Scholarly article on topic 'Relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of high school students'

Relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of high school students Academic research paper on "Psychology"

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Abstract of research paper on Psychology, author of scientific article — Milad Khajehpour

Abstract This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of 300 high school Students in Tehran, Iran. The participants ranged in age between 15 and 18 years. Researcher in this study used an adapted questionnaire. Results showed that both emotional intelligence and parental involvement could predict academic achievement in high school students. Similarly, there were significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement; and between parental involvement and academic achievement. The implications of these results for academic are discussed. It is important to acknowledge that this study has some limitations. Despite these limitations, the findings of the study have provided a further need on how to improve upon the academics of students. In particular, the study has shown that parental attention and emotional well-being cannot be over emphasized in academic success.

Academic research paper on topic "Relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of high school students"

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Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 15 (2011) 1081-1086

WCES-2011

Relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of high school students

Milad Khajehpour a *

aIslamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Young Researchers Club, Tehran, 1916639461, Iran

Abstract

This study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic performance of 300 high school Students in Tehran, Iran. The participants ranged in age between 15 and 18 years. Researcher in this study used an adapted questionnaire. Results showed that both emotional intelligence and parental involvement could predict academic achievement in high school students. Similarly, there were significant positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement; and between parental involvement and academic achievement. The implications of these results for academic are discussed. It is important to acknowledge that this study has some limitations. Despite these limitations, the findings of the study have provided a further need on how to improve upon the academics of students. In particular, the study has shown that parental attention and emotional well-being cannot be over emphasized in academic success. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Emotional intelligence; Parental involvement; Academic performance

1. Introduction

Academic achievement is undoubtedly a research after the heart of educational psychologists. In their attempt to investigate what determines academic outcomes of learners, they have come with more questions than answers. In recent time, prior literature has shown that learning outcomes have been determined by such variables as; family, school, society and motivation factors (Aremu, 2000).

In the same vein, Parker and et al. (2003) noted that much of the previous studies have focused on the impact of demographic and socio-psychological variables on academic achievement. More recently, another emerging dimension to the determinant of academic achievement is government factor (Aremu, 2004).

In spite of the seeming exhaustiveness of literature on the determinants of academic achievement of learners, there seems to be more area of interest to be investigated. This becomes obvious in view of the continue interest of researchers and educational psychologists; and the continued attention of government and policy makers and planners. Academic performance has been largely associated with many factors. Most students in high schools in Iran are daily confronted with challenges of coping with their academics under serious emotional strains occasioned by long walk to school, poor school environment, and been taught by unmotivated teachers. Couple with this, is an

* Milad Khajehpour. Tel.: +98-21-226-12980 ; cellphone: +98-912-238-8729 E-mail address: m.khajehpour.psy@hotmail.com

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.03.242

uncooperative to study attitude of parents who more often than toil to provide for the needs of the family. These would definitely not augur well for academic success.

It is therefore, instructive in the present study to investigate the relationship among emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic achievement of students in high schools.

2. Backgrounds

2.1. Emotional intelligent and academic performance

In the beginning, psychologists focused on cognitive constructs like memory and problem solving in their first attempt to write on intelligence. This did not last when researchers begun to challenge this orientation and recognized that there are other non-cognitive aspects of intelligence. For instance, David Wechsler proposed that the non-intelligence abilities are essential for predicting ability to succeed in life. Imbrosciano and Berlach (2003) have remarked that success may be viewed in three main domains. A good student is often referred to as being intelligent, or well behaved, or academically successful. Arising from this are the questions: Are there any connection between these domains? Is there a strong connection, between intelligence and academic achievement? Do students with high intelligence behave better? These and many more questions underscore the important place intelligence has been found to play in academic success.

Goleman (1995) gave a short of answer when he asserted that success depends on several intelligences and on the control of emotion .Specifically, he stressed that intelligence (IQ) alone is no more the measure of success. According to him intelligent account for only 20% of the total success, and the rest goes for Emotional and Social intelligences. Abisamra (2000) then queried that if this is found to be so, why the teachers don't begin to teach its components (i.e.., emotional intelligence) to students at schools? He then concluded that if emotional intelligence affects student achievement, then it is imperative for schools to integrate it in their curricula and thereby raising the level of students' success.

