Scholarly article on topic 'The Study of Two Stages Anaerobic Digestion Application and Suitable Bio-Film as an Effort to Improve Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha Curcas Linn Capsule Husk'

The Study of Two Stages Anaerobic Digestion Application and Suitable Bio-Film as an Effort to Improve Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha Curcas Linn Capsule Husk Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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{Bio-gas/bio-methane / "Jatropha curcas Linn capsule husk" / "Two stages digestion" / "Biofilm carrier" / Glasswool}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Praptiningsih G. Adinurani, Tony Liwang, Salafudin, Leopold O. Nelwan, Yosephianus Sakri, et al.

Abstract The conversion program from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia has positive impact on saving budget of fuel subsidized. However, the program does not only depend on LPG supply from overseas but also inadvisable related to the LPG availability in the world. Bio-gas is renewable energy which categorized as modern cooking oil. This gaseous bio- fuel is feasible in Indonesia due to plenty of bio-gas resources such as bio-mass and waste, simple technology, supporting tropical climate on bio-gas process, no food competition on material supply, minimizing global warming, reducing water pollution and producing organic fertilizer. Some series of study are conducted on dried Jatropha curcas Linn. capsule husk (JCL-CH) as bio-gas feedstock. The objective of the study is to create technology for managing JCL integrally according to bio-refinery principle. This paper will present two studies, JCL-CH performance in single stage digester compared with two stages digester in laboratory and palm fiber compared with glass wool as bio-film/bio-carrier in methanogenesis reactor. The studies were conducted in Research Laboratory PT. Bumimas Ekapersada, Bekasi, West Java from March until May 2012. A liter of glass bottle as digester, arranged in Randomized Complete Design, three replications per treatment placed in 32°C water bath. The bio-gas feedstock was put continuously with Organic Loading Rate – OLR or concentration 1: 12 in single stage compared with 1: 12 and 1: 8 in two stages. The observed parameters were pH, temperature, bio-gas volume, methane concentration, volatile solid and acetic acid concentration. Bio-gas volume was measured by water displacement method and methane concentration was measured by gas chromatography. T-test was used for statistical analysis. The studies showed that two stages digester more efficient since it can increase methane concentration and bio-gas volume/gram VS. The bio-gas volume increase 63.83% in OLR 1: 8. Glass wool was more effective as bio-film carrier compared with palm fiber.

Academic research paper on topic "The Study of Two Stages Anaerobic Digestion Application and Suitable Bio-Film as an Effort to Improve Bio-Gas Productivity from Jatropha Curcas Linn Capsule Husk"

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Energy Procedía 32 (2013) 84 - 89

International Conference on Sustainable Energy Engineering and Application

[ICSEEA 2012]

The study of two stages anaerobic digestion application and suitable bio-film as an effort to improve bio-gas productivity from Jatropha Curcas Linn capsule husk

Praptiningsih G. Adinurania ,Tony Liwangb, Salafudinc, Leopold, O. Nelwand, Yosephianus Sakrie, Satriyo K. Wahonof, and Roy Hendrokog*

aFaculty of Agrotechnology, Universitas Merdeka Madiun bPT Sinarmas Agroresources and Technology Tbk. Jakarta cDepartement of Chemical Engineering, ITENAS, Bandung dFaculty of Agricultural Technology and Engineering, IPB Campus Dramaga, Bogor ePT. Jatropha Oil Indonesia, Jakarta fUPTBPPTK LIPI, Yogyakarta gRenewable Energy - Graduate Student, UNSADA, Jakarta

Abstract

The conversion program from kerosene to LPG in Indonesia has positive impact on saving budget of fuel subsidized. However, the program does not only depend on LPG supply from overseas but also inadvisable related to the LPG availability in the world. Bio-gas is renewable energy which categorized as modern cooking oil. This gaseous biofuel is feasible in Indonesia due to plenty of bio-gas resources such as bio-mass and waste, simple technology, supporting tropical climate on bio-gas process, no food competition on material supply, minimizing global warming, reducing water pollution and producing organic fertilizer. Some series of study are conducted on dried Jatropha curcas Linn. capsule husk (JCL-CH) as bio-gas feedstock. The objective of the study is to create technology for managing JCL integrally according to bio-refinery principle. This paper will present two studies, JCL-CH performance in single stage digester compared with two stages digester in laboratory and palm fiber compared with glass wool as bio-film / bio-carrier in methanogenesis reactor. The studies were conducted in Research Laboratory PT. Bumimas Ekapersada, Bekasi, West Java from March until May 2012. A liter of glass bottle as digester, arranged in Randomized Complete Design, three replications per treatment placed in 32°C water bath. The bio-gas feedstock was put continuously with Organic Loading Rate - OLR or concentration 1 : 12 in single stage compared with 1 : 12 and 1 : 8 in two stages. The observed parameters were pH, temperature, bio-gas volume, methane concentration, volatile solid and acetic acid concentration. Bio-gas volume was measured by water displacement method and

* Corresponding author. Tel :+62-8159555028 E-mail : roy_hendroko@hotmail.com.

