Scholarly article on topic 'Language Purism and Cross-cultural Penetration of Gastronomic Lexicon into the Kazakh Language'

Language Purism and Cross-cultural Penetration of Gastronomic Lexicon into the Kazakh Language Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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{"language purism" / "loan word" / "gastronomic lexicon"}

Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Ismailova Nurgul, Suleimenova Eleonora, Kulichenko Yuliya

Abstract One of the attributes of monolingual policy is linguistic purism with its active impact on a language and the processes with the view of an ideal image of language. In such an ideal language, first of all foreign words are exposed to puristic regulation. In Soviet times the sole Russian language conducted foreign words into Kazakh language standardising its semantics, pronunciation and spelling. Such a centralisation of the process of borrowings led to unlimited impact of the Russian language, and flow of foreign lexicon into Kazakh language via only Russian was realised purposefully and deliberately.

Academic research paper on topic "Language Purism and Cross-cultural Penetration of Gastronomic Lexicon into the Kazakh Language"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 112 (2014) 451 - 456

International Conference on Education & Educational Psychology 2013 (ICEEPSY 2013)

Language Purism and Cross-Cultural Penetration of Gastronomic Lexicon into the Kazakh Language

Ismailova Nurguf, Suleimenova Eleonora^, Kulichenko Yuliya^'*

"Faculty of Philology, Literary Studies and World Languages bAl-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050040 Almaty, Kazakhstan


One of the attributes of monolingual policy is linguistic purism with its active impact on a language and the processes with the view of an ideal image of language. In such an ideal language, first of all foreign words are exposed to puristic regulation.

In Soviet times the sole Russian language conducted foreign words into Kazakh language standardising its semantics, pronunciation and spelling. Such a centralisation of the process of borrowings led to unlimited impact of the Russian language, and flow of foreign lexicon into Kazakh language via only Russian was realised purposefully and deliberately.

© 2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunder responsibility of Cognitive-counselling,research and conference services (c-crcs). Keywords: language purism, loan word, gastronomic lexicon

1. Introduction

Both inner and outer social contacts comprise an inseparable part of any contemporary society. As a result of cultural relations, communication, and information change, the loan of subjects and concepts occur, which lead to the creation or borrowing their lexical definitions, that is, emerging new words. One of the crucial ways of new words emergence in any language is loan.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7 727-377-33-39 (13-29); fax: +7 727-377-34-75 E-mail address:,,

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Cognitive-counselling, research and conference services (c-crcs). doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.1188

Recently, in the Kazakh language loans of dish, beverage, and cooking processes names have a prominent place. They usually get acquainted easily and fast and are used in every sphere of human life: starting from as scientific-popular (dictionaries, publications of a publicistic character) ending with an everyday life (cooking books, articles, recipes in publication of entertainment and educational character).

Changes, which took place in Kazakhstan at the end of the 20th century, influenced all spheres of human life, and, of course, are reflected in a language. In the history of the Kazakh language there are several periods of intensive mutual relation with other languages, which made its impact on the development tendency of the Kazakh language, influenced on its lexical system and grammar order.

Nowadays, our language is undertaking the next stage of active foreign language impact (mainly that of the English language). The history of every foreign word in an accepted language is unique: its loan reasons speed, quality of its adaptation in a foreign language system is different, and the language status of lexical units is also various.

The intensification of language contacts during increasing the role of cultural and economic ties between nations lead to emerging a special fund of international words, having both in a languages of the same root and other. Today, we observe a large flow of foreign language vocabulary entering the Kazakh language.

In his article "Foreign word in a context of the modern social life" L.P. Krysin notes, that there is a distribution of foreign words by their functional styles and speech genres. The most of loan words are noticed in a newspaper and journal articles, devoted to sports, art, fashion, politics. Everyday speech usually does not undergo the impact of loan words.

Restaurants and fast food, hose users are people of different profession and age, became the most unique and brightest phenomenon of the modern life. Names for food, that is a thematic group "fruit and vegetables" is the most open group for new words enriching, and it is possible to assume, that it is going to enlarge further. Wider use of foreign language vocabulary, supported by the advertisement, eases and speeds the loan process, provoking their acquisition.

The loan process is characterized by its complex and multi staged character, changeability and unsustainability. The actuality and importance of the problems, related with loaning, attract the attention of linguists to the loan vocabulary. On this theme were written by such linguists as L.P. Efremov, L.P. Krysin, V.V. Kolesov, S. Sorokin, D. Crystal, A. Kaidar, A.K. Kazkenova, E.D. Suleimenova, K.M. Moldabekov, B.E. Uryson, N.A. Gainullina, A.E. Karlinsky, M.M. Kopylenko and many others.

