Scholarly article on topic 'Patterns of Indonesian Women Entrepreneurship'

Patterns of Indonesian Women Entrepreneurship Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Ummu Hani, Ilma Nurul Rachmania, Santi Setyaningsih, Rucita Cahyawati Putri

Abstract Nowadays, women entrepreneurship grows rapidly at small-medium enterprises. Gender difference was no longer a barrier to run a business and become entrepreneur. The objective of this study is to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social economic challenges facing women business owners in Indonesia. The study intends to support and encourage sustainable small-medium enterprises economic development activities by Indonesian women. A survey was developed and administered to a sample of 102 Indonesian female entrepreneurs. Data were collected by questionnaire and interviews. The results of this research is understandable about the patterns of women entrepreneurship in Indonesia viewed from various aspects, such as major type of their business, their major obstacles and their major supporting factors. Another result is Indonesian women entrepreneurship can be divided into four cluster with different characteristics. Future research need to explore about the gender dimension and the influence of education levels, family and environmental issues on the role models that influence and drive of women entrepreneurship.

Academic research paper on topic "Patterns of Indonesian Women Entrepreneurship"

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Procedía Economics and Finance 4 (2012) 274 - 285

International Conference on Small and Medium Enterprises Development with a Theme "Innovation and Sustainability in SME Development" (ICSMED 2012)

Patterns of Indonesian Women Entrepreneurship

Ummu Hania*, Ilma Nurul Rachmaniaa,Santi Setyaningsiha,Rucita Cahyawati Putria

_aMagister Science Management SBMITB JL. Ganesha no. 10 Bandung, Indonesia_

Abstract

Nowadays, women entrepreneurship grows rapidly at small-medium enterprises. Gender difference was no longer a barrier to run a business and become entrepreneur. The objective of this study is to identify patterns of entrepreneurship and social economic challenges facing women business owners in Indonesia. The study intends to support and encourage sustainable small-medium enterprises economic development activities by Indonesian women. A survey was developed and administered to a sample of 102 Indonesian female entrepreneurs. Data were collected by questionnaire and interviews. The results of this research is understandable about the patterns of women entrepreneurship in Indonesia viewed from various aspects, such as major type of their business, their major obstacles and their major supporting factors. Another result is Indonesian women entrepreneurship can be divided into four cluster with different characteristics. Future research need to explore about the gender dimension and the influence of education levels, family and environmental issues on the role models that influence and drive of women entrepreneurship.

© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under res ponsibility of Parahyangan (Catholic University. Keywords: women entrepreneurship; small-medium enterprises; social economic challenges

1. Introduction

The "growth" of Asian enterprises has been a prominent feature of the small business population (Dhaliwal, 2000). Indonesia is at the third ranked in Asia and one of the top 5 countries with the largest population in the world. The increase number of people will make the more negative issues of the development in the country. One major issue is the economic problem. Economic problems are viewed from the income per capita of the people in Indonesia which are very low when compared with other countries.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +62-856-495-56685 E-mail address: ummu.hani@sbm-itb.ac.id.

2212-5671 © 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of Parahyangan Catholic University.

doi:10.1016/S2212-5671(12)00342-5

In addition the number of unemployed people also makes the economy worst. Women is the most group which have big problem in terms of unemployment, not only because of the education but also working women often get the discrimination salary that is usually lower than men. This is one of the social economic challenges for Indonesian women.

Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) are the engine of the European economy. They are an essential source of jobs, create entrepreneurial spirit and innovation in the EU and are thus crucial for fostering competitiveness and employment (Verheugen, 2005)". It was the same as the sense of small and medium enterprises in Indonesia. SMEs are one of the levers of the economy side of Indonesia. SMEs are growing very rapidly in Indonesia covering many fields. Most of the established families, but most of the others was founded by a woman.

Women have started to have the ability to run a business. This is necessary so that women began to be compared to the ranks of men. The last few years in Indonesia, not only many women have succeeded in careers, but also a lot of women have succeeded in business. They are able to see the opportunity and have courage to innovate. From the fact that exists in the field, then the women entrepreneurship through small business enterprises is one important factor that should be researched in advance Indonesia's economy.

