Scholarly article on topic 'Determinates of Coaching Culture Development: A Case Study'

Determinates of Coaching Culture Development: A Case Study Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — N.N. Abu Mansor, Abd Rahim Syafiqah, A. Mohamed, N. Idris

Abstract This article aims to examine the relationship among determinants towards creating a coaching culture. A quantitative research design (descriptive) using questionnaire survey of a sample of 60 respondents from United Meteoric Group Sdn Bhd, Malaysia was adopted. The findings suggest that among five determinants, all determinants (manager commitment, link between business strategy and developmental focus, recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours, training for coaches and learning and development opportunities) correlated significantly in creating a coaching culture. Significantly, learning and development opportunity was a stronger determinant in creating this coaching culture.

Academic research paper on topic "Determinates of Coaching Culture Development: A Case Study"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 40 (2012) 485 - 489

The 2012 International Conference on Asia Pacific Business Innovation & Technology

Management

Determinates of Coaching Culture Development: A Case

aAbu Mansor, N.N., bSyafiqah Abd Rahim, cMohamed, A.,dIdris, N.

aSenior Lecturer, Department of HRD, 81310 Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia bLecturer, PTPL College, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia cVice President Business Development, Danga Bay, Malaysia, Iskandar Development Management Services aSenior Lecturer, dSenior Lecturer, Department of HRD, 81310 Malaysia, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia

Abstract

This article aims to examine the relationship among determinants towards creating a coaching culture. A quantitative research design (descriptive) using questionnaire survey of a sample of 60 respondents from United Meteoric Group Sdn Bhd, Malaysia was adopted. The findings suggest that among five determinants, all determinants (manager commitment, link between business strategy and developmental focus, recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours, training for coaches and learning and development opportunities) correlated significantly in creating a coaching culture. Significantly, learning and development opportunity was a stronger determinant in creating this coaching culture.

© 20122 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of th e Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management Society

Keywords: coaching culture, manager commitment, business, learning and development

1.0. Introduction

Era of globalisation demonstrates coaching as one of the approaches that give benefits for both organisation and individuals in achieving their desired goals. When good coaching is practiced, the whole organisation will learn new things more quickly and therefore can adapt to changes more effectively [1]. [2] states that management have to play their role to ensure employees' performance through coaching becomes an effective process in maximising employees' potential. Besides, to increase employee's performance, coaching can be one of the tools to help organisations deliver lasting improvement by doing

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology

Management Society

doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.03.220

the job more effectively on individual, team, and organisations. These continuous improvements will lead to achievement of goals and development of employees' knowledge, skills, and abilities. [2] informs coaching can be described as a process to maximise the potential of employee performance. Coaching process encourages employees to continue their personal and professional development, increases employees' creativity and innovation, improve problem solving skills, and continuing aspirations to raise quality and standards [3]. Furthermore, the importance of coaching culture in organisations have been concluded by [4] stating that exchange of the traditional approach of working to modern approach which encourages independent working could increase responsibility towards employees' performance. However, if there is no medium to catalyst the employees' behaviour or organisations management itself, they could not utilise their performance to achieve the goals. This study examines the relationship among determinants in creating a coaching culture in United Meteoric Group, Sdn Bhd, Malaysia. Coaching is embedded to guide and support their employees especially new recruits to encourage active learning and continuous learning which lead to increased employee performance. There are five determinants involved which are manager commitment, link between business strategy and developmental focus, recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours, training for coaches and learning and development opportunities. Purposive sampling technique through a survey was employed as the company only has 60 employees which can provide information about coaching culture and determine which determinants contribute in creating a coaching culture.

