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Prologue Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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Academic research paper on topic "Prologue"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 212 (2015) 1 - 8


The 33rd International Conference of the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA) -XXXII Congreso Internacional de la Asociación Española de Lingüística Aplicada - was organized by the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid in 16-18 April 2015. The Conference, which was attended by over 500 participants, provided an international forum to multimodality so as to give a better understanding of this complex interdisciplinary area.

The purpose of this Conference, "Multimodal Communication in the 21st Century: Professional and Academic Challenges", was to study diverse communication practices in terms of the textual, aural, linguistic, spatial, and visual resources - or modes - used to compose texts in professional and academic contexts.

The multiplicity of communication channels or modes is one of the most striking features of the new millennium. Verbal communication is only one of the various modes through which we can communicate and to put forward adequate scientific tools to analyse visual, gestural, body, cultural, or social networks language has become essential. The contributions of this conference have shed some light on these aspects and also on their influence on the academic and professional spheres. The Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics (AESLA) is well-known for trying to meet the ever-changing societal and industrial needs in the education of students. This constitutes a constant challenge towards which the celebration of this forum has collaborated with two plenary lectures devoted to multimodality in comics and translation whose content is briefly described below and selected papers which contribute new insights on the creation of meaning to the field of multimodal communication.

Charles Forceville's Stylistics in Comics chartered and discussed a number of key visual categories for conveying narrative meaning in comics. They are (1) pages, panel arrangements and the gutter; (2) body types, postures, and facial expressions; (3) framing and angles in panels; (4) speech and thought balloons; (5) onomatopoeia and written words in the story world; (6) pictograms and pictorial runes.

Jorge Diaz-Cintas's plenary talk The multimodal and multilingual world of audiovisual translation offered a classification of the different modes available to translate audiovisual programmes and centres later on subtitling. After discussing the semiotic relationship that exists between images and text in audiovisual productions, he took stock of the most significant milestones that have marked the evolution of subtitling to date, whilst also delving into a prospective discussion of potential changes. He outlined the most important developments that have recently taken place in this field as a consequence of digitisation, the spread of internet, and the advent of the DVD, digital television and 3D. This plenary also discussed new emerging subtitling modes as well as new professional practices aimed at making audiovisual media accessible for people with sensory impairments.

Research papers were presented in Spanish or in English, the official languages of the conference. Abstracts and complete papers were peer-reviewed by a group of experts before and after the conference, respectively. The selected papers included in this Special Issue are those written in English and are grouped into 10 panels. In what follows, I present an overview of these selected papers:


The first contribution by María-José Valero-Porras and Daniel Cassany entitled Multimodality and language learning in a scanlation community provides an interesting account of the language learning outcomes of an informant affiliated with a community of scanlation when participating in practices of reading, translation, typesetting and proofreading of mangas. Authors draw on a social-semiotic approach to multimodality and use ethnographic and discourse-analytic techniques to examine a corpus of semi-structured interviews, recordings of onscreen desktop activity and scanned pages of manga translated by the informant and the corresponding original pages in English. Their findings reveal that the informant actively constructs meaning of texts combining verbal, graphic and typographic semiotic resources and that she achieves a remarkable awareness of the specific and socio-culturally situated nature of the use of these resources.

in the second contribution The Multimodality of corrective feedback in tandem interactions, the authors Camille Debras, Céline Horgues and Sylwia Scheuer describe language tandem interactions, which provide a unique collaborative learning environment, as each participant takes turns being the native and the non-native side of the dialogue (Brammerts & Calvert, 2003). They claim that corrective feedback 1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Scientific Committee of the XXXIII AESLA CONFERENCE doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.11.290

(CF) has received considerable attention in SLA literature (Lyster & Ranta, 1997, Sheen & Ellis, 2011) but relatively little is known about CF occurring in these non-institutional peer-to-peer native/non-native interactions. Based on the qualitative yet systematic analysis in ELAN of 4 video recordings of interactions between French and English native speakers from the SITAF corpus (Horgues & Scheuer, 2013), they analyze CF focus, CF type, and the multimodal resources used for CF. Their study shows that CF is a highly multimodal activity (more than 86% of the time), identifies the main non-verbal resources used for CF request, provision and uptake and analyses the participants' consistent idiosyncratic multimodal CF strategies.

