Scholarly article on topic 'Carbon paste electrodes in the new millennium'

Carbon paste electrodes in the new millennium Academic research paper on "Chemical sciences"

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Academic research paper on topic "Carbon paste electrodes in the new millennium"

VERSITA

Cent. Eur. J. Chem. • 7(4) • 2009 • 598-656 DOI: 10.2478/s11532-009-0097-9

Central European Journal of Chemistry

Carbon paste electrodes in the new millennium

Invited Review

Ivan Svancara1*, Alain Walcarius2, Kurt Kalcher3, Karel Vytnas1

'Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, CZ-532 10 Pardubice, Czech Republic

2Laboratory of Physical Chemistry and Microbiology for the Environment,

54600 Villers-les-Nancy, France

3Institute of Chemistry - Analytical Chemistry, Karl-Franzens-University of Graz, A-3000 Graz, Austria

Received 14 May 2009; Accepted 9 July 2009

Abstract: In this review (with 500 refs), both electrochemistry and electroanalysis with carbon paste-based electrodes, sensors, and detectors are of interest, when attention is focused on the research activities in the years of new millennium. Concerned are all important aspects of the field, from fundamental investigations with carbon paste as the electrode material, via laboratory examination of the first electrode prototypes, basic and advanced studies of various electrode processes and other phenomena, up to practical applications to the determination of inorganic ions, complexes, and molecules. The latter is presented in a series of extensive tables, offering a nearly complete survey of methods published within the period of 2001-2008. Finally, the latest trends and outstanding achievements are also outlined and future prospects given.

Keywords: Carbon paste electrodes • Electrochemistry • Electroanalysis • New millennium (2001-2008) © Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

1. Introduction

1.1. Electrochemistry and electroanalysis with carbon paste electrodes in the light of Nobel Prize winner Jaroslav Heyrovsky and his polarography

The year of 2009 comprises an anniversary celebrating exactly fifty years that have passed since Professor Jaroslav Heyrovsky (1890-1967) won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry as an award for the discovery of polarographic method, its principal development, and popularisation worldwide [1]. Coincidentally, the same year also represents a break-point that indicates the start of a new half-a-century of existence of carbon paste as the electrode material [2].

It is to be noted that both seemingly distant fields -i.e., polarography with the dropping mercury electrode

(DME) and electrochemistry with carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) - are somehow associated as the configuration of classical DME has become an inspiration for similarly functioning electrode variant based on carbon dispersion. This linking point had appeared in the late 1950s, when Professor Ralph Norman Adams (1924-2002) and his students were testing a new "dropping carbon electrode" (DCE) as an alternative to the DME for anodic oxidations of organic compounds, where the mercury drop could not be used. Although such a concept had finally failed, a thicker mixture of softer consistence, carbon paste [3], was found to be capable of replacing satisfactorily the originally intended DCE configuration [4].

There is yet another link between carbon pastes and polarography - it is the first review on CPEs, written again by Adams [5] that had appeared in a Japanese bulletin Review of Polarography. In view of present day's classification, it was rather unusual

* E-mail: Ivan.Svancara@upce.cz

& Springer

choice as the referred CPEs representing solid-like sensors, with invariable surface, and of non-mercury character could not be operated in the polarographic regime, but voltammetrically. (At that time, however, voltammetric experiments had sometimes been reported as polarographic measurements - see e.g. [6] and the authentic citation withdrawn from the abstract, "...The carbon paste electrode recommended by Adams for polarographic oxidation of various organic substances...", published in Nature - one of the most prestigious scientific journals.)

Finally, polarography with DME and the CPEs themselves share quite similar fates when taking into account their more-or-less accidental discoveries, as well as the resultant position achieved in modern electrochemistry. Whereas polarographic I-E curves were first registered during investigations with electrocapillary phenomena at the DME [7], carbon paste was a "side-product" coming from unsuccessful experimentation with the above-mentioned DCE [4,5]. Some decades later, when polarography had already become the worldwide-renowned scientific discipline [1], the electrochemistry with CPEs also started to play a role of highly respected field that would spread over the globe, spawning about 2 000 scientific papers and having touched almost each area of theoretical and applied electrochemistry [2].

1.2. The state of art in the new millennium

Since their invention in 1958, carbon paste electrodes (CPEs) underwent a very impressive development, pursuing the progress in electrochemistry, electroanalysis, and instrumental analysis as such. The respective history illustrated via the individual periods and milestones has already been summarised, when practically each aspect, feature, or particular area were of interest in the past five decades. Also, some significant periods of research work with CPEs were the subject of exclusively oriented reviews and related reports (see [1,2] and refs. therein).

Herein, for the reader's comfort, it is possible to briefly point out the respective bibliographic sources published to date and given below in a chronological order: (i) the early era of CPEs has been evaluated by Adams himself [4,5]; the key contributions from the 1960s concerning initial characterisations of CPEs coming also from his laboratories [8-10], as well as from some other pioneers in the U.S. and Europe [11-15]; (ii) typical achievements during the 1970s can then be withdrawn from some original reports (e.g. [16-20]); (iii) the starting era of chemically and biologically modified carbon paste electrodes (CMCPEs and CP-biosensors, respectively) initiated by a series of key studies [21-25] and spread over the entire 1980s is documented

by a triad of contemporary reviews [26-28]; (iv) the beginning of 1990s and the following years are covered in the remaining reviews articles [29-39], including some specialised areas [34,35]. Finally, there are also two attempts to overview the field in its entirety. The first accomplishment of this kind is a 250-pages-lengthy chapter published in the Encyclopedia Of Sensors (EOS) series [40]; the second being a brand new review made on the occasion of the half-centurial jubilee of carbon paste [2]. As seen, the last review devoted to a particular period of the field was the article published by our group in 2001 [36].

In an effort to specify the latest achievements and trends, we have prepared this new review focused on the years after the commencement of the new millennium -for the period of 2001-2008. In some respect, it can be considered as a continuation of the above-mentioned review covering the years of 1996-2000 [36], together with its forerunners having dealt with the preceding half-decade of 1991-1995 [29,30]. However, compared to these compilations, there is one distinct difference -this review and its sections concerning electroanalytical applications are concentrated on inorganic analysis only and the determinations of organic substances, environmental pollutants, pharmaceuticals, and biologically important compounds are not considered, except for single mentions dealing with new groups of CPEs or in association with latest achievements with some particular techniques. The reason for such a selection is a special review [41] covering the recent advances in organic and biological electroanalysis with CPEs and appearing soon in an article dedicated also to the 50th anniversary of Heyrovsky's Nobel Prize and concerning predominantly organic electrochemistry.

Last but not least, here is only a little overlay with the above-mentioned book-chapter [40], having also reviewed a number of publications from the first years of the new millennium. This text is focused exclusively on latest trends and summarises additionally more than two hundred new publications that have appeared in the last three years - i.e., after the release of the review in EOS.

2. Electrochemical research with carbon paste electrodes in the period of 2001-2008

2.1. Classical carbon pastes and some advances in their characterisation

Similarly as in previous decades, mixtures made of commercially available spectroscopic graphite powders (as a carbon moiety) and of either paraffin (mineral) oils

or silicone fluids (in the role of pasting liquid or binder, respectively) have also dominated over the years of the new millennium and it can be expected that such mixtures might represent about 75% among all carbon pastes employed [2]. Apart from their actual use -i.e., if the resultant CPEs were employed in the bare configuration or as chemically modified carbon paste electrodes, CMCPEs -, this statement reflects the fact that traditional carbon paste compositions may still offer attractive properties and versatile use. Their wide applicability, as well as compatibility with new procedures and materials, is then documented throughout this text and, especially, in sections 3 and 4, summarising the individual methods of inorganic electroanalysis reported over the period 2001-2008.

The continuing interest in traditional carbon pastes has then resulted in some valuable contributions to the basic characterisation of CPEs, CMCPEs, or carbon paste-based electrode substrates, which could be achieved with the aid of (i) new instrumentation, (ii) hitherto-unused approaches, or initiated by (iii) actual demands.

(i) Among newly used instrumental techniques for characterisation measurements, one can mention studies on the carbon paste structure with atomic force microscopy (AFM [42]), scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM [43]), or surface screening with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS [44]) and spectroelectrochemistry (SEC [45]).

(ii) One of the unpublished approaches to the characterisation of CPEs is newly described in a report [46], dealing with the electrical resistance of carbon paste mixtures. The respective studies have helped to explain long-time unclear reasons for excellent conductivity of common carbon pastes (see e.g. [39,40]), which could be accomplished via experimental verification of a new hypothesis - "Model of the tightest arrangement of carbon particles".

(iii) As a typical example of an actual demand that influences the orientation of modern electrochemical research and applied electroanalysis, it is possible to quote the increasing popularity of the so-called "green analytical chemistry" [47]. Carbon paste as completely non-toxic and environmentally friendly material is widely applicable also within these activities, including various combinations with other momentarily preferred materials (for details, see below, in sections 2.2 and 2.3).

2.2. New types of carbon pastes and related materials

Besides common graphite powders, both paraffin and silicone oils can also be mixed with other carbonaceous materials, forming more or less specific carbon pastes. In the past decades, such investigations with newly proposed mixtures had always been of interest and the same was the case of numerous efforts appearing in the period of 2001-2008.

2.2.1. Carbon pastes made of alternate carbonaceous materials.

Shortly after the commencement of a new millennium, carbon pastes made of (i) glassy carbon powder (with spherical particles and specially pre-treated surface) came again to the fore [48,49] as the electrode material exhibiting excellent polarisation characteristics, electrocatalytic effect for some redox systems, or even significantly improved resistivity in media with a higher content of organic solvents (such as solutions containing up to 80-90% (v/v) MeOH [50]). More favourable reaction kinetics due to electrocatalysis have also been reported for carbon pastes prepared from (ii) acetylene black [51,52], (iii) template carbon or (vi) porous carbon foam [53]. A collection of reports [54-61] concerns the family of (v) diamond paste electrodes (DPEs), where the carbon moiety is replaced by natural or synthetic diamond. Reportedly, these mixtures exhibit remarkably high analytical currents due to which the respective DPEs are able to operate at extremely low concentrations (down to the picomolar level [56,60]). However, because both diamond and the binder in such pastes are electric insulators, the functioning of these electrodes remains rather mysterious. In last years, intensively popularized (vi) new forms of carbon complete the list with other pastes made of fullerenes ("C-60" [62,63]), carbon nanoparticles [64], or pastelike mixtures with carbon nanofibers [65], and various types of carbon nanotubes [66]; the latter representing a new phenomenon also within the electrochemistry with carbon pastes, deserving a special attention [2].

2.2.2. Carbon nanotube paste electrodes (CNTPEs or CNPEs, respectively).

This type of carbon pastes has already been the central subject of more than 30 original papers [67-97] and the respective research can now be regarded as a separate area in the field. Since the first reports by Palleschi's [67,68,73], Wang's [69] and Rivas's [66,70,71,75] groups, the CNTPEs have undergone a very diverse investigation, comprising the initial electrochemical characterisation of basic types of nanotubes and the respective CNTPEs (e.g. [67-70]), their comparison

with common CPEs [68,69,74], studies on specific electrocatalytic properties of CNTs [73,75,76], the respective reaction kinetics [73], specific ion transfer at liquid / liquid phase boundaries [92], or their capabilities to immobilise various substances into the electrode bulk (e.g., redox mediators [67,73,77], enzymes [70,80] or even two enzymes together [87], and various catalysts from single metallic particles [80,96], via specially synthesised polymeric compounds - the so-called molecular wires [78]).

