testing... although most of its component theories and aspects have been widely researched and accepted within educational psychology' (p. 42).

As noted earlier, SLA is a multifaceted discipline that draws on linguistics, cognition, and sociology. While the mainstream SLA research has traditionally taken a linguistic/cognitive approach, the social turn is growing, gaining recognition in the study of L2 English as exemplified in the volume edited by Dwight Atkinson, Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition, who states that 'it appears that no single theoretical perspective will allow us to understand SLA adequately' (p. xi). This book is therefore concerned not so much with presenting new empirical L2 evidence but rather with the theoretical and methodological underpinnings of six non-cognitivist, socially oriented approaches. In 'The Sociocultural Approach to Second Language Acquisition' (pp. 24-47), James P. Lantolff, based on Vygotskyan tenets, explains the SCT-L2 model (sociocultural theory applied to L2 acquisition). Dianne Larsen-Freeman, a self-declared former cognitivist, questions, in 'A Complexity Theory Approach to Second Language Development/Acquisition' (pp. 48-72), the traditional 'assumption that a single factor caused some effect' (p. 49), as it ignores the multivariate and complex processes in SLA. She presents the main tenets of her current thinking on complexity theory arguing that (i) much of L2 variability is due to the learners' social context, (ii) SLA is a complex adaptive system, and (iii) interlanguages are not driven by general innate cognitive processes but rather emerge from frequency of use. In 'An Identity Approach to Second Language Acquisition' (pp. 73-94), Bonny Norton and Carolyn McKinney draw on identity theorizing to propose that learners' identity (at both an individual and a social level) must be taken into

account in SLA. Patricia A. Duff and Steven Talmy's 'Language Socialization Approaches to Second Language Acquisition' (pp. 95-116) discusses the contexts in which the L2 is acquired and used since linguistic, cultural, and communicative competence develops through interaction with others who are more proficient. In 'A Conversation-Analytic Approach to Second Language Acquisition' (pp. 117-42) Gabriele Kasper and Johannes Wagner's adopt a CA framework and focus on how interaction facilitates L2 acquisition, which has been a fruitful area of research over the past twenty years. Dwight Atkinson's contribution, 'A Sociocognitive Approach to Second Language Acquisition' (pp. 143-66), is an attempt to reconcile cognitive and social approaches to SLA, as interlanguage grammars undoubtedly develop as a result of a combination of both cognition and the environment (reminiscent of the old nature/nurture debate). In the final chapter, 'SLA After the Social Turn' (pp. 167-80), Lourdes Ortega reflects on the previous six contributions to determine whether the so-called 'two extremes of the cognitive-alternative polarity' (p. 167) have advanced our knowledge of SLA. She argues that SLA is stronger after the social turn since new insights have been gained (which could not have otherwise been thought of under a purely cognitive approach).

Another edited volume on alternative approaches to SLA is Marjolijn Verspoor, Kees de Bot, and Wander Lowie's A Dynamic Approach to Second Language Acquisition Development: Methods and Techniques. Dynamic System Theory (DST) is a general theory of change and development in complex systems that has been applied in several scientific domains, ranging from biomechanics (e.g. weather forecasting), to cognitive science and human behaviour (e.g. L2 acquisition) (cf. Dianne Larsen-Freeman, above). It includes chapters dealing with specific SLA issues (usage, variability, interaction between variables, developmental modelling) and DST. It also includes a final how-to section, a useful tool for new SLA researchers in this approach.

The cognitivist strand is taken up in Martin Putz and Laura Sicola (eds.), Cognitive Processing in Second Language Acquisition: Inside the Learner's Mind, which includes a collection of eighteen chapters on approaches linking cognition and SLA. The volume is divided into three sections: theoretical foundations, mental processes, and cognitive language pedagogy. The first two sections deal with topics that are relevant to L2 interlanguage processing: construction learning, past tense processing, input and intake, the mental lexicon, formulaic language, and the Noticing Hypothesis.

Kimberly Mulder and Jan H. Hulstijn's 'Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education' (AppLing 32[2011] 475-94) is not an empirical study on L2 interlanguage, but it has important consequences for empirical studies in L2 acquisition that use native speakers as a benchmark. Data from native speakers show that a biological factor (increasing chronological age) affects lexical knowledge positively but lexical fluency negatively; the same holds for a sociocultural factor (high educational and professional level). Such native-speaker variability should be taken into consideration when testing whether L2 learners can attain native-like competence.

As for this year's SLA textbooks, Susan M. Gass and Alison Mackey's The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition presents state-of-the-art chapters on a wide range of perspectives on SLA (sociolinguistics, linguistics, psycholinguistics, and neurolinguistics). Gass and Mackey's handbook includes sections devoted to topics not typically covered in existing similar textbooks, for example sections on skill learning, the setting of learning, and the assessment of L2 knowledge.

The Palgrave Key Concepts series has offered several useful dictionary-entry type introductions to SLA for undergraduates. This year's Key Concepts in Second Language Acquisition by Shawn Loewen and Hayo Reinders presents an updated and practical introduction to over 400 terms and definitions in the discipline, ranging from theoretical concepts to methodological issues, each followed by suggestions for further exploration.

In Routledge's Second Language Acquisition Research series, we find Nan Jiang's Conducting Reaction Time Research in Second Language Studies to be a valuable tool for those interested in applying psycholinguistic reaction time (RT) methods in SLA. This is a welcome addition to the field since this issue has been typically dealt with only in brief sections of existing chapters in the literature; it is here presented in a systematic and thorough format, ranging from theoretical issues to how to design and conduct hands-on RT experiments.

Another monograph on methodological issues in SLA is Applying Priming Methods to L2 Learning, Teaching and Research, edited by Pavel Trofimovich and Kim McDonough. The volume presents a collection of studies that apply priming techniques in L2 comprehension, acquisition, and production of phonology, syntax, and lexicon; it is most useful for those postgraduate students and researchers that are not familiar with this psycholinguistic technique.

In the Cambridge Textbook in Linguistics series, Jurgen M. Meisel's First and Second Language Acquisition: Parallels and Differences addresses one of the puzzling findings in SLA that dates back to the early 1970s: that L1 and L2 acquisition are relatively similar regarding the developmental sequences/stages of acquisition of grammar, but, at the same time, are different in that L1 learners are invariably successful and attain native-like competence whereas L2 learners typically fail to do so. This is the first textbook that systematically compares L1 and L2 acquisition by drawing on data from a variety of languages (including English). Meisel concludes by presenting a tentative theory of language acquisition in several contexts (monolingual L1, bilingual L1, and adult L2 acquisition).

12. English as a Lingua Franca

With the ever-growing need for a shared means of global communication, English is on virtually everyone's lips. Not only is it being used among people from diverse lingua-cultural backgrounds as their lingua franca, this transnational use of English also represents a recurring topic in the public discourse and a much-debated issue in political contexts. The study of English

as a lingua franca (ELF) continues to be a vibrant field of research into the theoretical as well as empirical questions relating to this important facet of our everyday communication.

This review of the year's work in ELF must begin with Barbara Seidlhofer's Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Written by a foremost figure in the field, the book gives an authoritatively comprehensive and detailed account of the main issues that arise in the study of ELF. The book not only provides readers with a clear and critical guide to an understanding of ELF, both as a global phenomenon and as a field of enquiry, but also explores its theoretical and practical implications and so provides impetus and direction for further research. It argues the need to rethink traditional ideas about English which define the language in terms of native speaker norms and to reconceptualize it as a resource for global communication. Early chapters (1-4) review the assumptions and presumptions that inform these traditional ideas and point out that they are inconsistent with the sociolinguistic facts about the variation that is a necessary feature of any natural language whereby its form will get functionally adapted as appropriate to different contexts of use to meet the needs and purposes of different users. As both the cause and consequence of globalization, English has naturally been variably adapted on a massive scale, and the idea that effective communication depends on conformity to the standard language is no longer tenable, if it ever was. Understanding ELF, it is argued, calls for a rethinking of how basic concepts like 'competence' and 'community' have been conventionally defined. Having closely and critically argued the theoretical case for the reconceptualization of 'English' and for the recognition of ELF as a sociolinguistic reality, Seidlhofer then goes on in later chapters (5-6) to provide a description, based on a corpus of naturally occurring spoken interactions (VOICE, the Vienna-Oxford International Corpus of English), of the dynamics of ELF usage, showing how its users draw on the potential inherent in the language to negotiate their meanings and their relationships online. Data from the VOICE corpus are adduced as evidence to show how, as with any natural language, the linguistic forms that ELF users produce are functionally motivated and how any lack of conformity to native speaker norms can be attributed to the fact that these forms relate to communicative situations and purposes other than those of native speaker contexts of use. Chapter 7 then goes on to discuss how this description of English as it is actually used internationally compares and contrasts with proposals that have been made, like Basic English, for prescribing a simpler form of the language for international use. The last chapter considers what pedagogic implications the reconceptualization of English as a lingua franca might have. It argues that the changed role and status of English also call for a critical examination of accepted ideas about English language teaching and learning and explores alternative ways of thinking, which take the reality of ELF into account.

A state-of-the-art update of ELF research is provided by Jennifer Jenkins, Alessia Cogo, and Martin Dewey's survey article 'Review of Developments in Research into English as a Lingua Franca' (LTeach 44[2011] 281-315). The article starts out by tracing the historical origin of the term 'lingua franca' and then goes on to define the meaning of the term in its modern sense, particularly

with regard to English, by illustrating similarities with and differences to related approaches like 'World Englishes'. The authors present a comprehensive overview of ongoing research activities in the field, with special focus on findings about ELF use in the two domains of business and academia, as well as research on the levels of phonology, lexis/lexico-grammar, and pragmatics.

A more extensive account of recent work published in 2011 is Alasdair Archibald, Alessia Cogo, and Jennifer Jenkins's edited volume Latest Trends in ELF Research, which gathers together fifteen papers based on presentations given during the Second International Conference of English as a Lingua Franca held in Southampton in 2009. The volume offers insights into research activities on ELF in diverse linguistic fields and domains of use, ranging from purely conceptual papers to reports on in-depth, ethnographic studies. The book is divided into two parts, one on the latest trends in ELF discourse research and one on recent developments in attitude research and pedagogy. In the introduction, the editors highlight the importance of ELF for current (socio)linguistics and point to indications of the increasing recognition of ELF as a significant field of research. Susanne Ehrenreich, in a theoretically oriented paper at the beginning of the volume ('The Dynamics of English as a Lingua Franca in International Business: A Language Contact Perspective', pp. 11-34), argues for conducting ELF research within the framework of contact linguistics. By means of extracts taken from an interview study with internationally operating business executives, she demonstrates how contact linguistics offers the conceptual and analytic tools required in order to explore and better comprehend ELF as the language of the 'global village' with all its hybridity and inherent diversity.

Will Baker, in 'Culture and Identity through ELF in Asia: Fact or Fiction?' (pp. 35-52), investigates the relation between English as a lingua franca and ethnic culture. The author argues for a relation between language and culture that goes well beyond a 'simplistic language, national culture and national identity correlation' (p. 46). This he demonstrates by data from seven ELF users in an institution of higher education in Thailand. Although the qualitative, ethnographic nature of Baker's study does not allow for wider generalizations, his examples clearly show that participants experience tensions between their multiple cultural identities and perceive themselves as mediators between Thai and other cultures (For a similar discussion see also Baker's article 'Intercultural Awareness: Modelling an Understanding of Cultures in Intercultural Communication through English as a Lingua Franca' (LIC 11[2011] 197-214)). Jagdish Kaur's contribution to the above volume, ' ''Doing Being a Language Expert'': The Case of the ELF Speaker' (pp. 53-76), maintains the focus on Asia by studying fifteen hours of audio-recorded and transcribed speech among (primarily) students at the University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The focus of her analysis is on other-repair as a strategy to negotiate meaning and enhance intersubjectivity in ELF talk-in-interaction. Although, like Baker, she also cautions against overgeneralizing from her findings to other, particularly more competitive, settings, Kaur argues that the interactants' orientation towards language difficulties displayed by speakers in the form of repair in her data adds to the

'growing evidence of the supportive, co-operative and consensual nature of ELF communication' (p. 70).

In 'Intonation as a Pragmatic Resource in ELF Interaction, Revisited' (pp. 77-92), Lucy Pickering and Jason Litzenberg turn to the less studied phenomena of tone choice and pitch movement in ELF. While they acknowledge that far-reaching conclusions cannot be drawn from their exploratory study of two hours of naturally occurring, informal lunchtime conversation among students at a university in the United States, the authors point out that their findings about tone and key choice may nonetheless serve as 'a baseline of comparison for further analyses' (p. 88). One of their most intriguing preliminary findings is that ELF users do not seem to model their intonational behaviour on English native speakers at all times, but seem to develop their own functional repertoires of intonation signals. With Jane Evison and Goodith White's ' "Buy-lahl": The English between the Music on Malaysian Radio Stations: A Case of ELF as a Commodity?' (pp. 93-112), we turn to another facet of ELF use which is not usually a focus of ELF research: the domain of the media. The authors investigate the varieties of English used in advertisements and a celebrity show on the Malaysian radio station MIX fm and find that the mix of different Englishes used in this complex media context demonstrates how the language's 'flexibility and creativity' (p. 109) is exploited for various communicative purposes.

Karolina Kalocsai, in 'The Show of Interpersonal Involvement and the Building of Rapport in an ELF Community of Practice' (pp. 113-38), reports on a longitudinal ethnographic study of the linguistic as well as non-linguistic practices used by Erasmus exchange students at the University of Szeged, Hungary, to build rapport and create a sense of community and belonging over a whole academic year. Out of her multimodal corpus, comprising oral as well as written ELF communication (transcribed interactions, interviews, diary entries, Facebook postings, etc.) she chooses four interactional practices, i.e. collaborative utterance-building, negotiations of miscommunication, repetition, and code-switching, to illustrate how the sense of community created by the students resulted in the formation of a veritable 'community of practice' and the development of a shared repertoire of linguistic and social practices that is typical of these groups. Cornelia Hülmbauer, in 'Old Friends? Cognates in ELF Communication' (pp. 139-61), explores the communicative potential in ELF interaction of words traditionally termed 'cognates'. The author extends the notion of 'cognate' by conceptualizing it as a function of interlocutors' awareness rather than an intrinsic feature of lexical forms that are historically related. Starting from the assumption voiced in some of the literature on multilingualism that elements of all languages a speaker has competence in tend to be co-activated at the same time in multilingual minds (not just the elements of the language used momentarily and the L1), Hülmbauer demonstrates in her examples how shared characteristics of words can contribute to a collective 'resource pool of different plurilingual elements' (p. 153) and thus to communicative success in ELF.

Still in the same volume, Anita Wolfartsberger's 'ELF Business/Business ELF: Form and Function in Simultaneous Speech' (pp. 163-83) takes us again into the professional world. Her focus of analysis lies on the phenomenon of

simultaneous speech as observed in eight hours of naturally occurring, audio-recorded workplace meeting interaction. By discussing several extracts from her data involving simultaneous speech, the author illustrates that the functions that overlaps fulfil cannot always be directly mapped onto their form. Instead, the conventional categorization of co-operative overlaps and competitive interruptions often made in the literature is only possible after a careful case-by-case analysis of each individual instance in its conversational context. According to the author, while ELF research so far has mostly focused on collaborative overlap in meaning negotiation, attention also needs to be paid to how ELF speakers use simultaneous speech in more competitive situations. In ' ''What do we mean by that?'': Metadiscourse in ELF Project Discussions' (pp. 185-201), Hermine Penz sheds light on the various forms and functions of meta-discourse. In her dataset, participants employ meta-discourse to clarify word meanings, concepts, and propositions, to raise explicitness, to aid the structuring and monitoring of discourse, and to build common ground 'both with respect to concrete negotiation activities and with developing a shared discursive culture' (p. 198). Taking into account previous research on meta-discourse in ELF in academic settings, Penz stresses that the functions of meta-discourse may vary according to the different activity types.

Martin Dewey opens the second part of the volume, dealing with the 'Latest Trends in Pedagogy and Attitudes'. His 'Accommodative ELF Talk and Teacher Knowledge' (pp. 205-28) first highlights the significance of accommodation strategies in ELF and then, based on a combination of questionnaires and focus groups, goes on to examine to what extent accommodation strategies—especially convergence practices—are recognized in ELT teacher education and in teachers' minds. Dewey finds that, although teachers grant certain forms deviating from StE norms quite high international intelligibility, they seem to be 'orienting much more towards notions of correctness than communicative effectiveness' (p. 224). Tamah Sherman and Dagmar Sieglova are also interested in attitudes towards ELF, but focus not on teachers but students. Their paper 'Perceptions of ELF in Czech Secondary Schools: National Identity and Social Differentiation' (pp. 229-50) reports on an exploratory study of the attitudes to ELF of forty-two pupils aged between 17 and 19 based on interviews and focus group discussion carried out with students from schools of different types and different locations in the Czech Republic. The main findings suggest that students, particularly from academic high schools, deem native standard language important and connect it to a 'greater likelihood of economic and social success in the future' (p. 244) and that students generally accept the link between nationalities and languages, arguing that non-native speakers of English 'are not ultimately authorized to codify and alter' a language which is not theirs. Also in this second part of the volume, Toshie Mimatsu's 'ELF versus EFL: Teaching English for International Understanding in Japan' (pp. 251-68) is an ethnographic study in Japanese junior and senior high schools involving questionnaire, classroom observation, and interview methodology. The author finds that teachers largely orient to native, especially American, English and avoid the use of other varieties in class for the reason that it 'confuses' students. As Mimatsu observes, this is in contradiction to the national curriculum

authorized by the Ministry of Education, which states explicitly that in school students should be equipped with the tools to comprehend different, also non-native, varieties of English. The author therefore concludes that 'understanding the concept of ELF is one thing and implementing it in teaching practice is another entirely' (p. 264).

We return to Europe with Luciana Pedrazzini and Andrea Nava's 'Researching ELF Identity: A Study with Non-Native English Teachers' (pp. 269-84). In this paper the authors report on a small-scale qualitative study among five English teachers working in Italy, but coming from different L1 backgrounds. Despite their multilingual repertoires and professional use of English, which make them prime candidates to be successful ELF users, 'they are not willing to acknowledge their identity as ELF speakers but cling to their identity as English language teachers who in their professional role aspire to English nativeness' (p. 280). Much in the same vein, Nicos Sifakis and Richard Fay examine teacher's perceptions of the global role of ELF in another country in southern Europe. Their contribution 'Integrating an ELF Pedagogy in a Changing World: The Case of Greek State Schooling' (pp. 285-98) explores the possibility for a paradigm change in ELT among experienced teachers of English participating in a MA TEFL programme at Hellenic Open University. When confronted with four possible paradigms for teaching English—an 'international-intercultural', an 'intranational-multicultural', a traditional 'foreign language/EFL', and an 'exam-oriented' approach—most teachers not surprisingly pick the EFL and exam-oriented options as the ones they consider the most suitable. However, 21 per cent and 16 per cent favouring the 'intranational-multicultural' and the 'international-intercultural' approach respectively can be interpreted as a strong signal that a paradigm change in Greek ELT is possible if teacher education programmes succeed in raising (prospective) teachers' awareness of the role English plays in our ever more globalizing world. The final contribution to this large and interesting volume, 'Writing English as a Lingua Franca' (pp. 299-311) by Bruce Horner, is concerned with writing and writing instructions in tertiary education as dealt with in US composition studies. In sketching an ELF writing pedagogy, the author points out how ELF discourse research and the practices described therein, despite traditionally focusing on oral and not written communication, could nevertheless benefit US composition studies and help to overcome the 'English-only ideology' (p. 302) that currently prevails in this field.

Apart from work that focuses specifically on ELF as such, there are a number of publications which are concerned with the related and more general question as to how language, both its use and our conceptualizations of it, is shaped by globalizing forces. The relevance of this question to ELF as the most prominent form of global communication is evident and has indeed been made explicit in the ELF literature. Jan Blommaert and Ben Rampton's 'Language and Superdiversity: A Position Paper' (WPULL 70[2011] 1-22) provides an introduction to the notion of 'superdiversity' with regard to contemporary multilingual contexts, and highlights its implications for our conceptualizations of language, speaker communities, and communicative practices. It points to the 'empirical challenges to traditional ideas about the achievability of mutual understanding and the centrality of shared convention'

(p. 8) that are brought about by enhanced diversification. The authors especially elaborate on the interrelation between speaker mobility and fluidity of language, introducing key terms such as 'entextualization', 'transposition', and 'recontextualization' (p. 10). In 'Repertoires Revisited: ''Knowing Language'' in Superdiversity' (WPULL 67[2011] 1-26), a related paper from the same series, Jan Blommaert and Ad Backus key in at the level of the individual speaker and his or her resources, thus moving 'away from communities towards subjectivities' (p. 1). In the first part the paper re-examines the concepts of 'repertoire' and 'language knowledge' with reference to the notion of superdiversity. It then introduces different modes of learning as connected to different degrees of language knowledge, essentially linking them to speaker biographies. The paper thus provides us with a differentiated and dynamic notion of 'repertoire', which corresponds with how language is represented in Seidlhofer's Understanding English as a Lingua Franca (reviewed above) and other ELF literature. Here, too, the point is made that the answer to any question about somebody's English depends on what kind of English one is talking about.

