Scholarly article on topic 'Challenge of the Empty Space. Group Factors as a Part of Drama Education'

Challenge of the Empty Space. Group Factors as a Part of Drama Education Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Tapio Toivanen, Anu Pyykkö, Heikki Ruismäki

Abstract Problem Statement:1) How do structural factors of a group appear in drama teaching? 2) How do structural factors of a group influence the progression and functionality of a drama lesson? Purpose of Study: The aim of this preliminary case study is to build a model that could help teacher students to increase their theoretical knowledge of the structural factors that influence drama lessons. The group's structural factors were chosen as the target of the theoretical study due to the social nature of drama teaching. Research Methods: In this study, the research material contained two of ten videotaped drama lessons held by class teacher trainees in Viikkís Teacher Training School of the University of Helsinki in Finland. The set of data used in this study was collected from March 2011 to April 2011. The material used in this article included one lesson each from the 1st and 2nd grade classes. The research team coded the video recordings that formed the basis of the analysis. Findings: Based on the findings from the video analysis, students’ group roles and their infraction have a crucial impact on the success of the lesson. The consideration of group roles seems to have a direct connection to all the other structural factors of the group, trainee teacher communication and the success of the lesson. In this study, the success of the lesson means pupils’ active participation in drama action. Teachers’ remedial actions during drama lessons were aligned with the consideration of group roles. Conclusions: Drama requires the physical and mental involvement of the pupils and the teacher, but at the same time, the pupils are also physically and mentally involved in the social group of the class. The teacher using drama needs to be able to facilitate the working dynamics of both kinds of groups in empty space. There has to be simultaneous recognition and facilitation. Becoming a teacher using drama in education requires skills and knowledge of drama and group dynamics.

Academic research paper on topic "Challenge of the Empty Space. Group Factors as a Part of Drama Education"

Procedía

Social and Behavioral Sciences

ELSEVIER

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 29 (2011) 402 - 411

ICEEPSY 2011

Challenge of the empty space. Group factors as a part of drama education Tapio Toivanena*, Anu Pyykkoa, Heikki Ruismakia

Department of Teacher Education, University of Helsinki, Box 8, 00014 University of Helsinki, Finland

Abstract

Problem Statement:1) How do structural factors of a group appear in drama teaching? 2) How do structural factors of a group influence the progression and functionality of a drama lesson? Purpose of Study: The aim of this preliminary case study is to build a model that could help teacher students to increase their theoretical knowledge of the structural factors that influence drama lessons. The group's structural factors were chosen as the target of the theoretical study due to the social nature of drama teaching. Research Methods: In this study, the research material contained two of ten videotaped drama lessons held by class teacher trainees in Viikkis Teacher Training School of the University of Helsinki in Finland. The set of data used in this study was collected from March 2011 to April 2011. The material used in this article included one lesson each from the 1st and 2nd grade classes. The research team coded the video recordings that formed the basis of the analysis. Findings: Based on the findings from the video analysis, students' group roles and their infraction have a crucial impact on the success of the lesson. The consideration of group roles seems to have a direct connection to all the other structural factors of the group, trainee teacher communication and the success of the lesson. In this study, the success of the lesson means pupils' active participation in drama action. Teachers' remedial actions during drama lessons were aligned with the consideration of group roles. Conclusions: Drama requires the physical and mental involvement of the pupils and the teacher, but at the same time, the pupils are also physically and mentally involved in the social group of the class. The teacher using drama needs to be able to facilitate the working dynamics of both kinds of groups in empty space. There has to be simultaneous recognition and facilitation. Becoming a teacher using drama in education requires skills and knowledge of drama and group dynamics.

©2011Published byElsevier Ltd.Selectionand/orpeer-review under responsibility of Dr ZaferBekirogullari.