Numerous CNTPEs have already been successfully examined for the identification and quantification of numerous species of inorganic, organic, or biological origin. In inorganic analysis, CNTPEs were employed to determine Hg(II) in water samples [72], Cu(II) + Pb(II) in fish tissue [85] or Cu(II) alone in vascular tracts [94]; the latter being feasible with specially fluorinated CNTs. Among organic and biologically important compounds, of interest were: alcohols and phenols [70,77], thiolic amino acids (homocysteine [69]), flavonoid-antioxidants (quercetin and rutin [74,79]), glucose [80,87,88,96], dopamine [68,75,81], NAD(H) [70,73,77], DNA [90], as well as some pharmaceuticals (namely: Isoniazid [86], Piroxicam [89], Urapidyl [83], and antibacterial Oxytetracycline [93]) or environmental pollutants like herbicide Amitrole [71]. Furthermore, similarly to common types of CPEs, the CNTs-paste sensors have been shown to be versatile with respect to their combination with modern instrumentation such as highly selective amperometric detection [80,87,96], separation techniques like capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE [75]) or electrochemiluminesce detection (ECL-D [88]), including their mutual combination (CZE / ECL-D [91]).

In paste mixtures, carbon nanotubes - in both single-wall and multi-wall forms - are usually used as (i) substitute of graphite powder (see e.g. [67-71,74,81,86,89]), mixed directly with paraffin oil [67-70], silicone oil [84] or, alternatively, an ionic liquid (IL) [82]. In some cases, CNTs may represent (ii) additional component (modifier [90]), or a constituent in (iii) mixtures with another substances that further amplify the electrocatalytic effect of CNTs themselves [78,80,96].

2.2.3. Carbon Pastes Made from Atypical Binders.

Mixtures, where paraffin or silicone oils were replaced by alternate binder, have been of considerable interest mainly in the initial era of characterisation measurements with CPEs (see e.g. [37,40] and refs. therein), whereas reports on such carbon pastes from the recent years are quite rare. For instance, mixtures of this type have been employed in potentiometric indications, which is the case of carbon paste-based electrodes made of chemically active di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DINP [97])

or tricresyl phosphate (TCP [98]). The latter - when protonated in an acidic supporting electrode - is also applicable in electrochemical stripping analysis (ESA), acting as counter-ion for effective pre-concentration of some anions [99-101].

Common pasting liquids can also be alternated by some nearly solid binders like silicone grease (C/ SG type, made from lubricant for fly-fishing floating lines [102]) or polypropylene (C/PP, [40]), forming very dense and difficult-to-handle mixtures. Occasionally, the so-called solid-like carbon paste electrodes are also reported, representing configurations where the binder is formed by solidified paraffin wax (s-CPEs or C/PWs, respectively [103-109]). In these cases, the PW moiety acts as a stabilising element, protecting the respective electrode material against the dissolution effect of organic solvents (e.g., EtOH [104,105]), or may serve for immobilisation of modifiers applied as a mixture of reagents [108,109].

Finally, solid binder-based carbon pastes can also be represented by screen-printed electrodes (SPEs) prepared from thicker (paste-like) carbon inks [110,111]. Herein, the respective electrode material is classified as "carbon paste" by the authors themselves; maybe, due to a close relation of both CPEs and SPEs as typical representatives of carbon heterogeneous electrodes [32]. Otherwise, however, both types are being distinguished (see e.g. [112,113]).

2.2.4. Carbon Ionic-Liquid Electrodes (CILEs).

Similarly as carbon nanotubes, also room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs or ILs, respectively) have recently come into the fore [114]. These substances are represented by molten salts with the melting point close to or below room temperature, consisting of two asymmetrical ions of opposite charges. Their excellent solvating properties, high conductivity, non-volatility, low toxicity, wide polarisation range, as well as good electrochemical stability make such ion-associates attractive for many applications, including their incorporation in various electrodes, (bio)sensors, and detection systems [114]. In the electrochemistry with carbon pastes, the corresponding boom is reflected in the rise of a new family of carbon paste-based electrodes - carbon ionic liquid electrodes (CILEs), reported, to date, in approx. 30 contributions [82,115-140].

Pioneering attempts with CILEs, initiated four years ago by Liu et al. [115] were soon followed by Opallo's group [116], together with especially active Maleki and Safavi plus co-workers [117-119,121,123]. Since then, other scientific teams had stepped into the field [82,120,122,124], and all the started investigations dealt again with a wide variety of experimental work - from the

fundamental characterisations and comparative studies with common CPEs (e.g. [115,117,119,126,127]), via studies on the specific ion / charge transfer in ILs [115-117,120] and their electrocatalytic effect [121,128,137], up to first analytical applications to the determination of various organic and biologically active compounds. Namely, of interest were the following substances: ClO4- and PF6- anions [116]; nitrite, NO2-[115,126,128]; hydrogen peroxide (in environmental samples [125]); hydrazine [133]; n-alkyl-amines [124]; phenol, amino-phenols, and catechol [123,130], nitro-phenols (p-nitrophenol and Methylparathion in waste-water [137]); hydroquinone (in cosmetic cream and waste-water [127,139]); glucose [138], calcium dobesilate (in capsule and urine [122]); Paracetamol (in pharmaceuticals and urine [136]); Acetaminophen [133]; ascorbic acid (AA, in model samples [117,133] or tablets of Vitamin-C [120]); dopamine (DO, in injection samples [117,129]), including simultaneous determination of AA, uric acid (UA), and DO in human blood and urine [118]; NAD(H) [117], and DNA [132,135].

In another analogy with CNTs, also (RT)ILs can be used as (i) mixtures with graphite, where the ionic liquid replaces ordinary binders (e.g. [115-117]); (ii) additional component (usually modifier [127]); or (iii) special medium for another reagent (e.g., enzyme [138]). Regarding the individual types of (RT)ILs, the compounds of choice are heterocyclic structures of the [n-alkyl-pyridium]+A- or [R,R'-imidazolium]+A- type (where the respective anion is PF6-, Br-, or *bis(trifluoromethyl-sulfonyl)imide, NTF2 [115-120]). Regarding the techniques which are being coupled with CILEs, predominant are amperometric detections (e.g., [125,133,138], feasible also as measurements in the FIA mode [124], followed by voltammetry [118,123,127], including a more effective detection with the rotated disc electrode (RDE) [82]. Some methods can be combined with potentiometric indication [119] or even electrochemiluminescence detection [124].

The commentary on new types of carbon pastes can be concluded by quoting (i) a mixture of carbon nanotubes with an ionic liquid [82] or (ii) CNTPEs immersed in ionic liquid-based supporting electrolytes [140]. In the first case, a combination of the two trendy materials has resulted in a unique paste of "new generation", in which both traditional components are replaced with alternate moieties, whereas the remaining two cases can be considered as a transient element between the CNTPEs and CILEs. Regarding the latter, such systems with specific electrochemical behaviour given by the presence of both CNTs and RTILs may offer yet some unique properties like long-term stability at high temperatures of about 60oC, reported for a CNTPE from ultra-long (aligned) nanotubes in connection with an ionic-liquid electrolyte [140].

2.2.5. Some innovations in the construction of carbon paste electrodes.

Practically since CPEs came to a wider use in electrochemistry, their usual arrangement is common macro-electrode operated in the stationary (batch) configuration (see e.g. [2] and [40] with the respective sections therein). Typical designs also reflect the fact that carbon pastes are a soft and non-compact material which has to be fixed in suitable electrode bodies, when various pre-filled tubes or piston-driven hollow shafts still prevail as the most popular constructions [2,40,141]. In flowing streams, properly designed detectors are then employed - often, as adaptations of commercial detection cells supplied by renowned producers of chemical instrumentation.

As throughout the publication activities within the 1960s-1990s, also the years after the Y2K have spawned some contributions, in which the CPE-design significantly differ from traditional constructions and configurations. One of such criteria can be the size of electrode and, in this respect, carbon paste ultramicroelectrodes (CP-UMEs) reported by Nyokong et al. [142] are certainly exceptional, when the respective ensembles were tested in two configurations: as (i) CP-disc-shaped electrode (with overall diameter 0CP = 100-150 |jm), and

Figure 1. Some new construction types of electrode holders for carbon paste. Clockwise from right side: (i) piston-driven carbon paste holder for common use in the stationary (batch) configuration, with Teflon®-machined body and of ordinary size (authors' own construction); (ii) prototype of a small CPE as the exchangeable working electrode for wall-jet HPLC detector; (iii1+2) two carbon paste mini-electrodes of slightly different surface size (via cut tip); (iv1+2) two assembled carbon paste groove electrodes; set-up for a detection unit in FIA-mode (right) and the electrically heated variant (left) connected to a thermometer (above). (For further specification, see original reports [141,143-146].)

(ii) CP-band electrode; both exhibiting charac-teristic properties of microelectrodes, but suffering from a worse reproducibility (ca. ±20 %). A new type of carbon paste microelectrode (CP-|jE; with diameter of ca. 5-50 |jm) has been reported by Hocevar and Ogorevc [64]) and somewhat larger variant, carbon paste minielectrode (CP-mE, 0.10-0.15 mm in diameter) by Sotiropoulos et al. [143]. In the first case, the CPjiE utilises a special piston-driven mechanism in a glass capillary, whereas CP-mE requires only a common plastic pipette tip whose vertical cutting (with a razor) provides the desired surface area. A simple construction of the latter is shown on Fig. 1, together with a prototype of small CPE-holder that has been designed recently to be used as exchangeable working electrode in a wall-jet detector for HPLC [144]. For comparison, the image illustrates a third piston-driven CP-holder [141], representing an older type of CPE with ordinary size.

Finally, the photo in Fig. 1 depicts also carbon paste groove electrode (CP-GrE [145]) as another atypical construction of a CPE, copying planar design of SPEs [114]. The CP-GrE assembly comprises a miniature plastic prismatic bar with horizontal channel for carbon paste filling, metal contact, and additional plastic insert(s) defining the electrode surface via its mechanical coverage / exposure. The whole construction has fulfilled the demands upon its use inside a detector for hydrodynamic measurements, when its satisfactory function in the FIA mode was demonstrated already on the first prototype [146] and confirmed again by a brand new study [147]. Momentarily, a more robust CP-GrE construction is being maintained into electrically heated carbon paste electrode (EH-CPE), when following the previous idea and construction by Flechsig and Grundler [148]. (It is expected that new EH-CPE would complete the hitherto-performed investigations on temperature-enhanced diffusion of electroactive species with similar assays on temperature-dependent non-faradic processes such as adsorption, extraction, or ion-pairing.)

The gallery of unusual CPE constructions can be ended by mentioning (i) magnet-incorporated carbon paste electrode (MI-CPE [149]), at which - reportedly - magnetically controlled fluxes are higher than those measured by the comparative non-magnetic carbon paste. Or, apparently unprecedented is recently described (ii) dual-electrode / dual-channel detection system for capillary electrophoresis [150], where two working CP-based electrodes and two amperometric detectors have enabled to determine simultaneously four different analytes.