Another aspect of linguistic diversity is dealt with in Philippe van Parijs's Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World, namely European multilin-gualism and current strategies for coping with it in both fair and effective ways. The book centres on the lingua franca concept, more specifically on ELF, and its value for European transnational communication, without, however, making any reference to current ELF work in the strict sense. Van Parijs essentially proposes a pragmatic, rather than an ideological, approach towards English in Europe and the world. In the first part of the book three alternatives to ELF are discussed in some detail: translation software, Esperanto, and lingua franca pluralism. The author then elaborates on the lingua franca question in connection to (a) fair co-operation, involving considerations of costs and benefits, (b) equal opportunity, based on the notion of language as a human right, (c) parity of esteem, focusing on the symbolic and instrumental functions of language, (d) linguistic territoriality and the related language policies, and (e) different levels of diversity. Throughout the book, language is approached from an eco-political perspective; it is considered a 'public good'. The author argues strongly in favour of only one lingua franca for Europe, since, in his view, this will most effectively contribute towards international co-operation and integration. He concludes with a number of 'yes, it is unfair... but' (p. 208) claims, arguing that various dimensions of injustice will eventually level out with the growing spread of English.

Diverse aspects of globalization, involving socio-political as well as linguistic issues, are also discussed in Globalisation, Europeanization and Other Transnational Phenomena: Description, Analyses and Generalizations, an extensive conference volume edited by Jolan Roka. The role and characteristics of English in this framework are taken up to some extent in only three contributions, however. While Laszlo Maracz's 'Hybridity as a Characteristic Feature of Globalization' (pp. 14-30) dedicates a section to ELF as a symptomatic phenomenon in the framework of globalization which exhibits hybridity, Nora Schleicher's 'Global English' (pp. 425-37) is concerned with

different theoretical approaches to the international status and use of English. Despite its title, however, Schleicher's article then goes on to discuss the influence of globalization on local languages, with the example of English borrowings in Hungarian. An article more directly involving ELF research is Cornelia Hülmbauer's 'Speaking Globally: Beyond Boundaries with English as a Lingua Franca' (pp. 407-24), which highlights different dimensions of linguistic border-crossing in and through ELF. Along with accommodation as a readjusting of formal boundaries, the article also discusses code-switching in ELF as language use across boundaries. Hülmbauer thereby also takes up the issue of hybridization but argues that this concept does not aptly capture the complexity of ELF. Pointing to forms which are not clearly assignable to one single source language, she rather proposes to view the use of ELF as integrated pluri-lingual practices that move beyond boundaries. This is also reflected in Hülmbauer's 'English as a Lingua Franca: A Mode and its Implications' (in J. Normann Jargensen, ed., A Toolkit for Transnational Communication in Europe, pp. 43-68), which positions ELF vis-a-vis other modes of intercultural communication in Europe like, for example, receptive multilingualism/lingua receptiva. This article points to a number of conceptual aspects emerging in ELF theory: the interplay of situatedness and situationality and the conceptual friction between the English base and its lingua franca realization, as well as the interrelated dimensions of realness, virtuality, and pluri-linguality. The author comes to the conclusion that ELF does not fall into fixed categories, but needs to be treated as a dynamic, emergent type of communication. In a similar vein, Philip Seargeant and Caroline Tagg's 'English on the Internet and a ''Post-Varieties'' Approach to Language' (WEn 30[2011] 496-514) critically examines the traditional notion of 'variety' in the light of the English used in computer-mediated discourse (CMD). Even though the empirical focus of the article is not on prototypical ELF data but on pluri-lingual communication involving English through a social networking site among Thai participants, the arguments raised seem of relevance to lingua franca research in general. It is illustrated how CMD is a mixture of various linguistic resources which undergo adaptation and appropriation processes during ongoing interactions and thus cannot be categorized according to established theory.

More critical issues emerging with English as the currently most crucial European lingua franca are dealt with in English in Europe Today: Sociocultural and Educational Perspectives, a Festschrift dedicated to Karlfried Knapp edited by Annick De Houwer and Antje Wilton. The editors' introductory chapter, 'The Dynamics of English in a Multilingual Europe' (pp. 1-14), complements a description of the present linguistic situation in Europe today with a summary of historical developments. It then highlights some examples of sociocultural and educational contexts in which English plays a role these days and points to a discrepancy between ELF practices and the deference to native speaker standards which is still evident in the educational sector. Another point of tension is elaborated on in Barbara Seidlhofer's 'Conceptualising ''English'' for a Multilingual Europe' (pp. 132-46), namely the current approaches to linguistic diversity in this context. The article points to Europe's linguistic dilemma: the multiplicity of

languages creates the need for a common means of communication, a lingua franca, but at the same time this lingua franca is perceived as a threat to this very multiplicity. Seidlhofer detects currently prevailing language ideologies, most prominently the association of languages with nation-states, and traces them back to their historical roots. She explains how the phenomenon of ELF necessitates a dissociation of language and primary lingua-cultures and stresses the importance of a new conceptualization of 'English' within the European multilingual framework with recognition given to its particular communicative role and purpose. Kurt Kohn's 'English as a Lingua Franca and the Standard English Misunderstanding' (pp. 71-94), too, calls for reconceptualization, proposing a social constructivist and developmental approach towards ELF. Kohn argues for a 'My English' condition centring on the individual speaker's resources and internal standards, which also implies a developmental aspect that does not rigidly distinguish between language user and learner. The article questions the use of 'the native speaker' as a benchmark and stresses the non-native co-ownership of the language, which allows for and indeed necessitates linguistic initiative and co-creation. Manifestations of this individual initiative are discussed in Annelie Knapp's 'When Comprehension is Crucial: Using English as a Medium of Instruction at a German University' (pp. 51-70). It reports on a case study of ELF in university courses taking into account the meta-perceptions of students with regard to English-medium instruction (EMI) as well as their actual practices. On a theoretical level, the author explains how instructional discourse, lingua franca discourse, and EMI are interconnected in university contexts.

Another book concerned with the European language situation is Sprachraum Europa — Alles Englisch oder... ? ('The Linguistic Area of Europe — All English, Is It?'), a volume based on the annual meeting of the German Association of Applied Linguistics (GAL) edited by Ines-Andrea Busch-Lauer and Sabine Fiedler. The articles in this book focus on specific linguistic sub-phenomena involved in the multilingual situation in Europe. Among the contributions dedicated to English is Christiane Meierkord's 'Englisch in Schwedens Sprachokologien—universitäre und alltägliche Kontexte' ('English in Sweden's Language Ecologies — University and Everyday-Life Contexts', pp. 59-76; with English abstract), which reports on the status of English in Sweden. The author conducted semi-structured interviews with native Swedes as well as migrants and argues that due to the country's high percentage of migrant population, ELF plays a crucial role not only in elite but also in folk domains. Susanne Ehrenreich's 'Doing Business in Europe and Beyond—Englisch als Lingua Franca und andere Sprachen in der internationalen Wirtschaft' ('English as a Lingua Franca and Other Languages in International Business', pp. 89-106; with English abstract) investigates ELF in business contexts against the backdrop of contact linguistic theory (see also her contribution in Archibald et al., eds., pp. 11-34, discussed above). Joachim Grzega's 'Putting English for Global Communication into Teaching Practice: The Concept of Basic Global English (BGE) at Primary School' (pp. 107-42) introduces an endo-normative, variable approach that teaches basic knowledge for ELF communication while leaving room for learner autonomy.

As has been pointed out repeatedly, answering some of the conceptual questions emerging from globalized communication and lingua franca practices in particular requires a sound descriptive-linguistic basis. While certainly not all descriptive work on ELF is based on corpus linguistic methods, corpora do provide an important resource for research in this field. Given that ELF corpora by their nature mostly represent the linguistic output of L2 speakers of English, the question arises as to how far these corpora are different from learner corpora. This is the question addressed in Anna Mauranen's 'Learners and Users—Who Do We Want Corpus Data from?' (in Meunier et al., eds., A Taste for Corpora, pp. 155-72). The author begins by distilling the essential differences that exist between language learners in a classroom setting and L2 language users. Despite the fact that these might be the very same people, it is essential, Mauranen argues, to study contexts of natural language use separately from language-learning contexts, so different considerations will guide the compilation of L2 learner and L2 user, or lingua franca, corpora. While there can be 'fruitful cross-fertilization between the two kinds of corpora' (p. 165), especially as far as the investigation of cognitive processes in L2 use are concerned, there are, Mauranen concludes, also 'principled differences... and good reasons for keeping them separate' (p. 169). Apart from these conceptual considerations that guide the compilation of a lingua franca corpus, there are also many practical and technical challenges involved in any corpus-building project. This is especially so with a corpus of ELF data, particularly if, as is currently uniquely the case with VOICE, such a corpus is to be publicly accessible through an online interface. These challenges, and how they were overcome by the VOICE project team, are meticulously reviewed in Stefan Majewski's MA thesis Design and Implementation of a Research Infrastructure for a Corpus of Spoken ELF. This text gives the reader a detailed behind-the-scenes view of the linguistic and methodological decisions that guided the compilation of VOICE, and the technology that powers its interface.

This corpus continues to provide an essential resource for ELF research, as in Marie-Luise Pitzl's Ph.D. dissertation, Creativity in English as a Lingua Franca: Idiom and Metaphor. A discussion of the challenges involved in a corpus approach to ELF prepares the ground for a close empirical investigation of creative idioms as they occur in VOICE, the forms they can take, their underlying processes, and the functions they fulfil. This investigation involves a reappraisal of existing perspectives on creativity and its redefinition of the concept in the light of the author's findings. The special relationship between idiomaticity and metaphoricity in lingua franca talk is particularly highlighted, and Pitzl argues that, contrary to the usual process in native-speaker communities by which a metaphor eventually develops into an idiom, ELF communication tends to first draw on idioms which then undergo an online process of re-metaphorization. The author shows how metaphoricity can go beyond the idiomatic as metaphorical images are expanded and borrowed by ELF users.

While Pitzl's is the first extensive study of VOICE corpus data in a qualitative-functional framework, the first study with a quantitative element based on this corpus is Nora Dorn's Exploring -ing: The Progressive in English

as a Lingua Franca. The study, a synopsis of which is presented in 'The ''-ing Thing'': Exploring the Progressive in ELF' (Views 20:ii[2011] 3-26), presents an analysis of the progressive aspect in VOICE, using the ICE-GB corpus for comparison with (Standard) BrE. The first section of the analysis presents statistics on the overall frequency of progressive forms in the respective corpora. The later part builds on this initial formal analysis and considers the functions the progressive fulfils in ELF. While both canonical and non-canonical uses of the progressive are identified in the data, Dorn suggests that all these diverse instances can be explained by recourse to an underlying semantic quality the progressive seems to possess in English, which relates to an 'internal positioning' (p. 76) of the speaker with regard to the situation. In this, the author draws on Henry Widdowson's concept of the 'virtual language', which describes the creative potential of linguistic structures to be used both in commonly and frequently attested guises and in novel, yet still communicatively successful, ways. In contrast, Yvonne Droschel's Lingua Franca English: The Role of Simplification and Transfer, which is based on the author's Ph.D. dissertation, represents a rather traditional approach to ELF. While its theoretical part also deals with the global spread of English, the empirical part of this book is solely devoted to the use of English in Switzerland. Droschel proposes a terminological distinction between ELF and LFE (Lingua Franca English) with the latter taken to refer to the lingua franca as 'an additionally acquired form of English even for native speakers' (p. 41). Adopting a World Englishes framework, she approaches LFE from a norm-oriented varieties perspective and analyses her corpus data according to different lexico-grammatical and syntactic characteristics based on a distinction between 'native-like' and 'non-native' use of these features. Droschel's aim is to identify potentially systematic features of English in Switzerland and to eventually answer the question whether this English qualifies as a distinct variety or not. Since the analysis yields no significant evidence of variety formation, the author is led to conclude that English in Switzerland cannot be characterized as a lingua franca but rather as 'a conglomerate of learner varieties of English which are heavily conditioned by processes of L1 transfer and simplification' (p. 331).

Another study which describes the formal characteristics of ELF is Ronald Boyle's 'Patterns of Change in English as a Lingua Franca in the UAE' (IJAL 21[2011] 143-61). His article presents a qualitative study of English in the United Arab Emirates, where it serves as the 'acrolectal lingua franca' (p. 144) for much of business and higher education, and for a large expatriate community more generally. While his findings on innovative usage with regard to non-finite complement clauses, the transitivity of verbs, and the countability of nouns are in accord with previous research in the field, the study provides new insights in that it traces all these innovations previously observed in spoken language in a register that is both written and public, viz. newspaper articles in the local Gulf News. As evidenced by Boyle's article, empirical research on ELF is by no means restricted to European contexts. Jagdish Kaur's 'Intercultural Communication in English as a Lingua Franca: Some Sources of Misunderstanding' (IPrag 8[2011] 93-116) also refers to a non-European environment. The investigation is based on ELF conversations

among international graduate students at an Asian university. After analysing fifteen hours of ELF interaction, Kaur relates none of the misunderstandings she detected to the participants' different cultural backgrounds. She stresses that the features that seem to disrupt ELF understanding, such as a lack of coherence or ambiguity, 'have also been observed to contribute to misunderstanding in communication between people of similar lingua-cultural backgrounds' (p. 112). In another article based on the same dataset, 'Raising Explicitness Through Self-Repair in English as a Lingua Franca' (JPrag 43[2011] 2704-15), Kaur examines the interactions with regard to the types and purposes of self-repair strategies employed. Using CA as analytical framework, Kaur demonstrates that speakers in her data do not only make use of self-repair in order to correct language or factual mistakes, but very skilfully employ self-repair as a device to move from more general to more specific and from rather vague to clearer expressions. Focusing on a US American context, Yumi Matsumoto's 'Successful ELF Communications and Implications for ELT: Sequential Analysis of ELF Pronunciation Negotiation Strategies' (MLJ 95[2011] 97-114) provides an analysis of sequences of repairs of pronunciation as negotiated by six international graduate students at a public university in the United States. The video-data is triangulated with semi-structured, informal interviews. The results of Matsumoto's study indicate that different dyads used different negotiation strategies, though the author does not correlate types of repair with triggers of miscommunication.

The range of ELF data discussed here indicates its spread across the globe. However, its spread is not only geographical: ELF use also extends across different domains of use. These range from casual contexts like international student communities, as they are discussed in the preceding articles, to institutional and business environments. In his 'Conditions for Success in Lingua Franca Interaction' (Asp 60[2011] 65-79), Philip Shaw sketches a number of such typical situations of lingua franca use and distinguishes between 'high-stakes, low-commonality' interactions, for example between welfare officials and refugees, and 'low-stakes, high-communality' interactions, for example between exchange students. Shaw also categorizes ELF communication according to interactional purpose and discusses what he calls 'high-stakes transactional' interactions in the fields of business and academia as well as 'high-stakes social' interactions in similar contexts. He concludes with a number of individual and social factors which he believes contribute towards success in lingua franca interactions.

The domain of business has been recognized an important context of lingua franca use since the early days of ELF study. With the subdiscipline of Business English as a Lingua Franca (BELF) research, it has received ever-growing attention in recent years. A special focus on BELF can indeed be found in a number of this year's articles (cf. also the studies mentioned in Jenkins et al., LTeach 44[2011] 281-315, discussed above). Gibson Ferguson's 'English as a Lingua Franca of Business: Issues and Challenges' (in Carmen Perez-Llantada and Maida Watson, eds., Specialised Languages in the Global Village: A Multi-Perspective Approach, pp. 9-26) provides a short summary of BELF research to date and connects it to the framework of language teaching. It addresses some conceptual issues revolving around the variety question and

concludes with pedagogical implications. In their article 'Professional Communication in a Global Business Context: The Notion of Global Communicative Competence' (IEEETrans 54[2011] 244-62), Leena Louhiala-Salminen and Anne Kankaanranta revisit the concept of 'communicative competence' as conceptualized by language acquisition and communication research. They draw attention to the fact that, despite being repeatedly discussed in the literature, communicative competence has never before been investigated with regard to the particular language that is mostly used in international business communication today, i.e. ELF. They hence devise a tripartite model of 'global communicative competence' (GCC) that acknowledges the role of ELF in international business and—in addition to multicultural competence and business know-how—incorporates BELF competence as a third and vital factor into the notion of GCC. Franca Poppi's 'Companies' Websites as Vehicles for Expressing Corporate Identity: A Case Study on the Use of English as a Lingua Franca' (in Giuliana Garzone and Maurizio Gotti, eds., Discourse, Communication and the Enterprise: Genres and Trends, pp. 131-48) mainly investigates lexico-grammatical features and rhetorical strategies used on the corporate websites of six European companies from the energy sector. Poppi's prime interest is in the companies' self-presentation as displayed in the 'About Us' sections on their homepages. Testing her web-corpus of 100,000 tokens against a provisional list of potential ELF features identified by previous research, her paper shows that ELF on corporate websites is a hybrid form of language use, bearing traces of the multiple communicative purposes it aims to fulfil and the various influences it is subjected to. Miguel Ruiz-Garrido and Ana Ma Saorin-Iborra's 'Complaining in the Business World: Email Interaction' (in Perez-Llantada and Watson, eds., pp. 103-26) and Lieve Vangehuchten, Willy van Parys, and Alison Noble's 'Communication for Maritime Purposes: A Survey-Based Study' (in Perez-Llantada and Watson, eds., pp. 127-54) are both concerned with special domains of ELF use but without reference to the ELF literature.

What was characterized as a growth area in last year's review, viz. the study of ELF in higher education and academia, continues to be a productive line of research. A good overview is provided by Anna Mauranen in 'English as the Lingua Franca of the Academic World' (in Diane Belcher, Ann M. Johns, and Brian Paltrige, eds., New Directions in English for Specific Purposes Research, pp. 94-117), which opens by providing a sketch of the ELFA (English as a Lingua Franca in Academic Settings) project and the central tenets in the compilation of its eponymous corpus. Next to vignettes of recent studies and findings on English as an academic lingua franca, the article provides an abstract of research currently under way in the field, with a special focus on Scandinavia.

A significant contribution to the study of English as an academic lingua franca this year was the special issue of JPrag (43:iv[2011]) on 'The Pragmatics of English as a Lingua Franca in the International University' guest-edited by Beyza Bjorkman. In it, authors deliberate both the socio-political and linguistic implications of the use of English in academia and higher education. Jennifer Jenkins's 'Accommodating (to) ELF in the International University' (JPrag 43[2011] 926-36) provides a tour d'horizon through the most important

conceptual foundations and empirical findings of ELF research in the last decade, before going on to give an account of the current state of affairs in the use of English as an academic lingua franca in the 'international' university. Jenkins argues that the label 'international' is often paradoxically applied to programmes and policies which in fact merely impose national and native-speaker-centred academic norms on its student body and faculty. She suggests that what is needed instead are policies that harness the true potential of internationalism by accommodating the linguistic practices of the international members of these institutions. This would, in turn, necessarily impose a greater onus on native speakers to become proficient international users of English. Hartmund Haberland, in 'Ownership and Maintenance of a Language in Transnational Use: Should We Leave Our Lingua Franca Alone?' (JPrag 43[2011] 937-49), takes a rather different line and argues that sociolinguistic changes and attendant scholarship have essentially settled the 'ownership debate' on English, in that it is now generally accepted that native speakers of the language can no longer be considered the only authority to defer to in questions regarding its use. This does not, however, resolve the 'maintenance debate', which would be the question to what extent the language should be codified and its use regulated by gatekeepers at all, and if so by whom. The author goes on to debate this question from the point of view of public goods theory, and argues that it is ultimately in the common interest to maintain certain norms in order to 'ensure the recognizability of messages' and 'to minimize repair work on the side of the receiver' (p. 947). What needs to be stressed when it comes to ELF, the author concludes, is merely that gatekeeping functions should no longer be the exclusive reserve of native speakers of English.

Beyza Bjorkman's 'Pragmatic Strategies in English as an Academic Lingua Franca: Ways of Achieving Communicative Effectiveness' (JPrag 43[2011] 950-64) shifts the focus to empirical work on English as an academic lingua franca. In her contribution, the author compares two datasets from the context of a Swedish technical university at which English is the medium of instruction, consisting of four lectures and four student work-group sessions respectively. The two datasets thus differ in terms of being monologic (lecture) versus dialogic (student group). Bjorkman finds that 'lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions' (p. 950). A particular communicative strategy employed in an English-medium university seminar course in Finland is investigated in Niina Hynninen's 'The Practice of ''Mediation'' in English as a Lingua Franca Interaction' (JPrag 43[2011] 965-77). Hynninen defines mediation as 'a form of speaking for another where a co-participant starts rephrasing another participant's turn that was addressed to a third party' (p. 965). The author speculates that ELF speakers employ mediation 'as a co-operative strategy that increases communicative explicitness' (p. 976), which facilitates mutual understanding, organizes discourse, and functions as a socializing practice. Annelie Knapp's 'Using English as a Lingua Franca for (Mis-)Managing Conflict in an International University Context: An Example from a Course in Engineering' (JPrag 43[2011] 978-90) focuses on the intercultural issues involved in ELF interactions within higher education. The

author stresses that problems of understanding in her data (from a German university) tend not to be connected to lexico-grammar or phonology but to the pragmatic level. In relation to this, she poses the question on which grounds pragmatic appropriateness can be determined in ELF contexts. Concluding the special issue, Ragnhild Ljosland, in 'English as an Academic Lingua Franca: Language Policies and Multilingual Practices in a Norwegian University' (JPrag 43[2011] 991-1004), returns to questions of the socio-politics of English in academia and higher education, making reference to empirical data. The author reports on an in-depth qualitative case study of a small department at a Norwegian university as it undergoes a switch in the medium of instruction from Norwegian to English. She embeds her analysis within the wider discourse on English as the medium of instruction in higher education by reference to three important concepts within sociolinguistics: code switching, linguistic capital, and imagined communities. The author thus demonstrates how decisions by individual actors must be viewed against the backdrop of more overarching sociolinguistic and social processes, and are thus ultimately and necessarily political in nature.