According to Salovey and Mayer (1990), Emotional Intelligence is being able to monitor one's own and other's feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them, and to use this to guide one's thinking and actions. Again, Salovey and Mayer (1993) wrote that an emotionally intelligent person is skilled in four areas: identifying, using, understanding, and regulating emotions. Similarly, Goleman also stressed that emotional intelligence consists of five components: Knowing one's emotions (self-awareness), managing them, motivating self, recognizing emotions in others (empathy), and handling relationships. In recent times therefore, social scientists and educational psychologists are beginning to uncover the relationship of emotional intelligence to other phenomenon. These are: leadership (Ashfort & Humphrey, 1995); group performance (Williams & Sternberg, 1988); academic achievement (Abisamra, 2000); and policing (Aremu, 2005).

The foregoing attest to the significance of emotional intelligence to all constructs (school achievement inclusive). As a matter of fact, emotional intelligence (EI) has recently attracted a lot of interest in the academic literature. Specifically, Finnegan (1998) argued that school should help students learn the abilities underlying the emotional intelligence. This he believes could lead to achievement from formal education years of the child.

In a recent studies conducted by Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan and Majeski (2002) they discovered that various emotional and social competencies were strong predictors of academic success. Similarly, Parker, et al. (2003) found emotional intelligence to be significant predictors of academic success. In the same vein, Low and Nelson (2004) reported that emotional intelligence skills are key factors in the academic achievement and test performance of high school and college students respectively.

Likewise (2000) reported that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. He therefore canvassed for inclusion of emotional intelligence in the schools' curricula. Petrides, Frederickson and Furnham in Cotton and Wikelund (2005) argued that any investigation of the potential effects of emotional intelligence on academic performance must be pursued in a specific context .In essence, the importance of emotional intelligence on academic achievement has been found to be very significant .Nevertheless, and in spite of the studies reviewed, there is still a need to further investigate the relationship of emotional intelligence to academic achievement most especially in country like Iran, where most researchers are yet to show interest in the construct.

2.2. Parental involvement and academic performance

On parental involvement and academic achievement, studies have shown to date that the two constructs seems to be positively related. Findings have demonstrated that parent's involvement in the education of the children has been found to be of benefit to parents, children, and schools (Tella and Tella 2003; Campbell, 1995; Rich, 1987).

Rasinki and Fredrick's (1988) concluded that parents play an invaluable role in laying the foundation for their children's learning; Zang and Carrasquillo (1995) also similarly remarked that when children are surrounded by caring, capable parents and are able to enjoy nurturing and moderate competitive kinship, a foundation for literacy is built with no difficulty. Cotton and Wikelund (2005) ably capped it by asserting that the more intensively parents are involved in their children's learning; the more beneficial are the achievement effects. Thus, it is believed that when parents monitor homework, encourage participation in extracurricular activities, are active in parents -teacher associations, and help children develop plans for their future; children are more likely to respond and do well in school.

Based on the results of Sixty-six studies, Henderson and Berla (1994) were of the opinion that repeated evidence has confirmed that the most accurate predictor of student achievement is the extent to which the family is involved in the child's education, and not the family's level of income.

As a matter of fact, McMillan (2000) noted that parental pressure has a positive and significant effect on public school performance. This becomes particularly obvious when the exactness of the parental pressure is brought to bear on the children's academic performance. Similarly, Schickedanz (1995) also reported that children of passive parents were found to perform poorly academically.

Valez in Ryan (2005) reported that academic performance is positively related to having parents who enforce rules at home. The obviousness of the research findings reported in this study is that family involvement improves facets of children's education such as daily attendance (e.g. Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Simon, 2000), student achievement (e.g. Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Sheldom & Epstein, 2001, Simon, 2000; Van Voorhis, 2001) behaviour (e.g. Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Simon, 2000) and motivation (e.g. Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Brooks, Bruno &Burns, 1997).