2.3. Reflection of new technologies in the electrochemistry with carbon pastes

The years after 2000 are undoubtedly in the sign of widespread applicability of materials that have been developed with the aid of new technologies. In the electrochemistry with carbon pastes, they are represented mainly by various modifiers; namely, (i) complexants and (ii) redox electrocatalysts or mediators, when the latter can also be understood as synonym for catalysts in biochemical and biological processes. The group (i) comprises usually macromolecular variants of some reagents known from classical qualitative analysis [151] - e.g., Cuproin and the Cu(I) counter-ion can be found in the structures of [Cu4(1,3-bis(4-pyridyl) propane)]4 [(2-methyl-acrylic acid)8(H2O)2] x 2 H2O, [78] and a [Cu'-dipyridyl]+ polymeric complex [152], or a new Schiff base inside bis-5-(4-nitrophenyl-azo) salisylaldimine]-1,8-diamino,3,6-dioxo-octan [153]).

The diversity of the group (ii) is much wider; nevertheless, also electrocatalysts can be sorted into several major subclasses, some of them having again origin in classical reagents and / or their products. For instance, this is the case of (a) Dawson compounds; i.e., heteropoly-anions based on SiIV, PV, AsV / MoVI, W and VV hetero-atoms combined with voluminous organic cations, as well as neutral organic molecules [40]. In the new millennium, novel types of these substances, capable of catalysing the electrode transformations of both inorganic and organic analytes (e.g., XO3-, where X is Cl, Br, and I; NO2- and NOx, N2H4 and NH2OH, H2O2 and O2, or phenols, catechols, and aromatic amines; see e.g. [40,41] and tables therein) are regularly reported and, herein, one can present some selected examples: H3[P(Mo12O40)]^nH2O and 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane encapsulated in MCM-41 (a mesoporous molecular sieve) [154]; (^^^(Mo^O^ •6CH2CN^8H2O [155]; (H-2,4-bipyridine)4[Si(Mo3O10)4] [156]; [C3H12N2]4[CdMo12O24(HPO4)6 (PO4)2(OH)6] [(Cd(H2O)2]-3H2O [157]; CsMNa22{[Sn(CH3)2

(H2O)]24[Sn(CH3)212}[PV/AsV(W9O34)12]-149H2O

[158]; H-2[Cd" (1,10'-phenanthroline)3]2{[Cd(H2O) (1,10'-phenanthroline)2](V16O38Cl)}^2.5H2O [159]; [Ni"/

Co"2(4,4'-bipyridine)3(H2O)2(C2O4)][P2O2(W3O10)6]2

(2-H-4,4'-bipyridine>H2O [160]. Attractive properties of such hybrid materials are given by their multifunctional nature, coupling in one the mechanical stability of the inorganic lattice, chemical reactivity of the organic moiety with its lipophilicity ensuring good adhesion to the hydrophobic carbon paste.

Another distinct group of electrocatalysts / mediators are (b) Me" / III-porphyrin-based macro-structures like FeIII-tetra(o-ureaphenyl)porphyrinosilica matrix [161] or Co" / 4,4',4",4"'(21 H-23H-porphine-5,10,15,20-tetra-yl)

tetrakis-benzoic acid immobilized onto grafted silica of the SiO2 / Nb2O5 type [162]; (c) calixarenes (e.g., NiM-5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(di-ethylcarbamoyl-methoxy)calix[4]arene [163]; (d) ZrIV-template based adducts (16H,18H-dibenzo[c,1]-7,9-dithia-16, 18-diazapentacene / ZrIV-phosphate [164]; (e) Doyle catalyst: RhII2 tetrakis[methyl-2-oxopyrrolidine-5(S)-carboxylate] (see [165]); or (f) radical-forming diimide derivatives (N,N'-bis(propyl)-3,4,9,10-perylenebis(dicarboximide), reported as highly organized Langmuir-Blodgett films [166]). New types of modifiers are often nanostructured - from single metal-or metal oxide nanoparticles (e.g., gold- [167,168]), platinum- [169] and CuO [170]), via complex hybrid structures (octakis(cyano-propyl-dimethylsiloxy)

octasil-sesquioxane / Na2[Fe(CN)5NH3] [171]), up to chemically functionalised core-shell Fe3O4sAg magnetic nanoparticles [172] or a film composite from sodium alginate + 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium hexafluorophosphate (RIL) + SiO2-nanoparticles + hemoglobin (Hb) [173]; both being biocompatible and applicable in the configuration of immunosensors. Also Dawson compounds can be prepared in nanoscale;

e.g^ [(C4H9)4N]4[Si(Mo3O10)4], [(C4H9)4N]6[P2°2(Mo3°J6]-

• 4H2O, and [(C2H5)4N]4[PVvO2 (Mo^h^O [174-176], multilayer films of both (Mo-36)n / PAH)m and (P2Mo18-pPy) [177,178] or chain structures of (Hb / 2,4-bipyridine)4[Si(Mo12O40)] [179]; all representing the so-called three-dimensional ("3-D") modifiers.

Newly synthesised compounds are usually subjected to intimate analysis. Among the techniques of choice -often in combination -, one can find: scanning electron microscopy (SEM; see e.g. [171,176]), scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy (STM, AFM [42,177]) microscopic elemental analysis (MEA [176]), thermogravimetry (TG [157,159]), UV/ VIS- [177], IR-, FT/IR-, and Raman spectroscopy [155,171,180], XPS- and XRF-spectroscopy [159,177], XR-diffraction [155,159], or H1-NMR, C13-NMR, and Si29-NMR [155,171]. With respect to electrochemical characte-risations, the most frequent is cyclic voltammetry (CV [158,160,176]), including configuration with the rotated disc electrode (RDE [159]), followed by voltammetry in the DPV or SWV mode [154,177], respectively, or occasionally by chronoamperometry (CA), coulometry (COU [158]), and potentiometry (POT [153]).

At the end of this brief journey across the realm of new electrochemical materials, one cannot avoid a critical note about nomenclature being used in this field. When going through the respective databases, a certain inflation of superlative and sometimes-duplicated terms can be noticed as demonstrated by the following

examples. For instance, related heteropolyanionic structures are reported as (a) novel supramolecular compounds [155], (b) inorganic-organic hybrid polyoxometallate containing supramolecular helical chains [156] (c) new 3-D modifier with intersecting tunnels [157], and (d) ball-shaped heteropolytungstates with biomimetic properties [158]. Or, formerly described nanoparticle films [167] are newly classified as sandwiched polymers [168], novel nanoparticles as nanotubules [180], and a new type of carbon nanotubes is renamed to nanohorns [181]. Perhaps, the most typical example of this approach is the term "nano" itself. Whereas, in the mid 1990s, CPEs were modified with colloidal gold, the identical material has been described a few years later as gold nanoparticles (by the same authors; see [182] vs. [183]). Another authors' team has then reported on both terms within one year, including their combination in the only title (see [184] and [185]). Apart from the reasons, it is apparent that such a way of presentation complicates the orientation of further scientists interested in these otherwise valuable and inspiring research activities.

2.4. Recent achievements within special disciplines employing carbon pastes and carbon paste-based sensors

In the previous decades, research activities with carbon pastes had always included rather specialised investigations on the border of electrochemistry with other scientific fields [29,39,40]. Also the recent years saw the continuing efforts on such experiments, when falling predominantly into the areas that are highlighted in the following paragraphs.

2.4.1. Solid-State Electrochemistry.

Among such special areas, the widest applicability can be attributed to a coupling of voltammetric measurements with metallurgic, geological, or archaeological studies, when the respective experiments are performed with various minerals, ores, or raw materials in the solid state [186]. In the case of carbon pastes, the most typical configuration is a carbon paste electroactive electrode (CPEE [17]), whose function is accomplished by dissolution of such a solid substance in a strong electrolyte (concentrated solution of mineral acids or alkaline hydroxides) used, in small amount, as the binder.

In the new millennium, such activities have comprised a great variety of solids; namely: (i) metal oxides like Bi2O3 [187], MnII/IVxOy [188], ferrites of the FeII/IIIxOy^nH2O type, iron ores, and oolites [189,190], including mixtures with other oxides [191] or traces of toxic heavy metals [192]; (ii) metal- and metalloid

sulphides: ZnS [193-195], PbS [196,197], CuFeS2 [198], a-HgS and p-HgS [199], As2S3, As4S4, and FeAsS [197,200], or AsIII- and AsV-contaminated soils [201], including a study with a series of sulphides [202] focused on more theoretical aspects of dissolution processes, including the individual redox- and phase transformations. Finally, the CPEE configuration has been employed to investigate (iii) other materials such as ground ores sampled in a mine [203], dried green sea-weed (as bio-sorbent [204]), Na-nitroprusside (analytical reagent [205]), solid derivatives of 9, 10-anthraquinones [206], or non-toxic thiadiazoles, whose electro-inhibiting capabilities could be utilised in corrosion studies of ancient bronze patina [207].

2.4.2. In-vivo measurements.

Interesting applications of CPEs were always connected with voltammetric monitoring in living organisms with the aid of miniature sensors or integrated electrode-cells implanted into the vascular or central nerve system of anaesthesias-treated animals like a monkey, fishes, or laboratory rats (see [34,35] and refs. therein). Similar arrangements have also been described in some recent contributions [208-211], dealing with (i) the testing of a novel micro-dialysis pump for simultaneous determination of glucose, glutamate, and choline in free-moving rat [208]; (ii) in-vivo assay of Cd(II) ions in the fish's brain core and a plant tissue [209]; (iii) in-vivo determination of Cu(II) in a rat tail vascular system [210]; or (iv) monitoring of a pesticide by using a mini-CNTPE, implanted into the skin of an orange and an apple, or even interfaced to a fish brain tissue [211].

2.4.3. Development and testing of multichannel sensing assemblies: Electronic Tongues.

Another attractive link with carbon paste is the case of these highly sophisticated constructions based on measurement and proper evaluation of multiple signals, by means of which some specific properties / features can be identified, correlated, and thus distinguished. The recent years have spawned a series of configurations [212-216], in which the carbon paste electrode material have served for (i) qualitative analysis of potable waters, soft drinks, and beers [212]; (ii) recognition of five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, bitter, salty, acidic, and umami [213]); (iii) classification of red wines via the release of specific compounds in consequence of ageing (in oak barrels whose different properties allows one to identify also the country of origin [214]); (iv) analysis of white wines in dependence of local climate and different quality of grapes [215]; or (v) evaluation of the overall bitterness of virgin olive oils [216].

2.4.4. Miscellaneous.

A short presentation of very special employments of carbon paste can be completed with: (i) a solar cell, employing a naturally occurring Chlorophyll analogue, molecular oxygen (dissolved in aqueous solution), and a CPE that yielded the measurable photo-current [217]; (ii) a photosynthetic system based on a cyanobacteria with a 1,4-benzoquinone-derived mediator that provides the steady-state current signal of photoelectrochemical oxidation of water [218]; (iii) construction of an electrostatic-quadrupole lens system with the aid of the carbon nanotube paste substrate acting as an emitter [219]; or (iv) multi-instrumental analysis of sunflower plant tissues exposed to the effect of Ag(I) ions in an effort to simulate a bio-indication of natural pollution ("environmental stress" [220]), which can then be evaluated via the growth depression, changes in colour, or a lack of root hairs; all being applicable in correlations with the cascade of natural processes connected with photosynthesis.

3. Inorganic analysis with carbon paste electrodes: typical trends and achievements in the new millennium

3.1. Intro: recent advances and selected topics of interest

In practical analysis, conservative users had for long time preferred mercury-based electrodes, which was the case of the hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE) or mercury film electrodes (MFEs) obtainable from commercially available glassy carbon electrode (GCE) ([221] and refs. therein). Their reliability and feasibility to be employed for highly effective amalgam-formation based pre-concentrations in electrochemical stripping analysis (ESA) were appreciated in routine determinations of heavy metal ions, representing apparently the most popular area of inorganic electroanalysis at all.