Keywords: Drama education, group factors, teacher education, teacher trainee, Finnish teacher education

1. Introduction

This article will illustrate with the help of a single case study of drama research some qualitative criteria for drama education. Heikkinen and others (2005, 14-25; Neelands, 2009; Nicholson, 2009) define drama education in school to mean all forms of theatre; performance theatre, participatory theatre and applied theatre are all put into practice in the learning environment. The division into different theatre genres is based on the definition of the roles of the participants and the viewers. Performance theatre is traditionally divided into performers and audience. The

a * Corresponding author. Tel..: +358919129758, mobile: +358504136202, E-mail address: tapio.toivanen@helsinki.fi

1877-0428 © 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Dr Zafer Bekirogullari. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.11.256

viewers are the recipients of the actions. In applied theatre (e.g., forum theatre) the artists involve the audience, while in participatory theatre (e.g., classroom drama, process drama) the border between the performers and the audience is partly or completely obliterated. Regardless of the approach, aesthetic learning in drama education should be emphasised because it offers opportunities for learners to create their own drama representations. This aesthetic learning implies that the different forms, methods and conventions of drama should be taught widely and in various ways to enable learners to interpret the reality of meanings (Bolton, 1998; Bowell & Heap, 2010; Heikkinen, 2005; Neelands, 2009; Toivanen, 2002, 2007, 2010).

Drama is a social art form that represents the concepts of experiential (Kolb, 1984) and socio-constructive learning (Rasmussen, 2010; Liu & Matthews, 2005). The purpose of drama education is to create an interactive and positive learning environment in which the participants' construction of knowledge and learning takes place through functional and interactive social relationships (Toivanen, 2010 8-15; Toivanen, Komulainen & Ruismaki, 2011; Dickinson & Neelands, 2006, 41-42; Rasmussen, 2010). The idea of socio-constructive learning in drama is that learners are self-guided in fictitious symbolic interaction that reflects the phenomena internally (fiction) and externally (self). The learner perceives the phenomena first-hand but learning strengthens through social interactions. In social interaction, the learners can share their own thinking and reflect on it with the other group members. The concept of socio-constructive learning stresses the development of identity and the perception of the value of the goals. There are several studies (e.g., Cooper, 2010; Catterall, 2009; Wright, 2006; Toivanen, 2002; Gallaher, 2001) that confirm the use of drama as an art subject or educational method that develops personal and social skills, as well as self-concept, self-discrepancy and role-taking ability. Drama education is based on negotiation and dialogue with the class that can stimulate creativity and enjoyment in educational processes for both teacher and students (see Dickinson & Neelands, 2006, 1-2; Howard-Jones, Winfield & Crimmins, 2008; Wales, 2009, 270; Baldwin, 2008).

The teacher's work in drama education is challenging especially at the beginning (Toivanen, Rantala & Ruismaki, 2009; Wales, 2009; Stinson, 2009; Bowell & Heap, 2010). In most other school subjects, pupils working, moving and interaction in classrooms is controlled by the teacher's actions. The teacher controls pupil's behaviour by the layout of desks, the choice of teaching materials and scripted teaching methods. Movement around the classroom is restricted by the teacher's instructions. In contrast, classroom drama teaching usually takes place in open space. The open space, pupils' and the teacher's actions are the basic material for the drama lesson. A teacher using drama needs to be able to manage time, space and bodies and to do so in both the social dimension of the classroom and the aesthetic dimension of the drama art form (Neelands, 2009, 41-42).

2. The developmental and the structural factors of the group

Group development has been described by different theories. The most used sequential-stage theory is Bruce W. Tuckman's theory of group development (Johnson & Johnson, 2009, 28). Group development in the previous theory has been divided into five developmental stages in which the group focuses on different issues. The stages are: forming, storming, norming, performing and adjourning. Group development proceeds as a process, but sometimes development can also cease or regress if a developmental stage is not mastered properly (Tuckman, 1965, 386-387; Tuckman & Jensen, 1977, 427).

The structural factors of a group are elements that affect group development. The structural factors of a group are the phenomena that occur in the interactions among the group members and that affect those interactions. The following structural factors will be examined here: norms, roles and statuses, communication in the group and group cohesion (Johnston & Johnston, 2009, 14-27; Pennington, Gillen & Hill, 1999, 358). The selected structural factors are closely related to the components of social relationships and self-fulfilment, which were defined in a Finnish school well-being study (Konu & Lintonen, 2006a, 2006b). The components identified in the study were as follows: the learning environment; leadership; student-teacher relationships; group action, and the opportunity to develop self-esteem and the chance to make a difference.