Finally, the third contribution by Alicia Martinez Flor and Esther Uso Juan, The role of instruction on EFL learners' use of complaining-apologising semantic formulas, focuses on the role of instruction on learners' use of complaining-apologising formulas in the foreign language setting. Their results show the positive effects of engaging learners in the instructional process and an increase in the variety of both complaint and apology strategies in different contrasting scenarios.

Language Teaching and Curricular Design

Advertising as a space of plurilingual interaction and intercultural learning by Raquel Hidalgo Downing and Cristina Vela Delfa examines the use of advertising in order to develop Spanish students' plurilingual competence and linguistic attitudes associated to the use of languages in advertising. The authors' point of departure is the analysis of two teaching-learning experiences with Spanish university students forwarded to practice plurilingual exposure through the intercomprehension approach to language learning (Hidalgo Downing & Vela Delfa 2011). Through the analysis of the two experiences, they examine the degrees of lexical comprehension, the importance of paratext in textual schemata processing and the learners' expression of values and attitudes associated to languages.

Flipping lectures: analysing student workload in EMI contexts by Antonio Jimenez-Munoz outlines a framework to situate the workload of students under several blended learning modes quantitatively, and it offers the outcomes of a study carried out on first-year students of Economics at the university of Oviedo. Results show a clear disparity between curricular expectations and student performance, with an impact on academic achievement for less linguistically able students. The research method is translatable to other English for Specific Purposes (ESP) contexts and will be of interest to those carrying out evidence-based research in ICT-enhanced content and language learning.

Use of conjunctions in the compositions of secondary education students by Ana Cristina Lahuerta Martínez contributes to clarify the question of the relationship between conjunction density and writing quality, and examines if there were any differences among the participants in terms of the frequency of use of conjunctions in their compositions. The qualitative analysis reveals little variety in the participants' use of conjunctions, especially among third-grade students. Participants experienced difficulty in using conjunctions especially adversative and additive ones.

Lastly, Integrating curricular contents and language through storytelling: criteria for effective CLIL lesson planning by Soraya Garcia Esteban exemplifies and assesses CLIL's theoretical principles in the development of microteachings conducted at Universidad de Alcalá, where student teachers could reflect on 1) the establishment of an appropriate framework for successful and sustainable CLIL teaching and learning, 2) the effective teaching and learning of some curricular topics through storytelling and 3) the potential development of language and cognitive skills. The findings of the study report that storytelling can be considered an effective educational CLIL resource that facilitates not only the effective acquisition of contents from the curriculum, but also cognitive development and communication in another language.

Discourse Analysis

"Hey there! I am using WhatsApp": a preliminary study of recurrent discursive realisations in a corpus of WhatsApp statuses by Alfonso Sánchez-Moya and Olga Cruz-Moya provides a detailed description of WhatsApp, the instant messaging (IM) tool that enables people to communicate in a multimodal way mainly via their smartphones and which has impressively become a core form of communication in many social communities. Authors present research on the most salient discursive realisations and pragmatic uses in WhatsApp statuses, this is, the communicative output of a 139-character blank where WhatsApp users are prompted to write any message in order to complete their profile information.

A Multimodal Discourse Analysis of linking metadiscursive elements in two opencourseware lectures (MOOCs) by Edgar Bernad-Mechó explains, from a multimodal discourse analysis perspective, which are

the metadiscursive elements employed by lecturers in order to link the different sessions within a course. This paper looks into metadiscursive instances when used in online lectures, which are part of Yale University's collection of MOOCs, in order to describe possible recurrent patterns and relationships between these elements and paralinguistic and kinesic elements. In order to do that, we will carry out a Multimodal Discourse Analysis (MDA) (Querol-Julian & Fortanet, 2012; Fortanet-Gomez & Ruiz-Madrid, 2014).