Similarly, the GCE alone and its Pt-disc analogues were usually the electrodes of choice for the determination of noble metals, or anions and molecules that could not be determined with the HMDE or MFE, respectively [4]. Nevertheless, despite rather dominant position of these detection systems, various types of carbon paste-based electrodes were coming to the fore; mainly, thanks to their versatility, allowing one to employ them either as interesting alternative or even completely new possibility of how to determine some less-common inorganic analytes. In recent years, propagation of both CPEs and CMPEs in inorganic analysis has been further intensified [2]; mainly, in the framework of the

green-analytical-chemistry concept [47]. Some typical areas of these activities are overviewed in the following sections.

3.2. Zeolite- and silica-modified carbon paste electrodes

Intrinsic and sometimes unique properties of zeolites or silica-based materials in combination with electron transfer processes characterise a particular group of chemical modifiers whose use in the electrode configurations is of continuing interest, including the carbon paste-based variants [40,222-225].

Both natural and synthetic zeolites [222,225] are microporous crystalline alumino-silicates that exhibit ion-exchange capacity and molecular-sieve properties. Silicas [223,224] as special variants of SiO2 then offer possibilities to be functionalized with a variety of organic groups, including preparation of inorganic / organic hybrids, combining - in a single solid - mechanical stability of the inorganic skeleton with reactivity of the organic moiety.

Typical properties of these two families may be synergistically merged in one unit, which is the case of some supramolecular assemblies obtainable by the solgel synthesis. The resultant products (called ordered mesoporous silicas [225]) are materials in which silica walls grew around the self-assembled template to form periodic mesoporous substrates that display a narrow, controlled pore-size distribution in well-organised structures. And when one consider specific features of carbon pastes, it can be understood why both zeolite-and silica-modified CPEs represent maybe the largest subclass of CMCPEs with widespread applicability to the determination of inorganic ions, complexes and molecules, including successful attempts in environmental speciation [40,222-224]. Also, the achievements within the last period have confirmed such prominent role of both zeolite-and silica-modified CPEs [225].

However, before the most typical electroanalytical arrangements are surveyed, it is useful to point out some particular features associated with the fabrication of zeolite- and silica-modified CPEs of new generation. Mainly, the respective studies and applications had to consider the main problem of working with zeolite and silicas - i.e., the fact that most of them are electronic insulators and their effective connection with electrochemical sensing requires a proper confinement within / onto an electrode material [40]. It was confirmed that the preparation of mechanically stable and homogeneous deposits of zeolite / silica particles with their firm anchoring onto an electrode surface can advantageously be accomplished via organic polymers

- typical products of latest technologies and the above-mentioned sol-gel processes. Some novel procedures for preparation of zeolite- and silica-modified CPEs have then been confronted with inevitable restrictions occurring in the course of fabrication, which was often the case of electrodes that had incorporated organic-inorganic hybrids with highly sophisticated functions and / or given mesostructures [225]. (These usually require strictly defined conditions for the proper synthesis which might not be adaptable with the formation of film structures of desired properties.) Due to this, intensive investigations in the recent years have resulted in establishment of a new routine for dispersion of zeolites, silica-based organic-inorganic hybrids or ordered mesoporous materials - in the form of dry powders admixed directly in the carbon paste matrix.

By summarising the most typical configurations with zeolite-modified CPEs, the individual contributions fall into four main categories:

(i) Electrochemical detection subsequent to open-circuit accumulation, where an electro-active cation of interest is accumulated by ion-exchange (via charge selectivity) or molecular sieving (size selectivity), prior to proper voltammetric quantification.

(ii) Direct and electrocatalysis-assisted amperometric / voltammetric detection, involving redox mediators encapsulated in the zeolite cages.

(iii) Indirect amperometric detection of non-electroactive species; representing maybe the most elegant application of zeolite-modified electrodes as it exploits both ion-exchange and size-selectivity properties. (In fact, it involves the use of a zeolite doped with a redox cation and the supporting electrolyte made of size-excluded cations, bigger than the zeolite pore aperture, so that solely redox probe can be exchanged, diffusing then towards the electrode surface in a moment when small and non-size-excluded cations are injected, thus giving rise to an indirect current response proportional to these non electroactive species.)

(iv) Incorporation in carbon paste-biosensors, for which the hydrophilic zeolites enable to expose enzyme(s) in more active form compared to its native species inside the hydrophobic carbon paste matrix; similar function via ion-exchange being also beneficial for redox mediators embedded in. Since electrochemical biosensing is a domain of organic and biological analysis, the corresponding methods are not discussed here and can be found elsewhere [40,41].

Regarding zeolite-modified CPEs, they exhibit one typical feature, which is more pronounced compared to related silica-modified variants. It is a tendency of solution impregnation in jim-thick region of the paste at the electrode and subsequent penetration of solution-phase species into the zeolite-carbon composite in contact with the aqueous solution for a longer time. In the case of common zeolites, the driving force for such solution penetration in the bulk of the electrode is again their hydrophilic character, counter-balancing of typically high-lipophilic (hydrophobic) carbon paste [29,39,40]. In order to prevent undesirable solution ingress into the electrode and thus possible memory effects of the sensor, some new approaches have been proposed. Either, they are based on (i) additional increase of the overall hydrophobicity of a CMCPE by using solid paraffin instead of ordinary mineral oil [226] or via (ii) confining ("jailing") the zeolite particles at the outermost surface layer, which can be attained with the aid of mechanical immobilization onto paraffin-impregnated electrodes [227].

An example of the resultant effectiveness of such approaches is then illustrated in Fig. 2, depicting the voltammetric detection of Cu(II) ions after open-circuit accumulation for a long time-period (30 min.) from a solution containing 10 mM Cu2+. Arather high concentration of Cu(II) was chosen to simulate the conditions likely to induce severe memory effects in consequence of the above-described release / impregnation / penetration mechanism, which can be seen on faster and more effective chemical regeneration of the solid-like zeolite-modified CPE (a) in comparison with the traditional mineral oil-based variant (b).

Typical configurations of CMCPEs with silica-based materials, i.e., (native) silica particles, organically-modified silicates, or functionalized mesoporous silica substrates, can also be divided into four main groups. Including the very first examples, presented by Walcarius et al.in the mid 1990s (see e.g. [40] and refs. therein). The respective methods are based on the following principles:

(i) Also herein, electroanalysis with a pre-concentration step is the most frequent concept, for which the silica-

based organic / inorganic hybrids are synthesised enabling (i) selective recognition of target analytes by a fine tuning the nature of the organo-functional groups and (ii) high sensitivity via rapid mass transport toward the active centres controlled by the appropriate structure of a nano-material. The latter is illustrated in Fig. 3, making comparison between the efficiency of mesostructured mercapto-propyl-grafted silica and of non-ordered homologue silica-gel selected as modifiers in the respective CMCPEs tested for to the determination of Hg(II) ions.

0 2 4 6 8 10

Number of successive detection after one accumulation

Figure 2. Voltammetric study on the release of Cu(II) ions from two different zeolite-modified carbon paste electrodes.

(a) 10% (m/m) zeolite-modified solid-like carbon paste;

(b) 10% zeolite-modified conventional carbon paste. Experimental conditions: carbon paste materials: (a) carbon powder with solidified paraffin wax, (b) carbon powder + paraffin oil mixture; measuring mode: differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with intermediate reduction; supporting electrolyte (s.e.): 0.1 M KNO3 + 0.001 M Cu(NO3)2; open-circuit accumulation, tACC = 30 min.; reduction step, Ered = -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3MKCl, tRED = 60 s; potential range (stripping step), ER: from -0.5 to +0.5 V; scan rate, v = 20 mV s-1; relative normalized responses given in the inset. (Adapted from [226].)

E / V vs. Ag/AgCl

Figure 3. Effect of preconcentration time on the voltam-metric response of two carbon paste electrodes modified with different different silica-based materials. CPE modified with (A) mercaptopropyl-functionalised mesoporous silica, (B) mercapto-grafted amorphous silica-gel. Experimental conditions: carbon paste made of carbon powder (38%, m/m) + paraffin oil (20%) + modifier (20%). DPASV with intermediate reduction step; s.e. (i) 0.1 M HNO3 + 5x10-7 M Hg(NO3)2 (medium for preconcentration step), (ii) 3 M HCl (stripping step, detection); Ered = -0.7 V; other parameters as in Fig. 2; variation of the peak area with preconcetration time shown in the inset. (Hitherto unpublished results from authors' archives.

At first sight, both voltammograms document the better performance of a CMCPE with mesoporous silicas grafted with mercapto-propyl groups, for which the increase in sensitivity can be expressed by a factor of 50:1 compared to similarly grafted silica gels of the same average porosity [228,229].

Other examples are available for the detection of Cu(II) at CMCPEs with amine- [230], carnosine- [231], sulphonic acid- [232] or cyclam- [233] functionalized silicas, for the determination of Hg(II) with thiol-functionalized materials [234] or for the accumulation and quantification of Pb(II) ions, in this case using a CPE modified with a heterogeneous material represented by self-assembled monolayers of acetamide-phosphonic acid on mesoporous silica [235].

(ii) Direct detection via electrocatalytic effect, which can be accomplished by preparing special catalysts supported on silica-based materials. Having followed the pioneering work by Kubota, Gushikem et al. from the late 1990s, as well as of their continuators (see again [40] and refs. therein), who were using modifications of silica gels with metal oxides and / or metal phosphate layers for binding redox mediators of the Me"-phthalocyanines type, some newer attempts of this kind are based on the immobilization of polyoxometalates in protonated amine-functionalized silica-mesostructures applicable as special charge-transfer co-factors for the amperometric detection of ClO3- / BrO3- [236]. As a hosting matrix for durable immobilization of such electron transfer co-factors, ordered mesoporous silicas are also quite promising, as shown recently on ferrocene-structure covalently attached to a MCM-41 mesoporous molecular sieve [237].

(iii) In principle, indirect detection is also applicable to silica-modified carbon paste-based electrodes and sensors, but the search inside the recent bibliographic database has not revealed any particular method based on such a scheme.

(iv) Functionalised silicas can be mixed with carbon paste as a composite matrix for anchoring of some enzymes in amperometric biosensors; for example, silica gels coated with either TiO2 / Ti-phosphate or ZrO2 / Zr-phosphate skeletons; nevertheless, more typical bio-electroanalytical applications of the sol-gel-derived silica-based materials have involved polymeric thin-film configurations [225]. Again, due to the particular use in electrochemistry of organic pollutants, pharmaceuticals or drugs, and biologically active substances, the respective biosensors are described in more detail in other review articles [40,41].

Finally, some modifiers are based on combination of both novel zeolites / silicas with other new materials coming from latest research. In this respect, one can quote two examples utilising (i) newly synthesised zeolite with intercalated Xylenol Orange, Morin, or Calmaigite [238], when these dyes enable a highly selective chelating of Cu(II) ions. The second configuration has then consisted of either (ii) volcanic tuff as natural material or synthetic preparative ("X-type"); both chemically functionalised with Methylene Green and serving for sensitive sensing of H2O2 [239]. A similar connection of a novel silica with newly synthesised substances is then represented by a CMCPE incorporating the [Ru(bpy)3]2+ ion at sulphonate ion-exchanger functionalised MCM-41 in the form of dispersion of such particles in an ionic liquid - i.e., a CILE configuration [240]. The resultant device is characterized by a well-defined electro-chemiluminescence signal, which has been found to be more sensitive in the presence of ionic liquid than in paste with conventional silicone oil.