2.0. Literature Review

2.1. Coaching Models

[5] inform coaching is a "process to build the relationship which has been set up by management which allows managers to manage employees by coaching and this occurs at all levels within an organization". According to [6] when organizations have accomplished desired changes in individuals, leadership behaviour will lead to improved efficiency of team members, which in turn will enhance the ability to meet business strategies. [7] states the GROW model was developed to assist top managers, middle managers, and line managers in creating a culture of high performance within organisations. Furthermore has three guiding principles are discussed to form the effectiveness of coaching relationships. The first principle is earning the right to coach which building peer-to-peer relationships between coach and employees. The second principle is perfect partnership which refers to the coach who uses their ability in developing their employees' talent, giving inspiration for them regarding their knowledge, skills and abilities, and holding his responsibility to perform at his very best and in expectant might lead to the perfect partnership. Finally, the third principle is the dangerous conversation. [8] states communication can be considered as one of the essential part of human interaction which enhances all aspects of individual personal, and professional lives. In addition, this common GROW model is one of the approaches that have been used by managers in the organization in helping to develop coaching skills. It was developed by [8] and provides simple guidelines which can be applied by managers. According to [4],

coaching is one of the approaches in developing human talent. It is because, when coaching is within the culture, they have the value of a good relationship between the employees and the manager, the spirit of teamwork as well as individual and organizational productivity. To achieve this GROW model, the new seven steps coaching model was developed to provide the overview of skills and techniques which a coach can employ through the direction of observation of best coaches. The first step is the coaches' responsibility to assess all area of the employees' life. [9] informs coaching skills have to be established to build rapport among employees.

2.2. Determinants that Contribute in Creating a Coaching Culture

Many discussions from various authors on determinants as guidelines for the organization to be adapted in their culture which are the organization's norms, values, and beliefs which affect their behaviours, and the choices they make. Firstly, organizations have to involve management team members and discuss ways for coaching to be beneficial to organization's vision of the future. The team should determine how the stretched goals apply to each individual member on the management team. From this, individuals get clearer understanding about coaching and they can use coaching to increase their performance and achieve expected goals. Different people has different learning of style, therefore, the management team need to identify the learning styles for each individual and this will lead them to support and motivate their team in achieving the goals. [6] informs organisations have to ask their employees what is the suitable culture which can give expected outcomes. The lack of clear commitment from the top about their objectives and strategy and the lack of conducive organisational culture meant that even the best thought out schemes are going to fail. In executing any determinants, recognize and reward coaching culture behaviour is perceived as one of the critical success factors in ensuring the creating of coaching culture in the organization. There are three areas where the exemplary organizations made significant efforts to develop their culture which people are rewarded for knowledge sharing [11]. This is the explicit recognition and access to the highest level of the organization as a powerful motivator, especially for those who are in the middle management whom often feel disconnected and disempowered. When organizations give reward or recognition, it will make the coach or trainees feel satisfied because they get the quality of learning and development opportunities [5]. When organisations provide training to a pool of coaches, it will create a type of organisation's culture. There is an argument for some form of recognition that even line manager coaches have reached a basic level of competence and performance in the role. Thus, for the line manager, they have to attend initial and secondary training. They would then be observed in practicing coaching. Organisations have coaching culture when the goal would be to provide opportunities for managers to learn the skills to coach through training and follow-up coaching sessions with an external, skilled coach [10]. The key to learn how to coach is, first, to understand the purpose of coaching and how coaching fits within the strategy of organisations.

3.0. Findings and Discussion

3.1. Relationship between Determinants in Creating a Coaching Culture

Results (rafar to table 2) indicated among fiva coaching culture determinants, ell foer determinants positively correlated with in creating a coaching culture at significance level of p<0.02. These determinants are manager commitment (r=0.46); link between business strategy and developmental focus (r=0.40); recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours (r=0.40); and training for coaches (r=0.30). Only learning and development opportunities was found to positively correlated in creating a coaching culture at significant level of p <0.05 with (r=0.50).