On criteria of professionals of the language about the back-burden in Basque by Julian Maia presents some results of a research about the element-order of the sentences in Euskara (Basque language), in which linguistic behaviour of speakers belonging to two groups of different characteristics is analysed. The outcomes of this paper confirm, on the one hand, some tendency towards an increased back-burden in Basque sentences in both groups, and, on the other hand, are consistent with the assumption that evolution is in a less advanced stage in the case of the young university students analysed when compared with the group of experts having the highest proficiency.


EMI vs. Non-EMI: Preliminary Analysis of the Academic Output within the INTE-R-LICA Project by Cristina del Campo, Andres Cancer, David Pascual-Ezama and Elena Urquía-Grande focuses on the internationalisation process at universities fostered by the European Area for Higher Education, which has launched measures such as the adoption of comparable degrees, the creation of a compatible credit system and the establishment of mobility synergies for both students and lecturers (Bologna Declaration, 1999). In this research the authors have taken a sample of students who belong to the English as medium of instruction strand in the Business Administration Degree from the Faculty of Economics and Business (UCM) and have compared their academic performance with the students from the same Faculty who receive their lectures in their mother tongue.

Bilingual Commodification in La Mancha: From Language Policies To Classroom Practices by Alicia Fernández Barrera focuses on the emergent discourses about bilingual commodification (Heller, 2010) in the current "boom" era of the Bilingual Programmes. These situated discourses dealing with "bilingualism" have been analysed among a group of students attending a prestigious religious semiprivate "bi-trilingual" school in Castilla-La Mancha, where the social actors co-construct those discourses through interactions (Gumperz, 1982). From a critical discourse analysis perspective (Fairclough, 1995) and a critical interpretive approach (Tollefson, 2002), this linguistic ethnography analyses bilingual education in Castilla-La Mancha region as well as the links between the classroom social practice, the linguistic policies and wider social and ideological processes of globalization and neoliberalism in late modernity.

Language life of Japanese expatriates in non-English speaking countries: the cases of Barcelona and Madrid by Fukuda explores the language life of Japanese expatriates in Barcelona and Madrid. The result suggests that use of the local language in a Non-English-speaking country is very important and can be one of the factors determining the degree of communicative satisfaction, but not necessary satisfaction with life in general.

Compliment responses in Peninsular Spanish. Exploratory and contrastive study conducted on women from Madrid, Valencia, Catalonia, Andalusia and Castile-Leon by Hugo Lázaro and Ana Ramajo examines the influence of the "origin" variable when responding to compliments on physical appearance and belongings in Spain. Participants of the research are female native speakers of Spanish from five Autonomous Communities. Data was gathered by using secret recordings. Results of the research showed that mitigating was the most common compliment response used by women. Despite cultural differences between the Autonomous Communities, no statistically significant results were found.

Signposts for Comprehensive Knowledge of CLIL Contexts by M. Ángeles Martín Del Pozo provides a list of elements and parameters to aid both present and prospective practitioners to deepen in the characteristics and factors of their contexts. This systematic approach to the knowledge of the context assembles several theoretical models and descriptors of the practice of teaching content through English at higher education. Special attention will be given to linguistic issues. The five- year experience of bilingual teaching at the Escuela de ingeniería de informática de Segovia (universidad de Valladolid) is used to illustrate the models and descriptors.

Identity and language attitudes among Liberian refugees in Oru camp, Ogun State, Nigeria by Nwagbo investigates the language attitudes of Liberian refugees in Oru camp with respect to their indigenous

languages and the language of the host community, Yoruba. This is with a view to ascertaining their identity patterns.

Last but not least, Indigenous Languages, Identity And Legal Framework In Latin America: An Ecolinguistic Approach by Isabel Corral Pérez addresses the situation of indigenous languages in three Latin American countries chosen as being representative of different multilingualism management models that exist in that region: Bolivia, Panama and Paraguay. This is a descriptive-analytical study whose main objective from a synchronic perspective is the enhancement of multilingualism in Latin America.