3.3. Metallic Film-Plated Carbon Pastes in Stripping Voltammetry

The 1970s saw the era of particular popularity of mercury film electrodes (MFEs) being better compatible with newly coming PC-controlled and miniaturised electrochemical instrumentation than rather robust and sensitive HMDE configurations (see e.g. [221] and refs. therein). Similarly, oxidation-suffering gold disc electrodes began to be replaced by easy regenerable gold-film variants (AuFEs). Throughout the 1980s until the mid-1990s, it had been believed that the best electrode substrate for electrolytic deposition of both mercury- and gold films was to be the GCE or similar supports. However, at that time, also carbon pastes were found to be suitable for this role and, since then, the first types of mercury- or gold-film plated carbon paste electrodes could be presented (see [241] and refs. therein).

The up-coming 2000s have spawned a series of reports, [113,242-247] in which both MF-CPEs and Au-CPEs were subjected to intimate examinations, including employment in practical analysis of real water samples (MF-CPE in [242] and AuF-CPE in [247]), showing that also hydrophobic carbon pastes may offer convenient conditions for being plated with metallic films. Moreover, a quick and easy-to-make carbon paste renewal, representing effective but absolute change at the surface of each CP-based substrate, was confirmed to have only minimal impact to the overall quality of both MF-CPEs and AuF-CPEs and their performance in ESA, including negligible changes in the sensitivity and reproducibility / repeatability of the respective signals.

Regarding the last advances in the field of metallic film-coated CPEs, the main boom is surely connected

with the development and applications of bismuth film-plated carbon paste electrodes (BiF-CPEs [42,243-245,248-262]) and other related configurations [254-256,258,260,263-265]. The respective activities started within our research group in the early 2000s [248] as an answer to the actual introduction of bismuth film-coated GCEs; again, within the challenges of green analytical chemistry (see [47,266-270] and refs. therein) as bismuth and its compounds represent environmentally friendly and less toxic element compared to mercury or mercury(II) salts. The BiF-CPE can be prepared either in-situ [249,250] or using external deposition of the film in a suitable plating solution [243,252]. In addition, a heterogeneous nature of carbon pastes allows one to modify this electrode material either at the outer surface by bismuth films, or via bismuth species added in the bulk. The latter has been utilised in designing two alternatives to the (i) firstly proposed BiF-CPE [248]; namely, (ii) bismuth oxide-carbon paste electrode (Bi2O3-CPE [263]) and (iii) bismuth-modified carbon paste electrode (Bi-CPE [264]); the latter containing bismuth powder at a ratio of about 20% (m/m) dispersed in the two main carbon paste components [256].

Worth of mentioning are also special microscopic studies focused on carbon pastes pre-plated with bismuth films [42,252,261]. As revealed by comparative observations, the electrolytic formation of bismuth microlayers proceeds in three subsequent steps, during which the overall morphology undergoes significant changes.

This is illustrated in Fig. 4, depicting the individual phases in an approximate appearance of the corresponding structures. Comparative experiments have then confirmed that there is a close relation between such microstructures and the resultant behaviour of a BiF-CPE-the best performance of an electrode has been attained with the initial arrangement of bismuth micro-particles ("phase 1") which, as such, resembles related structures of mercury films formed by consolidated layers of tiny droplets [221,241]). In other words, the more crystalline is the bismuth film (i.e., in patterns 2 & 3), the poorer is the resultant electrochemical behaviour of a BiF-CPE ([261]).

Additional modifications of BiF-CPEs are also feasible and such approaches have recently been described in two reports [259,260]. In the first one, the originally two-component carbon paste was doped with the third substance - a synthetic zeolite [259], enabling to enhance the overall sensitivity towards the target ions. The second arrangement was then a BiF-CPE coated with fibrinogen [260], forming a protective barrier against interfering surfactants. The same effect can be aimed with Nafion® (a perfluorinated polymer widely usable in combination with MeFEs; see e.g. [221] and tables in), which has not been yet tested for BiF-CPEs, but in combination with a BiF-plated carbon film electrode [271], representing a configuration very similar to bismuth film-plated carbon pastes.

In the latest years, electroanalysis with bismuth electrodes has undergone a very dynamic progress (see e.g. [267] plus [270] and compare the reference lists inside). Such a boom was also the result of rapidly growing averse against mercury, evoking controversial moods among electrochemists and electroanalysts worldwide and dividing them into two major groups -propagators of new non-mercury electrodes against their defenders [272]. Somewhat different impulses were behind the discovery of further alternatives to BiF-CPEs - two new configurations of (i) antimony film-plated carbon paste electrode (SbF-CPE) and (ii) antimony powder-modified carbon paste electrode (Sb-CPE) [273]. Introduction of these electrodes has been inspired rather by chemical similarity of both antimony and bismuth, following also some previous (and nearly forgotten) results [274]. Similar motivations could also be the case of introducing a lead film-plated carbon paste electrode (PbF-CPE [275]), which is hitherto last member in the family of metallic film-plated CPEs. Although all these sensors offer excellent performance under properly adjusted experimental conditions, they mean a certain step back with respect to the already emphasised concept of green chemistry - both antimony and lead, together with their SbIII/V and PbII/IV compounds, are highly harmful to the environment, as well as to humans.

Phase 1 : Formation of Phase 2: Transformation Phase 3: Crystallisation bismuth microcrystailites into aggregated structures from the nucleation sites

Figure 4. Morphological transformation of bismuth film In three consecutive phases. A schematic view (Adapted from [252] and [261].;

In electrochemical measurements, the individual types of metal-modified CPEs are usually combined with anodic stripping voltammetric protocols. It means that the respective methods include a pre-concentration step utilising a potentiostatic electrolytic reduction of ion(s) of interest. In analogy to mercury-based electrodes, such accumulations involve an additional driving force - the formation of metal alloys [267-270] -, which apparently explains why these electrodes achieve so excellent function in the ASV regime. Regarding the proper voltammetric mode, the detection of accumulated species is preferably performed by stripping with a square-wave modulation which is generally less sensitive to undesirable effects from residual (background) signals than a differential pulse potential ramp [276]. The performance of voltammetric techniques can further be enhanced by appropriate choice of the quantitative method or by means of processing and evaluation of the respective current signals. As demonstrated with BiF-CPEs; e.g.computerised normalisation of originally distorted voltammograms may result in a significant improvement of the actual signal-to-noise characteristics [257,262].

A majority of hitherto proposed metal-modified CPEs have already been tested in analyses of real specimens, where both Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions were the main target analytes sought in the following samples: (i) tap, natural, and mineral waters [113,242,260,261, 263], (ii) tea extract [260], and (iii) certified reference material (soil [253]). Of interest were also some less typical specimens of (v) heavily polluted river water [247] or mineral acid-digested

-1.2 -1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 E / V vs Ag/AgCl

(vi) urine [263] and (vii) crude petroleum oil [244]; the last two demonstrating analyses of samples with extremely complex matrices. Other details on the respective methods can be found below - in four tables under the section 4.

As seen, a majority of practical determinations illustrating the applicability of both Bi- and Sb-modified CPEs was carried out in various water samples. Fig. 5 depicts typical stripping voltammetric responses of both bismuth- and antimony-modified CPEs for Cd(II) and Pb(II) ions obtained by analysing a model water sample (when both sets of measurements had been optimised for determination with the antimony-modified variant). The figure gathers two sets of curves, showing also the response at a MF-CPE and a bismuth paste electrode (BiPE). The latter was found to be functioning - although not very satisfactorily - without any carbon powder in the electrode material, thus representing an example of "graphite-less" paste mixture [263]. Regardless of this curiosity, all the remaining electrodes have exhibited favourable electroanalytical performances for the determination of the two metal ions at the low ppb concentration level.

3.3.1. Carbon paste electrodes vs. screen-printed electrodes (SPEs).

The configuration of metal film-plated CPEs is a very good occasion to conclude the entire section with mutual relation between CPEs and SPEs, reflecting one of contemporary trends in the field. In certain respect, traditional carbon pastes can be classified as a transient

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4

E/Vvs Ag/AgCl

Figure 5. Square-wave anodic stripping voltammograms of Cd(II) + Pb(II) model mixtures at different types of metal film-plated and metal-modified carbon paste and paste electrodes. MeF-plated (A), Me-modified electrodes (B); the individual types as shown by inscriptions. Experimental conditions: silicone oil-based carbon paste [the same for all, except BiPE made of bismuth powder (50%, m/m) + silicone oil (SO); content of both metals in Bi-CPE and Sb-CPEs, 17% (m/m)]; SWASV; s.e.: 0.01 M HCl; c(Hg,Bi,Sb) = 1x10 5 mol L 1 (for A); c(Cd,Pb) = 50 ppb (for A), 25 ppb (for B); tACC = 120 s, EACC = -1.2 V; equilibrium time, tEQ: 15 s, (A) and -1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl/3MKCl; potential range, ER , from -1.2 to -0.2 V; SWV parameters: potential increment, iE = 4 mV; pulse amplitude, AE = 50 mV; SW-frequency, 25Hz. Note: vertical arrows (left) indicate the actual current range. (Adapted from [256], [264], and [273].)

element between solid carbon electrodes and printable carbon ink-based sensors. The initial considerations concerning this topic began already in the mid 1990s [32] - at the times of stormy development of first types of machine-produced SPEs. According to such approaches, there are some common characteristics of both CPEs and carbon-based SPEs: (a) the presence of carbon (or graphite, respectively) as the principal electrode material; (b) heterogenous character of both carbon pastes and carbon inks, (c) the choice and control of the carbon-to-binder ratio, (d) possibility of bulk-modification of these carbonaceous materials; (e) often similar or even identical employment.

On the other hand, there are also distinct differences: (A) presence of liquid phase (binder) in the carbon paste mixtures versus the solid state of carbon-ink binders (original liquid or paste-like dispersions are being solidified during / after printing); (B) incomparable geometry and size (whereas common CPEs are pencil-shaped electrodes in the disc configuration and for batch analysis, SPEs are usually designed as planar stripes (bars) of rather small dimensions employed mainly in various flow cells or miniaturised analysers; (C) long-time and permanent use of a CPE (limited just by stability of the actual carbon paste mixture) contra the generally-adopted concept of SPEs as disposable sensors; (D) existence in the only exemplar or in a set of few electrodes (for CPEs) compared to the mass production in large series (SPEs), and (E) manual and more-or-less individual preparation of carbon paste mixtures and of their filling into the electrode holder(s) versus commercial availability of ready-to-use carbon inks, together with automated and machine-controlled printing process.

Regarding the specific relation of both CPEs and SPEs, some implications are obvious if one combines the individual points in both surveys (a-e) and (A-E). A versatile character of carbon pastes enables that some differences listed under the latter can be minimised; for instance, by using small CP-GrEs [145-147] in planar configuration - see point (B). Or, oppositely, some antagonistic features can be advantageously utilised, which is the case of the following example: (i) a method is first developed and tested in laboratory, when using a CPE (or a set of CPEs) being prepared quickly and at minimal expenses; (ii) after the optimal procedure is being found, the same method can be examined with preliminarily made SPEs of analogical type (e.g., pre-treated in the same way or containing identical modifier); (iii) in this phase, some conditions may be yet readjusted, best under regime which simulates the real experimental conditions; and (iv) when the ultimate version of a methodical procedure is obtained, the large

series of SPEs can be produced and then used up during the proper analytical work - e.g., in the field monitoring.

