Scholarly article on topic 'Voice Training Practices “Uludağ University Sample” in Universities Providing Theatre Training in Turkey'

Voice Training Practices “Uludağ University Sample” in Universities Providing Theatre Training in Turkey Academic research paper on "Clinical medicine"

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Abstract of research paper on Clinical medicine, author of scientific article — Ayhan Helvacı

Abstract Theatre is the art of animating a story with the words and movements of the actors in a place set aside as a stage. It is specified in many resources that this art arising from rituals in which stories about gods were animated by one or more actors arose from the choir performing music and the dialogue of the actor and that the appearance of it goes back to the years before Christ. Therefore, music has always been an inseparable part of theatre. Theatre has many branches of art within it and from this aspect, it necessitates a comprehensive and multi dimensional education. One of these dimensions is voice training which an important part of music education is also. In this research, voice training practices and their place in programs in universities providing theatre training in Turkey have been researched, and the subject has been attended to within the scope of Uludag University.

Academic research paper on topic "Voice Training Practices “Uludağ University Sample” in Universities Providing Theatre Training in Turkey"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 116 (2014) 3417 - 3421

5th World Conference on Educational Sciences - WCES 2013

Voice training practices "Uludag University sample" in universities providing theatre training in Turkey

Ayhan Helvaci *,

Uludag University Fine Arts Faculty 16059, Mudanya/Bursa

Abstract

Theatre is the art of animating a story with the words and movements of the actors in a place set aside as a stage. It is specified in many resources that this art arising from rituals in which stories about gods were animated by one or more actors arose from the choir performing music and the dialogue of the actor and that the appearance of it goes back to the years before Christ. Therefore, music has always been an inseparable part of theatre. Theatre has many branches of art within it and from this aspect, it necessitates a comprehensive and multi dimensional education. One of these dimensions is voice training which an important part of music education is also. In this research, voice training practices and their place in programs in universities providing theatre training in Turkey have been researched, and the subject has been attended to within the scope of Uludag University.

© 2013 The Authors. Published byElsevierLtd.

Selectionand/orpeer-review underresponsibility ofAcademic WorldEducationand Research Center. Keywords: Theatre training, voice training

1. Introduction

Theatre, in its broad sense, is described as the collective production of dramaturgy by the director, actors, design artists, technicians, experts and audience ((http://tdkterim.gov.tr/bts/). It is not known exactly when and how this art originated. Researchers suggest that it came into being as a form of dance and music that primitive people performed around the game they caught in order to show their feelings. Adopting a sedentary life through time, people started to gather at a specific place on a specific date. At those meetings one of them used to tell funny stories, sing songs and imitate standing on a higher place. This kind of plays took the form of festivals in time and the number of performers reached two or three. More vivid and interesting subjects started to be chosen and thus those plays gained artistic value. Moreover theatre became an occupation.

Theatre is a part of life. When needed, music, dialogues and movements sometimes accompany it. Therefore, it is one of the most interesting branches of fine arts (Ezici,2008: 113). As it is multi dimensional and dynamic, theatrical education is rich and colorful. It encompasses many fields of art, lasts for a long time and requires hard work in connection with science.

In the course of this education process, one of the most significant things is that a performer ought to learn how to use his natural instrument, that is his voice, efficiently and that requires a person to receive a comprehensive

^Corresponding Author: Ayhan Helvaci Tel.: +90 530 345 03 12 E-mail address: ayhanhelvaci@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Academic World Education and Research Center. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.775

education since a performer must have the basic knowledge and skills which require voice training like diction, stress, pausing and singing. It can be seen that the performers having those skills have accomplished many things.

In our country, it was emphasized in many works that theatrical education as a discipline started im 1914, when Dar' ül Bedayi was founded. With the declaration of democracy, thanks to Atatürk' s culture and art policies, all art branches became more important and many schools were founded. Today, those schools still continue their education, some are in the form of conservatory and some within faculties or private foundation universities. There are 22 theatre schools in total; 8 in Istanbul, 3 in Ankara, Izmir, Eski^ehir, Konya, Adana, Erzurum, Isparta, Qanakkale, Kocaeli,Bursa, Van, Ordu( students are not accepted yet). Those schools are programmed in six distinct types in terms of structuring (Tekerek 2005).

Table: 1.1. Structuring of universities that provide theatre training in Turkey

1- Department of theatre which is related ( from a Theatre Surveys Institute) to professorship, then a unit, later to Ankara University, Faculty of Language, History and Geography, which is composed of Departments of Acting, Writing and Theatre History and Theory.