1876-6102 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonesian Institute of Sciences. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2013.05.011

methane concentration was measured by gas chromatography. T-test was used for statistical analysis. The studies showed that two stages digester more efficient since it can increase methane concentration and bio-gas volume / gram VS. The bio-gas volume increase 63.83% in OLR 1 : 8. Glass wool was more effective as bio-film carrier compared with palm fiber.

© 2013 The Authors. Published Ly Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-reviewunder reej^onsibilityi (if tye Research Centre for Electrical Power and Mechatronics, Indonessan Institute of Sciences.

Keywords : Bio-gas / bio-methane; Jatropha curcas Linn capsule husk; two stages digestion; biofilm carrier; glasswool.

1. Introduction

The Indonesian cooking fuel is changing from solid (wood, charcoal, etc) to liquid (kerosene) and now into Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The changing of cooking fuel is natural because of welfare improvement [1]. In other country, this situation also happen as described by Reusswig et al. in transition correlation graphic of energy carrier and income [2]. Government explained that conversion program from kerosene to LPG from 2007 until 2010 has saved budget around 20.99 billion IDR [3]. However, the program has failed to establish Indonesia on energy self sufficient because 60.6% of LPG was imported [4]. Indonesia Energy Outlook 2011 showed the LPG requirement in Indonesia was 6.4 million tons. Meanwhile, the LPG requirement in Indonesia in 2020 will increase 9 million tons and LPG production only 2.5 million tons [5]. Unggul Priyanto [6] mentioned a number of LPG availability in the world is not huge because the production is only 8% from natural gas and 8% from crude oil refinery.

Related to limited availability of LPG, Aep Saepudin [6] suggested using bio-gas as gaseous bio-fuel since bio-gas is categorized as modern cooking oil [7], efficient conversion process of bio-mass [1 and 8], contributed in minimizing global warming and no food crop competition [9 and 10], plenty of bio-mass as bio-gas feedstock and wider utilization of bio-fuel [11], simple technology because the equipment can be produced locally, tropical climate can support anaerobic process cheaply [12], minimizing soil water pollution [13], producing nutrient enriched organic fertilizer [14] and as soil conditioner.

Data showed that organic waste of Jatropha curcas Linn (JCL) is a big business [15] such as JCL seed cake (Jatropha curcas press cake, Jatropha curcas defatted waste). International Bureau of the World Intellectual Property Organization has announced JCL seed cake patent as animal feed (the invention of Prof. Klaus Becker and Prof. Harinder Makkar from University of ^h^hem, Stuttgart, Germany). Detoxification of JCL seed cake contains 60% protein (25% higher than soybean meal) and 90% (double of soybean meal), respectively [16].

Another waste from CJO processing is husk (jatropha fruit coat, capsule husk, fruit husk, hulls, shell, fruit shell, peel, fruit encapsulate). This waste is 30 - 80% from weight of fresh fruit [17 and 18] or 8 -15% from dry weight [19]. The husk is not recommended as organic fertilizer because high of n/N ratio [20]. JCL husk also is inadvisable as bio-methane substrate [21] because of slow degradation. But, some researchers [12. 22 and 23] have solved the JCL husk problem as bio-gas substrate. Hendroko et al.[24] reported that two stages digester was capable to increase efficiency and effectiveness of toxic JCL husk utilization. Even, there is a problem on optimization of methanogenesis reactor performancebecause of inappropriate of bio-film carriers / material bed utilization. In order to solve the problem, this paper will report further study on JCL husk performance in single stage compared with two stages digestion and palm fiber as bio-film carrier compared with glass wool. The objective of the study is to enhance JCL utilization in Indonesia.

2. Methods

This study was conducted in Research Laboratory PT. Bumimas Ekapersada, Village of Pasirranji, Sub District of Cikarang Pusat, Bekasi, West Java on March until May 2012. Toxic JCL dried husk of JatroMas cultivar was minimized its size by cutting into 1 cm2. JCL-CH was put into a liter of brown bottle which is used as digester. 4 g of JCL-CH and 48 ml of water (Organic Loading Rate/OLR 1 : 12) as substrate in single stage was put into the bottle continuously. In every day, 48 ml of water and 4 g of JCL-CH was put out from the bottle and 48 ml of water and 4 g of JCL-CH was put into the bottle to replace it. This activity was conducted regularly during 36 days.

On two stages digestion, there are two OLR, 1 : 12 as standard and 1 : 8. In standard OLR, every day 4 g of JCL-CH and 48 ml of water was put into the hydrolysis bottle, and the same quantity slurry from hydrolysis was taken, then 48 ml of hydrolysis solution was removed into methanogenesis bottle. At the same time, 48 ml of methanogenesis solution was put out from the bottle. For OLR 1 : 8, the activity was same as OLR 1 : 12, except the composition of JCL-CH and water was 4 g + 32 ml respectively.

The micro organism growth in methanogenesis reactor is referred to attachment growth system but located bio-film reactor / bed material in bottom of methanogenesis bottle until 20% from the bottom. Palm fiber was used as standard compared with glass wool as bio-film carriers. Those bottles were arranged in Randomized Complete Design, three replications in 32°C water bath.