The group always has a double aim. It seeks to achieve the conscious aims of the group and to maintain the cohesion of the group. Both goals are equally important for the group's operation. Group cohesion is the force binding the individuals and the group together. Because of cohesion, the group is able to fulfil the aims that its members have established (Dion, 2000, 7-8). Cohesion also helps members to better adapt to the group's activities and objectives (Kauppila, 2005, 86). The strong cohesion within the group makes the members commit to the group and behave according to the group's expectations and rules. The result is that group members actively work towards common objectives as a part of a group (Pennington, Gillen & Hill, 1999, 358-359).

Teachers can affect the cohesion of the group and its quality with the help of pedagogical solutions and interventions, such as drama methods (Schmuck & Schmuck, 2001, 115, 135-136; Lyytinen, Korkeakangas & Lyytinen, 1998, 134-135). Teachers can strive to add the feelings of safety, acceptance and cohesion in the classroom with drama education. The strengthening of positive interaction and positive social experiences influences the group's cohesion. The teacher should take care that everyone in the classroom, especially the lonely student, feels competent, approved and liked in group situations (Laine, 2005, 108).

3. Study Design

3.2. Paeposo of tho staOy

The aim of this study is to build a model that could help beginning teachers to increase their theoretical knowledge of the structural factors that influence drama lessons. What is the theoretical basis for the instructions given for drama teaching in many books (e.g., Toivanen, 2007, 2010; Baldwin, 2008; Neelands, 2009)? A group's structural factors were chosen as the target of the theoretical study due to the social nature of drama teaching. How do they influence the success of trainee teacher's drama lessons? The target is to perceive an analysis model organised by the structural factors that could support developing teacher education and drama teaching.

This article examines drama lessons held by class teacher trainees at University of Helsinki. In Finnish teacher education, the students form their perception of subjects and teaching in supervised training at different stages of their studies. The aim of supervised teacher training is to support the development of students' pedagogical thinking and their growth as teachers. The teacher training combines teacher education's theoretical studies with practice. The mentoring in teacher training includes discussions related to the planning and realisation of the training lessons. The trainee teacher's pedagogical solutions and reasoning made during trainee lessons are reflected on in mentoring discussions afterwards. The target of the mentoring is to discuss teaching and give trainee teachers advice that is based on educational theories (Jyrhama & Syrjala, 2009). The aim of this study is to answer the following research questions with video analysis:

1) How do the structural factors of a group appear in drama teaching?

2) How do the structural factors of a group influence the progression and functionality of a drama lesson?

The analysis of these two lessons is a part of an extensive research project that will be focused on the significance of teachers' actions in drama teaching.

3.C. MothoOs

This study can be characterised as a qualitative case study in which video analysis is used to examine the elements of the group structure in drama education. Pink notes (2008) that there are many different ways of introducing photography and video into qualitative research. The rapid development and widespread availability of affordable, usable, high-quality video technology is transforming the practice of learning science research. Because new video technologies provide powerful ways of collecting, sharing, studying, presenting, and archiving detailed cases of practice to support teaching, learning, and intensive study of those practices, many learning science research projects now incorporate a substantial video component (Derry etc., 2010). In their article they reflect on four essential facts:(1) Selection: How can researchers be systematic in deciding which elements of a complex environment or extensive video corpus to select for study? (2) Analysis: What analytical frameworks and practices are appropriate for the given research problems? (3) Technology: What technologies are available and what new tools must be developed to support collecting, archiving, analysing, reporting, and collaboratively sharing video? (4) Ethics: How can research protocols encourage broad video sharing and reuse while adequately protecting the privacy rights of the research participants who are recorded? (see also Clark et al., 2010).

Hindmarsh also writes (2008) that there are two elements of existing research practice in the field of learning science research that are emphasised. Firstly, these researchers routinely use the opportunities afforded by digital video for colleagues to share, discuss and debate developing analyses of action and interaction. Secondly, this kind of research increasingly involves partners from geographically dispersed institutions working together on the analysis of common datasets. As a result, there are growing demands to provide support for distributed research teams to collaborate on the (real time) analysis of digital video materials. Video data is complicated data and requires complicated analyses (Silverman, 2010, 58-61, 243-250). The members of the research group evaluated the films individually. A review of the literature shows that the use of video technology for research falls into three

areas: observation (including data collection and analysis), feedback, and distance learning and consultation via videoconferencing (Rosenstein & Sheva, 2002).