The purpose of this study was to map the characteristics of women entrepreneurs in Indonesia viewed from different aspects which one of them is in terms of age, education, role models and so forth. Therefore it can be seen in broad outline the pattern of women entrepreneurs, in the period ahead will be used to predict how much potential the people of Indonesia to be able to develop the business as has been done by the women entrepreneurs surveyed in this time.

2. Defining entrepreneurship

A large of literature has developed ranging from academic studies to prescriptive blueprints for setting up new ventures (Cunningham, 1991). The term "entrepreneur" has often been applied to the founder of a new business, or a person " who started a new business where there was non before.

One example definition of entrepreneurship is provided by Achintya (2003). Entrepreneurship is vibrant assertion of the facts that individual can be developed, then outlook can be changed and their ideas can be converted into action though on organized and systematic program for entrepreneurs. It was also felt that systematic training can be given a better output and attracting people for taking up business venture can change economic scenario.

3. Literature Review

3.1 Microfinance Approach and Program in Indonesia

Microfinance can be very beneficial for women for several reasons. The first is women will provide better access to capital at a relatively low level of interest, which may increase directly to their liquidity position and allow them to smooth consumption and to keep assets of each business. Women are the most vulnerable sections of society in Indonesia and face limited opportunities for employment in the formal sector economy. Several studies have found that the formal sector of job has a lot of unemployment women which higher compared with men, and women also make up the majority of low paid as workers (Johar and Rammohan, 2006). Using the loans from the bank or other institution which provide the loans will increase the small medium enterprise from the women in Indonesia. This is one way to boost the self-entrepreneur in Indonesian women.

In terms of politics and economics, the government has made a development started since President Suharto came to power in 1967 then the construction is done by two pathways. The first development took place until

1983 was marked by state intervention, while the second development began in 1984 until now refers towards the liberal. In terms of financial policy, Indonesia has set a path for the liberalization of financial systems by changing the network entity and defines the legal framework that specifically targets the development of small rural banks. In the end, small rural banks today are a diverse institution serving the needs of the loan and many rural communities. This is one solution or alternative provision of financial services (Lapenu, 2011). Small rural banks can borrow funds to help small medium enterprise or the micro business in Indonesia.

The presence of alternative solutions for SMEs loan as a capital or micro business is very crucial for the development of economic systems in Indonesia. There are three main reasons why financial alternative solution is very important. The first is this kind of institutions have shown that higher borrowing costs in small number can be substantially reduced and this can benefit to the financial institutions that provide micro loans to large borrowers, delivered locally with low transaction costs with interest rates much lower than that usually paid by low-income borrowers for informal commercial credit. Second, these institutions have made credit widely available.

Institutions in developing countries supplying credit at the local level in the form of subsidized loans, but because of the subsidy is limited by the capital budget or donor, the form of credit just only meet a fraction of the demand. The third is that the survival promoting voluntary savings institutions. Institutions provide commercial microfinance have an incentive to make the appropriate arrangements for the demand in small quantities. These institutions can meet the high demand for savings services (Robinson, 1997).

Of the 46 million small and medium micro enterprises, it is known that 60% of the owners are women. With appreciable amounts of this, the role of women entrepreneurs to be large enough for economic security, because it can create jobs, provide goods and services cheaply and address poverty. Loan repayment rate of women's business has almost reached 100%. This statement was delivered by the State Minister of Women, Vanessa Hudgens, in commemoration of the 61st National Cooperative in Sekayu, Banyuasin, the month of July 2008 (Hati, 2009).

Higher levels of education and the era of an increasingly open trade area give great opportunities to women to become true entrepreneurs. On the other hand, start self-employment or become an entrepreneur is not an easy thing, especially for women in Indonesia. To be a true entrepreneur, Indonesia women just need to learn a serious, disciplined, and never give up. The more people gain the knowledge and expertise, and then that person can use it to improve and bring happiness in life.

3.2 Women, Gender and Empowerment in Indonesia

Based on statistics, the number of women in Indonesia is more than men. With large numbers, women must be improved both as subject and object of building a nation. Women play an important role in life. Women are the main stronghold of the family. Improving the quality of human resources ranging from women's role in providing education to their children up to how women can take care of the economic system in the family. Economic growth will spur industrial growth and improved quality of life fulfillment. In this sector, women can help improve the family economy in many ways, both entrepreneurial and educated workforce.