2. Materials and Methods

In the given research work the following methods used: the method of continuous selection, questionnaire, comparative and the cross-cultural analysis, the correlation analysis. SPSS program applied for the statistical analysis of results of the questionnaire. 230 respondents participated in the questionnaire.

Experiments conducted to get information on the presence of such words of this topic group in linguistic consciousness of Kazakh native speakers, which allowed to identify familiarity/unfamiliarity of Kazakh native speakers with borrowed words and units that the successfully adapting to peculiarities of Kazakh language.

3. Purpose of the study

The Kazakh language has become more active recipient of foreign lexis (irrespective of the scale of borrowings and purists' activities) as Kazakhstan gained its independence, thus its relevant status in an economic, political, educational and cultural space. Today, when priorities and purposes of language policy has changed in extremely opposite direction and it has been started to free Kazakh language from foreign words (mainly, the words borrowed from Russian, and via Russian and those which are indicative of Russian), it is expected that

inflow of foreign words with the help of Russian would decrease. Is it so in reality? What is the role of the Russian in changed conditions?

It is necessary to take into consideration validity of puristic activities in relation to different (and specific in different degrees) parts of foreign lexicon in answering these questions.

It is natural that first group accounted Soviet words, i.e. concepts and notions of Soviet ideology and reality, which comprised mainly international words of Greek-Latin, Arabic, Italian, Russian and other origins. Certainly, most of them disappeared with realities they denoted inevitably and quickly (such words as: raikom, ispolkom, kolkhoz, sovkhoz, rayispolkom, sel'sovet, komsomol, oktyabryata, etc.). Others have been redefined within a new ideological code and strict puristis requirements.

Terminological resources of the Kazakh were further regulated: it is especially noticeable in the content of regularly published terminological dictionaries for various spheres of science and technology. Foreign words, not regarded as terms, also hit this stream (instead of airport - auezhai, kosmos - garish, etc., even there was a suggestion to substitute the word internet to galamtor).

Simultaneously, the fields started to outline distinctly, where presence of Russian defined features of borrowings as before.

Firstly, it comprises actively expanding lexicon, derived from technology-related progress (internet, social nets, information and other technologies, mass communication, mobile telephony and others), where the Kazakh, striving to take relevant place due to its status as a national language (support to Kazakh content in internet, net communications and others is substantial), is drawn into global process, managed by not only English, but also Russian to a large extent.

Secondly, it is a part of lexicon connected with foreign inflows into expanding cross-cultural and basic spheres of consumption: entertainment industry, music, art, sport, youth and other movements, clothing and fashion, culinary, gastronomic novelties and specialties.

Adjustment and puristic regulation of foreign "inflows" in this part of Kazakh lexicon turned out to be impossible. Kazakh language was open and very susceptible to names related with specific artefacts. Moreover, for example, inflow of gastronomic lexicon (gastronomic lexicon is regarded in this paper widely, denoting all names of foodstuff and meals, technology of cooking and others) can be assessed as spontaneous, that does not meet any obstacles from the part of mono-language ideology and linguistic purism.

Intensification of cross-cultural contacts in this field has discovered its quick and easy permeability: gastronomic lexicon has been easily in filtering through consumption market together with new products, culinary recipes, cooking methods in restaurants and cafes, we see and hear them on TV programmes, special pages of newspapers and magazines, menus, advertisements, and finally, in innumerable internet resources, impact of which is not limited by one sole language.

Kazakh gastronomic tradition, enshrined in nationally marked words and idiomatic expressions, turned out to be open for cross-cultural intervention from the part of other gastronomic discourses, and this caused emergence of plenty units, belonging to other languages, that do not enter the zone of linguistic purists' activities.

4. Results

We turn our attention to names of fruits and vegetables, regarded to be "exotic" for traditional Kazakh gastronomic discourse. The bulk of foreign names of such fruits and vegetables today accounts over 150 units, among which are units of the most diverse languages - Hindi, Turkish, French, German, English, Spanish, Chinese, Italian and others. They are united by their distinct foreign 'colouring' in the linguistic consciousness of native speakers. There are units among them that denote fruits and vegetables which have become a part of Kazakhstani peoples' diet for a long time (banana, kiwi, pineapple and others), there are also those names which have become familiar for people in recent few years (litchi, passion fruit, mangostin and others). There are also units which were borrowed via Russian as an intermediate language, for example from French: patisson, "bere " - beurre, "biagardia" - bigaradier, "duches" - duchesse; German: "fenhel" - fenchel, chnit-luk - schnittlauch,

chpinat - spinat, English: "greipfrut", "papaya"; Italian - '"broccoli"; Spanish: "batat" - batata, "kokos" -coco, "feihoa" - Feijao, "heres" - Jerez; and others. It can be noted that unification of borrowings from Chinese take place in Kazakh and Russian simultaneously.