Table 2: Correlation between determinants in creating a coaching culture

Determinants In Creating a Coaching Culture

Manager Commitment .460*

Link between business strategy and developmental focus .400*

Recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours .400*

Training for coaches .300*

Learning and development opportunities .500**

* Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed); ** Correlation is significant at the 0.02 level (2-tailed)

The review of literature revealed all determinants are found to significantly correlate in creating a coaching culture. aanager commitment has significant relationship in creating a coaching culture in their organization and supported by [5]. Link between business strategy and developmental focus is one of the strongest factors that have significant value in creating a coaching culture. Respondents stated that it is extremely important. Recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours have significant relationship towards creating a coaching culture. As people behaviours change to be more in line with the emerging coaching culture, it is important to reinforce these behaviours through communications and recognition activities. Once organizations have offered coaching culture in organizations, it needs to be communicated actively and creatively within the organization [6]. Training for coaches has significant relationship in creating a coaching culture where organisations will make mistakes if they offer training and coaching to managers without limited quality of coaches. It is because managers only perform internal within their responsibilities. Once organisations feel quality coaches are in place, the coaching initiative can be established [20]. Surprisingly, only learning and development opportunities reported has significant relationship in creating a coaching at significant level of p <0.05 with (r=0.50). [20] clearly stated learning and development opportunities would automatically increase employee performance in creating a coaching culture. The key to learning how to coach is, first, to understand the purpose of coaching and how coaching fits within the strategy of organizations [20]. Summary of Pearson's correlation results for determinants in creating a coaching culture are shown figure 2.

Determinants

• Manager commitment*

• Link between business strategy and development focus* Coaching

• Reward and Recognise coaching culture behaviours* Culture

• Training for coaches *

• Learning and development opportunities **

*Significant at p<0.05; "Significant at p<0.01

Figure 1. Summary of Pearson's correlation determinants in creating a coaching culture

4.0. Conclusion

The competition between companies in the 21st century is the competition of human resource in essence. Coaching culture is one of the most important elements to motivate employees to work hard and achieve better and increased job performance. Many factors have been considered to influence in creating a coaching culture, however, this research informs manager commitment, link between business strategy and developmental focus, recognize and reward coaching culture behaviours, training for coaches and learning and development opportunities to have relationship in creating a coaching culture.

References

[1] Redshaw, B., (2000), "Do We Really Understand Coaching? How Can We Make It Work Better?", Industrial and Commercial

Training, Vol. 32, No. 3, pp. 106-108.

[2] Armstrong, M. and Baron, A. (2004), Managing Performance: Performance Management in Action (2nd Ed.), Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), London, UK.

[3] Hafford-Letchfield, T (2007), Practising Quality: Quality Assurance and Performance Management in Social Care, Learning Matters, Exeter, U.K

[4] McMahon, G. (2002), "Coaching Skills for Managers", available at http://www.gladeanamcmahon.com/pdf/Coaching%20Skills%20For%20Managers.pdf (accessed 20 March 2010).

[5] Clutterbuck, D. and Megginson, D. (2005), Making Coaching Work: Creating a Coaching Culture, Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD), London, UK.

[6] Anderson, M.C, Frankovelgia, C, and Broome, G.H. (2009), Creating Coaching Cultures: What Business Leaders Expect and SStrategies to Get There, A CCL Research White Paper, The Center for Creative Leadership, pp. 1-23.

[7] Thompson, G. and Biro, S. (2007), Unleashed!: Expecting Greatness and Other Secrets to Coaching for Exceptional Performance, Select Books Inc., New York, NY.

[8] Whitmore, J. (2002), Coaching for Performance, Nicholas Brealey Publishing, London, U.K.

[9] Dembkowski, S. and Eldridge, F. (2003), "Beyond GROW: A New Coaching Model", The International Journal of. Mentoring and Coaching, Vol. 1, Issue 1, pp. 1-6.

[10] Whitaker, M.K. (2009), "Corporate Coaching", available at http://www.xcelogic.com/articles/Corporate%20Coaching.pdf (accessed 25 March 2010).

[11] Lewicka, D. (2011). Creating Innovative Attitudes in an Organisation - Comparative Analysis of Tools Applied in IBM Poland and ZPAS Group. Journal of Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management. Vol. 1, No. 1, p1-12