The interplay of words and images in expressing multimodal metaphors in comics by Milos Tasié and Dusan Stamenkovié provides a provisional classification of different types of multimodal metaphors belonging to the verbo-pictorial variety found in comics, based on the relation between written and visual language, as two modes of human communication commonly combined in everyday life. The authors propose the following three types of relations which occur in multimodal metaphors in this medium: (1) image-dominant metaphors, (2) text-dominant metaphors, and (3) complementary metaphors.

Linguistic behaviour in social networking sites used as academic and educative communication tool by María Teresa Ortego Antón, Elena Jiménez García and Purificación Fernández Nistal describes the methodology used to compile a corpus in order to consider the linguistic behaviour of undergraduate students in social networking sites in academic scenarios, giving representativeness to the sample—that is, taking into account size, population, thematic areas and, obviously, the balance among the different social networking sites used.

A contrastive study of Arabic and Persian formulas against the evil eye used by women by Ana Ramajo Cuesta and Saloomeh Yousefian analyzes the use of these expressions and to conduct a contrastive study of Arabic and Persian formulas against the evil eye. Participants were requested to view two short videos in which the characters were talking about their appearance and possessions.

Typographic Alteration in Formal Computer-mediated Communication by Carmen Maíz-Arevalo focuses on analysing multimodal elements in a corpus of pedagogical e-forums, where the transactional function surpasses the interactional one (Brown and Yule, 1983) and formality seems to be expected.

Evidentiality as conversational implicature: Implications for corpus annotation by Marta Carretero and Juan Rafael Zamorano-Mansilla discusses a number of issues involved in the annotation of evidentiality communicated as a conversational implicature in authentic written texts. As a pilot experiment, evidentials were annotated separately by two experts in sample texts from the MULTINOT corpus, which consists of English and Spanish comparable and parallel texts from different registers. The results of this annotation proved that 1) evidentiality in English is most often expressed by pragmatic means, and 2) these means easily provoked interannotator disagreement. Some types of these pragmatic evidentials are specified, together with the implications for the design of an annotation system for evidentiality.

Corpus Linguistics

Lexicalizing Ontologies: The Issues Behind The Labels by Guadalupe Aguado-de-Cea, Elena Montiel-Ponsoda, María Poveda-Villalón and Olga Ximena Giraldo-Pasmin proposes a preliminary set of guidelines for ontologies with a twofold goal: to guide users in the process of assigning labels and descriptions to ontology entities; and second, to help terminologists and translators in the translation of these specific resources by providing them with coherent, user-friendly examples of how to apply the above-mentioned guidelines.

Creating corpus-based ontologies: a proposal for preparatory work by María Rosario Bautista Zambrana describes the steps for creating an ontology for terminological purposes: among them, to acquire the knowledge necessary to create the ontology, to conceptualize the domain and to implement the ontology itself. This contribution focuses on the first activity and proposes a protocol to work from a specialized corpus, extract terms, detect linguistic equivalents and extract conceptual relations, with a view to creating an ontology, which in turn can be the basis for a multilingual onto-terminological dictionary.

Gracia Carrión's approach in Conceptual representation of expert knowledge in FunGramKB: the derivation process in several typical crimes of criminal law analyzes some criminal offences prototypical from the legal domain, such as "corruption", "extortion" and "forgery", derived from their corresponding

verbs. She has chosen these as examples of terminal concepts that attest that it is possible to integrate expert knowledge in FunGramKB, thanks to the conceptual representation language COREL, common to the three main modules of the conceptual level. The detailed analysis of the above mentioned entities will ascertain not only that it is possible to reuse the information from the Meaning Postulates (MPs) of the events from which they derive, but also that the information already included in the knowledge base is maximized.

Alfonso Figueroa's contribution The use of the argument structure of the verb in Spanish for Artificial Intelligence: a proposal, offers a modest theoretical approach of the implementation of the predicative structure of the verb in Spanish to artificial intelligence by employing cognitive computing and machine learning.