By keeping on such a strategy, our research group has elaborated a collection of electroanalytical procedures applicable to inorganic analysis that were tuned in accordance with the above-given example and, now, being available in combination with SPEs, although the original methods had been developed with CPEs and CMCPEs. A significant part of these procedures involved the use of MF- and BiF-plated CPEs, later adapted and re-optimised for MF- and BiF-SPEs (see [113,246,263] vs. [274,277,278]).

Figure 6. Construction design of screen-printed electrodes of two generations, used in the metal film-plated configuration and tested together with related MeF-CPEs. Ceramic substrate-based SPE (old type, A); integrated sensor with three-electrode cell (new type, B). (Adapted from [113] and [279].)

At present, our activities are focused on readapting of some previous procedures for use with screen-printed sensors of a new generation, represented by miniaturised integrated 2/3-electrode cells (see [279] and image "B" in Fig. 6). Finally, a very close concept of CPEs and SPEs can be documented on the fact that some recent reviews gather these electrodes into one group of the so-caled heterogeneous carbon electrodes and sensors [32,40,280].

3.4. Potentiometric measurements with carbon paste electrodes and sensors

3.4.1. Carbon paste-based ion-selective electrodes (CP-ISEs).

From the view of equilibrium potentiometry, the composition of carbon pastes makes possible to classify the CP-ISEs as ion-selective liquid membrane type electrodes. Pasting liquids exhibit usually good extraction ability against neutral electroactive species of the type of non-dissociated weak acids, neutral metal chelates or ion-associates. The potential of the

electrode containing such an organic solvent extract is predominantly governed by an ionic exchange at the interface between the organic phase of the electrode and the sample solution. It should be noted that the theoretical background of their function started by pioneer works of Ruzicka (e.g. see [281]) and actualized recently for CP-ISEs [282]. It should also be noted that virtually any ionic species can be detected and measured. In principle, rules for construction of CP-ISEs are analogous to those for liquid/polymeric membrane-based ISEs [283] - to build a paste responsive to ion X-, for example, the salt Q+X- should be incorporated into a non-volatile solvent, and the Q+ ion must be highly lipophilic. Similarly for an electrode responsive to cation Q+, an oil-soluble salt Q+X- is used, where the X- ion is lipophilic. Less frequently, insoluble inorganic precipitates are mixed to the paste [16]; in such cases, these CP-ISEs may be classified as solid-state type electrodes. Compared to analogous sensors equipped with liquid/polymeric membranes, carbon paste-based potentiometric sensors offer very low ohmic resistance (R < 10 Q) and show rapid response [284].

As well known, measuring cells consisting of the CP-ISE and proper reference electrode can be used to determine the activity or concentration of the ion of interest. Empirical calibration graphs, in which the cell voltage is related to the activity or concentration of the desired ionic compound, are generally used. A typical form of the calibration curve is that given by Nikolskii's equation, and is usually linear in the range of 1 to 5 or 6 pX units, where the pX values are calculated as negative logarithms of the desired ion 7' activities or simplified, "i" concentrations. Often, procedures involving flow injection analysis (FIA) calibration are used. On the other hand, potentiometric titration technique is also applied; it offers the advantage of high accuracy and precision, though at the cost of increased time demands and a higher consumption of chemicals used as titrants. Nowadays, this question has successfully been solved by introducing modern automated titrators equipped with burettes of smaller volumes and allowing a computerassisted end-point evaluation as well [285].

In the recent period, authors' attention has been paid to development of CP-ISEs applicable in determinations of both inorganic and organic species. Various modifications of carbon paste were applied in potentiometric sensors for copper [286-292], silver [97,153,293], mercury [94-296], lead [297], arsenic [97,298], antimony [299], bismuth [300], cobalt [301], osmium [302], aluminium [107], lithium [303], ammonium [304], halides and pseudo-halides [305-308], and sulphate ions [309]. Some of them [97,302] were applied to monitor titrations based on ion-pair formation

principles described and discussed in detail previously [310].

Concerning recent applicability of CP-ISEs to the determination of organic and biological substances or pharmaceuticals, this topic is surveyed in more detail elsewhere [40,41]. Herein, it can be briefly stated that CP-ISE configurations dominate for the latter - for various drug compounds [311-318]. Their composition [311-315] usually follows traditional basic principles described in the previous reviews [319,320] and, analogously, they are often applied in both direct potentiometric measurements and potentiometric ion-pair formation-based titrations. Moreover, enantiosele-ctive potentiometric sensors based on carbon paste impregnated with various cyclodextrins were described [316-318,321]. CP-ISEs for ascorbic acid [322], acetylcholine [323], L-proline [321], cysteine [324,325], thioglycolic acid [326], or other organic thio-compounds [327] were also reported. Finally, one paper has dealt with a possibility to determine cetyltrimethylammonium ion [328], which is a popular in-situ modifier, including its combination with CPEs (again, see [40,41] and refs. therein).

In environmentally oriented studies, CPEs as potentiometric sensors were utilized in characterization of electro-chemical behaviour of Ni(II)- and Cd(II)-bearing ferrites obtained as by-products of wastewater purification [191,192]. As the substrate of choice, CPEs served also in a solid-state electronic tongue applied to beverage analysis [212].

3.4.2. Stripping (chrono)potentiometry.

As stripping potentiometry differs from stripping voltammetry by final step only, similar or analogous applications of CPEs can be expected (for examples, see review [329]). Nevertheless, introduction of more polar pasting liquids like tricresyl phosphate, dialkyl phthalates, etc. (often used as plasticizers in polymeric membranes of ion-selective electrodes) [330] offered some new possibilities for analyte accumulation, predominantly based on ion-pair formation [331,332].

This was shown already in the first years of a new millennium; e.g., a former procedure elaborated for the determination of thallium [333] could be adapted for gold (as tetrachloroaurate [99,331]), or iodide [101,331], and the perspectives of stripping potentiometry with CPEs, focused on the role of pasting liquid, were thus outlined as quite promising; especially, for some determinations in samples with extremely complex matrices (e.g., iodide in non-pretreated and solely diluted urine [334]). As already shown in the previous section 3.4.1., another recently frequent application of CPEs in stripping potentiometry is their use as the electrode support

for metallic films; the advantage of application being again that the electrode surface can easily be renewed compared to metallic film electrodes on solid supports [244,247,249,344-346]. Simultaneously, a series of methods was presented; namely, the determination of lead and cadmium [244,334] or copper [334] when using the MF-CPE configurations, copper and mercury [336] or arsenic [247] at AuF-CPEs, as well as lead and cadmium in parallel at either BiF-CPEs [244,249] or SbF-CPEs [273,337].

The latter approaches represent the starting point of stripping potentiometry in the already discussed and momentarily very popular area of non-mercury electrodes. In the PSA mode, original methods were employing MFEs and selected Hg(II) compounds (mostly HgCl2, see e.g. [241] and refs in) served as the source for in-situ generated mercury film and as proper chemical oxidant [242]. In the same way, both bismuth [249] and antimony [337] may be applied in order (i) to form corresponding metallic film and (ii) to substitute mercury(II) in its role of an oxidant. Moreover, as shown in our theoretical considerations and their experimental verifications (see [249,337]), both Bi(III) and Sb(III) possess rather specific oxidation capabilities, differing from those known for Hg(II) species. And all these attributes open completely new possibilities for "mercury-free" procedures and their use for the determination of various heavy metals. Regarding computer-controlled stripping potentiometry and its potentialities in practical analysis, yet another feature can be mentioned here illustrated by an experiment with metallic film-plated CPEs [244]. It is shown in Fig. 7, making comparison between electroanalytical performance of stripping potentiometry and stripping voltammetry.

This confrontation of both related techniques was made with the same sample solution and identical working electrode — a bismuth film-plated CPE. As seen, both voltammograms (DPASV) exhibit distinct deformations of base-line, with a large maximum of unknown origin, and the signals of interest are poorly developed. Compared to this, the respective potentiograms (PSA) are much favourably drawn and easily evaluated.

This test is a textbook case of how the result of an analysis may rely on the technique chosen in the stripping step. Since voltammetric measurements are based on the detection of electric current whose origin may be quite diverse, including various non-Faradic phenomena or even electrical noise, the resultant signal may suffer -and usually does so - from numerous interferences. In contrast to this, potentiometric stripping regime registers the E-t dependence, where the equilibrium potential, E, represents a highly selective signal [242] independent of any current-releasing disturbance. As a result, the

Figure 7. Stripping potentiograms and anodic stripping voltammograms of Pb(II) and Cd(II) obtained at bismuth film-plated carbon paste electrodes by analysing a model sample of mineral acid-digested petroleum oil. PSA: stripping potentiometric analysis (with chemical oxidation), DPASV: differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry; sample base-lines (a), sample + 50 pL 1x10 4 M Pb" + Cd" (a spike corresponding to cMe = 2x10 7 M) (b). Experimental conditions: silicone oil-based carbon paste; sample: digested crude oil in 0.9 M ammonia buffer + 1x10 5 M Bi"' (pH 4.3); tACC = 120 s, tEQ = 15 s, ER from -1.2 to -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl; PSA: sampling frequency: fpSA = 90MHz, DPASV: v = 20 mV s-1, AE = -50 mV. Note: Y-axis expressed as dt/dE [s/V] for PSA; and AI [pA] for DPASV. (After [244]).

interference effects under comparable conditions are severe for voltammetric measurements, but negligible in the PSA mode. And this "insensitivity" of PSA is also the main reason why methods employing this technique or its CCSA variant [247], respectively, are particularly convenient for analysis of highly polluted waters or, in general, samples with complex matrices.

Electroanalysis of inorganic ions, complexes, and molecules with carbon paste electrodes: survey of methods published within the of 2001-:

Applications of CPEs, CMCPEs, and other related configurations employed in inorganic analysis are surveyed in a quartet of tables gathering important data, together with some interesting details, of almost all

methods that have been published in the period of 20012008 and described in the respective contributions. Namely, Tables I-IV summarise the original papers referred herein from [351], up to [490] including numerous further references that have been cited in the previous paragraphs. Information material in the tables is accompanied by commentaries that highlight typical features and trends from the actual databases. Anyway, this approach follows the style chosen in our last reviews [39-41].

All hitherto reported methods of inorganic analysis with CPEs and related sensors concern 65 chemical elements that - either alone or in the form of various compounds - have already been analysed; a great majority of them being even determined [40]. At present, this large family can adopt other two elements, for which the respective reports [442,451] have been found newly during the final actualisation of this text. And when one adds further five elements whose compounds could be studied by SPV with CPEEs, there is a total of 72 chemical elements representing ca. 3/4 of naturally occurring species that have ever come into the contact with carbon paste. This is a number scarcely achieved with other electrode materials and hence, even such atypical criterion may document the versatility of CPEs, reflected in practically unlimited applicability in inorganic analysis.

Finally, the popularity of carbon paste-based electrodes can be illustrated in numerous reviews of very diverse focus, where the respective applications are regularly quoted. When selecting solely recent review articles [338-350], this is the case of generally focused compilations (e.g. [338]), including locally oriented reports [339,340], overviews devoted to particular techniques [341,342], group of analytes [343] and of samples [280,344-346], or some novel types of electrodes [221,267-270,347,348], modifiers and newly synthesised materials [225,349,350].