Gender developmental index of the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) shows that Indonesia ranks 96th of 157 countries in Southeast Asia in the Gender Empowerment Index, it was based on UNDP Human Development Report, 2009. Two major issues of gender equality for women in Indonesia is the lack of access to education and equality in the payment of wages (PSF, 2012).

Gender equality in Indonesia has made progress in other cases. Listed from the World Development Report 2012 on gender equality and development issued by the World Bank which is like most other developing countries, Indonesia has made progress in terms of improved health for women on their access to finance and justice. Given such information as the Director Stefan Koeberle the World Bank for Indonesia, said that more women become entrepreneurs as the availability of micro credit. Of the many women entrepreneurs who

borrow funds through micro-credit, will have an impact on other women who do not borrow through microcredit but still want to develop small and medium enterprises (Soehardjono, 2012).

4. Data and Methodology

4.1 Data collection

The study makes use of a set of data collected in 2012. One of the criteria in the research study was conducted only against Indonesian women who run the business herself or property owned by her and her family members. To study the characteristics of what are the causes of the emergence of women entrepreneurs in Indonesia, this study conducted a survey of women entrepreneurs in Indonesia are using the 100 women entrepreneurs who have own small and medium enterprise in any field as reference data for assessing these characteristics No limits on the duration of the business are running, it can be in the new state or in the long time period running to tens of years. The target populations are small medium enterprises of Indonesian women. The areas that serve as objects of study is random but overall the data will be nationally because of the extensive marketing of the business are up to the outside area in Indonesia.

Most of the small and medium businesses are derived from Java Island and this is because the population in Java Island is the largest compared with the population of other islands in Indonesia. Big cities in Java Island are the center of the present study, such as Yogyakarta, Bandung, Semarang, Jakarta and Surabaya. In those cities a lot of the accumulation of Indonesian women who have a business with high knowledge compared to the other cities.

4.2 Methodology and instrument

This research used questionnaire to collect data and then used cluster analysis and crosstabs analysis in data processing to fulfil the objective of this study. The survey was conducted using a questionnaire that is divided into several sections. The questionnaire was distributed by using the Indonesian language, so it does not need a companion to each respondent to fill out the questionnaire because of all respondents familiar with the language itself.

The first part is about the profile of respondents, in terms of business location, level of education of women, age, family status, previous business experience. The aim is to map the rear background of the respondents. The next part is the internal perception of respondents. Submission of questions about the role model that inspired the implementation of the business, the perception of gender, issues of family, the level of confidence. Explain how the original purpose of the implementation of the business. The final part is an external factor, in which it is asked about the obstacles, competitors, financial business, the ownership of the business and marketing strategies are also conducted.

Some respondents to the questionnaire were interviewed, will serve as additional data as a confirmation of data that will contribute to the confidence and commitment of each respondent. The collected data will then be statistically analyzed, which will be cross-tabulation, calculation of the average and standard deviation using the software SPSS 20th edition.

One of the survey objective was to identify different groups of women entrepreneur to know how the pattern of women entrepreneurship in Indonesia nowadays. We focus specifically on whether the data can be usefully divided into clusters. The aim of cluster analysis is to divide the data into groups, or clusters, in such a way that the data are reasonably homogeneous within each cluster. An important question is how many clusters are to be used. Increasing the number of clusters will reduce the dissimilarity within each cluster, but at the expense of a description of the data which has more degrees of freedom and is therefore less parsimonious. The question of the "correct" number of clusters to use remains an active research topic (Sugar and James, 2003).

5. Result and Discussion

The following data are represents the results of the survey studies which have been done on women entrepreneurs in Indonesia. It describes various aspects of social demography of women in Indonesia with additional data from interviews for this study.

5.1 Demographic characteristics

Table 1. Demographic characteristics of sample

Age group

<20 20-25 25-30 30-35 >35

2% 46% 9% 10% 33%

Location (province)

Jakarta West Java Central Java East Java Other

12% 58% 3% 20% 7%

Area of industry

Food Fashion Beauty Service Other

25% 34% 6% 10% 35%

Degree of education level

Junior HS and under Senior HS Diploma Bachelor Master

3% 16% 13% 58% 9%

As shown at table 1, sample of this study has wide variety of demographic characteristics. Most of sample aged between 20 to 25 years old, with the biggest reasons as additional income and also as a hobby due to their age who are still study in the universities and the other still working in the company for the beginning years. The older women entrepreneur (range age above 35 years old) generally do not have a job other than as a woman entrepreneur as the main job.