3.3. Doto Coiiertioe cedAnalysis

In this study, research material contained two of the ten videotaped drama lessons accomplished by a pair of class teacher teaching trainees in the University's teacher training school. Participants were university class teacher students from the University of Helsinki class teacher education programme. The pupils were from teacher training school's lower level of comprehensive school. The set of data used in this study was collected from March 2011 to April 2011. Each of these ten drama lessons was recorded by permission of the student teachers and pupi ls' parents. The video camera was placed at the rear of the classroom. The camera position, shooting from the back with the learners and teachers in the foreground, was consistent with this study's focus on lecturer-to-student interaction (Erickson, 2006).

Research material collected by video is often suitable for examination of a teaching event and the systematic analysis of the people and environment acting in the teaching event especially when examining the whole system of interaction (Heath, 1997; Vienola, 2005; Erickson, 2006). The target of the study can be the entire teaching event or its factors. Factoral examination can be made using a different contextual basis.

In this study, the members of the research team evaluated the videos independently in order to increase the reliability of the study. The evaluations by the team members were in parallel with each other.

4. Results

The two lessons chosen for this article were held by class teacher trainees who specialized in drama education. Students had completed 25 study points, the equivalent of a minor course in drama education. The 1st grade lesson (case 1) included a drama process that was based on the children's book, "The Legend of Spud Murphy" (Eoin Colfer, 2004). The trainee teacher worked alone. In the 2nd grade lesson (case 2), pupils were creating and characterising their own fairy tale figures with plays, physical work and drama techniques with two trainee teachers. The primary grades were chosen as the target of this research because the main interest was to examine the interaction between the group of children and the trainee teacher from the video material. The teacher-pupil relationship is often especially significant during the first two school years. It is easier to create an authority relationship with the pupils because the pupils usually want to please the teacher (Adena & Connell, 2004, 270). Therefore, at the starting point the willingness of the primary-aged pupils should make it easier for the trainee teachers to succeed in leading the drama lesson.

4. l.Group Roies ced Status

In this study, research material contained a network of roles built up the group structure. As the pupils in the classroom acquire experiences of themselves and others as part of the group, new expectations for actions or roles begin to arise. Expectations arise either in relation to the teacher, other group members or to an individual's own position in the group. The built up network is relatively stable and the roles remain in the network. Sometimes the roles become self-fulfilling prophecies because they can, for example, thrust a pupil into a clown's role. The key to pupils' well-being is whether the role includes or excludes them from the group (Johnson & Johnson, 2009, 24-27; Junttila, 2010, 33-34). Based on the findings from the video analysis, students' group roles and their infraction have a crucial impact on the success of the lesson. The consideration of the group roles had a direct connection to all the other structural factors of the group examined in this study. It affected teacher-pupil communication and the success of the lesson. In this study, the success of the lesson means students' active participation in the drama action.

Case 1. 1st grade pupils were guided to sit ie n rirrie ie rertnie pinres that were marked oe the floor with tope. The group roies were iefrnrtioeed aedgenders were mixed ie the rirrie. This appeared as a raim start to the iessoe. Ie less thae a mieute, the teacher had divided the play roies (nrtioe).

Case 2. The pupils rouid sit wherever they waeted ie the rirrie. The tearhers did eot seek to guide the pupils so that the familiar group roies would iefrnrtioente. The pupils weet to sit eext to familiar pupils aed the eormai group roies streegtheeed. It took a fair mieute to get the pupils to sit ie the rirrie.

Case 1 shows that group roles can be characterised by variability and turnover; the pupil may have different roles in different educational situations. The trainee teacher seeks to dismantle and prevent the distrib ution of group roles into inner and outer roles by breaking the normal social network; by doing this the trainee teacher influenced the

working atmosphere of the drama group. The use of flexible roles increases the sense of safety in drama work (Rausku-Puttonen, Keskinen & Takala, 1998, 240-241; Toivanen, 2002, 95-101; Kopakkala, 2008, 108-109). Having the students work in multifaceted group roles and play different kinds of fictional roles is a central part of drama education (Toivanen, 2010, 12). Working in fictional roles was also the focus in these two drama lessons.