It is on this note that (Deutsher and Ibe, n.d) posited it was expected that parent involvement would have a large role on children's performance. The foregoing, have shown that one of the greatest barriers to high academic achievement for a good number of students, is lack of parental involvement in children's education.

In sum, research has shown that parents do want to get along with their children's education knowing fully well that such involvement could promote better achievement. However, parents need a better little direction as to how they can effectively do this.

According to a magazine reports (2002), six types of programs could be utilized by schools to build strong parental skills. These are: one, school can assist families with parenting and child-rearing skills; two, schools can communicate with families about school programs and students' progress and needs; three, school can work to improve families as volunteers in school activities; four, schools can encourage families to be involved in learning activities at home; five, schools can include parents as participants in important schools decisions, and six, schools can coordinate with business and agencies to provide resources and services for families, student, and the community. The importance of these programs further attest to the fact that student's academic performance is dependent upon the parent-school bond. Thus the importance of parental involvement on academic performance cannot be over emphasized. The stronger the relationship is, especially between the parents and their wards' education, the higher the academic achievement.

Adeyemo (2005) saw reason in this by stressing that there is need to foster home school partnership. In his attempt to give more meaning to his contribution on parental involvement and children's education, (Epstein, 1997) put up a model in which he analysed how children learn and grow through three overlapping spheres of influence: family school and community. According to him, these three spheres must form partnership to best meet the needs of the child. Epstein (1997) again identified six types of involvement based on the relationships between the families, school and community. These are: parenting (skills), communicating, volunteering, learning at home, decision making, and collaborating with the community. He stressed it clearly that these six types of involvement need to be included to have successful partnerships (between the home and the school).

Baker and Soden (1997) remarked that much of the research that examined the relationships between parent involvement and children's education assesses parent involvement by utilizing one particular measure, such as

counting the number of parents that volunteer, coming to meetings, or coming to parent-teacher conferences. Other studies utilized measures that consists of a view closed-ended questions that target particular aspect of parent involvement and often focus on the number of times parents participate in some particular events (Goldring & Shapira, 1993; Griffith, 1996; Grolnick & Slowiczek, 1994; Zellman &Waterman, 1998).

According to Baker and Soden (1997), this type of measure does not allow for a rich picture of parent involvement, nor generate new ideas.

In this review so far, efforts have been made on what researchers have published on emotional intelligence and parental involvement, and how these could impact on academic achievement. It is the primary purpose of this study therefore to investigate the significant impact of these two constructs (emotional intelligence and parental involvement) on academic achievement of in-school adolescents. To effectively anchor this purpose, two hypotheses were tested for significance at .05 margin of error. They are:

1-There will be no significant relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and participants' academic achievement.

2-Emotional intelligence and parental involvement are not significant predictors of participants' academic achievement.

3. Method

3.1. Population and sample

The population of this investigation consisted of in-school adolescents who were in high schools in Tehran, Iran. It was from this population that a sample of 300 (150 males and 150 females) adolescents was drawn through a randomized process from 10 high schools by multistage cluster sampling. The participants ranged in age between 15 and 18 years.

This study used a questionnaire was in three sections. The section A of The contained a personal data, the section B of the questionnaire contains items on emotional intelligence which were adapted from the 33 items Emotional Intelligence Scale by (Schuttle, Haggerty, Cooper, Golden & Dornheim, 1998) with a cronbach alpha of 0.90 for internal consistency and 0.78 test-retest reliability after two weeks interval.

The section C of the instrument is on parental involvement. This also contained a 10 item statement structured on a 4 point rating format. In this section using a split -half method, co-efficient alphas of 0.59 and 0.71 were returned for section B and C of the instrument respectively.

Also, as part of measure, data on academic achievement were collected from the schools' record of students 'scores in English Language and Mathematics of the term preceding the administration of the questionnaires.

The results of the analysis on the study are presented in the tables below:

Table 1 shows the results of first hypothesis that was there will be no significant relationship between emotional intelligence, parental involvement and participants' academic achievement.