Work on English as the lingua franca of academia and higher education is by no means confined to the special issue of JPrag, however. Based on the empirical work carried out for her Ph.D. dissertation (discussed in last year's review), Beyza Bjorkman, in 'English as a Lingua Franca in Higher Education: Implications for EAP' (IbericaR 22[2011] 79-100) and 'Investigating English as a Lingua Franca in Applied Science Education: Aims, Methods and Norms' (in Margrethe Petersen and Jan Engberg, eds., Current Trends in LSP Research: Aims and Methods, pp. 163-86), introduces these issues to a wider audience. In 'English as an International Language of Scientific Publication: A Study of Attitudes' (WEn 30[2011] 41-59) Gibson Ferguson, Carmen Perez-Llantada, and Ramon Plo move the spotlight from ELF's role as a language of instruction in higher education to its—undoubtedly related but nevertheless distinct—role as the medium of much of contemporary scientific discourse, especially as far as prestigious journals are concerned. Providing supporting data from a study conducted at the University of Zaragoza, they problematize black and white notions of linguistic (dis-)advantage based purely on the binary opposition between native speakers of English and non-native speakers. (Dis-)advantage in academic discourse is a multidimensional phenomenon, it is argued, and the complexity of this issue requires a multi-faceted response. The authors' proposals include 'language brokering services' by universities, the 'relaxation of linguistic norms', and the 'loosen[ing of] the traditional hold Anglo-American gatekeepers have over English language publications' (p. 55). A final mention in this section on English as the lingua franca of academia and higher education might be made of Anne Pauwels's 'Future Directions for the Learning of Languages in Universities: Challenges and Opportunities' (LLJ 39[2011] 247-57). While only in part concerned with ELF, and therefore only touching on issues discussed elsewhere in more detail, her article does provide the added value of introducing the concerns of ELF scholarship to an audience (viz. language teaching professionals in a very general sense) which might have taken little note of it so far.

Another issue that continues to be of concern in the literature in 2011 are the implications for English language teaching of the ever-expanding use of the language as a lingua franca. In 'English as an International Language: A Curriculum Blueprint' (WEn 30[2011] 360-74), Aya Matsuda and Patricia Friedrich focus on curriculum design in ELT in the age of globalization. The authors draw together various strands of research and conceptual work which individually have been central to recent ELF scholarship, but fail to recognize this. Their blueprint for curriculum reform comprises steps such as the informed 'selection of the instructional model(s)' (p. 334) and an 'awareness of and exposure to other Englishes' (p. 338), and gives a central role to communicative strategies. The authors' conclusion is again similar to previous literature on ELF and language teaching, and calls for a bottom-up strategy 'ensur[ing] that pre-service teachers have ample opportunities to learn about th[is] new way of looking at English(es) and conceptualizing English language teaching' (p. 342). Anne Kopperoinen, in 'Accents of English as a Lingua Franca: A Study of Finnish Textbooks' (IJAL 21[2011] 71-93), suggests that this change might well be under way in Finland, and that 'Finnish teachers are slowly starting to accept new ways of looking at English because of the status of English as a global lingua franca' (p. 74). The question therefore arises to what extent this change is also reflected in the teaching materials used. Addressing this question, Kopperoinen presents a detailed case study of the audio materials accompanying two textbooks approved for use at the upper secondary level in Finland. Her sobering assessment is that the vast majority of recorded material represents inner-circle accents, mostly of standard varieties. What is more, the particular choice of outer- and expanding circle accents seems to be rather haphazard or guided by principles which are in themselves questionable (a focus on western European expanding circle accents, for instance), and the usual length of passages of non-native accented speech (very short) must be assumed to be insufficient for learners to familiarize themselves with these accents or to train their perceptual accommodation skills.

Andy Kirkpatrick's 'English as an Asian Lingua Franca and the Multilingual Model of ELT' (LTeach 44[2011] 212-24), which is based on a plenary speech presented at the Hong Kong Association of Applied Linguistics Research Forum, 12 December 2009, focuses on the role of ELF in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). Kirkpatrick locates the use of ELF in the ASEAN countries in a larger historical context by contrasting it with other Asian lingua francas, such as Bahasa Indonesia and Putonghua, as well as comparing it to other varieties of English, including European ELF and British vernaculars. While this comparison highlights once again the fact that deviations from StE are often surprisingly similar around the globe, Kirkpatrick cautions against focusing too much on these shared linguistic similarities while underestimating the diverse pragmatic norms that prevail in different cultures. It is primarily because of these differing pragmatic norms that he argues for a change in English language teaching and advocates what he terms 'the multilingual model of ELT' (p. 221), which abandons the English native speaker teacher as a linguistic role model and instead favours a competent multilingual speaker from the ASEAN area as a more localized

benchmark. Tim McNamara, in 'Managing Learning: Authority and Language Assessment' (LTeach 44[2011] 500-15), extends the scope of this discussion by moving from language teaching to language testing. The author embarks on this task by demonstrating the ubiquity the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) has achieved as the 'common currency' (p. 506) for language tests not only in Europe, but the world over. He problematizes this reduction of complexity and local variability in language-testing regimens by reference to ELF and international civil aviation communication, arguing that an overarching construct such as the CEFR fails to take into account all the dimensions that feed into effective and successful communication in these settings. For instance, native speakers are the only assumed interlocutors of test candidates in tests based on the CEFR, an assumption which is untenable in the case of ELF. McNamara concludes that a policy change is urgently needed in English language testing which takes account of English's role as a lingua franca, and that applied linguists should 'supply the arguments and the understanding to support' this kind of change (p. 513).

In conclusion, 2011 has seen a continuing concentration on the concerns central to ELF scholarship, and at the same time an exploration of new developments and a broadening of perspectives. While much basic theoretical and empirical research has established the field on a firm footing, its wider implications in matters of socio-economic and educational policy and of practical pedagogy have yet to be fully recognized and explored. It can thus be expected that ELF research will continue to generate more innovative thinking and a wide range of publications in the years to come.

13. Pragmatics and Discourse Analysis

In 2011, several new handbooks and textbooks for pragmatics were published. Three more volumes appeared in the ten-volume series Handbook of Pragmatics Highlights, published with John Benjamins of Amsterdam and edited by Jef Verschueren and Jan-Ola Ostman. The series is a topically organized set of paperbacks that aims to focus on the central topics in the field of pragmatics, dividing its wide interdisciplinary spectrum in a transparent and manageable way. Hence, each volume starts with an up-to-date overview of its field of interest and then presents a selection of some twelve to twenty of the most relevant entries from its more comprehensive sister publication, the Handbook of Pragmatics, intending to cover the major concepts, traditions, methods, and scholars in the respective field of research. Volume 8, Discursive Pragmatics, edited by Jan Zienkowski, Jan-Ola Ostman, and Jef Verschueren, deals with major constructs and theories at the level of discourse, leaving aside conversational interaction (which is discussed in detail in volume 4 of the same series, The Pragmatics of Interaction). It thus contains chapters on influential theories of pragmatics and discourse analysis such as critical linguistics and CDA, text and discourse linguistics, featuring at the same time chapters introducing concepts that are of importance not only in the language sciences but also in the humanities and social sciences in general, for example cohesion

and coherence, figures of speech, humour, genre, and narrative. Volume 9, Pragmatics in Practice, edited by Jan-Ola Ostman and Jef Verschueren, is concerned with the practical applications of pragmatics beyond linguistic pragmatics in a narrow sense. The contributions in this volume address different perspectives on how research in pragmatics can be put into practice and how pragmatics is used as a tool to gain a better understanding of our daily practices in the real world. The individual chapters thus survey pragmatic perspectives in traditional (contrastive analysis, error analysis, translation studies) and more recent fields of applied linguistics (e.g. clinical pragmatics, corpus analysis, language ecology, language policy, language planning and standardization, language and the law, mass media). They address the core of pragmatics as the study of language use in interaction (with chapters on emphasis, irony, rhetoric, and stylistics), and additionally examine domains of language usage beyond spoken and written modes of communication (signed language pragmatics and computer-mediated communication). In the tenth and final volume of the series, Philosophical Perspectives for Pragmatics, edited by Marina Sbisa, Jan-Ola Ostman, and Jef Verschueren, the focus is on the interface between pragmatics and philosophy. Its contributions review the philosophical origin and background of pragmatics, with chapters on its key thinkers (John L. Austin, Mikhail Bakhtin, Michel Foucault, H.P. Grice, Charles Morris, Ludwig Wittgenstein), on trends and areas in philosophy that are relevant for the definition of the main concepts in pragmatics or the characterization of its cultural context (e.g. contextualism, deconstruction), on the interrelation of pragmatics and its neighbouring field of semantics (model-theoretic semantics, notation in formal semantics, possible worlds semantics, reference and descriptions, truth-conditional semantics), and recent philosophical debates.

The year 2011 also saw the publication of two more volumes in the series Handbooks of Pragmatics published by de Gruyter Mouton, edited by Wolfram Bublitz, Andreas H. Jucker, and Klaus P. Schneider. The series is based on a wide conception of pragmatics as 'the study of intentional human interaction in social and cultural contexts', thus reflecting and structuring a field that is exceptionally vast, unusually heterogeneous and interdisciplinary, and still rapidly expanding and diversifying. Volume 1, Foundations of Pragmatics, edited by Wolfram Bublitz and Neal R. Norrick, provides a comprehensive overview of the conceptual and theoretical foundations of pragmatics. The chapters dealing with the former address the notion of pragmatics as a linguistic concept, micro-pragmatics vs. macro-pragmatics, pragma-linguistics vs. socio-pragmatics, and the concept of meta-pragmatics. The theoretical foundations are fleshed out in chapters on 'The Rise of Pragmatics: A Historiographic Overview' (by Wataru Koyama), 'Semiotic Foundations of Pragmatics' (Winfried Noth), 'Pragmatics in Modern Philosophy of Language' (Nikola Kompa and Georg Meggle), 'Foundations of Pragmatics in Functional Linguistics' (Saskia Daalder and Andreas Musolff), 'Foundations: Ethnomethodology and Erving Goffman' (Christine Domke and Werner Holly), and 'Pragmatics in Habermas' Critical Social Theory' (Maeve Cooke). Moreover, the book covers some further key concepts of linguistic pragmatics (deixis and indexicality, reference and

anaphora, speech acts, and types of inference, i.e. entailment, presupposition, and implicature) and offers in-depth chapters on the contribution of pragmatics to the description of discourse with chapters on 'Pragmatics and Grammar' (by Arnulf Deppermann), 'Pragmatics and Semantics' (John Saeed), 'Pragmatics and Prosody: Prosody as Social Action' (Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen), and 'Pragmatics and Literature' (Jacob L. Mey). A final section provides highly useful surveys of the central methods and tools in pragmatics research: 'Approaching the Data of Pragmatics' (by Monika Bednarek), 'Experimental Pragmatics' (Richard Breheny), 'Corpus-Based Pragmatics I: Qualitative Studies' (Gisle Andersen), 'Corpus-Based Pragmatics II: Quantitative Studies' (Christoph Ruhlemann), and 'The Transcription of Face-to-Face Interaction' (Roger J. Kreuz and Monica A. Riordan).

Volume 5, Pragmatics of Society, edited by Gisle Andersen and Karin Aijmer, is the second volume published in 2011. It takes a sociocultural perspective on pragmatics and gives a broad view of how social and cultural factors influence language use, covering a broad range of topics within socio-pragmatics. The book is structured into seven thematic sections and features chapters on variables like age, gender, society, and region (Section I, 'Social, Regional and Situational Factors'), as well as sections that focus on the larger context of society and culture: Section VI, 'Pragmatics and the Notion of Culture', contains chapters on 'Cultural Variation in Language Use' (Anna Gladkova) and 'Intercultural Rhetoric and Language of Healthcare' (Ulla Connor), while Section VII, 'Pragmatics and the Larger Societal Context', consists of chapters on 'Global and Intercultural Communication' (Juliane House), 'Critical Discourse Analysis: Overview, Challenges, and Perspectives' (Ruth Wodak), and 'Pragmatics, Linguistic Anthropology and History' (Leila Monaghan). The middle part is made up of four sections. Two of these cover the language system and selected pragma-linguistic features ('Speech and Writing: Linguistic Styles Enabled by the Technology of Literacy' by Douglas Biber, 'Phonetics and the Management of Talk-in-Interaction' by Gareth Walker, and 'Prosody and Pragmatic Effects' by Anne Wichmann), as well as pragmatic markers and the expression of attitude ('Pragmatic Markers in a Sociopragmatic Perspective' by Ad Foolen, 'Interjections' by Neal Norrick, and 'Vagueness and Hedging' by Maryann Overstreet). The remaining chapters are devoted to classic topics in linguistic pragmatics, viz. speech acts and politeness ('Requests and Orders: A Cross-Linguistic Study of Their Linguistic Construction and Interactional Organization' by Carmen Taleghani-Nikazm, 'Appreciatory Sounds and Expressions of Embodied Pleasure Used as Compliments' by Andrea Golato, 'Politeness and Impoliteness' by Jonathan Culpeper, 'Honorifics and Address Terms' by Sachiko Ide and Kishiko Ueno), and sequentiality and turn-taking ('Social and Pragmatic Variation in the Sequential Organization of Talk' by Jan Svennevig and Ronny Johansen, 'Turn-Taking in Conversation' by Jakob Steensig, 'Pauses and Hesitations' by Anna-Brita Stenstrom). Both volumes confirm the successful accomplishment of the high aims set by the editors of the series: they feature in-depth articles by leading experts from around the world who discuss the foundations, major theories, and most

recent developments of pragmatics. The series thus provides reliable orienta-tional overviews that are useful not only to researchers but also to (advanced) students of linguistics.

A number of useful textbooks introducing pragmatics and discourse analysis to beginning and advanced students were published this year. Introducing Pragmatics in Use by Anne O'Keeffe, Brian Clancy, and Svenja Adolphs is a welcome and much-needed addition to the vast but often difficult-to-access introductory literature to the field. It is a highly accessible introduction that covers both pragmatic theory and key thematic areas such as deixis, politeness, speech acts, and pragmatics across cultures, while also including a chapter on pragmatics and language teaching that is certainly highly useful for students of linguistics who study to become (foreign) language teachers. What makes this introduction stand out from other publications on the market is its clear focus on the application of theoretical constructs to real spoken and written data by systematically making use of data taken from language corpora. It also features a chapter on researching pragmatics aimed at developing students' research skills, which makes it an ideal textbook for data-oriented (advanced) undergraduate and postgraduate courses on pragmatics and corpus linguistics in which students are expected to work on empirical projects. By contrast, Siobhan Chapman's Pragmatics, a volume in Palgrave's Modern Linguistics series, represents the line of traditional introductory textbooks to pragmatics that often consists of a somewhat opaque collection of topics and sequencing of (sub-)chapters. This volume focuses on the semantics-pragmatics interface, the historical development of the discipline, and pragmatic theory. Only the final two chapters address applied dimensions of language use in context.

The Pragmatics Reader, edited by Dawn Archer and Peter Grundy, is a set of core readings for students studying pragmatics at advanced undergraduate and postgraduate levels. It combines advanced classic texts with newer extracts that cover current trends and developments in contemporary pragmatics, and is organized into eight thematic sections: 'Linguistic Pragmatics'; 'Post-Gricean Pragmatics'; 'Indexicality'; 'Historical Pragmatics'; 'Politeness, Face and Impoliteness'; 'Cross-Cultural and Intercultural Pragmatics'; 'Pragmatics and Conversation—Development and Impairment'; and 'Pragmaticians on Pragmatics'. Each section is introduced by an editorial commentary while each text is accompanied by further reading activities. The book also features a general introduction, a glossary of key terms, and a conclusion that explores the relationship between pragmatic theory and practice, pointing towards future directions in the field.

Two further introductory texts are devoted to discourse analysis. An Introduction to Conversation Analysis (second edition) by Anthony J. Liddicoat provides an accessible overview of CA, describing it as a methodology and a body of knowledge which reveals the ways in which language works in communication. The chapters are organized in a step-by-step manner and deal with the practicalities of doing CA (collecting, transcribing, and analysing conversational data) and key concepts of the sequential organization of talk, viz. turn-taking, gaps and overlaps, adjacency pairs and preference organization, expansion and repair. The final chapters

zoom in on the opening and closing of conversation, storytelling, and applications of CA. This second edition is a revised and expanded version of the first edition of 2007 (not reviewed in YWES) with three new chapters on collecting and analysing conversational data and the applications of CA, now also featuring an accompanying website.

Finally, the Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis, edited by Ken Hyland and Brian Paltridge, is a state-of-the art one-volume resource for advanced students and academics. It is a comprehensive and well-structured reference source to research in contemporary discourse studies. The twenty-one chapters are written by leading experts in the field, providing readers with an authoritative overview of key terms, methods, and current research topics and directions, at the same time giving practical advice for advanced study in the area. The book consists of two parts. The first part is on methods of analysis, and contains chapters exploring and describing the main approaches and issues in research on discourse (data collection and transcription, conversation analysis and CDA, genre analysis, narrative analysis, ethnography, systemic functional linguistics, multimodal discourse analysis, and corpus approaches). The second part is essentially an up-to-date and well-balanced overview of the key research areas and new directions in discourse studies, each chapter discussing the main methods of investigation and central issues and findings on the basis of a sample study (spoken discourse, academic discourse, the workplace, gender, news, computermediated communication, forensic discourse analysis, identity, race, classroom discourse, intercultural communication, and medical discourse).

Pragmatic aspects of computer-mediated communication and tele-cinematic discourse have also been on the research agenda in 2011. Francisco Yus has published a monograph entitled Cyberpragmatics: Internet-Mediated Communication in Context that offers a comprehensive analysis of internet-mediated communication from the perspective of cognitive pragmatics. The book addresses a broad range of forms of interaction on the internet, for example web pages, e-mail, chat rooms, instant messaging, social networks, Twitter, 3D virtual worlds, and blogs. The author pays special attention to the role of intentions, and to the quality of interpretations when these internet-mediated interactions take place, which is often affected by the textual properties of the medium. The volume features chapters on relevance, the presentation of self in everyday web use and politeness on the net, and an informative final chapter on the prospects for cyber-pragmatic research.

Camilla Vasquez investigates complaints in computer-mediated communication in 'Complaints Online: The Case of TripAdvisor' (JPrag 43[2011] 1707-17). In order to determine the extent to which online complaints display some of the defining characteristics of complaints as identified by previous research, she examined 100 negative reviews of hotels on the website TripAdvisor. The study finds that a significant proportion of complaints tend to juxtapose an overall negative evaluation with some positive appraisal, and that a similar proportion of the complaints make explicit reference to reviewers' expectations not being met. Another important finding is that in contrast to earlier studies that showed complaints to co-occur with warnings

or threats, in this particular context complaints tend to co-occur more frequently with advice and recommendations.

Telecinematic Discourse: Approaches to the Language of Films and Television Series, edited by Roberta Piazza, Monika Bednarek, and Fabio Rossi, is a state-of-the art collection of articles providing a structured overview of the language of films and television series across British, American, and Italian cultures. The volume suggests new directions for research and applications, and offers a variety of methodologies and perspectives on the complexities of tele-cinematic discourse, a hitherto virtually unexplored area of investigation in linguistics. The papers share the belief that the discourses of film and television offer a re-presentation of our world and thus reorganize and recreate language in their own way and with respect to specific sociocultural conventions and media logic. The book is structured into two thematic parts. Part I, 'Cinematic Discourse', features studies on Italian comedy; film as linguistic specimen; multimodal realizations of mind style in Enduring Love; pragmatic deviance in horror films by Argento and Fincher; emotion and empathy in Martin Scorsese's Goodfellas; emotional tone in the James Bond films; and the structure and function in the generic staging of film trailers. Part II, 'Televisual Discourse', includes chapters on incomprehensible dialogue and integrated multimodal characterization in The Wire; a corpus-stylistic case study of a televisual character; Star Trek: Voyager's character Seven of Nine; relationship impression formation; genre, performance, and Sex and the City; and systemic aspects of humorous communication in comedies (for further discussion of some of the chapters included in this volume, see Section 14 below).