Case 1. Fictional eolos woeo asoO is two waem-ap gamos aoO Oeama tovhoiqaos (hot-soatiog, small-group Oeama). Papils woekoO is fictional eolos foe 25 misatos, which was 92% of tho avtivo Oeama woek timo.

Case 2. Fivtiosal eolos woeo asoO is a waem-ap gamo aoO two vhaeavtoeisisg oxoevisos. Papils woekoO is fivtiosal eolos foe 23 misatos, which was 76°% of tho avtivo Oeama woek timo.

In addition to new information, testing alternative roles and solutions brings the participants an understanding of the world around them as well as of the self and expands their perspective. Understanding one's own choices as well as those of other people increases flexibility in social interactions. In drama, the aim is to develop these abilities with a dual perspective, in other words, to play roles. Role-playing in drama enables a pupil to try actions that otherwise would not be felt or experienced (Bolton, 1998, 251-254, 270).

Different group roles in the classroom are usually associated with different degrees of status, high or low. Status is considered as one of the factors that affects the structure of a group. Status generally is connected to the pupil's value for the group, how much power a pupil has to make group work successful (Anderson, Srivastava, Beer, Spataro & Chatman, 2006). The teacher, and the trainee teacher, as leader of the class have normally a high-status and is likely to be valued by the group and treated with respect. The expectations that define group roles and status include both rights and obligations. An obligation of being a teacher, for example, includes the right of structuring a learning situation. A right of being a pupil is to have learning situations structured by the teacher. Within a group, expectations of the obligations of a role can conflict. What kind of actions a pupil expects from a teacher, for example in drama lessons, can be contradictory. Contradictory expectations can create one type of role or status conflict (Johnson & Johnson, 2009, 15-18).

Case 1. Thoeo woeo 25 sitaatioss is tho Oeama lossos is whivh papils vhallosgoO tho statas of tho teaisoo toavhoe. Tho toavhoe eoavtoO to tho statas vosflivt oithoe by vommasOisg oe by takisg physival vostavt to a vhilO. Osly is oso sitaatios OiO tho teaisoo toavhoe pass withoat eoavtios. Tho papil (a boy) withOeaws feom tho Oeama lossos at tho osO of it asO staets to eoaO a book (36.45 mis).Ho is sitaatoO bohisO tho teacher's back. The teacher cannot get the pupil back to woek ovos thoagh sho takos tho book away. Tho boy takos tho book bavk asO eoaOs it until the end of the lesson (42,57). All the other status conflicts clear after the teacher's reaction, so the pupils return to lowoe statas. Case 2. Thoeo woeo altogothoe 24 sitaatioss is tho Oeama lossos is whivh papils vhallosgoO tho statas of tho teaisoo toavhoes. Is half of thom, tho toavhoes OiO sot steivo to steosgthos thoie statas by eoavtisg to tho statas vosflivt. Thoy OiO sot eoavt is 9 sitaatioss asO is 3 sitaatioss tho situation continued despite the teacher's reaction. In 12 status conflicts, the teachers reacted either by commanding or by takisg physival vostavt to a vhilO.

The status of an individual will stabilize quickly in a group. The attitude of others towards a particular group member is shown in popularity (Rausku-Puttonen, Keskinen & Takala, 1998, 241). The statuses emerging in the group can be divided into popular, contradictory, average, disregarded and rejected (Coie, Dodge & Coppotelli, 1982, 564). A given status tends to persist; after a person receives a certain status, that persons' behaviour as a group member no longer plays an important role (Salmivalli, 2005, 127, 25-26).

Case 1. Thoeo aeo so statas vosflivts botwoos papils is this Oeama lossos.

Case 2. Oso papil (giel) has somo peobloms eogaeOisg hoe sovialpositios that voalO bo soos Oaeisg tho Oeama lossos. Sho oithoe eojovtoO giels who teioO to sit soxt to hoe oe was eojovtoO hoesolf. Sho obvioasly teioO to sit botwoos two giels sittisg siOo by siOo bat thoy eojovtoO hoe 6 timos Oaeisg tho lossos. Tho giels is qaostios amosg othoe thisgs movoO so that tho giel was foevoO oat of tho wholo vievlo. Tho giel sat aloso masy timos Oaeisg tho Oeama lossos. Tho toavhoes steivoO to solvo tho sitaatios twivo; fiest, thoy movoO tho giel bavk isto tho vievlo asO tho second time they patted the girl's shoulder and encouraged her to action. The situation was not, however, resolved.