2- Department of Performing Arts within the Faculty of Fine Arts, which is made up of Acting, Dramatic Writing and Stage Design Departments.

3- Theatre Departments, consisting of Acting and Directing Branches of Art

4- Department of Theatre History and Criticism, related to the Faculty of Letters

5- Department of Stage Decoration and Costume within the Faculty of Fine Arts, Fine Arts University.

6- Conservatory- Acting Departments that provide acting training. ( these are programs, some of which provide training under the name of Performing Arts, Theatre and Acting)

When undergraduate programs that provide theatre training are analyzed, it can clearly be seen that course names may change but they all have similar lesson contents. This is also true for the lessons that contain voice training practice. Course names may be summarized as follow: Voice Training, Voice - Rhythm, Voice training - Solfege, Voice - Breathing Techniques, Voice and Speaking.

As for the universities in America and England, their structures are similar to those in Turkey. Voice training applications are performed under the title of voice and singing, and from the third year on there are lessons named musicals to sing musical songs.

2. Method

In this research, a quantitative method based on literature review and research is employed in order to show voice training applications at the facilities in Turkey and accordingly at Uludag University

3. Findings

Uludag University, Faculty of Fine Arts, Department of Performing Arts was founded in the 2007- 2008 academic year. One of the Art Departments, Acting Art Department gives four years of education. It has created its vision in accordance with a theatre concept that is original, innovative, intertwine with science and the cross point where international and national values meet.

As for its mission, it is to train a stage artist who knows the significance of achieving the universal from national and having a unique expression, who has the principle of collective work, is aware of the close relationship between theatre and life, the world, society and human, and who is ready to develop his world view, creative power, intellectual and emotional background and who himself has a close relationship with the society.

In higher education, Acting Department subjects to 240 ECTS credit, first stage system. If one succeeds in completing this four year program, he receives a bachelor's degree in the field of Acting Department.

Examination Regulations, Assessment and Grading: All of the students have to proceed with minimum %70 of lessons and minimum %80 of practises to register at lessons when the term starts and to go in for the final examination. The students are examined minimum one term examination and one final examination for each of the

lesson. The term examination affects %50 rate (Practises are done in the lesoons too can affect term examination.) and the final examination affects %50 rate student's notes at the end of the term. The students can take maximum 100 points for each of the exam. Each of the student has to take minimum 50 point for final exam. If the student takes one of AA, BA, BB, CB, CC letter notes for the lesson, he/she passes this lesson. But DC and DD letter notes are conditional passing notes. If the student's letter note is DC or DD for the lesson, his/her weighted grade point average has to be minimum 2.0 point to pass this lesson and to graduate.

Table: 3.1. Acting main art key learning outcomes

Working as an actor, director, assistant director at private theatres and publicly-funded theatres Acting in theatrical performances, cinema films and commercials

Managing to cultural and artistic activities at local governments, organizations which are connected to the ministry of culture and tourism and working as a cultural management in there

Training drama in education and play at education and training institution, institutions of public education, private educational institutions Giving a lecture about acting at workshops and courses

Writing critiques, descriptions and review article about films and plays in newspapers and magazines

The main purposes of vocal training lessons, in accordance with the qualifications that are given in table 2, is to up skill the actor/ actress nominees and expand their singing techniques and abilities, upgrade their singing performance and enable them to use their voice effectively.

Vocal training lessons at the level of bachelor degree last for eight half years, under a different title each half year. There are three compulsory hours in total; one theoretical and two practical hours. Lessons are studied in Turkish and face to face. Lessons' codes, names and learning gains are given below.

I.Term/Fall GSO1011 Introducing to Voice Education

Learning Outcomes • Knows the posture and body relaxation position for vocal training,

• Knows the purpose of vocal training

• Knows the names of the voice production organs,

• Knows the anatomy of the voice production organs in general,

• Knows the correct breathing technique,

• Applies the correct breathing technique in long and short exercises,

• Applies the correct voice production technique in long and short exercises,

• Knows the correct pronunciation in singing,

II.Term/Spring GSO1012 Voice Education

Learning Outcomes • Knows the posture and body relaxation position for vocal training,