The observed parameters are pH, temperature, acetic acid concentration, methane concentration, biogas volume. Bio-gas was capture in a bottle and measured by water displacement method. The captured and measured bottle for bio-gas was located separately between hydrolysis and methanogenesis. The methane concentration was measured by gas chromatography (GC-FID). The bio-gas production data was analyzed by T-test.

3. Result and discussion

Table 1 shows that the data of bio-gas volume produced from single stage compared with two stages digester on JCL-CH as feed stock with OLR1: 12 during 36 days. Table 1 show that the productivity of two stages is higher (26.84%) than single stage. This is same as conclusion from some researchers such as Demirer, G.N. and S. Chen [25] which said that two stages performance was 26 - 67% higher than single stage. This is supported previous research [24] that bio-gas production from JCL-CH toxic feedstock can be increased with two stage digestion. But T-test in Table 1 shows no significant different between two type of digester. It assumed that both of them have same OLR, 1:12, same as result of previous research [24]. Bio-gas production data with JCL-CH as feedstock with OLR 1:8 in two stages compared with OLR 1:12 in single stage digestion is presented in Table 2.

Table 1. Bio-gas production single stage compared with two stages digester on JCL-CH as feedstock

Digester Type

Average (mL/g VS) t Table % Increase

Single stage OLR 1 :12 23.7035 Two stages OLR 1:12 30.0658 *)

1.482 26.84

Note : Based on mnthanognnnsis reactor only

Table 2 shows that the OLR 1 : 8 on two stages digestion produce bio-gas volume 63.83% higher than single stage and significantly different proved by statistical analysis. There is an improvement of productivity in two stages digester compared with previous research [24] because present research was used glass wool to replace palm fiber as bio-film carrier as shown in Table 3.

Table 3 shows that the utilization of glass wool as bio-film carrier increases bio-gas productivity. Palm fiber has negative impact because there are fiber flakes that float in substrate and making clogged in the bio-gas outlet pipe. The methane observation by GC-FID is presented in Table 4.

Table 4 shows that methane content in two stages is higher than one stage especially in OLR 1 : 8. This data support conclusion by R. Sarada and R. Joseph [26] in their research on tomato processing waste. It can be seen that hydrolysis reactor also produce methanee even in low content. As described in Table 1, 2 and 3 in hydrolysis reactor also capture bio-gas production and measure it separately using Solera et al. [27] method. But, in this study, the production from hydrolysis reactor is not classified as bio-gas product refers to M. Hutnan et al. [28] on sugar beet pulp research. Even, some researchers [part of them 29] said that bio-gas production in two stages is combination from hydrolysis and methanogenesis reactor.

One of the successful parameter in bio-gas production is shown by pH. Table 5 shows that pH observation during 36 days. Table 5 shows that pH during the study is categorized normal because some researchers [part of them 28] said that hydrolysis pH range is 4 - 7. Some researchers [part of them 28] said that pH range for methanogensis is 6.3 - 8. However, based on the data, there is a trend that pH in single stage is lower than two stages.

Table 2. Bio-gas production in single stage OLR 1: 12 compared with two stages digester OLR 1:8 on JCL-CH as feedstock

Digester Type Average (mL / g VS) t-table % increase

Single stage OLR 1:12 23.7035 3.847**)

Two stages OLR 1: 8 38.8344*) 3.847**) 63.83

Note : Based on methanogenesis reactor only Significantly different

Table 3. Bio-gas production in two stages digester using JCL-CH as feedstock with palm fiber and glass wool as bio-film carrier

Biofilm Carriers Average (mL / g VS) t-table % increase

Palm fiber 9.7692 *) 5.133 **

Glass wool 30.0648*) 5.133 ** 207.75

Note : Based on methanogesesis reactor production; Significantly different

Table 4. Methane content in single stage compared with two stages on JCL-CH as feedstock

Single Stage Two Stages

OLR 1 : 12 OLR 1 : 8

Hydrolysis Methanogenensis Hydrolysis Methanogenensis

27.38 16.17 42.90 18.49 65.03

Tabel 5. Data of highest, lowest and average pH in two stages compared with single stage

Two Stages OLR 1 : 12 OLR 1 : 8

> < Average > < Average

Hydrolysis 6.70 6.36 6.55 6.80 6.36 6.60

Methanogenensis 7.30 6.33 7.08 7.40 6.33 7.21

Single Stage 6.80 6.13 6.51 - - -

4. Conclusion, recommendation and suggestion

4.1. Conclusion and recommendation

Based on the study, it can be concluded:

• Two stages digestion is more efficient in DH-JL processing because bio-gas production in two stages with OLR 1 : 8 is 63.83% higher than single stage with OLR 1 : 12

• Glass wool is more effective than palm fiber as bio-film carrier

4.2. Suggestion

Increasing two stages productivity by:

• Adding ballast in hydrolysis reactor so JCL-CH will not float

• Optimum retention time in hydrolysis reactor

• Recirculation slurry for saving hydrolysis diluents water

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