Weakness in social skills (Junttila & Vauras, 2009; Junttila, 2010) as well as striving for a higher status than the group has given (Anderson et al., 2006) may thus cause rejection by the group. These factors may explain the behaviour of the girl in case 2. Junttila (2010, 33) states that 15-20% of Finnish comprehensive school students suffer from psychosocial problems among other forms of discrimination. She emphasises (2010, 47), that the possibility of success in fractionating the negative development of social exclusion in primary school is greater than in later school years. The in fractionating of permanent group roles plays a crucial part in developing pupil's social emotional welfare (Barret, Sonderegger & Sonderegger, 2001). The teachers' responsibility for pupils' psychosocial welfare as the leader of the group is highlighted in teaching situations such as case 2.

4.2. Norms

School classes are formally organised groups that usually have the same norms about absence, tardiness, accomplishment of assigned work, and appropriate times to speak (Johnston & Johnston, 2009, 17-18). These norms specify the behaviour expected of all group members; teacher and pupils. Norms are the shared expectations or attitudes of appropriate behaviour and actions in the classroom; pupils must not disrupt the class's work, pupils ought to participate in discussions by raising a hand, and so on. In the classroom, norms also direct individuals to function as a single unit and regulate their actions. Acting according to the norms is a reward, i.e., the norms of a group influence the acceptance and rejection in a group (Schmuck & Schmuck, 2001, 193; Salmivalli, 2005, 130). By using norms, group members can strengthen their common beliefs and cohesion, interpreting the social world in a way that strengthens these features. In school, some educational situations require strict adherence to rules but others, like drama lessons, permit a wide range of behaviour that is regarded as acceptable. That is why drama work usually starts with making a drama contract, which is based on an idea of trying to achieve balance between mindfulness and playfulness (Neelands, 2009, 13).

Case 1. The drama roetrart has already beee made durieg the previous drama iessoe. The traieee tearher oeiy ieforms whee the drama work rae begie (time 2) seroeds).

Case 2.The trainee teacher (1) has the drama contract on the cardboard. She reads it to the pupils: "1. Drama lesson includes play aed prartire of drama skiiis. 2. Everybody rae be ie the roie aed as him- or herseif.3. Aii soiutioes are equally valuable. 4. Aii must pnrtiripnte and work together." The problem makieg the drama roetrart was that the reetmiized rommueirntioe was eot workieg; eot aii of the pupiis were listening to the teacher's reading. The agreement was also too abstract. The trainee teachers did eot eesure that the pupiis uederstood the ngreemeet or the roesequeeres ofbreakieg it. The roeteet of the roetrart should have beee eegotiated ruefully. After readieg, the pupiis were able to sige the agreemeet by pressieg their thumb mark oe the roetrart paper. The agreemeet rreated the first status roefiirt when one boy refused to sign the contract. The trainee teachers relied on "a comfortable action" and persuaded him to sign the agreemeet. (Aii this took 5 mieutes)

The drama contract includes the ground rules with pupils to ensure they use the space safely and feel safe to fully engage in drama. The negotiation of a drama contract is thought to create a positive working environment. The drama contract is not a collection of prohibitions, but rather an agreement in which the pupils and the teacher agree to work together in an empty room (see Toivanen, 2010, 41-45; Neelands, 2009, 13; Dickinson & Neelands, 2006, 38-41). The contract is two-way; both students and teachers agree to abide it. By means of the drama contract, the group can be introduced to fictional roles, a time and a place. The contract shall also ensure that everyone knows the kind of commitment he or she is expected to make to the activity. The agreement should create courage to work together and use fictional roles. Pupils can play in fictional roles without the worry of being humiliated. They are not responsible for the actions or opinions of the role character. Responses and evaluation are made in a fictional reality. In drama, students can be the fictitious bad wolf without actually being evil themselves (Toivanen, 2010, 41-42). The above points reinforce a student's sense of drama as a divided experience that includes both shared interests and responsibilities (Baldwin, 2008, 1-8). The importance of the drama contract and infringement of the group roles is clearly shown in the table below, which describes how much active drama work time the drama lessons included.

Table 1. The structure of examined drama lessons.