• Knows the purpose of vocal training

• Knows the names of the voice production organs,

• Knows the anatomy of the voice production organs in general,

• Knows the correct breathing technique,

• Applies the correct breathing technique in long and short exercises,

• Applies the correct voice production technique in long and short exercises,

• Knows the correct pronunciation in singing,

III.Term/Fall GSO2015 Singing and attack

Learning Outcomes • He knows the purpose of the voice training,

• He knows how much singing is needed for a performer (actor-actress)

• He knows the names of the vocal production organs, their duties in singing and he applies them

• He knows the correct breathing technique

• He can apply breath-sound connection in exercises and songs

• He knows how to make the right tone attack (tone attack)

• He can perform exercises requiring the right tone attack

• He knows the importance of the right tone attack (tone attack) in singing,

IV. Term/Spring GSO2016 Singing

Learning Outcomes • He knows the purpose of the voice training,

• He knows how much singing is needed for a performer (actor-actress)

• He knows the names of the vocal production organs, their duties in singing and he applies them

• He knows the correct breathing technique

• He can apply breath-sound connection in exercises and songs

• He knows how to make the right tone attack (tone attack)

V. Term/ Fall GSO3009 Classical and Traditional Musicals

Learning Outcomes • Knowing the objective of voice training

• Knowing the importance of singing for an actor

• Knowing proper breathing

• Knowing how to practice breath-voice connection in training and songs

• Knowing the question; What is musical?

• Knowing the technique of musical singing

• Knowing how to control gestures and facial expressions while singing musical

VI. Term/ Spring GSO3009 Contemporary and Modern Musicals

Learning Outcomes • Knowing the objective of voice training

• Knowing the importance of singing for an actor

• Knowing proper breathing

• Knowing how to practice breath-voice connection in training and songs

• Knowing the question; What is musical?

• Knowing the technique of musical singing

• Knowing how to control gestures and facial expressions while singing musical

VII. Term/ Fall GSO4011 Polyphony

Learning Outcomes • Knowing the objective of voice training

• Knowing the extent of the necessity for a player to sing a song

• Knowing the right breath technique

• Can apply breath-voice connection in exercises and songs

• Knowing polyphony

• Knowing the basic rules of singing a polyphonic song

• Can sing polyphonic song

VIII.TERM/ SPRING GSO4012 Polyphonic Singing

Learning Outcomes • Knowing the objective of voice training

• Knowing the extent of the necessity for a player to sing a song

• Knowing the right breath technique

• Can apply breath-voice connection in exercises and songs

• Knowing polyphony

• Knowing the basic rules of singing a polyphonic song

• Can sing polyphonic song

4. Conclusion

Theatre has a vital place in the socialization process of art as it raises the awareness of the public regarding the social, cultural and economic circumstances by means of the characters in a work of art which aims to affect the public by giving accounts about the incidents that have been experienced or might be experienced. This branch of art has a far wider and versatile field of study as show business has developed and it has found its place on screens and radio. Today the success of an actor is related to his ability to use his voice as well as his acting skills in the fields such as cinema and stage. Therefore voice training lessons has gained vital importance in theatre institutions. It can be seen that artists who are well qualified in terms of singing skills can easily find a job. Uludag University Acting Department, which is analyzed above in terms of four year under graduate degree, has taken important steps towards being a model for education. It is particularly significant that as the whole training process starting from Bologna, educational attainment and applications are explained in detail on the web page, the person concerned is able to do research concerning the training he will receive. If all universities adapt this system, students will be able to make conscious decisions, and this will establish competition and accordingly lead to an improvement in the quality of the education. Below are suggestions that are thought to be helpful:

• Institutions that give acting classes ought to put emphasis on voice training lessons and they should be spread over four years

• Moreover those institutions must choose lecturers carefully and the ones who are not specialized in voice training should not give these lectures.

• A contemporary theatre actor should be qualified in all aspects. He should be able to use his voice effectively both talking and singing.

• The significance of vocal training in acting education should be discussed in various panels, symposiums and workshops, and a common training method is to be determined.

References

Ezici, T. (2008). Theatre education and contemporary opening outs. Theatre Research Journal, 26, ISSN 1300 - 1523.

http://www.emoturkey.com/f309/tiyatro-oyuncusu-nedirrtiyatro-oyuncusu-nasil-olunurr-

http://www.uludag.edu.tr/Bologna/dereceler/dt/33/dl/tr/b/884/p/887/drs/337486

Tekerek, N.(2007). An overview of theatre education in turkey and alumni. Tiyatral Istanbul Journal, 1 (5).