Table. Gastronomic borrowings in Kazakh via Russian as an intermediary language

Source language Number of words Percentage %

French 26 23,2

German 16 14,2

English 11 9,8

Turkish 10 8,9

Spanish 8 7,1

Latin 7 6,2

Greek 6 5,3

Italian 5 4,4

Dutch 5 4,4

Polish 5 4,4

Portuguese 4 3,5

Persian 3 2,6

Azerbaijan 2 1,7

Other languages: 4 3,5

Total: 112 100,0

Some foreign words from this topic group have been confirmed in Kazakh lexicography ("banan" -banana, "apelsin " - orange, "mandarin " - tangerine, "hurma " - persimmon and others), others are not found in dictionaries, however, are registered in customs declarations, documents of public purchase, price-lists and price labels of trade enterprises, menus of restaurants, cafes and airline companies, culinary books and magazines, websites (,, and others), culinary TV programmes ("Ote damdi", "Dastarhan", "Niam-niam" and others).

Undoubtedly, such a heterogeneity in fixation of foreign words of this topic group, first of all, shows that the process of borrowings and adaptation happen beneath our eyes, that is why it is very interesting and useful to observe such processes.

Informants accounted 230 people - city-folks of Almaty, Kyzylorda, Taraz, Atyrau, Aktobe, Pavlodar, Astana, Semipalatinsk (they represented all four regions in the country: Southern Kazakhstan - 83, Western Kazakhstan - 64, Northern Kazakhstan - 36, Eastern Kazakhstan - 34 people). Age group of informants comprised 17 - 50 years; 31,3% of them are male, 68,7% - female. All informants are university-educated in Kazakh language (philologists, energy workers, economists, translators, teachers, journalists, constructors, mathematicians, military men, historians, lawyers and others).

All results of investigation are presented not in absolute numbers, but as percentage of total.

Full-fledged participation of informants in surveys did not oblige them to give irrefragable answers, vice versa, such answers as "I have not heard of', "I do not know" or blank lines have been assessed to be informative.

Informants were suggested to fill the questionnaire on spot within 10-15 minutes, without consulting with reference books, dictionaries or other informants.

Tasks were quite easy: opposite to each word (isolated, not in a context) in relevant box to mark: a) if the given word is known or unknown, and b) if the word is used or not used by informants themselves.

The list of given words for evaluation constituted 34 foreign linguistic units, registered (17) and not registered (17) in lexicographic resources: "avocado" - avocado, "ananas" - pineapple, "apelsin" - orange,

"artichok" - artichoke, "baklazhan" - eggplant, "banan" - banana, "batat" - sweet potato, "broccoli" -broccoli, "greipfrut" - grapefruit, "keshu" - cashew, "kivi" - kiwi, "cocos" - coco, "kolrabi" - kohlrabi, "kress-salat" - garden cress, "hurma" - persimmon, "kynzhyt" - sesame, "laim" - lime, "limon" - lemon, "lichi" - litchi, "mango " - mango, "mangostin " - mangostin, "mandarin " - tangerine, "marakuya " - passion fruit, "papaya " - papaya, "patisson " - bush pumpkin, "pecan " - pecan, "pomello " - pomelo, "porei" - leek, "redis" - garden radish, "sparzha" - asparagus, "tamarillo" - tamarillo , "finik" - date, "funduk" - filbert, "inzhir" - fig. Number of registered and non-registered words in dictionaries was proportional for involving them in the experiment.

According to the experiment results foreign words were divided into five groups depending on their degrees of penetration into Kazakh language:

1. Words of zero degree penetration (from 0 to 3%) - "batat" - sweet potato, "pecan " - pecan;

2. Words of low-level penetration (from 4 to 25%) - "avocado" - avocado, "artichok" - artichoke, "broccoli" - broccoli, "kolrabi" - kohlrabi, "kress-salat" - garden cress, "lichi" - litchi, "mangostin" - mangostin, "marakuya" - passion fruit, "papaya" - papaya, "patisson" - bush pumpkin, "pomello " - pomelo, "porei" - leek, "sparzha" - asparagus, "tamarillo" - tamarillo;

3. Words with medium degree of assimilation from 26 to 45%) - "greipfrut" - grapefruit, "laim" -lime, "mango" - mango, "kynzhyt" - sesame, "inzhir" - fig, "redis" - garden radish;

4. Words with high level assimilation (from 46 to 70%) - "baklazhan" - eggplant, "cocos" - coco, "finik" - date, "funduk" - filbert;

5. Words with the highest degree of penetration (from 71 to 100%) - "ananas" - pineapple, "apelsin " - orange, , "banan " - banana, "kivi" - kiwi, "hurma " - persimmon, "limon " - lemon, "mandarin" - tangerine.