The language of television is also the topic of Carly W. Butler and Richard Fitzgerald's ' ''My F***ing Personality'': Swearing as Slips and Gaffes in Live Television Broadcasts' (T&T 31[2011] 525-51). Starting from the observation that some cable television shows routinely involve swearing without censorship while recorded shows may include swearing 'bleeped out', the authors focus on instances of swearing in contexts where it is conventionally prohibited: they examine live interviews and panel debates where swearing is clearly noticed and reacted to strongly. Drawing on Erving Goffman's work on gaffes and slips and ethno-methodological conversation analysis, the paper explores how swearing is treated by the participants as a practical concern, and how swearing and its management implicate the identities and relationships of the participants and the specific context of the interaction. They also discuss how swearing in live broadcasts reveals the limits of authenticity within informal, conversational interviews and debates.

Research on humour has also been at the centre of attention in 2011. The Pragmatics of Humour across Discourse Domains, edited by Marta Dynel, brings together a range of contributions that examine the linguistics of humour providing a timely picture of current directions in pragmatic humour studies. The volume contains three thematic sections: 'Stylistic Figures as Forms of Humour', covering irony, puns, and other wordplay, '(Non)Interactive Forms of Humour', with studies on jokes and conversational humour, and 'Forms of Humour in Public Discourse'. Issues covered in these sections are, for example, surrealist irony, incongruity in register humour, and mechanisms of

pun formation, as well as interpersonal functions of conversational humour. In addition, the papers address diversified manifestations of humour, such as puns in Shakespeare's plays, linguistic humour (see the chapter by Paul Simpson, discussed in Section 14 below), gendered jokes on the internet, sexuality in anti-proverbs, Woody Allen's prose, humour in Friends, and parody in Monty Python's Flying Circus.

A special issue on 'Prosody and Humor' has been published by the journal Pragmatics & Cognition (P&C 19:ii[2011]), edited by Salvatore Attardo, Manuela Maria Wagner, and Eduardo Urios-Aparisi. It contains seven papers that examine prosodic aspects of humorous language use in various contexts. In 'Recognizing Sarcasm without Language: A Cross-Linguistic Study of English and Cantonese' (P&C 19[2011] 203-23) Henry S. Cheang and Marc D. Pell examine whether certain speaker intentions conveyed through prosody in an unfamiliar language can be accurately recognized. Salvatore Attardo, Lucy Pickering, and Amanda Baker compare narrative and conversational humour in terms of pitch, volume, speech rate, and pausing in 'Prosodic and Multimodal Markers of Humor in Conversation' (P&C 19[2011] 224-47). In 'Prosody in Spontaneous Humor: Evidence for Encryption' by Thomas Flamson, Gregory A. Bryant and H. Clark Barrett (P&C 19[2011] 248-67), the authors report an analysis of spontaneous humorous speech, focusing on humorous utterances identified by the subsequent presence of laughter in order to examine the way people mark their humorous productions in a non-humorous environment. 'Formulaic Jokes in Interaction: The Prosody of Riddle Openings' by Christy Bird (P&C 19[2011] 268-90) investigates whether prosodic cues can be identified for riddles told in interaction, and 'Verbal Irony in the Wild' by Gregory A. Bryant (P&C 19[2011] 291-309) describes several ways conversationalists employ prosodic contrasts, laughter, and other speech characteristics in their attempts to communicate effectively and efficiently. In 'Rich Pitch: The Humorous Effects of Deaccent and L + H* Pitch Accent' (P&C 19[2011] 310-32), Ann Wennerstrom argues that intonation contributes to the humorous meaning of a certain class of jokes, and in 'Does Prosody Play a Specific Role in Conversational Humor?' (P&C 19[2011] 333-56), Roxane Bertrand and Beatrice Priego-Valverde try to better understand how talk-in-interaction is produced and co-constructed by participants in accounting for the devices used by participants in their sequential environment, describing the co-construction of conversational humour through the notion of orientation and prosodic orientation.

In the same journal, Eduardo Urios-Aparisi and Manuela Maria Wagner have published another paper on the same topic. In 'Prosody of Humor in Sex and the City' (P&C 19[2011] 507-29), they provide an exploratory study of prosody in conversational humour in a successful TV series. In particular, they examine how pitch and pauses are part of the prosodic bundle that can be used to mark an utterance as humoristic. Based on the finding that the use of prosodic resources participates not only in the marking but also the creation of humour, pitch variation and pauses are considered as serving communicative strategies and offering cognitive benefits that are part of the performance of humour and participate in the characterization of the personage. The reception of humour is the focus of Elisabeth El Refaie's paper 'The

Pragmatics of Humor Reception: Young People's Responses to a Newspaper Cartoon' (Humor 24[2011] 87-108). The author's analysis of twenty-five young people's responses to a Daily Mail cartoon on the subject of gay marriage indicates that the enjoyment of a multimodal joke depends to a large extent on the background knowledge, values, and attitudes of the individual. If, for instance, a cartoon is too threatening to someone's core sense of identity, it is likely to create anger and alienation rather than amusement. Humour appreciation is also shown to depend on the broader sociocultural context in which the cartoon is encountered. In 'The Playful is Political: The Metapragmatics of Internet Rape-Joke Arguments' (LSoc 40[2011] 137-68), Elise Kramer analyses the text of a variety of disputes on American websites over the funniness of rape jokes. Her findings suggest that both sides of these arguments are premised on the same underlying assumptions about the ways humour and language function, but more importantly that these shared assumptions make it possible for rape humour (and humour more generally) to carry social and political valence. In order to understand the significance of the debate over rape jokes, researchers need to understand the identity work that people are doing when they tell rape jokes, laugh at them, or frown and shake their heads.

As in previous years, politeness and impoliteness are still hot topics in pragmatics research. To begin with, Discursive Approaches to Politeness is a volume edited by the Linguistic Politeness Research Group, a research collective set up by a number of scholars in the UK in 1999 to collaborate on projects concerning the analysis of politeness. The members of this core research group are (in alphabetical order): Francesca Bargiela, Derek Bousfield, Christine Christie, Jodie Clark, Jonathan Culpeper, Bethan Davies, Karen Grainger, Sandra Harris, Andrew Merrison, Sara Mills, and Louise Mullany. Some of the members of this core group have published this collection of papers. The volume represents the results of over a decade of the group's research, discussions, seminars, and conferences on the subject of linguistic politeness, thus bringing together cutting-edge essays reflecting the range of discursive approaches to the analysis of (im)politeness. The eight papers in this collection review 'Discursive Approaches to Politeness and Impoliteness', by Sara Mills (pp. 19-56); discuss prosody and impoliteness (' ''It's not what you said, it's how you said it!'': Prosody and Impoliteness', by Jonathan Culpeper, pp. 57-84); explore 'The Limits of Politeness Re-visited: Courtroom Discourse as a Case in Point', by Sandra Harris (pp. 85-108); propose changes in the discursive approach to politeness (' ''No, like proper north'': Re-drawing Boundaries in an Emergent Community of Practice', by Jodie Clark, pp. 109-32); develop this approach further ('Frontstage and Backstage: Gordon Brown, the ''Bigoted Woman'' and Im/Politeness in the 2010 UK General Election', by Louise Mullany, pp. 133-66); zoom in on ' ''First Order'' and ''Second Order'' Politeness: Institutional and Intercultural Contexts', by Karen Grainger (pp. 167-88); focus on political apologies and their metadiscourse ('Discursive Histories, Personalist Ideology and Judging Intent: Analysing the Metalinguistic Discussion of Tony Blair's ''Slave Trade Apology''', by Bethan L. Davies, pp. 189-220); and explore the relation between speech impairment and politeness (' ''Doing Aphasia—Are You with

Me?'': Analysing Face-Work around Issues of (Non-)Competence', by Andrew John Merrison, pp. 221-44).

The Journal of Politeness Research has published a special issue on 'Facework and Im/Politeness Across Legal Contexts' (7:ii[2011]) that brings together a range of papers dealing with (im)politeness and more general facework phenomena as they pertain to forensic linguistics and language and the law. Its aim is to continue the tradition of raising issues which will impact upon our understanding of facework, both in a legal context and beyond. The volume contains an introduction by Dawn Archer and an epilogue by Sandra Harris that build the frame for five full papers: 'Paedophiles and Politeness in Email Communications: Community of Practice Needs that Define Face-Threat' by June Luchjenbroers and Michelle Aldridge-Waddon (JPolR 7[2011] 22-42); 'Polite Incivility in Defensive Attack: Strategic Politeness and Impoliteness in Cross-Examination in the David Irving vs. Penguin Books Ltd and Deborah Lipstadt Trial' by Alison Johnson and Ruth Clifford (JPolR 7[2011] 43-72); 'Libelling Oscar Wilde: The Case of Regina vs. John Sholto Douglas' by Dawn Archer (JPolR 7[2011] 73-100); 'Power Confrontation and Verbal Duelling in the Arraignment Section of XVII Century Trials' by Elisabetta Cecconi (JPolR 7[2011] 101-22); and 'A Facework System of Minimal Politeness: Oral Argument in Appellate Court' by Karen Tracy (JPolR 7[2011] 123-46).

In the same journal, two further papers are of interest in the present context. First, Manuela Neurauter-Kessels has published a study on 'Im/Polite Reader Responses on British Online News Sites' (JPolR 7[2011] 187-214), in which she examines impolite and aggressive behaviour of anonymous users in comments published in the 'Have Your Say' sections of the Guardian Online, Times Online, and Telegraph Online. Her paper investigates how impoliteness is utilized strategically by newspaper readers to attack the author of an article. The findings illustrate that impolite moves frequently involve face-threats that question the journalist's authority, credibility, and trustworthiness. The strength of those face-threats may be boosted by the fact that they are produced in front of a large audience viz. the author's readership. The paper also demonstrates how the communicative setting and medium influence the realization and interpretation of impolite behaviour in those forms of public debate. Second, Derrin Pinto's 'Are Americans Insincere? Interactional Style and Politeness in Everyday America' (JPolR 7[2011] 214-38) examines the stereotype that Americans are insincere or superficial when engaging in social interaction. Starting from the belief that there appears to be something peculiar about the style of interaction in the United States that creates an unfavourable impression among some foreigners, the study considers the folk perceptions of American informants to study how they perceive their own style of politeness in the context of a service encounter. Pinto concludes that routine attempts to be polite simultaneously entail both sincerity and insincerity, and there are two distinct perspectives that help explain how common acts of courtesy can be interpreted differently. In the first, more traditional view of sincerity, an individual judges speakers to be sincere when it appears that they are expressing their true beliefs or feelings. In the second view, the orientation is more towards interactional aspects of communication, where an interlocutor

evaluates a speaker as sincere if they appear to be concerned with issues related to rapport, such as making the listener feel comfortable and the interaction run smoothly.

Politeness and impoliteness have also been studied in the field of historical pragmatics. JHPrag 12:i-ii[2011] is a thematic issue on 'Understanding Historical (Im)Politeness'. Seven papers examine aspects connected with (im)politeness in earlier stages of English. In 'Nineteenth-Century English Politeness: Negative Politeness, Conventional Indirect Requests and the Rise of the Individual Self" (JHPrag 12[2011] 49-81), Jonathan Culpeper and Jane Demmen argue that the kind of individualistic ethos the (Penelope) Brown and (Stephen) Levinson politeness model is accused of is not simply a reflection of British culture, but a reflection of British culture at a specific point in time viz. the nineteenth century. Before then, the notion of an individual self separate from society and with its own hidden desires was not fully established. The authors argue that sociocultural developments (secularization, the rise of Protestantism, social and geographical mobility, and the rise of individualism) created conditions in which the self became part of a new ideology where it was viewed as a property of the individual, and was associated with positive values such as self-help, self-control, and self-respect. Tracing the history of conventional indirect requests, the most frequent request structures used in BrE today, which can be said to be emblematic of British negative politeness, the authors show how such ability-oriented structures developed in the nineteenth century. In ' ''This most unnecessary, unjust, and disgraceful war'': Attacks on the Madison Administration in Federalist Newspapers during the War of 1812' (JHPrag 12[2011] 82-103), Juhani Rudanko deals with face-threatening attacks on the Madison administration during the 1812 war. The discussion is framed by the First Amendment to the US Constitution, with the language of the Amendment protecting freedom of speech, and also by the Sedition Act of 1798, which, if it had been made permanent, would have seriously curtailed freedom of speech. Rudanko investigates the way members of the Federalist Party criticized the war of 1812 in the Boston Gazette and the Connecticut Mirror, showing that their criticism took different forms, ranging from accusing President Madison of 'untruths' to painting a picture of what was claimed to be the unmitigated hopelessness of his position, both nationally and internationally. Their criticism also included harsh personal attacks on his character and motives which may be characterized as exhibiting aggravated impoliteness. Next, in 'A Socio-Cognitive Approach to Historical Politeness' (JHPrag 12[2011] 104-32) Richard J. Watts argues that 'politeness', when looked at not as a theoretical term but as a lexeme in English, has a relatively unstable set of cognitive concepts for which it prompts when used. Watts examines 'politeness' from a historical point of view, analysing terms such as 'polite', 'polished', 'affected', and 'politeness' in writings during the early eighteenth century. He offers a close study of the ways in which such terms are used and reveals that what was understood by them was very different from what contemporary politeness researchers understand by 'politeness'. In '''Tumbled into the dirt'': Wit and Incivility in Early Modern England' (JHPrag 12[2011] 156-77), Phil Withington discusses notions of 'wit' in the early modern period. The study deploys quantitative methodologies to trace

the term's general discursive importance over time. Investigating the use and conceptualization of the term by writers such as Robert Greene, Shakespeare, and Thomas Hobbes, Withington argues that, whereas cultural and social historians have tended to regard impoliteness in the period as either the deliberate inversion or cultural absence of 'civil' norms, wit provided a range of conventions and conversational repertoires outside the normal bounds of civility. Andreas H. Jucker discusses 'Positive and Negative Face as Descriptive Categories in the History of English' (JHPrag 12[2011] 178-97). Reassessing the usefulness of these notions for the development of politeness in the history of English, Jucker follows up earlier suggestions that for negative face a clear distinction must be made between deference politeness and non-imposition politeness. 'Insults, Violence, and the Meaning of Lytegian in the Old English Battle of Maldon' by Valentine A. Pakis (JHPrag 12[2011] 198-229) surveys the link between impoliteness, insults, and violence in medieval Germanic cultural history as manifest in historical-pragmatic contexts such as sennur, whettings, and flyting-to-fighting scenarios. Based on the connection between insults and violence, Pakis offers a new definition of OE lytegian in the Battle of Maldon, namely 'jeer, insult', with comparative support from Icelandic. Finally, in 'Understanding Anglo-Saxon ''Politeness'': Directive Constructions with Ic Wille / Ic Wolde' (JHPrag 12[2011] 230-54), Thomas Kohnen confirms the picture of Anglo-Saxon England as a world beyond politeness, but adds important aspects that may improve our perception of the complexities of Anglo-Saxon social interaction.

Historical Sociopragmatics, a collection of papers edited by Jonathan Culpeper, originally published as a special issue of the JHPrag 10:ii[2009], maps out historical socio-pragmatics, an interdisciplinary research field located at the interface of historical pragmatics, sociolinguistics, and CDA. Historical socio-pragmatics has a central focus on historical language use in its situational contexts, and on how those situational contexts engender norms which speakers engage or exploit for pragmatic purposes. The volume features the same papers as the special issue; for a review of their content, see YWES 90[2009] 125.

To round off this overview of research on the historical pragmatics of English, 'Accessing Identity through Face Work: A Case Study of Historical Courtroom Discourse' by Krisda Chaemsaithong (IRP 3[2011] 242-69) investigates the processes of identity construction and negotiation through face work, using as a case study the historical courtroom in eighteenth-century America. The author adopts a social-constructionist perspective to identity and proposes that face is inextricably intertwined with identity, as it involves the process by which interlocutors position themselves, through discourse, in social interaction. Drawing upon the framework of self-politeness, the paper reveals the ways in which an expert identity is constructed and negotiated during a trial where two medical professionals testified as expert witnesses and, at the same time, were challenged by the hostile interrogators.

Turning to news discourse and pragmatic aspects of the language of politics, JPrag has published a special issue on 'Discursive Perspectives on News Production' (43:vii[2011]) that demonstrates the range and depth of linguistic approaches to news production. Taking the reader behind the scenes to get

through to journalists going about their daily business of making news, the papers go beyond the text-oriented analysis of the syntax of newspaper headlines or the turn-taking mechanisms of broadcast interviews, and propose a hands-on, holistic focus on the process of news production. The volume consists of an introduction by the editors Geert Jacobs, Tom Van Hout, and Ellen Van Praet, and six full papers: 'Towards a Linguistics of News Production' by Paola Catenaccio, Colleen Cotter, Mark De Smedt, Giuliana Garzone, Geert Jacobs, Felicitas Macgilchrist, Lutgard Lams, Daniel Perrin, John E. Richardson, Tom Van Hout, Ellen Van Praet, and the NewsTalk&Text Research Group (JPrag 43[2011] 1843-52); 'Newspapers' Narratives Based on Wire Stories: Facsimiles of Input?' by Lutgard Lams (JPrag 43[2011] 1853-64); '''There are two different stories to tell'': Collaborative Text-Picture Production Strategies of TV Journalists' by Daniel Perrin (JPrag 43[2011] 1865-75); 'Writing from News Sources: The Case of Apple TV' by Tom Van Hout, Henk Pander Maat, and Wim De Preter (JPrag 43[2011] 1876-89); 'Diversity Awareness and the Role of Language in Cultural Representations in News Stories' by Colleen Cotter (JPrag 43[2011] 1890-99); and finally 'Press Conferences on the Internet: Technology, Mediation and Access in the News' by Geert Jacobs (JPrag 43[2011] 1900-11).

In 'A Corpus-Based Study of SARS in English News Reporting in Malaysia and in the United Kingdom' (IRP 3[2011] 270-93), Siaw-Fong Chung analyses English news reporting in Malaysia and the UK over several consecutive months during the SARS epidemic in 2003. Based on an analysis of comparable corpora derived from national newspapers (New Straits Times and The Times), the author finds that news from Malaysia focuses on patriotism along with an emotional, hopeful attitude, while news reporting in The Times seems to be emotionally detached and less personal, reporting mainly on the fall of the stock markets and the cancellation of cultural and sports events, additionally considering manifestations of global economic status and power. John Oddo presents an intertextual analysis of legitimation in four 'call-to-arms' speeches by Franklin D. Roosevelt and George W. Bush in 'War Legitimation Discourse: Representing ''Us'' and ''Them'' in Four US Presidential Addresses' (D&S 22[2011] 287-314). Oddo identifies the key legitimation strategies and thematic formations that underlie the rhetoric of both speakers, (re)situating the speeches in their wider social and historical context to demonstrate how both presidents manipulated the public. The paper analyses how both speakers use polarizing lexical resources to constitute 'Us' and 'Them' as superordinate thematic categories that covertly legitimate war, revealing how representations of the past and future also function to legitimate violence across the four speeches. Oddo examines the way both presidents demarcate group membership to discredit opponents of war at home, and legitimate violence against non-aggressors abroad, concluding that, in spite of popular mythology, Bush was not an aberrant American president but one of many to have misled the public into war.

In 2011 there has also been research on selected pragma-linguistic features of PDE. Linguistics (49:ii[2011]) has published a thematic issue on 'Grammaticalization, Pragmaticalization, and

(Inter)Subjectification: Methodological Issues in the Study of Discourse Markers' that brings together contributions by scholars who have all written extensively on discourse markers in different languages in order to collect their views and reflections on the issue of grammaticalization from their empirical investigations and theoretical angles. Three papers in this issue examine discourse markers in English. In 'I think and Other Complement-Taking Mental Predicates: A Case of and for Constructional Grammaticalization' (Linguistics 49[2011] 295-332), Julie Van Bogaert gives a critical assessment of the applicability of the grammaticalization framework to I think and eight related mental predicates; Anne-Marie Simon-Vandenbergen and Dominique Willems study the English-French cognates actually-actuellement and in fact-de fait, au fait, en fait in 'Crosslinguistic Data as Evidence in the Grammaticalization Debate: The Case of Discourse Markers' (Linguistics 49[2011] 333-64); and Diana M. Lewis examines the discourse connectives instead and rather in 'A Discourse-Constructional Approach to the Emergence of Discourse Markers in English' (Linguistics 49[2011] 415-44).