Grade Goal of drama Active drama working Instructions and waiting

education Lesson duration time time

(Case 1) process drama with ~ 43 min ~28 min ~15 min

plays and drama (42 min 57sec) (65%) (35%)

techniques

(Case 2) physical work with ~ 40 min ~17 min ~23 min

characters and drama (39min 54sec) (43%) (57%)

techniques

The consideration of the drama contract and group roles seems to have a direct connection with the success of the drama lesson in this study. By the success of the lesson here we mean pupils' active participation in the drama action which is a percentage significantly higher in case 1. In case 2,the instructions for the next action and waiting for the pupil to be ready to go on take more time than was used in active drama working. A common drama contract

enables those involved to reflect on the experiences and actions at the end of the work. The teacher or the teacher and the group together can evaluate how everyone has fulfilled the drama contract. The pupils did not receive feedback on their work at either end of the lessons, although the trainee teachers in case 2 were not satisfied with the pupils' activities. Pupils missed the opportunity to learn how to extend or improve their work the next time.

The drama contract and the consideration of group roles were also connected to teachers' remedial actions during the drama lessons.

Table 2. Trainee teachers' remedial actions during the drama lessons.

Uses commands Requests Moves or stands up Speaks to individual children Takes physical contact to a child Calls a child by name

(Case 1) 10 - 4 4 5 7

(Case 2) 14 2 10 14 16 12

Waits Claps hands Pauses the music Action Persuades children Seeks eye contact

(Case 1) 2 - - 9 - 1

(Case 2) 18 9 7 20 6 15

In case 1 the trainee teacher uses eight different remedial actions altogether 42 times during the lessons, whereas the two trainee teachers in case 2 have to use twelve different remedial actions together in all 143 times.

4.3. Ceaaasiaaties is tho Geeap

A variety of communication models frequently occur in a group. The models depend on the group and the tasks. (Johnson & Johnson, 2009, 155.) The communication network affects the behaviour of group members, the morale of group members, total activity, the organisation of the group, and the durability of the group as a group (Leavitt, 1951, 50). The models have been examined and sorted according to how centralized or scattered their structure is. A communication network is described as scattered if all group members communicate with each other. In the centralized model, there is one member of the class, often the teacher, who manages the communication. The centralized model of communication can be connected to teacher-centred methods of teaching where the leading role is played by the teacher. The teacher teaches, gives instructions or asks questions for which there is a definitive answer. According to Helkama, Myllyniemi & Liebkind (2005, 266-267) and Johnson & Johnson (2009, 155), the group members enjoy themselves the most when communication is scattered. Drama education creates scattered communication in a classroom. Drama work can be seen as an opportunity for mutual and nonverbal communication in which the whole class can cooperate. In drama, scattered communication is supported by the various pair and group working methods to which the students become accustomed while they learn to communicate more openly with each other in constantly changing combinations (cf. Erbay et al., 2010; Toivanen, 2010, 36-41; Hwang, 2006; Hui, 2006). To succeed, students must get to know each other and have the courage to approach each other. In a centralized communication network, some group members hold the position of a follower. The followers are dependent on the leader and the role narrows the possibilities for activity or self-expression (Leavitt, 1951, 50). The leading drama work teacher must have the ability to lead both centralized and scattered communication. Approaches between these two communication models seem to be difficult in two studied drama lessons.

Caso 2. Tiao asoO fee issteaatiess asO waitisg fee papils te bo eoaOy fee issteaatiess ee aaties was 25 ais (35%) ef losses Oaeaties (43

Caso C. Tiao asoO fee issteaatiess asO waitisg fee papils te bo eoady fee issteaetiess ee aeties was C3 ais (57%) ef losses Oaeaties (42

The time used for instructions and waiting for pupils to be ready for instructions or action in these two drama lessons seems to be related to the group roles and statuses, but also in both cases the trainee teachers seem to have demonstrated a lack of leadership and authority. According to Johnson & Johnson (2009, 199), to provide

leadership, you must have the flexibility to engage in a wide variety of actions to get pupils' attention. The ability to determine what behaviours are needed at a particular time in order for the class to function most efficiently and the ability to engage in these behaviours or to get pupils to do so. The teacher's leadership in drama is much more than just giving verbal instructions. It also includes nonverbal communication, expressions, gestures, movement and placement in relation to the group.