Don Quixote: A quantitative analysis through its characters by Antonio Frías Delgado and Mario Crespo Miguel offers the results on analysing different quantitative aspects of the language of the three Quixotes, the two written by Cervantes and the one written by Avellaneda.

Fuzzy Grammaticality Models: A Tool for Web Language Analysis by M. Dolores Jiménez-López and Adriá Torrens Urrutia highlights the need to propose formal models that consider grammaticality as a gradient property instead of the categorical view of grammaticality defended in theoretical linguistics.. Fuzzy grammaticality models may be a way to solve the problem that the so-called "noisy text" poses to parsing mechanisms used in Web language analysis-especially social networks language.

2L English Texts and Cohesion in Upper CEFR Levels: A Corpus-Based Approach by Ma Ángeles Zarco Tejada, Carmen Noya Gallardo, Ma Carmen Merino Ferradá, and Ma Isabel Calderón López presents an on-going project on corpus linguistics held at the University of Cádiz (UCA) which tries to identify discourse proficiency of B1, B2 and C1 CEFR levels in the CLEC (CEFR-Labelled English Corpus) with a corpus-based quantitative and qualitative approach. The CLEC is a corpus of CEFR-labelled texts developed using CEFR-labeled teaching materials.

Stylistic authorship comparison and attribution of Spanish news forum messages based on the TreeTagger POS Tagger by Mario Crespo and Antonio Frías aims at identifying text authorship by using part-of-speech tags over short texts (200 words). They study a corpus of 28 texts taken from forum messages. The tokens of this corpora were annotated with parts of speech (POS) provided by TreeTagger. Results show how 10 out of the 14 (71, 4%) test texts were correctly assigned to their author.

Trialing a Tablet PC Based Language Test by Jesús García Laborda and Mary Frances Litzler investigates some potential difficulties that might be encountered if tablet PCs are to be used for delivery of high stakes tests. Results indicate that tablet PCs could be adequate for high-stakes tests in the 2nd and 4th years of secondary school (ESO) and the 2nd year of Baccalaureate studies in Spain.

Translation and Interpreting

Multimodality and multi-sensoriality as basis for access to knowledge in translation: the case of audio description of colour and movement by Antonio Javier Chica Núñez offers research closely linked to the concepts of multimodality and multimodal perception: the translation process which takes place in audio description (AD) for blind people. This study analyses the preferences of audio describers when translating two basic components of dynamic images (colour and movement) in accordance with the taxonomic model of the dynamic image laid out by Chica (2013). This model is based on neuroscientific studies which describe the way in which visual perception functions (Bartels & Zeki 2005). Results show that audio describers do not favour descriptions which specifically highlight such elements, but rather they prefer neutral and relatively simple descriptions in relation to colour and movement.

Bruno Echauri's contribution "Trapicheando " on Baltimore's Corners A Semantic Analysis of The Wire's Slang Terminology and its Translation seeks to establish an analytical tool aimed at determining the appropriateness of the translation of complex terms and providing an adequate alternative when necessary. The study is built on Fillmore's Frame Semantics Theory (1975) which divides concepts into different frames, a structure that encompasses people's perception, knowledge and interpretation of the notions that make up the world around them (Wendland, 2010). To test the model's practical implementation, Echauri decided to focus on the English-Spanish translation of a slang term from HBO's acclaimed series The Wire. In this vein, he compared the frames triggered by the original word with those evoked by the translation from the Spanish subtitles of the official DVD collection distributed in the EU.

Medical brochures translated into English and their comparison with source English and Spanish medical brochures by Goretti Faya Ornia is based on a previous contrastive analysis about the genre of medical brochures both in English and in Spanish (Faya Ornia 2015).

Contrastive Multimodal Analysis of two Spanish translations of a picture book by Roberto Martínez Mateo focuses on two Spanish translations of a Children's book titled The story of Ferdinand (1935) written by Munro Leaf and illustrated by Robert Lawson. The comparison of this specific narrative type is made between two translations carried by two different translators, published on different continents and by different publishing houses and whose illustrations were made by two different authors.