In addition, four papers on English discourse markers appeared in the JPrag. Lawrence Schourup's 'The Discourse Marker Now: A Relevance-Theoretic Approach' (JPrag 43[2011] 2110-29) draws on relevance theory and argues that it is preferable to formulate the meaning of now without reference to coherence or discourse structure. The author discusses two possible relevance-theoretic proposals: one in which now contributes to the development of a higher-level explicature, and one in which it encodes a procedural constraint on context selection. Schourup concludes that the latter proposal has several advantages over the former and is more comprehensive and unified than existing coherence-based formulations. In 'No as a Discourse Marker' (JPrag 43[2011] 2627-49), Russell Lee-Goldman provides a detailed study of turn-initial tokens of no extracted from corpora of recorded conversations. He proposes three senses and functions of no as a discourse marker on the basis of their pragmatic, semantic, and turn-sequential characteristics: (i) topic shift, (ii) misunderstanding management, and (iii) turn-taking conflict resolution. Donghong Han's 'Utterance Production and Interpretation: A Discourse-Pragmatic Study on Pragmatic Markers in English Public Speeches' (JPrag 43[2011] 2776-94) explores the distribution and functions of pragmatic markers in a corpus of thirty public speeches. The author finds that pragmatic markers are extensively used in public speeches, with an average frequency of at least three markers per hundred words. Among the nine different categories of pragmatic markers identified, elaborative markers are found to be most frequent, while conversational management markers are least often used. Interestingly, assessment markers and deference markers are found with equal frequencies. The findings suggest that pragmatic markers in public speeches function mostly to illustrate a statement or to explain or reason a message, to indicate a contrast between two messages in discourse, to show the sequence of a series of events, and to make an inference or draw a conclusion. For the hearers, they give clues to the interpretation of speech discourse at both local and global levels, signalling the progression of the speech and the relationship between preceding and upcoming discourse. Finally, in 'Discourse Marker and Modal Particle: The Functions of

Utterance-Final Then in Spoken English' (JPrag 43[2011] 3603-23), Alexander Haselow uses corpus data from the British component of ICE to analyse two different uses of final then. It can occur as a discourse marker which is used to link the utterance it accompanies to a preceding utterance that is retrospectively converted into a conditional protasis, and as a modal particle which links an utterance to a pragmatic, i.e. non-verbalized, pretext and thus to a proposition outside the discourse. Haselow also discusses word-class membership and the grammaticalization of final then into a pragmatic marker, providing a descriptive schema that captures the functions of final then as a modal particle.

Two papers deal with general extenders. First, in ' ''I might, i might go i mean it depends on money things and stuff". A Preliminary Analysis of General Extenders in British Teenagers' Discourse' (JPrag 43[2011] 2452-70), Ignacio M. Palacios Martinez analyses and stuff, and everything, and and things in a corpus of spoken youth language, the Bergen Corpus of London Teenage Language, and compares the findings to the language of adults taken from the Diachronic Corpus of Present-Day Spoken English. Unsurprisingly, these three general extenders are more typical of speech than of writing, but, contrary to his initial hypothesis, generally more common in adult than in teenage language paired with a recent increase in frequency of use. However, and stuff and and everything often lose their original set-marking condition in teenage production—that is, their habitual function of classifying an item as a member of a particular class or category—and are used instead as markers of group and social identity. Second, Julieta Fernandez and Aziz Yuldashev examine 'Variation in the Use of General Extenders and Stuff in Instant Messaging Interactions' (JPrag 43[2011] 2610-26), focusing on and stuff and or something in the context of synchronous computer-mediated interactions between native and non-native English language users in a corpus of over 500 one-on-one instant messaging interactions. The analysis suggests a variation in the use and functions of general extenders in computer-mediated interactions, with non-native users utilizing fewer disjunctive and societal general extenders than native language users.

Tine Breban, Kristin Davidse, and Lobke Ghesquiere study 'A Typology of Anaphoric and Cataphoric Relations Expressed by English Complex Determiners' (JPrag 43[2011] 2689-2703), i.e. combinations of a primary and secondary determiner such as the same, another, or the fifth. The authors argue that these construct phoric relations of greater complexity or with added semantic-pragmatic features in comparison with simple determiners. They propose a typology of the five basic types of phoric relations expressed by complex determiners: like simple determiners, (i) signalling the retrievability of an instance and (ii) expressing generalized reference; in addition, three types of phoric relations which cannot be conveyed by simple determiners:

(iii) introducing a new instance of phorically given type specifications,

(iv) setting up a phoric relation between a given reference mass and a definite proportion of it, and (v) establishing reference to an instance identified vis-a-vis a previous instance on a scale. In 'Absolutely Relative or Relatively Absolute? The Linguistic Behavior of Gradable Adjectives and Degree Modifiers' (JPrag 43[2011] 3139-51), Naomi Kamoena, Bregje Hollemana,

Rick Nouwena, Ted Sandersa, and Huub van den Bergha start from the observation that respondents are more likely to disagree with negative survey questions (This text is boring. Yes/No) than to agree with positive ones (This text is interesting. Yes/No). While the size of this effect varies largely between word pairs, a semantic classification of adjectives in closed scale/ absolute and open scale/relative types was predicted to explain this variation. Their analysis of sentence rating data from 173 speakers suggests that the distinction between closed scale/absolute and open scale/relative adjectives cannot explain variation in survey response effects. For semantics and pragmatics, the results indicate that context plays a crucial role in the linguistic behaviour of adjectives and degree modifiers. Bert Capelle offers new pragmatic insights on the comparative correlative in 'The the ...the... Construction: Meaning and Readings' (JPrag 43[2011] 99-117). He argues that the comparative correlative construction conveys that, if two randomly chosen entities differ with respect to one or more parameters, these entities differ correspondingly or inversely with respect to one or more other parameters. As to the relation between the comparative phrase and the clause it introduces in each half of the construction, the author claims that, first, the comparative phrase can sometimes be given a wide-scope or 'exophrastic' reading, and second, the scope of the {less/fewer} (...) vis-a-vis a deontic modal is exactly like that of the negator not in canonical sentences.

Completing this survey of research on pragma-linguistic features is Isaiah WonHo Yoo's 'Ellipsis with Last and Next in Written American News Language' (JPrag 43[2011] 1663-74) as for example in the last of Mr. Forbes and one after the next. The author's close examination of 581 instances retrieved from the Brown Corpus and the North American News Text Corpus reveals that they can be categorized as either conventional, proximal textual, or distal textual ellipsis in which the intended referent for elliptical last/next is most often retrieved anaphorically. Elliptical last/next almost always combine with the, although they can combine with possessives, demonstratives, or the null article. Elliptical next is much more likely to be preceded by a trigger such as one than is elliptical last, giving rise to a construction such as 'one NP.. .the next (NP)'.

Several papers published this year compare speech acts in (varieties of) English to other languages from the point of view of variational, contrastive, and cross-cultural pragmatics. Elaine Vaughan and Brian Clancy's 'The Pragmatics of Irish English' (EnT 27[2011] 47-52) reviews studies which examine IrE in specific contexts and in relation to other varieties of English from a primarily pragmatic perspective. Their review highlights some of the specific features which contribute to the unique profile of IrE (e.g. use of thanks minimizers, religious references, and a tendency towards a higher degree of indirectness in speech act performance). Yuan-shan Chen, Chun-yin Doris Chen, and Miao-Hsia Chang investigate 'American and Chinese Complaints: Strategy Use from a Cross-Cultural Perspective' (IPrag 8[2011] 253-75). Forty American and Taiwanese university students were asked to fill out a discourse completion test containing eight complaint-provoking scenarios. The authors identify several complaint strategies (opting out, interrogation, accusation, request for repair, and threat) in terms of their overall and combined use across the eight scenarios. The quantitative results indicate that the American and

Chinese participants share similar distributions in both overall and combined strategy use, while the qualitative findings suggest differences in their choice of linguistic forms and expression of semantic content. In 'Evaluations of Im/ Politeness of an Intercultural Apology' (IPrag 8[2011] 411-42), Wei-Lin Melody Chang and Michael Haugh examine variation in evaluations of im/politeness of a recording of a naturally occurring intercultural apology, focusing on potential cultural differences between speakers of AusE and Taiwanese Mandarin Chinese. A survey in which Australian and Taiwanese informants had to rate the im/politeness of the intercultural apology was combined with follow-up interviews. Significant differences in the evaluations of im/politeness between members of these two cultural backgrounds are traced through an analysis of meta-discursive commentary to differences in the ways in which 'sincerity' is conceptualized in the two language varieties. In doing so, the authors propose a firmer empirical basis to draw inferences about whether the interactional achievement of diverging interpretations of meanings and actions in intercultural discourse is culturally motivated or simply idiosyncratic to the situation or to individual participants. Kyong-Ae Yu studies 'Culture-Specific Concepts of Politeness: Indirectness and Politeness in English, Hebrew and Korean Requests' (IPrag 8[2011] 385-409). Re-examining the link between indirectness and politeness in a cross-cultural perspective, the paper argues that neither non-conventional indirectness nor some strategies of conventional indirectness imply politeness in Korean, implying that politeness is differently perceived cross-culturally. Thus, it provides support for the claim that the degree and the concepts of politeness in Korean, Hebrew, and English are significantly different.

This review of research on pragmatics and discourse analysis in 2011 ends with reference to a special issue on 'Silence as a Pragmatic Phenomenon' (JPrag 43:ix[2011]) that offers perspectives on a variety of cases of silence. Dennis Kurzon, 'On Silence' (JPrag 43[2011] 2275-7), introduces six full papers that illustrate the variety of contexts and meanings of silence, and types of analysis that silence as a pragmatic phenomenon may be subject to: 'Silence in the Graphic Novel' by Silvia Adler (JPrag 43[2011] 2278-85; see also Section 14 below), 'Linguistic, Paralinguistic and Extralinguistic Speech and Silence' by Michal Ephratt (JPrag 43[2011] 2286-2307), 'Silence: Civil Right or Social Privilege? A Discourse Analytic Response to a Legal Problem' by Georgina Heydon (JPrag 43[2011] 2308-16), 'The Role of Silence in Interpreted Police Interviews' by Ikuko Nakane (JPrag 43[2011] 2317-30), 'Semiotic Silence in Intimate Relationships: Much Silence Makes a Powerful Noise—African Proverb' by Joseph Oduro-Frimpong (JPrag 43[2011] 2331-6), and 'Verging on Divine: The Matter of Benedictine Silence and the Justification of Law and Language' by Remedios Regina de Vela-Santos (JPrag 43[2011] 2337-59).

14. Stylistics

The success of any academic discipline should be measured, in my view, by the amount of 'food for thought' that work in that area provides for fellow scholars and researchers. In this respect, the year 2011 can be considered

successful as there is plenty of thought-provoking stylistics work to be reviewed. Furthermore, the primarily interdisciplinary nature of stylistics has received some considerable endorsement because of the amount of collaborative and multi-disciplinary research published both by established stylisticians and scholars working in cognate areas which have equally contributed to enrich the stylistics coffers. Next to this we note a stronger empirical emphasis in stylistic studies, which is nowhere better reflected than in a well-overdue journal which has seen its first issue in 2011, Scientific Study of Literature. As the editor states in the introduction (SSOL 1[2011] 1-5), 'Scientific Study of Literature endeavors to contribute to the demystification and the elucidation of the nature and functions of this manifold and mysterious phenomenon we name literature' (p. 1). The journal attempts to analyse literature from the perspective of humanistic and social science disciplines, but it underscores the need for interdisciplinarity and empiricism in those approaches. The first issue illustrates what an 'across-the-board' enterprise this praiseworthy objective is, as it encompasses articles ranging from cognitivist perspectives, corpus and computerized analyses, and reader-response studies to literature and affect. David Miall's 'Science in the Perspective of Literariness' (SSOL 1[2011] 7-14) inaugurates the journal by asking three core questions which, according to the author, should be addressed in a publication of this type: (a) discerning what the actual object of research is; (b) outlining which research methods would better serve such a concern; (c) considering what the actual purpose of literature is both for the individual and the wider community. These core questions are, obviously, not 100 per cent original, as the notion of literariness, for instance, has been addressed on multiple occasions before. This lack of complete novelty, however, does not detract from the fact that they are still issues that should be put to the test. David I. Hanauer's 'The Scientific Study of Poetic Writing' (SSOL 1[2011] 79-97), on the other hand, highlights the prioritization of readerly over writerly aspects of literature that prototypically characterizes most critical insights into literary discourse. He proposes to redress this imbalance so that aspects related to the production side can be incorporated too.

A second concern also investigated in this issue is the interface between text and reader, and the articles that approach this relationship are equally varied and thought-provoking. In 'Literature and Event Understanding' (SSOL 1[2011] 72-8), Heather Bailey and Jeffrey M. Zacks investigate reading comprehension by focusing on 'event fragmentation' or the organization of cognitive input information into meaningful discrete units; they claim that this cognitive phenomenon occurs irrespective of the kind of discourse (written or otherwise) that is being processed. Bailey and Zacks argue that past research has tended to employ 'textoids' or laboratory-constructed texts, which has somehow brought to the fore the 'un-naturalness' of the experimentation process. They suggest, instead, that cognitive research on reading comprehension should move away from such a contrived way of analysing discourse processing. Richard J. Gerrig's 'Individual Differences in Readers' Narrative Experiences' (SSOL 1[2011] 88-94) presents a different perspective on what constitutes a truly scientific approach to the analysis of literature. Gerrig, rather provocatively, suggests that the individuality of literary comprehension

is an aspect worth investigating further. He emphasizes the importance of looking at how comprehension relies intrinsically and primarily on the individual's unique life experiences which will, thus, give rise to a variety of different interpretations. Gerrig's proposal, however, is subsequently contested by Rachel Giora's 'In Defense of Commonality' (SSOL 1[2011] 104-12), which argues against an over-emphasized focus on the uniqueness of individuals as a key factor in narrative comprehension in favour of a quest for the shared and global cognitive principles that ensure it. Giora, in fact, adds that 'good science' should be able to elicit what those general cognitive commonalities are without losing track of the role played by people's individual cognitive make-up. Peter Dixon and Marisa Bortolussi, 'The Scientific Study of Literature. What Can, Has, and Should Be Done' (SSOL 1[2011] 59-71), in turn, start off by reviewing previous research regarding the methods and theories so far used to investigate the cognitive and affective reactions to literary texts. They emphasize that reader-response research would greatly benefit from taking on board investigations carried out in the field of cognitive neuroscience (such as the measurement of event-relating potentials and brain imaging) so that some of the methodologies previously employed in the humanities can be tested and, perhaps, reformulated or discarded accordingly.

Another major aspect related to the empirical study of literature also discussed in the first issue of this journal concerns the actual function of literary practices. As mentioned above, the differing, sometimes slightly antagonistic, positions illustrated in the journal eventually become all the more thought-provoking, as exemplified by Peter Vorderer and Franziska S. Roth's 'How Do We Entertain Ourselves with Literary Texts?' (SSOL 1[2011] 136-43) and Jemelian Hakemulder's 'Ways to Engage Readers: Relevance in the Scientific Study of Literature' (SSOL 1[2011] 144-52). The former authors claim that the entertainment value of the literary experience has not received the scholarly attention that it deserves. They further argue that entertainment should not be understood as purely hedonistic because, in the case of literary reading at least, it can encompass enjoyment as well as appreciation. This would explain, for instance, why readers find gratification and pleasure in narratives that are not particularly funny or 'mood-enhancing'. Hakemulder, on the other hand, takes the opposite stance and argues that 'there is more to literary stories than just entertainment' (p. 144). He claims that a definition of story-telling based exclusively on entertainment implies that stories are exclusively conceived of as pleasure-enhancers. Other cognitive aspects of literary reading are invoked in Keith Oatley's 'Fiction and Its Study as Gateways to the Mind' (SSOL 1[2011] 153-64), which argues that engaging in research on literary comprehension can enable us to learn about general psychological principles that go beyond the mere process of literary reading.

Finally, empiricism is also represented in research that relies on computerized techniques. Douglas Biber's 'Corpus Linguistics and the Study of Literature: Back to the Future?' (SSOL 1[2011] 15-23) surveys some of the most recent corpus stylistics work but also reviews earlier computational and statistical publications on author-attribution theories. In 'A Computer Understanding of Literature' (SSOL 1[2011] 24-33), Arthur C. Graesser,

Nia Dowell, and Cristian Moldovan discuss the advances that computational techniques have brought to language and discourse analysis in general. They rightly point out that the validity of computerized methods goes beyond the mere use of computers to describe large amounts of data: by using computer tools, analysts can question in a more rigorous way certain claims about the language of literature put forward by literary theorists or social scientists. Finally, James W. Pennebaker and Molly E. Ireland's 'Using Literature to Understand Authors: The Case for Computerized Text Analysis' (SSOL 1[2011] 34-48) presents a really stimulating and innovative merge as they illustrate how computerized methodologies can be particularly effective to investigate the psychology of literature. They argue that 'the analysis of literature can shed light on how people think about themselves and their worlds' (p. 34). The focus of their study is likewise innovative since, unlike most literary analysis work which largely concentrates on the semantic content of language, this article investigates function words. They claim that by 'analyzing them, we can begin to understand people's thinking' (p. 37). To conclude this brief review, it is apparent that I rate this new forum for the dissemination of scholarly stylistics work very highly. For a completely different perspective on whether a 'scientific' focus on the analysis of literature should feature so prominently (or feature at all), readers are directed to Deborah Cameron's 'Evolution, Science and the Study of Literature: A Critical Response' (L&L 20[2011] 59-72).

The computerized techniques and corpus tools which some of the articles above utilize have also formed the basis for many other publications appearing under the general umbrella term of corpus stylistics. The multifarious nature of these publications, however, demonstrates that corpus stylistics (or corpus studies more generally) can be put to a wide variety of uses. For instance, Kieran O'Halloran's 'Investigating Argumentation in Reading Groups: Combining Manual Qualitative Coding and Automated Corpus Analysis Tools' (AppLing 32[2011] 172-96) looks at the discoursal properties of informal argumentation as it occurs in reading groups which specifically discuss fiction; for this purpose, O'Halloran combines a manual qualitative coding software tool (Atlas-ti) and an automated corpus linguistics tool (WMatrix). Jun Xu's 'Austen's Fans and Fans' Austen' (JLS 40[2011] 81-97) presents a rather innovative analysis of Austen's work viewed from the perspective of fan fiction (fanfic) and contemporary romance. This emphasis on popularized forms of fiction is also present in Michaela Mahlberg and Dan McIntyre's 'A Case for Corpus Stylistics: Analysing Ian Fleming's Casino Royale' (ETC 4[2011] 204-27). Very insightfully, this article suggests that the combination of corpus and cognitive stylistics (specifically text world theory) could turn up notable results when accounting for those linguistic elements that project fictional worlds. Elsewhere, in 'Discourse Presentation in Early Modern English Writing: A Preliminary Corpus-Based Investigation' (IJCL 16[2011] 101-30) Dan McIntyre and Brian Walker have revisited the notion of discourse presentation with special reference to early modern writing.

A lengthier discussion of corpus stylistics, its principles and tenets, can be found in Yufang Ho's Corpus Stylistics in Principles and Practice: A Stylistic Exploration of John Fowles's The Magus. By using a combination of

feature-identifying pieces of software (TESAS/Crouch, WMatrix, and WordSmith tools), Ho compares the two versions of John Fowles's novel in order to assess certain evaluative claims made on the merits of the original and the rewrite. While implementing this comparison, however, she also succeeds in providing a broad overview of corpus stylistics. For instance, she underscores the impending need for corpus stylisticians to strike a balance between computational/quantitative interests and a qualitative/interpretative input. As Ho puts it herself, 'to conduct a corpus stylistic study, we need to bear in mind that our primary concern should always be the artistic totality of style, a trait which transcends the mere counting of the components of the surface structure of the text' (p. 10). With this aim firmly in mind, Ho further combines her corpus interests with an analysis of the two versions of Fowles's novel using possible worlds theory (hence giving it a cognitive/philosophical slant as well), and she also includes a small number of suggestions concerning why readers might experience different emotional responses to either version. Although some readers might feel that cognitive and readerly aspects are left slightly underdeveloped, Ho's main interests are, after all, corpus stylistic in nature so the cognitive and readerly additions are to be understood simply as complementary to her core analysis.

Next, I move on to discuss those publications which are informed by cognitivism in its multifarious manifestations. As already evident in, for example, Yufang Ho's or James W. Pennebaker and Molly E. Ireland's studies above, it appears that cognitive stylistics is becoming increasingly amenable to a kind of 'reconciliation' with other perspectives for the analysis of literature (i.e. corpus studies in the two cases mentioned above). However, more purist conceptualizations of what cognitivist approaches entail have also peppered the stylistic landscape of 2011. One of the prototypical discussions in cognitive circles is on all kinds of aspects related to metaphor as illustrated by Richard Trim's Metaphor and the Historical Evolution of Conceptual Mapping. Trim's volume represents an innovative addition to metaphor studies, working as it does on several fronts. Its main aim is to 'determine how conceptual mapping, in conjunction with language, evolves through time' (p. 4). The theoretical framework used to bring about the diachronic development of conceptual mapping is cognitive linguistics, although some insights from historical linguistics and the philosophy of language are also incorporated. Thus, conceptual mappings are investigated as transfers between cognitive domains that are eventually realized as linguistic constructs, such as symbolism, metaphor, metonymy, and so on. In addition, the volume works on other levels too as this historical development is investigated in relation to aspects such as the physiological basis of conceptualization or general cultural issues. All these aspects are empirically supported by specific case studies. Although this study is not particularly aimed at stylisticians, it can no doubt be recommended to those searching for a diachronic perspective on cognitive concerns.