Data were collected using a questionnaire and distributed randomly on women entrepreneurs. Based on the data, many women entrepreneurs lived in Java Island as a center of trade and the concentration of people in Indonesia. Most of women entrepreneur run their business at fashion and food sector. The rest are most run their business at other sector.

Approximately 47 percent of respondents were single female single (not married yet), 6 percent were women who married but do not have any children and 47 percent are women who are married and have children. The average of their children were around 2-3 children. If viewed from another perspective, the unmarried respondents generally do business on the grounds as an additional income other than main income. While married women usually do their business because they generally do not have other jobs and the businesses which they serve becoming the main job.

5.2 Influence and perceptions

5.2.1 Previous Business Experience

Respondents were asked about their experiences in doing business. Approximately 49 percent of respondents said that their business which they run was the first business for them. On the other hand, 51 percent respondents said that business was not their first business, this study asked for further information and

noted that most of their first business is not similar to the business which they running now.

5.1.3 Role Model of Influence

About 45 percent of respondents indicated that other family members were a source of inspiration for business. One reason is they have family members who already have a business and encourage them to lead their own businesses. As many as 32 percent of respondents indicated that friends were a source of inspiration business, friends were also which already doing their business or serve as a partner in a business that they run. While 23 percent inspiration comes from other sectors, including self-consequence of a hobby to doing business or from books, teachers and leaders who were being successful entrepreneurs.

When the statistical test performed cross tabulations between the variables of education and role models, the results obtained for (x2 = 12.368 ,take advantage of alpha 0.05 and d.f 10) with a high sense of association between these variables. It states that at any education level will see their role model as a reference for running the business. In general, family and friends are indeed the greatest factor in triggering their business. Both can be very closely related to their lives. Further research is needed to prove this statement.

5.1.4 Gender Perception

Perceptions of gender differences are one of the theories in running a business. 66 percent of respondents had the perception that men and women have equal opportunities of doing business. 31 percent had the perception that women have a greater chance than men in running business and the remaining 3 percent had a perception that men have a greater chance when compared to women in business.

When the statistical test performed cross tabulations between the variables of education and gender perception, the results obtained for (x2 = 12.428, take advantage of alpha 0.05 and d.f 10) with a high sense of association between these variables. It states that at any education level will give you the idea that the lack of influence of gender differences in running a business. In this case it can be stated that men and women will have equal opportunities to do business, and this is expressed by the entire education community.

5.1.5 Family Issue

In most cases someone else in the family was already in business, normally father, brother, or husband. The significance of family background in acting as a vehicle for the inculcation of entrepreneurial values is a strong factor in motivating these women to become self-employed (Dhaliwal, 2000).Nearly 100 percent of the women entrepreneurs received support from her family in running the business, while about 47 percent of them have a partner who can be a family business is a family business or a business location that makes the difference becomes larger business scope. 53 per cent said that they did not have a business partner family. 21 percent of the respondents said that the problems in their family interfere in their business while the remaining 78 percent do not have family problems that can disrupt their business. It seems the people of Indonesia are not too blaming the growing business of one family and they tend to support the business.

5.3 Business challenges

5.3.1 Barrier of Running the Business

The results of the questionnaire was found that as many as 28 percent of women entrepreneurs have a bottleneck in the financial aspect while 18 percent of respondents were faced the problems in their business environment, environmental issues mean that the environment was not appropriate to spread their business. 18 percent of them said that there were problems in their own self. 24 percent of respondents said that the main problem that faced by a combination of these problems which are financial, environmental and personal lives of each person. While the remaining 13 percent stated that the main problem was the addition of these problems that the business was not a priority, the method of payment if there were customers who order products business, the price was quite competitive with the competitors, lack of time in running a business, not

the community the same if you want to share experiences or problems, as well as the ability of workers who felt less in running the business.

This study did cross tabulation of variables between age and barriers. Showed that (x2 = 10.529 using alpha 0.05 and df 16) can be expressed a high association between these variables. Based on the data, it obtained in mind that the women entrepreneurs have a drag on their finances. This opinion needs to be examined in detail in future studies.