The role of cognitive operations in the translation offilm titles by Isabel Negro seeks to show the role of cognitive operations such as those proposed by Ruiz de Mendoza and Galera (2014) in the translation of English film titles into Spanish and French. Her comparative analysis suggests that, although the original titles are often kept in the other languages or literally translated, sometimes the translation is accounted for in terms of five cognitive operations: expansion, reduction, strengthening, mitigation or parametrization.

Translation of the dress in advertising campaigns for the Arab culture: narratives, powers, ideologies by Irene Rodríguez Arcos describes how dress is translated in advertising campaigns in the Arab countries. In times of globalization where people, goods and discourses continually flow, the translator has to face the new challenges posed by the media and specifically advertising. In highly ideologically charged advertising campaigns, women's body, and the dress in particular, become translated signs whose meaning goes beyond cultural marks. The (non-) re-presentation of women in advertising also reflects public narratives and the exercise of power.

Latest trends in multimodal translation: PRA2 by Ana Rodríguez Domínguez presents the results of the development of a web portal with audiovisual content accessible for people with sensory functional diversity (hearing and visual), through different modes of translation and interpreting. The purpose of this portal is multiple: first, it aims to be a contribution to the social and cultural integration of minority social groups; furthermore, it aims to create a repository of reference materials available for both people with sensory functional diversity and professionals and teachers in the field of translation and interpreting; finally, it enables the evaluation of such accessible material through case studies performed online in the portal itself, thus establishing quality patterns for the concepts of universal accessibility standards, both in educational and professional contexts.

Extraction of terminology and phraseology towards the design of instructional resources for legal translation by Tamara Rubio Donat and Miguel Ángel Candel-Mora proposes a protocol to extract frequent terminology and phraseology in order to increase CAT tools performance, improve quality control features and help to produce resources with teaching purposes in the translation of contracts.

Lastly, The pre-trial stages of arrest and police questioning: Implications for interpreters and translators in the United States by Manuel Triano-López focuses on the constitutional rights of limited-English-proficiency suspects in the united states during two pre-trial stages: arrest and custodial interrogation. specifically, the paper addresses the constitutional violations arising from the linguistic barriers between these suspects and law enforcement authorities. The paper proposes a solution in the form of statutory provisions requiring the active participation of well-qualified interpreters and translators.


Discourse constructions in English: the case of complementary-contrastive constructions by Aneider Iza Erviti examines a group of constructions at the level of discourse. Such constructions are part of the family of complementary-contrastive constructions in English. These constructions result from the combination of two elements, which despite being apparently contrary, actually complement each other. Using Ronald Langacker's (1987; 1999) notions of meaning base, profile, and active zone, the contribution addresses the question of the classification of discourse constructions, and analyzes within this constructional family, two specific meaning profiles: constructions that make the second element of the construction more important and constructions that correct or modify the content elements of an utterance, whatever its illocutionary force.

Compilation of the First Slovene Contemporary Dictionary of Abbreviations by Mojca Kompara presents the compilation of the first Slovene contemporary dictionary of abbreviations, the type of entries, the structure of the entry and some related compilation problems.

English for Specific Purposes

The paper by Ana Roldán-Riejos and Georgina Cuadrado Esclápez Metaphor and Figurative Meaning Construction in Science and Technology (English and Spanish) explores the interrelation of conceptual, linguistic and visual metaphor in engineering as the research done in a bilingual terminological semantic study on science and technology metaphors shows (Cuadrado et al., 2015). Scientific and technical terms were analysed from dictionaries, databases and research papers by selecting those with a metaphorical basis; then, they were classified according to the type of metaphor they embody, establishing the conceptual metaphors underlying the metaphorical expressions, and the image schemas involved in the visual metaphors.