A second volume also discussing aspects of metaphor but, admittedly, investigating issues which are closer to the discipline of stylistics is edited by Monika Fludernik: Beyond Cognitive Metaphor Theory: Perspectives on Literary Metaphor. This collection focuses specifically on literary metaphor

but the array of papers and the varied stances the contributors adopt attest to the broad-ranging scope of the book. The chapters are informed by the two major cognitive approaches to the study of metaphor that have influenced a great deal of cognitive stylistics work in the last two decades, i.e. the classic treatment of cognitive metaphor theory (as exemplified by the work of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson) and its subsequent development into blending theory (as represented by the work of Guy Fauconnier and Mark Turner). This volume further pursues a third objective, one that is not normally incorporated into works on metaphor. As the editor acknowledges, the predominant cognitive metaphor theory influence on literary analysis has, perhaps somehow dictatorially, disregarded other positions representing different schools of thought such as various rhetorical, semantic, and logical models that have, nonetheless, remained in use. This latter objective is illustrated in the work of Hans George Coenen ('Systematizing Verbal Imagery: On a Sonnet by Du Bellay', pp. 19-35), Benjamin Biebuyck and Gunther Martens ('Literary Metaphor between Cognition and Narration: The Sandman Revisited', pp. 58-76), or Bo Pettersson ('Literary Criticism Writes Back to Metaphor Theory: Exploring the Relation between Extended Metaphor and Narrative in Literature', pp. 94-112). Illustrations of the more commonly discussed cognitive metaphor theory paradigm are chapters by John Douthwaite ('Conceptual Metaphor and Communication: An Austinian and Gricean Analysis of Brian Clark's Whose Life is it Anyway?', pp. 137-57), Margaret H. Freeman ('The Role of Metaphor in Poetic Iconicity', pp. 158-75), or Beatrix Busse ('''One should never underestimate the power of books'': Writing and Reading as Therapy in Paul Auster's Novels', pp. 176-95).

Another edited collection aiming at investigating the cognitive sciences is Bi-directionality in the Cognitive Sciences: Avenues, Challenges, and Limitations. The editors, Marcus Callies, Wolfram R. Keller, and Astrid Lohofer, summarize cognitive science as 'the science of mind' (p. 2), but this overarching definition is later narrowed down by cross-referencing it with a general interest in trans-disciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and the notion that they finally settle for and underscore, 'bi-directionality'. Their aim is to emphasize a sense of broad cross-fertilization between the cognitive sciences: 'to see how theories, concepts, and methods from one particular field within a cognitive, linguistic, literary, or pedagogical (sub-)discipline can influence or even transform a field into another field' (p. 3). This goal might, for some at least, appear to be a slightly far-stretched objective. Having said that, the volume still contains sound examples of trans-disciplinary or 'bi-directional' analyses such as Beatrix Busse's 'Writing is Medicine: Blending Cognitive and Corpus Stylistics' (pp. 121-56) which, following on the trend already mentioned above, aims for a successful marriage of cognitive and corpus analyses. She starts off by applying blending theory to two novels by Paul Auster and considers how a particular cognitive stylistics framework can help the analyst draw conclusions on the way the characters' mental lives are constructed and the way readers infer those meanings. Next, she tests whether these conclusions have a particularly marked linguistic realization by employing corpus tools and computerized methods. Juliana Goschler's 'The

Conceptualization of Personality' (pp. 279-94) also benefits from a bi-directional feeding from corpus and cognitive positions in its analysis of metaphors that portray the heart as 'the seat of emotions and personality' (p. 279). The author concludes that the imagery of the heart (at least in German) as the container of emotions is not only to be found in literary but also in everyday language. Gerard Steen's 'Genre between the Humanities and the Sciences' (pp. 21-41) echoes the claims for empiricism discussed above as, by theorizing on the notion of genre, it offers a model that can subsequently be tested by the various disciplines. Other chapters included in the collection are Susanne Niemeier's 'Culture-Specific Concepts of Emotionality and Rationality' (pp. 43-56), and Marcus Callies's 'Widening the Goalposts of Cognitive Metaphor Research' (pp. 57-82).

To finish this section on metaphor, and bearing in mind that it will not be possible to do justice to all the work on the subject published in 2011, I would finally like to mention a few more articles, such as Dennis Tay's 'Therapy is a Journey as a Discourse Metaphor' (DisS 13[2011] 47-68), an interesting case study of a protracted use of discourse metaphors in psychotherapy sessions. Rosamund Moon's 'Simile and Dissimilarity' (JLS 40[2011] 133-57), on the other hand, contrasts the figure of the simile to that of metaphor and specifically highlights the discordant components of similes as opposed to the common elements that generate the initial comparison. The connections between metaphors and similes are also investigated in Robyn Carston and Catherine Wearing's 'Metaphor, Hyperbole and Simile: A Pragmatic Approach' (LangCog 3[2011] 283-312), although the framework utilized in this case is a relevance-theoretic perspective. Aletta G. Dorst's 'Personification in Discourse: Linguistic Forms, Conceptual Structures and Communicative Functions' (L&L 20[2011] 113-35) uses the Metaphor Identification Procedure (MIP) formulated by the Pragglejaz group to investigate personification. Finally, for an analysis of poetic expression see Margaret H. Freeman's 'The Aesthetics of Human Experience: Minding, Metaphor, and Icon in Poetic Expression' (PoT 32[2011] 717-52).

As mentioned above, the application of cognitivist principles to the study of literature is realized in a multitude of cognitive stylistic ways, one of the most generally applied forms being blending theory. The notion of the 'blend', although emanating directly from cognitive metaphor theory, is now viewed as a clear development from its parent model and is used as basic framework by a variety of scholars. For instance, Marco Caracciolo's 'Another Fusion Taking Place: Blending and Interpretation' (JLS 40[2011] 177-93) uses this to analyse the conclusion of Don DeLillo's Underworld, whereas Craig Hamilton's 'Allegory, Blending, and Censorship in Modern Literature' (JLS 40[2011] 2342) rather interestingly looks at Bulgakov's Heart of a Dog, Orwell's Animal Farm, and Miller's The Crucible as examples of politically subversive texts formulated as conceptual blends. A further model also framed within the general label of cognitive stylistics is text world theory expertly employed in relation to reader response concerns in Sara Whiteley's 'Text World Theory, Real Readers and Emotional Responses to The Remains of the Day' (L&L 20[2011] 23-42). The literary reading experience is also investigated in Michael Burke's Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the

Oceanic Mind. The volume provides a wide-ranging account of the literary reading experience, what it entails, how it occurs, and what emotional effects it gives rise to. It surveys past theoretical proposals (some of them dating back to ancient Greece) emanating from cognitive linguistics, cognitive psychology, emotion and perception theories, and even rhetoric, and proposes a new definition of the literary reading experience as a fluid (oceanic) process. The combination of cognitive-affective aspects in Burke's assessment of the literary experience becomes specifically embodied in his theoretical proposal of 'disportation': 'Tension building toward a sense of release at poetic closure suggests that some kind of change takes place in a reader or some shift from one state to another' (p. 231).

I will next review publications which either explore multi-modal concerns (understood broadly) or consider recent advances in the interface between the new media and literary discourse. Multi-modal approaches to the analysis of discourse are, not only abundant, but also a constant source of interest for stylisticians. One such study, edited by Kay L. O'Halloran and Bradley A. Smith, is Multimodal Studies. Exploring Issues and Domains, dedicated to Michael O'Toole and Theo van Leeuwen, whose work has inspired many a multi-modal publication. In this volume, the editors argue for the distinctive-ness of multi-modal studies as an independent field, which should, therefore, develop its own theories of multi-modality. O'Halloran and Smith seem to highlight a kind of'coming of age' for the field of multi-modal studies separate and distinct (although there are obviously also commonalities and overlaps) from other disciplines such as linguistics. The collection is divided in two parts, each one dealing with what the editors distinguish as 'issues' and 'domains' respectively. The 'issues' section contains chapters such as John A. Bateman's 'The Decomposability of Semiotic Modes' (pp. 17-38), Bradley A. Smith's 'Speech and Writing: Intonation within Multimodal Studies' (pp. 39-54), and Zane Goebel's 'Enregistering Identity in Indonesian Television Serials: A Multimodal Analysis' (pp. 95-114). Bateman's contribution, for instance, starts off the collection with a rather welcome theoretical consideration of one of the most widely used notions in multi-modal analyses, that of semiotic mode. Goebel, on the other hand, investigates a very specific case, that of personhood representation in Indonesian television serials with a special emphasis on the use of linguistic ideologies and semiotic modes. The 'domains' half of the book, in turn, contains studies of social network sites as discussed by Volker J. Eisenlauer in 'Multimodality and Social Actions in ''Personal Publishing'' Text' (pp. 131-52); it also illustrates analyses of house interiors viewed as semiotic spaces (Eija Ventola's 'Semiotisation Processes of Space', pp. 220-38); and finally, it includes chapters which reflect on issues concerning the relationship between art and new media forms, such as Michael O'Toole's 'Art versus Computer Animation: Integrity and Technology in South Park (pp. 239-51).

The way advances in new media forms are inevitably spilling over into the production and reception of fictional narratives has been explored in New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age, edited by Ruth Page and Bronwen Thomas. In the introduction, the editors explain that such advances are providing narrative scholars with new forums in which the tools of

narrative analysis can be assessed, re-evaluated and, perhaps, reformulated as those narratives contain multi-modal and interactive elements which emphasize narrative aspects that do not simply rely on the verbal components. Thus, some of the chapters consider the centrality of the interactivity factor, such as Marie-Laure Ryan's 'The Interactive Onion: Layers of User Participation in Digital Narrative Texts' (pp. 35-62), Alice Bell's 'Ontological Boundaries and Methodological Leaps: The Importance of Possible Worlds Theory for Hypertext Fiction (and Beyond)' (pp. 63-82), Scott Rettberg's 'All Together Now: Hypertext, Collective Narratives, and Online Knowledge Communities' (pp. 187-204), and Bronwen Thomas's '''Update Soon!'': Harry Potter Fanfiction and Narrative as a Participatory Process' (pp. 205-19). Others, such as Andrew Salway and David Herman's 'Digitized Corpora as Theory-Building Resource: New Methods for Narrative Inquiry' (pp. 120-37), explore how computer-assisted analysis of digitized texts can support new attempts at theorizing the notion of narrative itself. They argue that looking at large amounts of narrative data using computerized tools might change some of the tenets so far widely accepted concerning basic narratological principles.

A second edited volume also examining new media is the collection edited by Astrid Ensslin and Eben Muse, Creating Second Lives: Community, Identity and Spatiality as Constructions of the Virtual, which looks at the way 'Second Lives' or virtual identities are textually constructed. In this relatively new medium, however, the concept of 'text' needs to be interpreted as a particularly open construct; creating second lives encompasses a combination of multi-modal and multi-semiotic modes and artefacts and both the actual 'writing-out' and 'reading' sides (that is, the production and reception components) of this virtual life-creation incorporate such a broad combination of modes. Thus, in Paul Sermon and Charlotte Gould's 'Liberate your Avatar: The Revolution Will Be Socially Networked' (pp. 15-31), the authors use their knowledge of visual art to evaluate how visual components influence 'second life' creation; Isamar Carrillo Masso's 'The Grips of Fantasy: The Construction of Female Characters in and beyond Virtual Game Worlds' (pp. 113-42) investigates female representation in a particular computer game; and Eben Muse's 'The Event of Space: Defining Place in a Virtual Landscape' (pp. 190-11) discusses the notion of space in virtual worlds and concludes that spatial conceptualization in the virtual domain differs from our common understanding and perception of the actual, physical world.

Investigating films and television using tools found in the stylistics toolkit has become a rather productive sub-branch within multi-modal stylistics, as exemplarily illustrated by Roberta Piazza's The Discourse of Italian Cinema and Beyond: Let Cinema Speak. Piazza sets out to investigate (mainly Italian) film discourse from a stylistics perspective, which already sets this volume apart from other studies emanating from film, media, or cultural studies. The author, however, is well aware of what a challenging task this is since it necessitates establishing clear methodological and analytical linguistic foci while still remaining aware of the multi-modal and multi-semiotic planes on which films function. As the emphasis falls on the former linguistic domain, though, Piazza describes mainly aspects of film talk and film dialogue (hence, scripted) as independent and different from real talk. Having said that,

the main aim of the book is not simply to elicit the formal differences between scripted and real dialogue but to explore how cinematic dialogue is exploited in a variety of film genres in combination with semiotic modes other than the verbal. Further to her work on Italian cinema, Roberta Piazza is also the co-editor (with Monika Bednarek and Fabio Rossi) of Telecinematic Discourse: Approaches to the Language of Films and Television Series (see also Section 13 above). This collection gathers together the work of a varied range of scholars aiming to explore the discourse of fictional film and television. In my view, the main strength of the volume is its versatility, which originates primarily in its multi-disciplinarity. The editors are keen to underscore that this versatility should not detract from our acknowledging the coherent nature of the chapters, which all share the common interest of exploring film and television discourse from linguistic perspectives. In that respect, the volume certainly fills a void in stylistics research as there is no previous joint treatment of televisual and cinematic discourse in just one volume. The collection is broadly divided in two main parts devoted to the exploration of cinema and television respectively. Some chapters dealing with cinema are Fabio Rossi's 'Discourse Analysis of Film Dialogues: Italian Comedy between Linguistic Realism and Pragmatic Non-Realism' (pp. 21-46), Rocío Montoro's 'Multimodal Realisations of Mind Style in Enduring Love' (pp. 69-85), Roberta Piazza's 'Pragmatic Deviance in Realist Horror Films: A Look at Films by Argento and Fincher' (pp. 85-104), and Derek Bousfield and Dan McIntyre's 'Emotion and Empathy in Martin Scorsese's Goodfellas: A Case Study of the ''Funny Guy'' Scene' (pp. 105-24). The multi-disciplinarity mentioned above is clearly present in these four chapters, which deal with issues that are prototypically stylistic, such as the concept of 'mind style' (Montoro and Piazza); pragmatic, such as conflicting talk and impoliteness (Bousfield and McIntyre); and discoursal, such as turn-length or topic-shifting (Rossi). The analysis of televisual discourse is illustrated, beside others, by Michael Toolan's ' ''I don't know what they're saying half the time, but I'm hooked on the series'': Incomprehensible Dialogue and Integrated Multimodal Characterisation in The Wire' (pp. 161-84), Monika Bednarek's 'The Stability of the Televisual Character: A Corpus Stylistics Case Study' (pp. 185-204), and Susan Mandala's 'Star Trek: Voyager's Seven of Nine: A Case Study of Language and Character in a Televisual Text' (pp. 205-24). Toolan, for instance, observes a curious paradox in the series The Wire whereby the verbal mode ceases to be the main vehicle for communication (the visual and aural modes gain importance instead) without any apparent loss of effectiveness in the actual communicative act. Bednarek, on the other hand, resorts to corpus stylistic tools in order to assess some claims made in media and television studies circles concerning the apparent 'stability' of televisual characters. Finally, Mandala capitalizes on pragmatic issues such as Penelope Brown and Stephen Levinson's notions of positive and negative politeness to explore characterization in Star Trek. I will conclude this section on film discourse by mentioning two more articles: Leah Anderst's 'Cinematic Free Indirect Style: Represented Memory in Hiroshima Mon Amour' (Narrative 19[2011] 358-82) because it discusses what the author calls 'cinematic free indirect style' and Lewis MacLeod's ' ''A

Documentary-Style Film'': Borat and the Fiction/Nonfiction Question' (Narrative 19[2011] 111-32) because it investigates the interface of film discourse and real life documentaries.

Roberta Piazza and Monika Bednarek have further expanded their interests in televisual discourse in Roberta Piazza and Louann Haarman's 'Toward a Definition and Classification of Human Interest Narratives in Television War Reporting' (JPrag 43 [2011] 1540-49) and Monika Bednarek's 'Expressivity and Televisual Characterization' (L&L 20[2011] 3-21), respectively. In the former, Piazza and Haarman question the apparent process of narrativization and humanization of news items which, according to some critics, has been influencing the way these journalistic pieces are written. Their claim is that in television war reporting it is possible to identify a kind of cline according to which narrativization or over-emphasis on human interests only occur selectively and in differing degrees, at least in the corpus of American and British news items they analyse. Bednarek, in her article, discusses 'expressivity', a term which is meant to encompass 'emotion, attitude and ideology' in televisual characterization. She suggests that analysing televisual characterization in terms of expressivity will fill a gap in stylistics because, unlike its film counterpart, televisual characterization has not received so much scholarly attention yet. I conclude this section by briefly mentioning several publications that have looked into either the visual and pictorial components of discourses other than the purely literary, and those that have focused on graphic novels. Charles Forceville (either by himself or collaborating with other scholars) is the main researcher illustrating work published in the former domain. For instance, his article 'Pictorial Runes in Tintin and the Picaros' (JPrag 43[2011] 875-90) considers the role played by what, following John Kennedy's 'Metaphor in Pictures' (Perception, 11[1982] 589-605), he refers to as 'pictorial runes' (that is, speed lines, movement lines and emotion-enhancing flourishes), for meaning-creation in comics. Forceville presents a first attempt at categorizing pictorial runes by focusing on the comic Tintin but hopes that his initial taxonomy will be further used to test the validity of his claims here. In a different publication, 'Visual Representation of Emotion in Manga: Loss of Control is Loss of Hands' in Azumanga Daioh Volume 4 (L&L 20[2011] 91-112), in collaboration with Michael Abbott, Forceville looks at the expression of emotion in the comic genre of manga. The authors conclude that some apparently universal non-verbal realizations of emotion need to be reconsidered in the case of Japanese comics. Finally, Forceville has co-written (with Liliana Bounegru) 'Metaphors in Editorial Cartoons Representing the Global Financial Crisis' (VC 10[2011] 209-29), in which twenty-five conceptual metaphors that recurrently and consistently appear in political cartoons depicting the global crisis of 2008 have been examined. Their analysis proves that these consistently used conceptual metaphors have a pictorial rather than a verbal surface realization. The way in which the graphic novel combines the verbal and non-verbal modes is illustrated in Silvia Adler's 'Silence in the Graphic Novel' (JPrag 43 [2011] 2278-85), whereas Silke Horstkotte and Nancy Pedri's 'Focalization in Graphic Narrative' (Narrative 19[2011] 330-57) specifically discusses narratological aspects such as focalization within this multi-modal variety of fictional narratives.

We now turn to other publications that are focused on a specific genre or discuss general stylistic and literary matters. Exemplifying the former is Christiana Gregoriou's Language, Ideology and Identity in Serial Killer Narratives, a thorough stylistic account of how the serial killer identity and its related ideology are portrayed in a variety of discourses including contemporary crime narratives, detective fiction, the true crime genre, and media journalism. Although her aim to present a stylistic framework for the representation of serial killers' ideology in factual, factional, and fictional discourses is a praiseworthy one, for which stylistics as a discipline is well kitted out, her claims concerning the potential applicability of such a framework to uncover the thought processes of serial killers, though really intriguing, might need much more empirical investigation, something which she is in fact willing to admit. The strength of Gregoriou's monograph lies in the way she exploits the notion of mind style to elicit the linguistic elements that project serial killers' identities; additionally she also traces, quite insightfully, the linguistic portrayal of the victims and concludes that they are categorized on a cline of 'deservability'. In sum, this is a highly recommended volume which further expands her engaging work on the characterization of criminals' minds.

A second volume also broadly discussing genre fiction (among other concerns) is Jane Sunderland's Language, Gender and Children's Fiction (on the analysis of children's fiction from the perspective of gender concerns, see also John Macalister's 'Flower-Girl and Bugler-Boy No More: Changing Gender Representation in Writing for Children' (Corp 6[2011] 25-44)). The tripartite focus of this volume aims to explore the fiction that young children read, its language, and the way female and male characters are linguistically characterized. As Sunderland acknowledges herself, even the term 'children's fiction' can be said to have very fuzzy boundaries as fiction intended for young children is also read by adults and vice versa (Harry Potter is mentioned as, probably, the most obvious and recent example). The second objective is fulfilled by looking at 'what' is written and 'how', that is, by implementing a close stylistic analysis of the texts. Thirdly, Sunderland observes the way characters are described, examines how their actions are depicted and to what extent those actions impact on the world. She further considers the way characters' speech and thought processes are represented and, finally, also explores the notion of point of view. Obviously, as the title of the book suggests, Sunderland interweaves an analysis of the linguistic realization of gender concerns with the various issues already mentioned. The volume presents an insightful account of a specific literary genre informed by the theoretical principles of stylistics and critical discourse analysis combined.

It is now time to move on to general stylistic issues. A discussion concerning linguistic humour is expertly illustrated by Paul Simpson's ' ''That's not ironic, that's just stupid'': Towards an Eclectic Account of the Discourse of Irony' (in Marta Dynel, ed., The Pragmatics of Humour across Discourse Domains, pp. 33-50; for more on this volume, see Section 13 above). Simpson explores discoursal irony as it is realized in a variety of contexts but with specific reference to today's Northern Ireland, as in a stand-up comedy routine, political wall murals, and the subsequent and more recent materialization of

those wall murals as humorous discourse. Despite the broad nature of the theoretical frameworks inspiring his linguistic analysis, the author acknowledges that the main influence comes from contemporary linguistic pragmatics. In his chapter, Simpson argues for a model in which five overlapping categories for the organization of ironic discourse would be able to account for the way in which this trope functions: oppositional (Gricean) irony, echoic irony, conferred irony, dramatic irony, and ironic belief. He is also keen to emphasize that his proposed taxonomy should be seen alongside, not replacing, previous descriptions of irony, especially those undertaken in contemporary pragmatics.