Casel. Chiidree are seated while the traieee tearher staeds (high status). The tearher walks outside the rirrie (movemeet, piaremeet), searrhes for eye roetart with the whole group aed gives iestrurtioes at the same time. Artioe of the warm-up game starts ie 4) seroeds. Case 2. Traieee tearhers are sittieg ie rirrie aed waitieg for aii pupiis to rome aed sit dowe (equai/iower status). The other traieee tearher staeds for a short momeet (5 ser) aed asks aii pupiis to rome to the rirrie. No effert. Gettieg aii pupiis to rirrie for startieg iestrurtioes takes 1,1-mie.

To be a skilled teacher you have to have the diagnostic skills to be sufficiently flexible to provide the diverse types of actions needed for different situations. In order to develop those diagnostic skills, a trainee teacher needs knowledge of teaching and group behaviour and experience from similar situations that he/she gains from teacher training.

5. Conclusions

The aim of this case study was to build a model that could be used in teacher education, especially in teaching practices, to help trainee teachers to increase their theoretical knowledge of the structural factors that influence drama lessons. Another goal was to find some theoretical background for the practical instructions given to drama teachers in many instructional books (e.g., Toivanen, 2007, 2010; Baldwin, 2008; Neelands, 2009). A group's structural factors were chosen as the target of the theoretical study due to the social nature of drama teaching.

The case study gives some indication of the importance of noticing the group structural factors in drama education. Based on the findings from the video analysis, pupils' group roles and their infraction have a crucial impact on the success of the drama lesson. The consideration of group roles had a direct connection to the other studied group structural factors, following the norms (drama contract) and success of approaches between centralized or scattered communication in drama lessons. When we speak about quality in drama education, we could apply many different educational and aesthetic criteria. In this study, the quality of the lesson was defined t o mean pupils' active participation in drama. The pupils' commitment to drama work differed significantly between these two analysed drama lessons. The trainee teachers' remedial actions during the drama lessons were aligned with the consideration of group roles. In the second class drama lesson, two trainee teachers have to do three times more remedial actions compared to the single trainee teacher in the first class.

Experiences, learning

Teacher/pupil (out of role)

"Drama lesson"

Teacher/pupil (in the role)

time space

•fictional time •fictional space * roles

Group structural factors/ cohesion norms, group roles, statuses, communication

Figure 1. Factors affecting the success of a drama lesson.

Figure1. describes the factors affecting the success of a drama lesson. It shows that a drama lesson requires the physical and mental involvement of the pupils and the teacher, but at the same time, the pupils are also physically and mentally involved in the social group of the class. The teacher using drama needs to be able to facilitate the

working dynamics of both kinds of groups. Furthermore, the success of drama education depends on the teacher's skills, the engagement and the level of trust of creating the group. The teacher must try to break the established group roles. By doing that, the teacher shows the pupils that group roles can be characterised by variability and turnover. Pupils may have different roles in different educational situations. The purpose of that change is to dismantle and prevent the distribution of group roles into inner and outer roles by breaking the normal social network; by doing this the teacher influences the working atmosphere of the drama lesson. A safe working atmosphere makes it possible to take fiction in use; teacher and pupils are ready to work both in roles and as themselves. Empty space is especially challenging for communication because there has to be recognition and facilitation at the same time. The drama contract helps teacher and pupils to achieve balance between mindfulness and playfulness in drama work. Experiences of success and learning affect the following drama lessons creating either positive or negative expectations for both pupils and teacher.

This study suggests that becoming a teacher using drama in education requires knowledge and skills in both drama and group dynamics. The teacher needs courage and leadership competence to teach in an empty space. When we review the results, we must be critical; this is a case study. Background factors relating to both classes' social history were not observed in this study and the contents of drama lessons were different. These two lessons analysed in this article are the beginning of a broader research project, in which we will try to verify the results of this case study. All the recorded video material, ten videotaped lessons, shall be examined. The following studies will be focused on one group structural element at a time. Thus, different perspectives on the complexity of drama education can be better evaluated. Success in drama education is not a simple matter, but it is possible to achieve. Hopefully implications and outcomes of our studies can reinforce beginning teachers' awareness in complex drama teaching situations.

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