The constructing of shipping forecasts in English: A pilot study by Ana Bocanegra-Valle studies how shipping forecasts are constructed and shaped. Bocanegra's findings are expected to help linguist researchers to gain knowledge of the textual organisation of shipping forecasts as a very particular type of oral discourse within the professions, and also, to provide maritime English teachers with genre-based tools that may contribute to enhance their teaching practices in maritime English classrooms.

The contribution Understanding the inventor's mind through patent analysis: A CLIL team-teaching experience at the Technical University of Madrid by Barreiro and Sancho reports on a CLIL-based team teaching initiative recently accomplished at the School of Agronomic Engineering of the Technical University of Madrid (UPM). Two teachers—an agronomic engineer and an applied linguist, together with around 20 master students, analyzed a patent document by contrasting it with a 'twin' research article written by the same authors on the same technology and examining their differing contexts and textual and social outcomes.

A comparison analysis of modal auxiliary verbs in Technical and General English by Asunción Jaime presents an analysis of modal verbs in Technical and General English based on a corpus. The results shed some light on the role played by these verbs in both genres, with special emphasis on their use in technical texts.

Language Needs in Tourism Enterprises. Case Study: The Region of Pallars Sobira, Catalonia, Spain by Javier Cañas and Lola Pérez describes a study carried out by the authors on the linguistic needs of tourism enterprises in the Catalan region of Pallars Sobirá (Lleida).

Raising Metaphor Awareness in English for Law Enforcement's paper by Torregrosa and Sánchez-Reyes describes metaphor awareness raising activities are successfully included in the police ESP syllabus as a language learning strategy in the Police Training Centre located in Avila,. Students in the second course of the Executive Scale of the Spanish National Police (CEFR B1) received input in conceptual metaphors related to drugs, offences and offenders, police officers and equipment, and penalties and penitentiaries.

The role of text in the identification of visual metaphor in advertising by isabel Negro Alousque provides an insight into the role of text in identifying visual metaphor in ads through the quantitative analysis of a small sample of online ads.

Finally, the contribution Linguistic needs in virtual communication and labour mobility: CoMoViWo Project by Amparo García Carbonell, Penny MacDonald, Begoña Montero-Fleta, and Carmen Pérez-Sabater focuses on the first phase of the project, financed by the European Union's Education, Audiovisual and Culture Executive Agency (EACEA), which aims to improve the employability of graduates by developing literacy training for virtual communication.

Psychology of language

Mechanisms for the control the intersubjectivity: anchorage and the control of the other's words by José Luis Barranco Pérez describes the analysis of a sequence of interaction in which two students from ELE of intermediate level conducted an activity of information gape, suggests that the learners deployed two types of mechanisms for control of intersubjectivity: anchor and the control of the other's words. Through anchorage, the partners point out their perspective and clarify the other's perspective by clarification requests and confirmation checks. Through the control of the other's words, strengthen their understanding of the perspective of the other.

Abstract and spontaneous concepts formation: a transnational comparison between Danes and Spaniards by Irene Álvarez, Elena Ballesteros, Sara Berro, Paloma Carvajal and Esther Ciria tries to verify the influence of variables place of origin and gender in concept formation, whether it is an abstract concept or a spontaneous one. It is hypothesized, on the one hand, that there are no differences between Danish and spanish participants in concept formation whether or not they are abstract concepts and, on the other

hand, though both men and women resort to the same arguments when referring to the spontaneous concept, they differ in the type of argument in the case of the abstract concept. The results suggest that Spaniards and Danes differ in the formation of abstract concept; however, they are similar when it is time to construct spontaneous concept. Likewise, men and women use the same arguments when referring abstract and spontaneous concepts.

The Guest Editor would like to thank the Spanish Association of Applied Linguistics, the co-chair of the conference, Dr. Ana Roldân-Riejos, the organizing and scientific committees, the conference volunteers, the panel directors and the reviewers for their work and dedication to this project. Special thanks go to the authors whose contributions are included in this Special Issue, for their cooperation during this process and for presenting such interesting papers. I hope you will find these equally engaging.

Silvia Molina-Plaza Guest Editor