A second issue prototypically explored in stylistics (as well as narratology) is the notion of point of view. This has been deftly addressed by Violeta Sotirova in D.H. Lawrence and Narrative Viewpoint (see also Massimiliano Morini's 'Point of View in First-Person Narratives: A Deictic Analysis of David Copperfield (Style 45[2011] 598-618)). Sotirova investigates the notion of free indirect style, and because of her specific focus on D.H. Lawrence's work her monograph succeeds on two different fronts. On the one hand, Sotirova considers the two main schools of thought that have prevailed in the analysis of free indirect style, the 'single' vs. the 'dual' voice debate. On the other, by selecting a writer associated with a literary movement in which linguistic experimentation becomes marked, Sotirova is capable of delving further into the linguistic characteristics of this stylistic device. Needless to say, her monograph is also a useful addition to scholarly work on D.H. Lawrence himself. Stylistics and Shakespeare's Language: Transdisciplinary Approaches, edited by Mireille Ravassat and Jonathan Culpeper, further continues this trend on the stylistic analysis of canonical figures. As the title highlights, the focus is on trans-disciplinarity, which is successfully achieved by the versatility of the contributions. A further feature of the volume that merits special mention is its innovative, impartial discussion of Shakespeare's style, free from the possible 'conditioning' which might have been imposed on scholars faced with such a canonical author. For instance, the two opening chapters question certain long-held tenets concerning Shakespeare's vocabulary, its creativity, originality, and richness when viewed against those of Shakespeare's contemporaries. In ' ''Strange Deliveries'': Contextualizing Shakespeare's First Citations in the OED' (pp. 8-33), Giles Goodland investigates whether Shakespeare's originality is actually based on his lexical creativity or whether the OED mistakenly attributed certain uses to him that have derived from erroneous assessments of the lexical wealth of Shakespeare's works. Similarly, Ward E.Y. Elliott and Robert J. Valenza's 'Shakespeare's Vocabulary: Did It Dwarf All Others?' (pp. 34-58), by using three computerized tests of vocabulary size and richness, tellingly demonstrates that Shakespeare's vocabulary needs much more contextualization in relation to other early modern playwrights. They conclude that his lexicon was, indeed, larger and richer than John Fletcher's, but smaller and poorer than Milton's, for instance. The volume also contains chapters that opt for a cognitive slant and perspective, such as Jose; L. Oncins-Martinez's 'Shakespeare's Sexual Language and Metaphor: A Cognitive-Stylistic Approach' (pp. 215-45) or

Amy Cook's 'Cognitive Interplay: How Blending Theory and Cognitive Science Reread Shakespeare' (pp. 246-68).

Finally, this section on general stylistic aspects needs to include a reference (albeit brief) to several publications that have addressed specific issues on narrative, especially those investigating the figure of the narrator. Among those, a few stand out, such as Zsofia Demjen's 'The Role of Second Person Narration in Representing Mental States in Sylvia Plath's Smith Journal' (JLS 40[2011] 1-21); Alice Bell and Astrid Ensslin's '''I know what it was. You know what it was'': Second-Person Narration in Hypertext Fiction' (Narrative 19[2011] 311-29); and Tilmann Koppe and Jan Stuhring's 'Against Pan-Narrator Theories' (JLS 40 [2011] 59-80). Also relevant from a general point of view is the third edition of Katie Wales's A Dictionary of Stylistics, which continues to be a core member of the 'stylistics family'. Since its first appearance in 1989, at a time when stylistics could be said to be not so much in its infancy but certainly in its 'teens', the dictionary has continued to grow both in size and richness, so it can now be acknowledged to reflect the discipline's maturity. Some aspects that have remained intact from the first edition, though, are the volume's integrity, honesty, and, above all, clarity and lucidity in its treatment of a wealth of different topics.

The last words on the publications of the year 2011 will be devoted to work whose focus is on the classroom application of research on stylistics. In fact, it could be argued that any scholarly analysis, irrespective of the discipline, works at its best when it successfully finds its way into the practical applications of the undergraduate or postgraduate classroom. In this respect, there has been plenty of pedagogical stylistics research which has either discussed the way stylistics can aid pedagogy in general or has concentrated on the teaching of stylistics proper. The first concern is mainly represented in a special issue of L&L (20:iii[2011]), edited by Ben Knights and Richard Steadman-Jones. As the editors state, 'in stylistics we have a discipline which gives meticulous attention to language in precise contexts, and the contention underlying this issue is that the expertise of the stylistician can be applied as well to the encounters of learning as it can to the literary or cultural text' (p. 179). Thus, for instance, Angela Goddard's ' ''Type you soon!'': A Stylistic Approach to Language Use in a Virtual Learning Environment' (L&L 20[2011] 184-200) proposes to combine insights from interactionist approaches and stylistics to analyse the language of virtual learning environments (VLEs). Sam Kirkham's 'Personal Style and Epistemic Stance in Classroom Discussion' (L&L 20[2011] 201-17), on the other hand, specifically investigates evaluative comments in students' interactions in the classroom. Other articles shift their focus from the prototypical classroom to reader response, especially as this can be investigated in the discourse of reading groups; articles that illustrate this latter domain are Sara Whiteley's 'Talking about ''An Accommodation'': The Implications of Discussion Group Data for Community Engagement and Pedagogy' (L&L 20[2011] 236-56), Daniel Allington's ' ''It actually painted a picture of the village and the sea and the bottom of the sea'': Reading Groups, Cultural Legitimacy, and Description in Narrative (with particular reference to John Steinbeck's The Pearl)' (L&L 20[2011] 317-32), and David Peplow's '''Oh, I've known a

lot of Irish people'': Reading Groups and the Negotiation of Literary Interpretation' (L&L 20[2011] 295-315).

The actual teaching of stylistics is illustrated in the collection edited by Lesley Jeffries and Dan McIntyre, Teaching Stylistics. All contributions to the volume are written by renowned stylisticians with plenty of experience in the pedagogy of stylistics, while, the volume also benefits from the variety of geographical and thematic backgrounds represented. From Willie van Peer, Sonya Zyngier, and Anna Chesnokova's 'Learning without Teaching: Literature and the REDES Project' (pp. 109-26) we learn that research skills (in the way these are understood mainly in UK higher education) are not taught elsewhere in the world, certainly not in the institutions where the authors teach. Anna Chesnokova and Valentina Yakuba consider what stylistics can offer to non-native students in 'Using Stylistics to Teach Literature to Non-Native Speakers' (pp. 95-104). More practical applications of how stylistic principles can be exploited in the classroom are Lesley Jeffries's 'Teaching the Stylistics of Poetry' (pp. 127-51) and Beatrix Busse's 'Teaching the Stylistics of Drama' (pp. 152-77).

To conclude this brief account of the work published in 2011, I provide a tentative summary of the main concerns of 2011 in just a few key words that, however, jointly characterize the goings-on of the stylistics world: empiricism, inter- and multi-disciplinarity, cross-fertilization, and pedagogy.

Books Reviewed

Aarts, Bas. Oxford Modern English Grammar. OUP. [2011] pp. xix + 410. £20 ISBN 9 7801 9953 3190.

Adams, Michael, and Anne Curzan, eds. Contours of English and English Language Studies. UMichP. [2011] pp. iv + 371. $35.95 ISBN 9 7804 7203 4666.

Agustín Llach, Maria Pilar. Lexical Errors and Accuracy in Foreign Language Writing. MIMBr. [2011] pp. xiii + 247. pb £23.69 ISBN 9 7818 4769 4164.

Ahearn, Laura M. Living Language: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. Wiley. [2011] pp. 368. hb £59.50 ISBN 9 7814 0512 4409, pb £20.99 ISBN 9 7814 0512 4416.

Andersen, Gisle, and Karin Aijmer, eds. Pragmatics of Society. Handbooks of Pragmatics 5. MGruyter. [2011] pp. xi + 707. €199 ($279) ISBN 9 7831 1021 4420.

Arabski, Janusz, and Adam Wojtaszek, eds. The Acquisition of L2 Phonology. MIMBr. [2011] pp. x + 182. £55.96 ISBN 9 7818 4769 3754.

Archer, Dawn, and Peter Grundy, eds. The Pragmatics Reader. Routledge (Taylor & Francis). [2011] pp. xiii + 529. £95 ($150) ISBN 9 7804 1554 6591.

Archibald, Alasdair, Alessia Cogo, and Jennifer Jenkins, eds. Latest Trends in ELF Research. CambridgeSP. [2011] pp. 311. pb £24.99 ISBN 1 4438 3299 5.

Aronoff, Mark, and Kirsten Fudeman. What is Morphology? 2nd edn. Fundamentals of Linguistics. Blackwell. [2011] pp. xx + 290. pb. £19.99 ISBN 9 7814 0519 4679.

Atkinson, Dwight, ed. Alternative Approaches to Second Language Acquisition. Routledge. [2011] pp. xii + 190. hb $140 ISBN 9 7804 1554 9240, pb $39.95 ISBN 9 7804 1554 9257. Backley, Phillip. An Introduction to Element Theory. EdinUP. [2011] pp. 224.

hb £75 ISBN 9 7807 4863 7423, pb £24.99 ISBN 9 7807 4863 7430. Balteiro, Isabel, ed. New Approaches to Specialized English Lexicology and Lexicography. CambridgeSP. [2011] pp. x + 220. £39.99 ISBN 9 7814 4382 5771.

Bauer, Renate, and Ulrike Krischke, eds. More than Words: English Lexicography and Lexicology Past and Present. Essays Presented to Hans Sauer on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Part I. Lang. [2011] pp. 481. £71.40 ISBN 9 7836 3159 5770. Bauer, Renate, and Ulrike Krischke, eds. Fact and Fiction: From the Middle Ages to Modern Times. Essays Presented to Hans Sauer on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday, Part II. Lang. [2011] pp. 215. £37.70 ISBN 9 7836 3159 5763.

Belcher, Diane, Ann M. Johns, and Brian Paltrige, eds. New Directions in English for Specific Purposes Research. UMichP. [2011] pp. 288. $30.95 ISBN 9 7804 7203 4604. Benati, Alessandro G., ed. Issues in Second Language Proficiency. Continuum.

[2011] pp. xii + 255. pb £23.99 ISBN 9 7814 4118 2326. Benz, Anton, and Jason Mattausch, eds. Bidirectional Optimality Theory.

Benjamins. [2011] pp. 279. €99 ($149) ISBN 9 7890 2725 5631. Boeckx, Cedric, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Linguistic Minimalism. OUP.

[2011] pp. xxvi + 707. £95 ($150) ISBN 9 7801 9954 9368. Bohnemeyer, Jürgen, and Eric Pederson. Event Representation in Language

and Cognition. CUP. [2011] pp. 296. £58 ISBN 9 7805 2189 8348. Brdar, Mario, Stefan Th. Gries, and Milena Zic Fuchs, eds. Cognitive Linguistics: Convergence and Expansion. Human Cognitive Processing 32. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vii + 362. €95 ($143) ISBN 9 7890 2722 3869. Brems, Lieselotte. Layering of Size and Type Noun Constructions in English.

MGruyter. [2011] pp. xi + 409. €99.95 ($140) ISBN 9 7831 1025 2910. Brinton, Laurel, and Leslie Arnovick. The English Language: A Linguistic

History. 2nd edn. OUP. [2011] pp. 576. pb £70 ISBN 9 7801 9543 1575. Brown, Jessica, and Herman Cappelen, eds. Assertion. OUP. [2011] pp. 300.

£41 ISBN 9 7801 9957 3004. Bublitz, Wolfram, and Neal R. Norrick, eds. Foundations of Pragmatics. Handbooks of Pragmatics 1. MGruyter. [2011] pp. xiii + 710. €199 ($299) ISBN 9 7831 1021 4253. Bucholtz, Mary. White Kids: Language, Race, and Styles of Youth Identity. CUP. [2011] pp. xvi + 277. hb £60 ISBN 9 7805 2187 1495, pb £19.99 ISBN 9 7805 2169 2045. Burke, Michael. Literary Reading, Cognition and Emotion: An Exploration of the Oceanic Mind. Routledge. [2011] pp. 284. £75 ISBN 9 7804 1552 0683.

Busch-Lauer, Ines-Andrea, and Sabine Fiedler, eds. Sprachraum Europa— Alles Englisch oder... ? Frank & Timme. [2011] pp. 184. pb €24.80 ISBN 9 7838 6596 3949.

Callies, Marcus, Wolfram R. Keller, and Astrid Lohofer, eds. Bi-Directionality in the Cognitive Sciences: Avenues, Challenges, and Limitations. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 321. £90 ISBN 9 7890 2722 3845.

Chapman, Siobhan. Pragmatics. Palgrave Modern Linguistics. PalMac. [2011] pp. viii + 214. pb £25.99 ($37) ISBN 9 7802 3022 1833.

Clements, J. Clancy, and Shelome Gooden, eds. Language Change in Contact Languages: Grammatical and Prosodic Considerations. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 241. €90 ISBN 9 7890 2720 2550.

Cohen, Gerald Leonard, and Barry A. Popik Origin of New York City's Nickname 'The Big Apple'. 2nd edn. Lang. [2011] pp. v + 175. £40 ISBN 9 7836 3161 3863.

Cohn, Abigail C., Ceecile Fougeron, and Marie K. Huffman, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Laboratory Phonology. OUP. [2011] pp. 896. £95 ISBN 9 7801 9957 5039.

Corballis, Michael C. The Recursive Mind: The Origins of Human Language, Thought, and Civilization. PrincetonUP. [2011] pp. 288. £21.95 ISBN 9 7806 9114 5471.

Coupland, Nikolas, ed. The Handbook of Language and Globalization. Wiley-Blackwell. [2010] pp. ix + 662. £125 ISBN 9 7814 0517 5814.

Cox, Barrie. The Place-Names of Leicestershire, Part V. English Place-Name Society 87. [2011] pp. vii + 316. £40 ISBN 9 7809 0488 9871.

Cruschina, Silvio. Discourse-Related Features and Functional Projections. OUP. [2011] pp. xv + 251. hb £60 ISBN 9 7801 9975 9613, pb £30 ISBN 9 7801 9975 9606.

Cruse, Alan. Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, 3rd edn. OUP. [2011] pp. viii + 497. £26.99 ISBN 9 7801 9955 9466.

Crystal, David. Internet Linguistics: A Student Guide. Routledge. [2011] pp. 182. hb £60 ISBN 9 7804 1560 2686, pb £18.99 ISBN 9 7804 1560 2716.

Culpeper, Jonathan, ed. Historical Sociopragmatics. Benjamins Current Topics 31. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vii + 135. €84.80 ($120) ISBN 9 7890 2720 2505.

Dalrymple, Mary, and Irina Nikolaeva. Objects and Information Structure. CUP. [2011] pp. 247. £60 ($99) ISBN 9 7805 2119 9858.

De Angelis, Gessica, and Jean-Marc Dewaele, eds. New Trends in Crosslinguistic Influence and Multilingualism Research. MIMBr. [2011] pp. xv + 128. pb £17.56 ISBN 9 7818 4769 4416.

De Houwer, Annick, and Antje Wilton, eds. English in Europe Today: Sociocultural and Educational Perspectives. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 170. €85 ISBN 9 7890 2720 5247.

de Vergottini, Giuseppe, and Valeria Piergigli, eds. Topographical Names and Protection of Linguistic Minorities. Lang. [2011] pp. v + 466. €82 ISBN 9 7836 3160 9767.

Deckert, Sharon K., and Caroline H. Vickers An Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Society and Identity. Continuum. [2011] pp. 237. hb £65 ISBN 9 7814 4115 0233, pb £19.99 ISBN 9 7814 4110 0283.

Denison, David, Ricardo Bermudez Otero, Chris McCully, and Emma Moore, eds. Analysing Older English. CUP. [2011] pp. 350. £60 ISBN 9 7805 2111 2468.

Di Paolo, Marianna, and Malcah Yaeger-Dror, eds. Sociophonetics: A Student's Guide. Routledge. [2011] pp. xi + 250. hb £29.99 ISBN 9 7804 1549 8784, pb £95 ISBN 9 7804 1549 8791.

Dixon, M.W. The Languages of Australia. CUP. [2011] pp. 572. €40 ISBN 9 7811 0801 7855.

Dixon, Robert M.W., and Alexandra Y. Aikhenvald, eds. The Semantics of Clause Linking. OUP. [2011] pp. xviii + 410. hb £78 ISBN 9 7801 9956 7225, pb £26 ISBN 9 7801 9960 0700.

Dorn, Nora. Exploring -ing: The Progressive in English as a Lingua Franca. VDM. [2011] pp. 148. pb €49 ISBN 9 7836 3933 5729.

Dresher, B. Elan. The Contrastive Hierarchy in Phonology. CUP. [2011] pp. 294. hb £71 ISBN 9 7805 2188 9735, pb £34.99 ISBN 9 7805 2118 2355.

Droschel, Yvonne. Lingua Franca English: The Role of Simplification and Transfer. Lang. [2011] pp. 358. pb €57 ISBN 9 7830 3430 4320.

Dubinsky, Stanley, and Chris Holcomb. Understanding Language through Humor. CUP. [2011] pp. 212. hb £50 ISBN 9 7805 2188 6277, pb £18.99 ISBN 9 7805 2171 3887.

Duszak, Anna, and Urszula Okulska, eds. Language, Culture and the Dynamics of Age. Language, Power and Social Process 28. MGruyter. [2011] pp. 378. €109.95 ($154) ISBN 9 7831 1023 8112.

Dynel, Marta, ed. The Pragmatics of Humour across Discourse Domains. Pragmatics & Beyond new series 210. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vi + 382. €100.70 ($143) ISBN 9 7890 2725 6140.

Egan, Andy, and Brian Weatherson, eds. Epistemic Modality. OUP. [2011] pp. vi + 335. hb £58 ISBN 9 7801 9959 1596, pb £21 ISBN 9 7801 9959 1589.

Ensslin, Astrid, and Eben Muse, eds. Creating Second Lives: Community, Identity and Spatiality as Constructions of the Virtual. Routledge. [2011] pp. 240. £80 ISBN 9 7804 1588 4204.

Evans, Nicholas, Alice Gaby, Stephen C. Levinson, and Asifa Majid, eds. Reciprocals and Semantic Typology. Benjamins. [2011] pp. viii + 349. €99 ($149) ISBN 9 7890 2720 6794.

Fens-de Zeeuw, Lyda. Lindley Murray (1745-1826), Quaker and Grammarian. LOT Publications. (dissertation series 283). [2011] pp. 317. €23.40 ISBN 9 7894 6093 0669.

Fishman, Joshua, and Ofelia Garcia, eds. Handbook of Language and Ethnic Identity, vol. 2: The Success-Failure Continuum in Language and Ethnic Identity Efforts. OUP. [2011] pp. xix + 492. £60 ISBN 9 7801 9537 4926.

Fludernik, Monika, ed. Beyond Cognitive Metaphor Theory: Perspectives on Literary Metaphor. Routledge. [2011] pp. 324. £85 ISBN 9 7804 1588 8288.

Frankenberg-Garcia, Ana, Lynne Flowerdew, and Guy Aston, eds. New Trends in Corpora and Language Learning. Continuum. [2011] pp. xxxiv + 268. hb £56.25 ISBN 9 7814 4115 9960, pb £20.99 ISBN 9 7814 4118 2111.

Forsyth, Mark. The Etymologicon: A Circular Stroll Around the Hidden Connections of the English Language. Icon. [2011] pp. xviii + 252. £12.99 ISBN 9 7818 4831 3071.

Fuertes-Olivera, Pedro A., and Henning Bergenholtz, eds. E-lexicography: The Internet, Digital Initiatives and Lexicography. Continuum. [2011] pp. xiv + 341. £85 ISBN 9 7814 4112 8065.

Galani, Alexandra, Glyn Hicks, and George Tsoulas, eds. Morphology and its Interfaces. Linguistik Aktuell/Linguistics Today 178. Benjamins. [2011] pp. ix + 353. €105 ($158) ISBN 9 7890 2725 5617.

Ganeri, Jonardon. Artha: Meaning. OUP. [2011] pp. x + 258. £14.99 ISBN 9 7801 9807 4137.

Garrett, Peter. Attitudes to Language. CUP. [2010] pp. x + 257. hb £64 ISBN 9 7805 2176 6043, pb £23.99 ISBN 9 7805 2175 9175.

Garzone, Giuliana, and Maurizio Gotti, eds. Discourse, Communication and the Enterprise: Genres and Trends. Lang. [2011] pp. 451. pb €85.60 ISBN 9 7830 3430 6201.

Gass, Susan M., and Alison Mackey, eds. The Routledge Handbook of Second Language Acquisition. Routledge. [2011] xviii + 609. £140 ISBN 9 7804 1547 9936.

Geary, James. I is an Other: The Secret Life of Metaphor and How It Shapes the Way We See the World. HC. [2011] pp. vi + 296. £11.99 ISBN 9 7800 6171 0285.

Goddard, Cliff. Semantic Analysis: A Practical Introduction, 2nd edn. OUP. [2011] pp. xvii + 490. £27.99 ISBN 9 7801 9956 0288.

Gregersen, Frans, Jeffrey K. Parrott, and Pia Quist, eds. Language Variation— European Perspectives III: Selected Papers from the 5th International Conference on Language Variation in Europe (ICLaVE 5), Copenhagen, June 2009. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vi + 260. €99 ISBN 9 7890 2723 4872.

Gregoriou, Christiana. Language, Ideology and Identity in Serial Killer Narratives. Routledge. [2011] pp. 208. £80 ISBN 9 7804 1587 2294.