4.1. Noble Metals (Au, Ag, Hg, and Cu; see Table 1 plus refs.[72,94,97,99,104,153,231,288-296,298, 336, and 351-389]).

In the electrochemical order of metals, both gold and silver represent the noblest elements and their ionic forms, most frequently Ag(I) and [AuCl4]-, are reducible at the positive potentials. This makes the two metals nearly ideal analytes for the determination at solid electrodes, operating within such potential ranges, including various CPEs. This applies to the methods employing a direct electrolytic transformation MeN ^ Me0 (e.g., amperometry), as well as a deposition step with reduction and subsequent re-oxidation Me0 ^ MeN. In the past, these favourable dispositions were often

being exploited also in electroanalysis with CPEs and CMPEs and both Ag(I) and Au(III) had always belonged among prominent analytes [40]. However, in the period of 2001-2008, they did not uphold such a position and the respective methods were appearing only occasionally. Regarding gold, the ion-pairing affinity of the [AuCl4]-anion was the principle of choice, whereas silver could be determined by selective accumulation via various complexes and the only method has utilised the above-mentioned electrolytic deposition.

In contrast, both mercury and copper were of permanent interest also in the recent years, which is also illustrated by their abundant appearance in the table. When one counts up the individual methods from the recent years with those published in the previous decades, these two metals - together with Pb and Cd - are the most popular inorganic analytes, being the central subject in about 50 reports for Hg and more than 60 devoted to Cu. (Herein, it should be noted that numerous authors sort copper into the group of toxic heavy metals.) The respective procedures for Hg(II) and Cu(II) typically involve the (i) accumulation under open-circuit conditions (by using adsorption, extraction, ion-exchange or even molecular sieving) according to the simplified scheme, MeN +m L ^ [MeNLm], with (ii) intermediate reduction of the complex, [MeNLm] ^ ( [Me0Lm] ) ^ Me0 + m L, and (iii) subsequent re-oxidation, Me0 ^ Men+ + n e-, as the detection in the anodic regime. This seemingly complicated sequence, involving additional reduction step, hides one reasonable interpretation. CPEs, in general, are less convenient for cathodic reductions due to the presence of O2, dissolved in the carbon paste bulk. If the intermediate step is incorporated into the protocol, the analyte of interest (usually atom MeN) is reduced and can then be detected during re-oxidation, thus avoiding problematic cathodic detections of the [MeNLm] complex, accompanied by unwanted signals from the parallel reduction of dioxygen. Finally, to determine both Hg(II) and Cu(II), their tendencies to form insoluble precipitates can also be exploited in proposals of new types of potentiometric CP-ISEs (see Table 1).

4.2. Heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, Tl, In, Sn, Bi and Sb; Table 1I, refs. [51,60,103,113, 226,235,248,253,255,256,258,263, 297,299,300,333, and 390-422]).

Besides a widespread choice of the already existing methods with traditional mercury electrodes, also electroanalysis with CPEs may offer a number of interesting or even unique procedures for the determination of all title metal elements. And this statement can be underlined when screening research

activities in the recent years, where the use of both HMDE and MFE had to be partially suppressed due to the rapidly growing influence of the green-chemistry orientation.

Similarly as with Hg and Cu described in the previous paragraph, a predominant mechanism of the individual methods for zinc, cadmium, and lead was the formation of stable complexes of the [MeNLm] type whose electroactive sites have enabled the identification and quantification in the properly selected voltammetric modulation ramp; at present, preferably by SWV. Again, most of procedures had involved the intermediate reduction step and many of them are also applicable to a simultaneous determination of either Cd(II) and Pb(II) or all three ions altogether.

The respective methods are usually fairly selective, but their detection capabilities rather limited compared to procedures utilising highly effective amalgamation onto mercury or related alloy formation at bismuth-based electrodes. Apart from the afore-mentioned green-chemistry dictate, this is the reason why BiF-CPEs and similar configurations come now to the fore, offering attractive methods for the determination of Zn, Cd, Pb, and other heavy metals (see Table 2).

When considering the remaining metals, i.e., Tl, In, Sn, Sb, Bi, and their single ions or complexes, at least one method for each can be found in the table; for indium representing even a premiere appearance in conjunction with a CPE [40]. Typically, the respective procedures had paid a considerable attention to the interference effect from other heavy metals (Zn, Cd, Pb, and Cu) and therefore, the determination of Tl, In, Sn, Sb, or Bi could be performed at a remarkable concentration excess of all more common heavy metals.

4.3. Metalloids (As and Se; Table 2, refs. [98,248,298]).

From these elements, solely arsenic was of interest in a couple of methods published within 2001-2008 and, surprisingly, such a rare abundance among the methods with CPEs does not reflect the recent eminent interest in systematic monitoring of highly toxic arsenic compounds. It is a pity because e.g. the method employing an Au-CPE and based on detection in the CCSA mode permits differentiation of both AsIII and AsV at a very low microgram level.

4.4 Metals of the iron, manganese, chromium, and vanadium groups (Fe, Co, Ni, Mn, Cr, Mo, V; Table 3, refs. [54,56,58, 105,244,275,302,423-427,430-436]).

This group comprises metal elements that are not very "friendly" from an electro-chemical point of view. They exist in numerous oxidation states with a tendency to be easily transformed from one valence to the other, or exhibit distinct inclinations to be converted into various complex forms, thus requiring rather sophisticated procedures to maintain these metals as the target analytes. Such characteristics are also more or less reflected in the respective procedures employing various types of CPES and CMCPEs, including methods reported in the years of 2001-2008. Among the title elements, the leading position is still held by the triad of iron, cobalt, and nickel. Regarding the first one, the corresponding methods have mostly been based on reversible transformation of the Fe(III) / Fe(II) pair; typically, in a complex form. In contrast to bivalent / trivalent iron, both Co" and Ni" atoms are reducible to the elemental state; however, the adhesion of their pure elemental forms at the electrode surface is very poor and analytically inapplicable. Thus, inevitable are combinations with complex formation via various Co"-/Ni"-precipitates, in which the central atoms can readily be reduced; in the electrochemistry of nickel, dimethylglyoxime and its derivatives still being preferred (Table 3). The determination of manganese does not require such complex intermediates for electrolytic transformations and the methods of choice have utilised rather the stability of this metal as either Mn(II) cation or MnO4- anion. Nearly the same applies to chromium, where a differentiation between Cr(III) and Cr(VI) is usually possible (see again Table 3). Finally, the last two elements, molybdenum and "metal chameleon" vanadium, can also be identified and quantified in variable oxidation states V/VI or IV/V, respectively; Mo(VI) being detected via an adduct with electrocatalytic properties.

4.5. Platinum metals and uranium (Pt Ir, Os, Ru, Rh, Pd, and U; Table 3, refs. [302,428,429, and 106]).

In electroanalysis with CPEs, platinum metals attracted one's attention mainly as effective electrocatalytic modifiers (see [40,343] and section 2.3 in this text). As target analytes, platinum metals were of less interest. This characterises also recent activities though some notable achievements can be found. For instance, a couple of years ago, there were the first successes to determine osmium (and less promises for rhodium

or ruthenium). The same method has then allowed to identify Pt, Ir, and Os at once; in all cases via anionic complexes of the [MeX6]2/3- type. With respect to uranium, the only method utilised the detection carried out via UO22+ ion interacting with a modifier grafted onto mesoporous silica.

4.6. Metals of the fourth and third groups, light and heavy metals of rare earths (Zr, Ce, Al, Ga, Sc, Th, and Me^t) + Me,i,eavy.; Table 3, refs. [106,107, and 437-452]).

Normally, these metals are also quite difficult to be detected electrochemically; however, thanks to their reactivity with some complexants (including classical analytical reagents like Morin, Alizarin Red, or Alizarin Complexon [151]), there is a relatively wide palette of methods available for their determination. Among the respective procedures, outstanding is the determination of twelve metal elements, comprising a majority from light and heavy rare earths (see Table 3). Also, the years of new millennium saw some methods, in which one can find the first reports on the determination of Ce, Ga, Sc, and Th at a carbon paste-based electrode.

4.7. Metals of alkaline earths and alkaline metals (Mg, Ca, Li, and Na; Table 3, refs. [226,303, and 453-457]).

From an electrochemical point of view, cationic forms of these metals represent totally indifferent species, reducible merely under extreme conditions. Their determination should thus be accomplished either indirectly or via non-electrolytic principles (see Table 3). The first approach facilitates the determination of magnesium, calcium, and sodium, whereas the second is behind the determination of lithium, where the intercalation effect at the ion-size level can be varied for both faradic and non-faradic measurements.

4.8. Non-metallic ions, complexes, and inorganic molecules (halides, pseudohalides, oxy-anions, hydrogen peroxide, dioxygen, nitrogen-containing ions and molecules; Table 4, refs. [55,100,101,109,236, 304-309,327, and 458-490]).

A wide diversity in physicochemical and electrochemical properties of species gathered in Table 4 corresponds to a variety of methodical approaches, modifiers used, or measuring techniques used. Nevertheless, typical principles concerning some recently analysed substances can be noticed and highlighted.

Among others, the table repeatedly quotes the (i) ion-pair formation for iodide, and mainly (ii) electrocatalysis-assisted oxidations, which is the case of a lengthy line

of analytes: iodate, bromate and chlorate; sulphide and sulphite; nitrite and nitrous oxides; hydrogen peroxide, dioxygen; or hydroxylamine and hydrazine; mostly, when using newly synthesised materials as modifiers. Or, (iii) indirect detection can provide a way for determination of electrochemically inert anions such as sulphate and hydrogen phosphate.

When studying the data in Tables 1-4 in more detail, some less obvious facts can be revealed. In another context, they may then be interesting and motivating. For instance, (i) the performance of AuF-CPEs (see Tables 1 and 2), hitherto employed in simultaneous determination of Hg(II) and Cu(II), or differentiation of As(III) and As(V) could also be examined for Se(IV), for which an appropriate method with a CPE is still missing [2,40]. Or, Table 2 surveys (ii) selected voltammetric methods that could be maintained for stripping potentiometry (see section 3.4), thereby one would further improve the electroanalytical performance of some original procedures. Nearly the same can then be stated for (iii) still unexplored use of popular chemical modifiers, declared in Tables 2 and 3. Here, one can mention dimethylglyoxime for Ni(II), which would potentially be suitable also for Pd(II) or Fe(II); Zincon for Cu(II), likely applicable to Zn(II), or crown-ethers selectively encapsulating Pb(II), but possibly also Rb(I) and Cs(I) as ionic species with particularly large diameters. The tables themselves document clearly that certain modifying agents can be successfully employed for more inorganic ions - see Table 3 and the collection of methods with ARS or ARC for Zr(IV), Ce(III), Al(III), Ga(III), Sc(III), and Th(III). Finally, the first row of Table 4 includes valuable information on (iv) severe interference from fluoride. Maybe that the respective method and electrode - originally developed for both Br- and Cl-ions - could be adaptable also for the determination of fluoride, F-. So far, this species occupies one permanent position within the group of naturally occurring chemical elements that have not been yet determined with carbon paste-based electrodes, sensors, or detectors [2,40].

5. Conclusions and future prospects

The electrochemistry and electroanalysis with carbon paste-based electrodes, sensors, and detectors have been reviewed as a retrospective of the last period -across the years of a new millennium. This narrowed focus has allowed the authors to present the field -profiting now from results of ca. 2000 scientific papers - in the mirror of latest achievements and trends.