5.3.2 Competitive Edge

The women entrepreneurs were asked about business competition in the field. Of the total respondents, 79 percent stated that there were high competition in their business and after a further asked, half of the sample said that competition did not disrupt their business, and half of them said that the competition was annoying. While 21 percent of the rest respondents said that their business was low of competition and only 33 percent of them said that they did not offer a unique business to its customers while the rest stated that they offer a unique business. From these data it can be concluded that the women entrepreneurs who feel that their business competitors are low generally offer a different product from an existing business.

4.3.3 Confident and Fear of Failure

The women entrepreneurs were asked about their confidence in conducting business. 30 percent of them expressed that they really confident of that business will be successful which the business has been running until now. 65 percent of respondents stated that they very confident that the business will be success when they doing it in a sustainable improvement and the remaining 5 percent expressed lack of confidence that the business will be run. Most of the reason stated that they were not serious in doing their own business and there were a lack of enthusiasm in running the business compare to the first time which they run the business.

When the statistical test performed cross tabulations between the variables of confidence in business and finance, the results obtained for (x2 = 2.717, use alpha 0.05 and df 6) with a high sense of association between these variables. It is stated that the financial influence their confidence in conducting business. The women entrepreneurs will be confident that the business will run smoothly when the finances of the business is too smooth, for example, is smooth in loans to pay bank loans as a business capital, and so forth. This study did another cross tabulation statistical tests which were among the variables in business confidence and competitive edge, the results obtained for (x2 = 4.499, use alpha 0.05 and df 2) with the sense of a fairly high association between these variables. It claimed that the conditions of competition affecting their confidence in conducting business. From the data obtained that growing number of competitors has an effect on the level of trust, namely the decline in the level of confidence. To ensure this can be done for further research.

5.4 Marketing strategy and financial factor

5.4.1 Marketing Strategy

From the total respondents in this study, as many as 17 percent of respondents rely on marketing of their business through word of mouth, carried out by spreading the word of a man known to their own friend. While 30 percent of respondents rely on direct marketing system by opening a store and so forth. 14 percent rely on the Internet network systems. In general, the information which spread was done by the online shop. 9 percent of the remainder relies on the entirety of the way, either from word of mouth marketing, direct marketing and also the internet.

5.4.2 Finance and business owner

From the financial side which this study asked based on the initial capital used and also the ownership of the business. Respondents noted that 68 percent of their business's carrying around an ungainly their own capitals,

while 10 percent of respondents borrowed at the bank as their capital, or it can be said that they used bank credit. 14 percent of respondents said that the capital obtained from the family in general was a partner in the business. The remaining 9 percent said the source of capital comes from the other side of which is derived from the investor, the legacy of your friends, bosses at other jobs and others. Meanwhile the overall business of the average ownership of the business was privately owned by 68 percent, 16 percent family-owned and belongs to the group, who generally were their friends by 17 percent.

Cross tabulations has been done to the educational and financial variables. Showed that (x2 = 23.260 using alpha 0.05 and df 15) can be expressed a fairly high association between these variables. This result suggests that the educational level of women entrepreneurs have any effect on the financial side of their business. In general, the women entrepreneurs who have the background education of bachelor degree, the capital of their business was more inclined towards using their own capital and bank compared to the other party. To ensure this explanation so it need for continued the research on this statement.

5.5 Cluster Analysis

Based on three categories (industry area, age group and marketing strategy), data is divided into four cluster. This analysis aims to know the real pattern of women entrepreneurship in Indonesia. The clusters can see as follow:

Table 2. Result of cluster analysis

Cluster

1 2 3 4

Industry Area other fashion service food

Age Group >35 20-25 20-25 30-35

Marketing Strategy direct all direct direct

Cluster 1

This is the oldest cluster (i.e lowest mean age category), and has variety of entrepreneur types beside service, fashion, food, and MLM. There are many old women have business on dormitory, The marketing strategy at this cluster usually use direct marketing. Education level of this cluster is the lowest among the other clusters.

Cluster 2

Cluster 2 has the most members among others. This cluster consist of young women entrepreneur (age 2025 y.o) that doing business at fashion sector. They tend to markets their product using all of possible market strategy include direct marketing, internet, word of mouth, and other marketing strategy. Young generation nowadays certainly prefer internet to market their products. It is because through internet, marketing expenses can be very minimum. Internet also can reach very wide range of market.