Variability in allocation of words with different degrees of assimilation in four regions of Kazakhstan is quite commensurate, a noticeable discrepancy between them has been noted in relation to the last three groups. It allows to suppose that, for example, southern citizens do not know names of "exotic" fruits and vegetables very well, and these products themselves do not comprise their diets.

Alongside, it is quite noticeable that the words with high and highest degrees of assimilation are mainly used by women, youth (up to 27) and representatives of humanitarian professions.

In general results of the experiment can be commented in the following way: a) over 90% of informants of all regions of Kazakhstan can explain (most of them use them in their diet) such foreign words, as "ananas" -pineapple, "apelsin " - orange, , "banan " - banana, "kivi" - kiwi, "hurma " - persimmon, "limon " - lemon, "mandarin" - tangerine etc. The words: "artichok" - artichoke, "batat" - sweet potato, "kolrabi" - kohlrabi, "mangostin" - mangostin, "patisson" - bush pumpkin, "pecan" - pecan, "pomello" - pomelo, "tamarillo" -tamarillo were quite difficult for informants. The words: грейпфрут, кешью, кунжут, лайм, манго, редис, инжир and some others took intermediary position.

5. Discussion and Conclusion

As for gastronomic borrowings, it can be noted that Kazakh language actively receives names belonging to another language: a foreign word, that enters another language is more or less shapeless part of lexical material taking a new form in the system of a recipient language. In the process of borrowing a foreign word undergoes some changes. It is adjusted to phonetic norms, grammar rules, and semantic models of the recipient language in diverse degrees. The example of assimilation of gastronomic lexicon, namely names of "fruits and vegetables" into Kazakh demonstrates activeness of a recipient language in borrowing foreign lexicon. Along with semantic explanations the units acquire Kazakh categories of case and number. Orthographic acquisition of units in Kazakh language is writing via Cyrillic signs. Pronunciation of units in accordance with the rules of vowels harmony can be regarded as a phonetic assimilation. Thus, in the process of borrowing the Kazakh language demonstrates activeness in assimilating units and mainly penetrates via Russian language.

Intensification of the process of borrowing and the following peculiarities of cross-cultural intervention of gastronomic lexicon should be especially noted:

a) units of gastronomic discourse are high-demand translates of culturally important information while keeping their original "foreign" image;

b) the process of usual acquisition and lexicographic fixation of given units are not synchronised, the former advances the latter substantially;

c) specific character of gastronomic lexicon of the given group and intensiveness of cross-cultural interaction in gastronomic discourse makes regulation of the process of borrowing for purists almost impossible;

d) the role of Russian as an intermediary language in borrowing this group of gastronomic lexicon remains pre-eminent as before and even very high in cases when assimilation from other languages (for example, Chinese) into Kazakh and Russian occur simultaneously.

Cross-cultural intervention of gastronomic lexicon into Kazakh language, undoubtedly, needs overall investigation of periodization of borrowings (which is possible with the help of data from source studies, history of artefacts of Kazakhstan and Russia, geography, ethnography and others), "intermediary" mechanism of Russian in phonetic, grammar, and semantic adaptation of foreign units by Kazakh language, "foreign" markers of gastronomic lexicon, ways and speed of penetration of foreign words and others.

6. References

Krysin L.P. (1996) Foreign word in a context of the modern social life. Moscow, Pages 142-161. Crystal D. (2001) English as a Global Language. Moscow: Ves' mir, p.240

Efremov L.P. (2009) Essence of lexical loan and main signs of development of loan words. Almaty, p.288 Kazkenova A.K. (2013) The ontology of Loan word: monograph. Moscow: Flinta, p.248 Kaidar A. (1998) The problems of the Kazakh language. Almaty, p.304

Suleimenova E., Smagulova J. (2006) Kazakhstan: Language Situation. Encyclopedia of Language & Linguistics (Second Edition), 2006, Pages 175-177.

Suleimenova E.D. (2011) Language processes and policy: monograph. Almaty, p.117

Moldabekov K.M. (1989) Development of the Russian and international words In modern Kazakh language. Almaty, p.120

Uryson V.E. (1999) Language picture of the world and lexical loans// Linguistics questions, № 6. Pages 79-82.