Gupta, Anil. Truth, Meaning, Experience. OUP. [2011] pp. xi + 270. £35 ISBN 9 7801 9513 6036.

Gustafsson, Martin, and Richard Sorli, eds. The Philosophy of J.L. Austin. OUP. [2011] pp. vi + 245. £40 ISBN 9 7801 9921 9759.

Hall, Joan Kelly, John Hellermann, and Simona Pekarek Doehler, eds. L2 Interactional Competence and Development. MIMBr. [2011] pp. xii + 274. £27.96 ISBN 9 7818 4769 4058.

Hamawand, Zeki. Morphology in English: Word Formation in Cognitive Grammar. Continuum. [2011] pp. xvi + 277. hb £75 ISBN 9 7814 4111 1371, pb £24.99 ISBN 9 7808 2641 9460.

Handl, Sandra, and Hans-Jorg Schmid, eds. Windows to the Mind: Metaphor, Metonymy and Conceptual Blending. MGruyter. [2011] pp. ix + 314. £99.95 ISBN 9 7831 1023 8181.

Hernandez, Nuria, and Monika Edith Schulz Daniela Kolbe. A Comparative Grammar of British English Dialects, vol. 2: Modals, Pronouns and Complement Clauses. MGruyter. [2011] pp. viii + 320. €99.95 ($140) ISBN 9 7831 1024 0283.

Hickey, Raymond, ed. Handbook of Language Contact. Wiley-Blackwell. [2010] pp. xvii + 863. £125 ISBN 9 7814 0517 5807.

Hickey, Raymond, ed. Legacies of Colonial English. CUP. [2011] pp. 734. pb $73 ISBN 9 7805 2117 5074.

Higham, Nicholas J., and Martin J. Ryan, eds. Place-Names, Language and the Anglo-Saxon Landscape. Boydell. [2011] pp. xi + 245. £62 ISBN 9 7818 4383 6032.

Hinrichs, Lars, and Joseph T. Farquharson, eds. Variation in the Caribbean: From Creole Continua to Individual Agency. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vi + 276. €99 ISBN 9 7890 2725 2593.

Hirsch, Eli. Quantifier Variance and Realism. OUP. [2011] pp. xvi + 261. £45 ISBN 9 7801 9973 2111.

Ho, Yufang. Corpus Stylistics in Principles and Practice: A Stylistic Exploration of John Fowles's The Magus. Continuum. [2011] pp. 256. £75 ISBN 9 7808 2642 6178.

Holmes, Janet, and Meredith Marra, eds. Femininity, Feminism and Gendered Discourse: A Selected and Edited Collection of Papers from the Fifth International Language and Gender Association Conference (IGALA 5). CambridgeSP. [2010] pp. vi + 250. £39.99 ISBN 9 7814 4382 3647.

Hyland, Ken, and Brian Paltridge, eds. Continuum Companion to Discourse Analysis. Bloomsbury Companions. Continuum. [2011] pp. 448. $190 ISBN 9 7814 4116 5640.

Israel, Michael. The Grammar of Polarity. CUP. [2011] pp. xvii + 292. £70 ISBN 9 7805 2179 2400.

Jackson, Howard, and Peter Stockwell. An Introduction to the Nature and Functions of Language. 2nd edn. Continuum. [2011] pp. xiii + 231. hb £65 ISBN 9 7814 4114 3730, pb £19.99 ISBN 9 7814 4112 1516.

Jary, Mark. Assertion. Palgrave. [2010] pp. x + 224. £58 ISBN 9 7802 3057 3994.

Jeffries, Lesley, and Dan McIntyre, eds. Teaching Stylistics. Continuum. [2011] pp. 296. £55 ISBN 9 7802 3023 5878.

Jiang, Nan. Conducting Reaction Time Research in Second Language Studies. Routledge. [2011] pp. xiii + 282. hb £100 ISBN 9 7804 1587 9330, pb £29.99 ISBN 9 7804 1587 9347.

Jorgensen, J. Normann. A Toolkit for Transnational Communication in Europe. UCopenP. [2011] pp. 140. pb €26.40 ISBN 8 7916 2148 8.

Junge, Kay, and Kirill Postoutenko, eds. Asymmetrical Concepts after Reinhart Koselleck: Historical Semantics and Beyond. Transcript. [2011] pp. 255. pb £29.95 ISBN 9 7838 3761 5890.

Karpova, Olga. English Author Dictionaries (the XVIth—the XXIst cc.). CambridgeSP. [2011] pp. x + 256. £39.99 ISBN 9 7814 4382 6594.

Kawaguchi, Yuji, Makoto Minegishi, and Wolfgang Viereck, eds. Corpus-Based Analysis and Diachronic Linguistics. Tokyo University of Foreign Studies 3. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vi + 293. €95, $143 ISBN 9 7890 2720 7708.

Kern, Friederike, and Margret Selting, eds. Ethnic Styles of Speaking in European Metropolitan Areas. Benjamins. [2012] pp. vi + 321. €99 ISBN 9 7890 2723 4889.

Kiesling, Scott F. Linguistic Variation and Change. EdinUP. [2011] pp. xi + 200. hb £70 ISBN 9 7807 4863 7614, pb £22.99 ISBN 9 7807 4863 7621.

Kracht, Marcus. Interpreted Languages and Compositionality. Springer. [2011] pp. x + 212. £90 ($149) ISBN 9 7894 0072 1074.

Kuiper, Koenraad, and Allan Scott. An Introduction to English Language: Word, Sound and Sentence. 3rd edn. Palgrave. [2010] pp. 392. hb £60 ISBN 9 7802 3020 8001, pb £19.99 ISBN 9 7802 3020 8018.

Labov, William. Principles of Linguistic Change, Cognitive and Cultural Factors, vol. 3. Wiley-Blackwell. [2010] pp. xxviii + 419. hb £65 ISBN 9 7814 0511 2154, pb £24.99 ISBN 9 7814 0511 2147. Lecomte, Alain. Meaning, Logic and Ludics. Imperial College P. [2011] pp. xvii

+ 369. £83 ISBN 9 7818 4816 4567. Lee, Barry, ed. Philosophy of Language: The Key Thinkers. Continuum. [2011] pp. viii + 301. hb £55 ISBN 9 7814 4117 8862, pb £17.99 ISBN 9 7814 4110 0153.

Lefebvre, Claire, ed. Creoles, Their Substrates, and Language Typology.

Benjamins. [2011] pp. 626. €105 ISBN 9 7890 2720 6763. Lepore, Ernest, and Barry Loewer. Meaning, Mind, & Matter. OUP. [2011]

pp. 238. £35 ISBN 9 7801 9958 0781. Liddicoat, Anthony J. An Introduction to Conversation Analysis. 2nd edn.

Continuum. [2011] pp. 416. pb $39.95 ISBN 9 7814 4118 9349. Lim, Lisa, and Nikolas Gisborne, eds. The Typology of Asian Englishes.

Benjamins. [2011] pp. 120. €80 ISBN 9 7890 2720 2529. Linguistic Politeness Research Group, ed. Discursive Approaches to Politeness. Mouton Series in Pragmatics 8. MGruyter. [2011] pp. xi + 272. € 99.95 ($140) ISBN 9 7831 1023 8662. Ljung, Magnus. Swearing: A Cross-Cultural Linguistic Study. Palgrave. [2011]

pp. xii + 190. £52.50 ISBN 9 7802 3057 6315. Locke, John L. Duels and Duets: Why Men and Women Talk So Differently.

CUP. [2011] pp. ix + 241. £14.99 ISBN 9 7805 2188 7137. Loewen, Shawn, and Hayo Reinders. Key Concepts in Second Language Acquisition. Palgrave. [2011] pp. xxi + 187. pb £14.99 ISBN 9 7802 3023 0187.

Maguire, Warren, and April McMahon, eds. Analysing Variation in English.

CUP. [2011] pp. xiii + 332. £60 ISBN 9 7805 2189 8669. Majewski, Stefan. Design and Implementation of a Research Infrastructure for a Corpus of Spoken ELF. MA thesis. University of Vienna. [2011] pp. 238.

McConnell-Ginet, Sally. Gender, Sexuality, and Meaning. OUP. [2011] pp. xii + 297. hb £60 ISBN 9 7801 9518 7809, pb £19.99 ISBN 9 7801 9518 7816. Meakins, Felicity. Case-Marking in Contact: The Development and Function of Case Morphology in Gurindji Kriol. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 311. €105 ISBN 9 7890 2725 2616.

Meibauer, Jorg, and Markus Steinbach, eds. Experimental Pragmatics! Semantics. Benjamins. [2011] pp. x + 240. €95 ($143) ISBN 9 7890 2725 5587.

Meisel, Jiirgen M. First and Second Language Acquisition: Parallels and Differences. CUP. [2011] pp. xvi + 302. pb £23.99 ISBN 9 7805 2155 7641. Melchers, Gunnel, and Philip Shaw. World Englishes. 2nd edn. Routledge.

[2011] pp. 254. €30 ISBN 9 7814 4413 5374. Mesthrie, Rajend, ed. The Cambridge Handbook of Sociolinguistics. CUP.

[2011] pp. xiv + 530. £90 ISBN 9 7805 2189 7075. Meunier, Fanny, Sylvie de Cock, Gaetanelle Gilquin, and Magali Paquot, eds. A Taste for Corpora: In Honour of Sylviane Granger. Benjamins. [2011] pp. xv + 295. €95 ISBN 9 7890 2720 3502.

Meyerhoff, Miriam. Introducing Sociolinguistics. 2nd edn. Routledge. [2011] pp. xxv + 341. hb £65 ISBN 9 7804 1555 0055, pb £20.99 ISBN 9 7804 1555 0062.

Miller, D. Gary. Language Change and Linguistic Theory, vol. 1: Approaches, Methodology, and Sound Change; vol. 2: Morphological, Syntactic, and Typological Change. OUP. [2010] pp. 912. £160 ISBN 9 7801 9959 0216.

Miller, Jim. A Critical Introduction to Syntax. Critical Introductions to Linguistics. Continuum. [2011] pp. x + 275. hb £70 ISBN 9 7808 2649 7031, pb £22.99 ISBN 9 7808 2649 7048.

Mills, Sara, and Louise Mullany. Language, Gender and Feminism: Theory, Methodology and Practice. Routledge. [2011] pp. viii + 206. £80 ISBN 9 7804 1548 5951.

Mindt, Ilka. Adjective Complementation: An Empirical Analysis of Adjectives Followed by That-Clauses. Studies in Corpus Linguistics 42. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vii + 238. €95 ($143) ISBN 9 7890 2722 3180.

Mooney, Annabelle, Jean Stilwell Peccei, Suzanne LaBelle, Berit Engoy Henriksen, Eva Eppler, Anthea Irwin, Pia Pichler, Sian Preece, and Satori Soden, eds. The Language, Society and Power Reader. Routledge. [2011] pp. 400. hb £80 ISBN 9 7804 1543 0821, pb £23.99 ISBN 9 7804 1543 0838.

Mooney, Annabelle, Jean Stilwell Peccei, Suzanne LaBelle, Berit Engoy Henriksen, Eva Eppler, Anthea Irwin, Pia Pichler, Sian Preece, and Satori Soden, eds. Language, Society and Power: An Introduction, 3rd edn. Routledge. [2011] pp. xxv + 252. £60 ISBN 9 7804 1557 6581.

Mortelmans, Jesse, Tanja Mortelmans, and Walter De Mulder, eds. From Now to Eternity. Rodopi. [2011] pp. v + 209. £39.60 ISBN 9 7890 4203 2675.

Mortelmans, Tanja, Jesse Mortelmans, and Walter de Mulder, eds. In the Mood for Mood. Rodopi. [2011] pp. iv + 174. £33.30 ISBN 9 7890 4203 2699.

Mugglestone, Lynda. Dictionaries: A Very Short Introduction. OUP. [2011] pp. xvi + 140. pb £7.99 ISBN 9 7801 9957 3790.

Mukherjee, Joybrato, and Marianne Hundt, eds. Exploring Second-Language Varieties of English and Learner Englishes: Bridging a Paradigm Gap. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 222. €90 ISBN 9 7890 2722 3203.

Müller, Gereon. Constraints on Displacement: A Phase-Based Approach. Language Faculty and Beyond 7. Benjamins. [2011] pp. x + 339. €105 ($158) ISBN 9 7890 2720 8248.

Musan, Renate, and Monika Rathert, eds. Tense Across Languages. MGruyter. [2011] pp. 260. €99.95 ISBN 9 7831 1026 6115.

Navest, Karlijn. John Ash and the Rise of the Children's Grammar. LOT Publications (dissertation series 208). [2011] pp. 201. €25.57 ISBN 9 7894 6093 0614.

Nelson, Cecil L. Intelligibility in World Englishes: Theory and Application. Routledge. [2011] pp. 152. $145 ISBN 9 7804 1587 1822.

O'Halloran, Kay, and Bradley A. Smith, eds. Multimodal Studies: Exploring Issues and Domains. Routledge. [2011] pp. 290. £75 ISBN 9 7804 1588 8226.

O'Keeffe, Anne, Brian Clancy, and Svenja Adolphs. Introducing Pragmatics in Use. Routledge (Taylor & Francis). [2011] pp. ix + 188. £70 ($110) ISBN 9 7804 1545 0928.

Oostendorp, Marc van, Colin J. Ewen, Elizabeth V. Hume, and Keren Rice, eds. The Blackwell Companion to Phonology. 5 vols. Wiley-Blackwell. [2011] pp. 3,192. £625 ISBN 9 7814 0518 4236.

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Oxford, Rebecca L. Teaching and Researching Language Learning Strategies. Longman. [2011] pp. xiv + 342. pb $46.67 ISBN 9 7805 8238 1292.

Page, Ruth, and Bronwen Thoms, eds. New Narratives: Stories and Storytelling in the Digital Age. UNebraska. [2011] pp. 360. £26.99 ISBN 9 7808 0321 7867.

Pahta, Paivi, and Andreas Jucker, eds. Communicating Early English Manuscripts. CUP. [2011] pp. xxii + 290. £65 ISBN 9 7805 2119 3290.

Pastor-Gomez, Iria. The Status and Development of N+N Sequences in Contemporary English Noun Phrases. Linguistic Insights: Studies in Language and Communication 126. Lang. [2011] pp. 216. pb €42.80 (£40) ISBN 9 7830 3430 5341.

Patard, Adeline, and Frank Brisard, eds. Cognitive Approaches to Tense, Aspect, and Epistemic Modality. Benjamins. [2011] pp. ix + 319. €90 ($135) ISBN 9 7890 2722 3838.

Penka, Doris. Negative Indefinites. OUP. [2011] pp. xiii + 264. hb £71 ISBN 9 7801 9956 7263, pb £33 ISBN 9 7801 9956 7270.

Penttila, Esa, and Heli Paulasto, eds. Language Contact Meets English Dialects: Studies in Honour of Markku Filppula. CambridgeSP. [2009] pp. xiv + 305. £44.99 ISBN 9 7814 4381 3396.

Perez-Llantada, Carmen, and Maida Watson, eds. Specialised Languages in the Global Village: A Multi-Perspective Approach. CambridgeSP. [2011] pp. 305. £44.99 ISBN 9 7814 4382 9090.

Petersen, Margrethe, and Jan Engberg, eds. Current Trends in LSP Research: Aims and Methods. Lang. [2011] pp. 323. pb €64.90 ISBN 9 7830 3431 0543.

Philip, Gill. Colouring Meaning: Collocation and Connotation in Figurative Language. Benjamins. [2011] pp. xii + 232. £95 ISBN 9 7890 2722 3197.

Piazza, Roberta. The Discourse of Italian Cinema and Beyond: Let Cinema Speak. Continuum. [2011] pp. 272. £75 ISBN 9 7814 4113 6978.

Piazza, Roberta, Monika Bednarek, and Fabio Rossi, eds. Telecinematic Discourse: Approaches to the Language of Films and Television Series. Pragmatics & Beyond new series 211. Benjamins. [2011] pp. xi + 315. €100.70 ($143) ISBN 9 7890 2725 6157.

Pienemann, Manfred, and Jorg-U. Keßler, eds. Studying Processability Theory. Benjamins. [2011] pp. 179. €95 ISBN 9 7890 2720 3007.

Pitzl, Marie-Luise. Creativity in English as a Lingua Franca: Idiom and Metaphor. Ph.D. thesis, University of Vienna. [2011] pp. 353.

Poole, Geoffrey. Syntactic Theory. 2nd edn. Modern Linguistics. Palgrave. [2011] pp. xiv + 344. hb £65 ISBN 9 7802 3024 3934, pb £23.99 ISBN 9 7802 3024 3941.

Potowski, Kim, ed. Language Diversity in the USA. CUP. [2010] pp. xvi + 330. hb £64 ISBN 9 7805 2176 8528, pb £24.99 ISBN 9 7805 2174 5338.

Prado-Alonso, Carlos. Full-Verb Inversion in Written and Spoken English. Linguistic Insights: Studies in Language and Communication 127. Lang. [2011] pp. 261. pb €51 (£41.80) ISBN 9 7830 3430 5358. Putz, Martin, and Laura Sicola. Cognitive Processing in Second Language Acquisition: Inside the Learner's Mind. Benjamins. [2011] pp. vii + 373. €95 ISBN 9 7890 2723 9020. Ravassat, Mireille, and Jonathan Culpeper, eds. Stylistics and Shakespeare's Language: Transdisciplinary Approaches. Continuum. [2011] pp. 288. £65 ISBN 9 7814 4112 7952. Reynolds, Kevin. Native North Carolina: The What, Why and Where of Native American Place Names. Parkway. [2011] pp. iii + 122. pb $15 ISBN 9 7819 3325 1721.

Riemer, Nick. Introducing Semantics. CUP. [2010] pp. xv + 460. hb £64 ($106)

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Rudanko, Juhani. Changes in Complementation in British and American English: Corpus-Based Studies on Non-Finite Complements in Recent English. Studies in Language History and Language Change. Palgrave. [2011] pp. 224. £50 ISBN 9 7802 3053 7330. Ruiz de Zarobe, Yolanda, Juan Manuel Sierra, and Francisco Gallardo del Puerto, eds. Content and Foreign Language Integrated Learning: Contributions to Multilingualism in European Contexts. Lang. [2011] pp. 343. pb £66 ISBN 9 7830 3430 0742. Runner, Jeffrey T., ed. Experiments at the Interfaces. Emerald. [2011] pp. xiii +

258. £89.95 ISBN 9 7817 8052 3743. Salzmann, Zdenek, James Stanlaw, and Nobuko Adachi. Language, Culture, and Society: An Introduction to Linguistic Anthropology. WestviewP. [2011] pp. 448. $49 ISBN 9 7808 1334 5406. Samuels, Bridget D. Phonological Architecture: A Biolinguistic Perspective. OUP. [2011] pp. 272. hb £65 ISBN 9 7801 9969 4358, pb £29.99 ISBN 9 7801 9969 4358.

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Shapiro, Lawrence. Embodied Cognition. Routledge. [2011] pp. xii + 242. hb £90 ISBN 9 7804 1577 3416, pb £25.99 ISBN 9 7804 1577 3423.

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Sotirova, Violeta. D.H. Lawrence and Narrative Viewpoint. Continuum. [2011] pp. 238. £75 ISBN 9 7814 4113 2628.

Speer, Susan A., and Elizabeth Stokoe, eds. Conversation and Gender. CUP. [2011] pp. xiii + 344. hb £63 ISBN 9 7805 2187 3826, pb £22.99 ISBN 9 7805 2169 6036.

Straaijer, Robin. Joseph Priestley, Grammarian. Late Modern English Normativism and Usage in a Sociohistorical Context. LOT Publications (dissertation series 271). [2011] pp. 436. €27.08 ISBN 9 7894 6093 0522.

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Tieken-Boon van Ostade, Ingrid. The Bishop's Grammar: Robert Lowth and the Rise of Prescriptivism. OUP. [2011] pp. 340. £71 ISBN 9 7801 9957 9273.

Timofeeva, Olga, and Tanja Saily, eds. Words in Dictionaries and History: Essays in Honour of R.W. McConchie. Benjamins. [2011] pp. xvi + 292. £99 ISBN 9 7890 2722 3388.

Traxler, Matthew J. Introduction to Psycholinguistics: Understanding Language Science. Wiley. [2011] £29.99 ISBN 9 7814 0519 8622.

Trim, Richard. Metaphor and the Historical Evolution of Conceptual Mapping. PalMac. [2011] pp. xiv + 230. £55 ISBN 9 7802 3030 4826.

Trofimovich, Pavel, and Kim McDonough, eds. Applying Priming Methods to L2 Learning, Teaching and Research. Benjamins. [2011] pp. ix + 254. hb €105 ISBN 9 7890 2721 3013, pb €36 ISB 9 7890 2721 3020.

Trudgill, Peter. Investigations in Sociohistorical Linguistics: Stories of Colonisation and Contact. CUP. [2010] pp. xiv + 218. hb £64 ISBN 9 7805 2111 5292, pb 19.99 ISBN 9 7805 2113 2930.

Trudgill, Peter. Sociolinguistic Typology: Social Determinants of Linguistic Complexity. OUP. [2011] pp. 276. hb £60 ISBN 9 7801 9960 4340, pb £17.99 ISBN 9 7801 9960 4357.

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