Table 3. Characteristics of each cluster (mean and standard deviation of each attribute)

Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4

N= 18 N= 37 N=18 N=29

M SD M SD M SD M SD

Education 3.17 1.043 3.57 .835 3.83 .707 3.76 1.300

Previous Business 1.56 .511 1.38 .492 1.72 .461 1.59 .682

Family Status 3.00 0.000 1.35 .753 1.28 .575 2.62 .728

Reason for being an entrepreneur 1.56 .856 2.57 1.068 2.67 .907 2.03 1.149

Role model 1.72 .895 1.92 .894 1.72 .669 1.69 .761

Gender Perception 1.17 .514 1.46 .558 1.17 .383 1.52 .574

Family Issue 1 1.00 0.000 1.03 .164 1.00 0.000 1.00 0.000

Family Issue 2 1.33 .485 1.70 .463 1.50 .514 1.45 .506

Family Issue 3 1.72 .461 1.76 .435 2.00 0.000 1.76 .435

Confidence 1.61 .502 1.84 .501 1.72 .575 1.72 .591

Barrier 2.72 1.320 2.95 1.527 2.89 1.183 2.41 1.476

Competitive Edge 1.28 .461 1.14 .347 1.33 .485 1.17 .384

Financial 1.67 1.029 1.51 1.044 1.78 1.060 1.69 1.004

Ownership 1.50 .707 1.62 .893 1.39 .698 1.38 .677

Fig. 1 Pie chart reflecting the size of each cluster as proportion of the sample

Cluster 1

Ownership Financia Competitive Edge Barrier Confidence Family Issue 3 Family Issue 2 Family Issue : Gender Perception Role model Reason for being an entrepreneur Family Statu Previous Business Education

-0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5

Cluster 2

Ownership Financia Competitive Edge Barrie Confidenc Family Issue ■ Family Issue ; Family Issue : Gender Perception Role model

Reason for being an entrepreneur Family Status Previous Business Education

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4

Fig.3 Bar chart representing the mean values of each variable, respectively for cluster 2

Cluster 3

Member of this cluster consist of young women entrepreneur (age 20-25 y.o). With direct marketing, they tend to run business at service area. The service businesses are usually laundry, photocopy, animal husbandry, and etc. This cluster has the highest education level. Most of members of this cluster haven't married yet. They focus to run their business.

Cluster 3

Ownershi Financia Competitive Edge Barrie Confidence Family Issue 3 Family Issue 2 Family Issue Gender Perception Role mode

Reason for being an entrepreneu Family Status Previous Busines Education

Cluster 4

This cluster consists of young-married women, with age range 30-35 years old. Most of members of this cluster run their business at food sector. Food business usually uses direct marketing. They open store or restaurant at strategic places. They also usually run catering business at their house.

Cluster 4

Ownership Financia Competitive Edge Barrie Confidence Family Issue 3 Family Issue Family Issue 1 Gender Perceptior Role mode

Reason for being an entrepreneu Family Status Previous Busines Education

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3 3,5 4

Fig.5 Bar chart representing the mean values of each variable, respectively for cluster 4

6. Conclusion

Indonesian women entrepreneurship has wide variety of characteristics that can be divided to four clusters. Indonesian women entrepreneurs seem to perceive themselves as dynamic enough to balance family and professional careers better than in corresponding western societies. This is not surprising since traditionally the family in Indonesia is a great and primary emotional and financial support for its members.

The educational level of women entrepreneur in Indonesia is quite high with most of them are bachelor degree. The higher one's economic status, self-reliance, and self-esteem, the more power one has to make changes and choices regarding quality of life. The choices now made extend to education, housing, health-care, and political participation. With high competition in running their business, they realize that further sustainable improvement is very important.

Indonesian women entrepreneur has high independent financial aspect in running their business. Only few women that use microfinance or bank credit as their venture capital. Most of them also own their business as private owned business.

Women who choose entrepreneurship must instill some mental attitude in her to excel in their fields. Low profile is never to be jealousy, pride of the advantages and capabilities, but should always keep a low profile for the advancement of the business that is run. High Motivation is useful for the women themselves, who can then take a good virus to others. The spirit of motivation can be obtained from anywhere. Future research need to explore about the gender dimension and the influence of education levels, family and environmental issues on the role models that influence and drive of women entrepreneurship.

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