Table 1: Mean, Standard Deviation and Inter Correlation Matrix of the Independent and Dependent Variables

3.2. Measures

4. Results

Variables Academic Achievement Emotional Intelligence Parenting Involvement

No M SD

300 14.2 3.4

300 52.7 6.9

300 43.6 8.1

Academic Achievement

1.00 0.42 0.57

Emotional Intelligence

0.42 1.00 0.007

Parenting Involvement

0.57 0.007 1.00

t= 2.576 p < 0.005

In table 1, the inter-correlation matrix of the independent (emotional intelligence and parental involvement) and dependent (academic achievement) variables scores are computed. In the table, there is a positive and significant

relationship of 0.318 between emotional intelligence and academic achievement, a positive and significant of 0.3261 also existed between parental involvement and academic achievement. While no positive relationship existed between emotional intelligence and parental involvement.

Table 2 shows the result of second hypothesis that was Emotional intelligence and parental involvement are not significant predictors of participants' academic achievement.

Table 2: A Multiple Regression Analysis on Independent and Dependent Variables

DF SS MS F

Regression 2 32418.5 16217.359 95.190808

Residual 297 19451.1 1866.7464

Total 299 51869.6 0.625

F= 4.61 p < 0.01

A multiple regression analysis on the data obtained on independent (emotional intelligence and parental involvement) and dependent (academic achievement) variables were run. Table 2 shows that both emotional intelligence and parental involvement made 62% prediction of academic achievement. From the analysis of variance in table performed on multiple regression, it is seen that the calculated F value = 95.19, P < 0.01 when the two variables were regressed with the academic achievement. These indicate that both emotional intelligence and parental involvement were good predictors of academic achievement of the participants.

5. Discussion and Conclusion

Analyses of relationship among emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic achievement in this investigation indicated that there is a positive and significant relation among emotional intelligence, parental involvement and academic achievement of the participants. This suggests that emotional intelligence and parental involvement could predict academic achievement. As predicted in hypothesis 1, analyses have shown that emotional intelligence and parental involvement could significantly predict academic achievement of high school students. This finding is consistent with evidence of Parker et al (2001, 2002, and 2003), on the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic success. Similarly, Abisamra (2000) had reported that there is a positive relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement. Certainly and in consonant with the present finding, it can be ascertain that emotional intelligence determines to a great extent academic achievement among high school students. In the investigation, it was also found that parental involvement as well predicts academic achievement .This finding is supported by the studies of (Tella and Tella 2003; Campbell, 1995; Rich, 1987; Cotton & Wikelund, 2001; Simon, 2000; and Van Voorhis, 2001). In these studies, it was consistently reported that there is a positive relationship between the involvement of the parents and children's academic performance. Thus, it is not out of research context to assert that the degree of parental involvement of the parents in the education of their wards would determine the degree of their (children) academic achievement. This assertion is consistent with the view of Schickedanz (1995) in which he reported that children whose parents are passive perform poorly academically. So also, the fact sheet provided by (The Children Aid Society, 2003) which stated that higher parental involvement is associated with higher educational expectations, enrolment in gifted and talented programs, and positive perceptions of schools, lend a good support to the assertion. Regarding hypothesis 2, positive relationship was observed for emotional intelligence and academic achievement, and as well for parental involvement and academic achievement. The finding of this hypothesis is a confirmatory of the finding of the first hypothesis earlier reported in the study.

These findings have some implications. First; parents could have to note that their interpersonal relationships and direct interest in the academics of their children could bring a better academic performance. Thus effort should be made by them to be positively disposed to academics of their children. Two; both the home and the school need to cooperate in making the learners to be well adjusted emotionally as this could make or mar academic achievement. It is therefore, recommended that counselling psychologists and school's counsellors should work on the emotional well-being of students in the school. Findings of the study have provided a further need on how to improve upon the academics of students. In particular, the study has shown that parental attention and emotional well-being cannot be over emphasized in academic success.

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