Based on the above-presented documentation, two principal conclusions can be made herein. Firstly, it is

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique Measuring principles Linearity range Sample(s) Other specificati°n (modifier) (mode) (method sequences) (LOD; tACC / tR) analysed (remarks)

(AuCl4 )

(AUCI4 )

Ag+ Pb2+

C/PO (SWy-2)

C/TCP (binder as modif.)

(S2O8-podant)

C/PO (EDTA)

C/PO (DPO)

C/PO (SWy-2)

(Alizarin violet)

(CCSA)

C/DINP POT, FIA

(Ag-Thimerosal) (dir.,titr.)

C/PO + memb. POT (BNSAO) (dir.,titr.)

C/PO. (DPSG)

C/PO (AMQ)

POT (dir.)

- accum. via ion-exchange / adsorption; cathodic redn.

3x10 7 M;--)

- redn. with L

(1x10 7 M; 5 min)

pharms., blood serum

- accum. via donor podant; 5x10 7- 6x10 6 M

- electrocatalysis-assisted (2x10 7 M; 10 model solns. cathodic redn. min)

- accum.(electrolytic redn.); 2x10 9- 1 x10 6 M

- anodic reoxidn.

- o.c.accum. via compl./ redn.; anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via ion-pairing;

- redn.+ anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via complexation;

- el. redn./ MEx / reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Ag+ « Ag'-compl.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Ag+ « Ag'-compl.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Ag+ « Ag'-compl.

- accum. via ion-pairing;

- redn.+ anodic reoxidn.

(1x10 9M; 10 min)

5x10 9- 1 x10 7 M (0.7 nM; 10 min)

8x10 9- 1 x10 7 M (0.1 nM; 4 min)

3x10 10- 1x10 7 M (0.1 nM; 3 min)

1 x10 8- 5x10 7 M (3x10 7 M)

9x10 7- 0.03 M (4x10 7 M)

5x10 7- 0.1 M (1x10 7 M)

1-300 i^g L 1 (0.4 ^g L 1; 12 min)

- SWy-2: Na-montmorillonite; s.e.: NaCl + HCl; study on pH-effect

- interfs. of Fe''' suppressed.

by F; 99

- samples mineralised by MWD

- S2O82 : added in-situ; no interfs.

from common ions (except Pb2+)

model solns.

model solns.

model solns.

waste water, zinc alloy

cosmetics, pharms.; radiology films

cosmetics,

radiology

waste water

natural waters, photographic films

- EDTA used as modif.

agent 353

elim. interfs from other ions

- DPO: N,N'-dlphenyl oxamlde

- no Interfs from common Ions

- SWy-2: Na-montmorillonite (clay); In presence of CTAB; slmult. detn.

of Pb2+ Investigated

- s.e.: a) 0.1 M AcB (pH 5.2),

b) 0.1 M H2SO4 + 1x10 4 M KBr;

- no Interfs from Me1 and Me11

DINP: dI-Iso-nonyl phthalate der.;

pharms: Thiopental, ThImerosal

(both by potentIometrIc tItratIon)

BNSAO: bIs 5-(4-nItrophenyl-azo) salIsylaldImIne (SchIff base); CPE

compared wIth sImIlar CWE

DPSG: dIpyrIdyl-functIonalIzed sIlIca gel; s.s.: AcB (pH 5.5);

- CPE long stable (>6 months)

AMQ: 3-amIno-2-mercapto quIna-

zolIn-4(3H)-one; detn.

compared

wIth GF-AAS

Continued

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Measuring principles (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

Hg11, Hgis

(var. sp.)

Hg2+, Hg11 (HgXnm )

C/PO (AgCrTiS,)

(SWy-2 clay)

C/PO (PA-NO)

(TZ+;[Hgy ) (dir.)

C/SO, C/PO SP (+AuF, ex situ) (CCSA)

C/PO (SH-, NH. PSXL)

2 DPCSV

C/PO (BbTSC)

CV, SWV

C/PO CV,

(DTTD-SG) DPCSV

C/PO DPASV

(APSC, MPSC)

CNT-PE (unm.)

C/PO CV,

(TZT-HDTA-C) DPASV

- accum. via complexation; 3x10 10- 1x10 7 M

- el. redn.+ reoxidn.

- ion-exchange + adsorption

- redn.+ anodic reoxidn.

- specific interact. with Hg1

- anodic reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium: Hg2+ « Hg"-compl.

- accum. by electrolytic redn.

- reoxidn. with Irn.,„

- specific sorption processes

- o.c. accum + cathodic redn.

- specific complexation;

- anodic reoxidn.

- sorption + ion-exchange;

- accum./ cathodic redn.

- o.c. accum (ionexchange)

- anodic reoxidn.

- electrocatalysis-assisted electrolysis; reoxidn.

- selective sorption + redn.;

- anodic reoxidn.

(3x10 6 M; 5 min)

model solns.

1 x10 9 - 5x10 7 M water (1x10 10 M; 6 min) samples

3x10 8 - 1 x10 6 M human urine

waste water, 6x10 6 - 0.001 M || , | 6 M alloy, dental

(4x10 6 M)

amalgam

(2 ppb; 10 min) model solns.

-- soils, water

(not specified) samples

10-50 ppb river water

(8 ppb; 15 min) samples

3x10 8 - 1 x10 8 M polluted (1x10 8 M; 3 min) water

1 x10 8 - 7x10 8 M (8x10 8 M; 5 min)

1-25+40-200

jg L 1 (0.4 jg L 1; 12 min)

model solns.

water samples

model solns.

- modif. characterised by X-RF in

powdered form; interfs. studies

- SWy-2: sodium montmorillonite

- PA-NO: picolinic acid N-oxide;

- analysed as Hg' + Hg" mixtures

- TZ: tetrazolium (quaternary) ion;

- incl. studies on select. coeff.

- AuF plated in situ or preplated;

- simult. detn. of Hg2 + + Cu2+

- species studied: HgCl42-, HgCl3-,

HgCl2, Hg(OH)2 (speciation 361 st.) 2 2

- PSXL: polysiloxane ligand

BbTSC: benzyl-bis-thiosemicarba-zone;- speciation of Hg2+, HgCl2 ,

and HgCl42 via ligand competion.

- DTTD-SG: 2,5-dithio-1,3,4-thia-

diazole functionalised silicagel

- CMCPE regenerated chemically

- A(M)PSC:

amino(mercapto) phyl-lo silicate clay (synth. by grafting)

- CNT-PE: carbon nanotube paste

electrode; s.e.: AcB (pH 4.0)

- TZT-HDTA-C: 2-thiazoline-2-thiol-

hexadecyl-trimethylammonium-clay; no interfs of Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn

Continued

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Measuring principles (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

Cu2-- Pb2+

Cu2-- Pb2+

C/PO (EBHMP)

C/PO (SIAMT)

C/PO (SWy-12 / MATD)

C/PO (DTSA)

POT (dir.)

LSV, EC-LC

POT (dir.)

C/PO CV,

(chitosan, Ch) DPASV

C/PO (Cryptofix)

C/PO (Cadion A)

(AMT / plex-^S)

CV, LSV

C/PO CV,

(SBA-15) DPASV

C/PO (AP-GS)

CV, SWV

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Hg2+ « Hg"-compl.

- accum. via sorption and complex.; redn. - reoxidn.

- accum. via sorption and complexation; redn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Hg"-HA « Hg"-compl.

- accum. via sorption and complex.; redn. - reoxidn.

3x10 7- 0.01 M (1x10 7 M)

1-20 да L 1 (0.1 M L 1; 15 min)

( 10 M L

- EBHMP: ethyl-2-waste water (benzoylamino)- 3-(2-(spiked); hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)- 295 amalgam 2-propenoate; pH 1-4, t < 5s

waste water SIAMT: silica gel (spiked); functionalised with amalgam 2-aminothiazole; var. s.e.

SWy-12 / MATD: Na-montmorillo- nite + model solns. 2-mercapto-5-amino-1,3,4- 368 thiadiazol; clay of natural origin

1 x10 7- 3x10 4 M (2x10 8 M)

model solns.

DTSA: dithiosalicylic acid; HA: humic acid (competitive ligand); - evaluation of stability constants

1x10 6 - 4x10 5

M water (spiked)

(6x10 7 M; 4 min)

- CP-composition: 60%(m/m) C - 20% PO (Nujol)- 20%(m/m) Ch;

- s.e.: 0.2 M KNO3 (pH 6.2)

- accum. via complexation; --

- el. redn./ anodic reoxidn. (0.1 ^g L 1)

model solns.

- Cryptofix: commercial

reagent (with ion-exchange 370

capabilities)

- accum. via complexation; 0.1-20 ^g L1 polluted

- el. redn./ anodic reoxidn. (0.1 ^g L 1; 1 min) waters

- Cadion A:

4-nitrophenyldiazo- amino-azobenzene; s.e.: 0.2 M NaAc (pH 7); o.c. accum.

- accum. via complexation;

- el. redn. - reoxidn.

15-75 ^g L 1 (5 min)

(5 ^g L 1; 15 min)

tap (spiked); waste water

AMT / plex-^S: 2-aminothiazole / plexi-polymer made microsphere; 372 - simult. detn. with Cu2+, Pb2+

- accum. via sorption and complex.; redn.+ reoxidn. (5x10 7 M; 4 min)

natural water;

2x10 6 - 1 x10 5 M

. ■ > sugar-cane 7 M; 4 min)

alcohol drink

- o.c.-accum. via compl.

- MEx; redn. - reoxidn.

5x10 8 - 2x10 7 M (3x10 9 M, 10 min)

tap water

SBA-15: nanostructured silica functionalised with 2-benzothiazo- lethiol; simult. detn with Cu2+,Pb2+

- AP-GS: aminopropyl-functionali- lised grafted silica; studies on accum. mechanism; interfs. st..

Continued

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique (modifier) (mode)

Measuring principles (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

C/PO (TH)

C/PO (DTPT)

C/PO (TPP)

C/PO (CAR-SG)

C/SO, C/PO (- AuF )

(humic acid)

C/PO (MDPT)

CV LSV

POT (dir.)

(CCSA)

CV, DPV

C/PO LSV,

(MBTZ-SG) ASV

C/PO CV,

(salicylaldoxime) ASV

C/PO (Z)

(ARS / S2O82-)

[calix[4]arene]

CtAdSV, 2nd DLSV

- o.c.-accum. via compl.- (0.5 ^g L 1, redn./ cathodic reoxidn. 10 min)

- chemical equilibrium and 1x10 6 0 08 M steady-state potential for: i7 x10 7 M) Cu2+ « Cu''-DTPT (7x10 M)

- TH: macrocyclic thiohydrazone

- incl. studies on interfs.

- o.c.-accum. by compl.

- MEx / redn.- reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. by compl.

- redn.; anodic reoxidn.

- accum. by electrolytic redn.; reoxidn. by ICONST

- o.c. compl. - redn.

- anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. by compl.-redn.; anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via compl.-sorption / MEx / el. redn.;

- anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via compl.;

- el. redn./ anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via sorption;

- MEx / cathodic redn.

- o.c. accum. via compl.-adsorption / el. redn./ el. catalyst-assisted reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via intercalation

- el. redn./ anodic reoxidn.

9x10 8 - 5x10 5 M (2x10 9 M, 12 min)

5x10 8 - 1 x10 6 M (4x10 9 M)

electronics (waste solns.)

minerals

- DTPT:(3,4-dihydro-4,4,6-tri-methyl-2(1H) pyrimidine 375 thione

- s.e.: BR-buffer (pH 6)

- sample extracted prior to detn.

- CAR-SG: Carnosine model solns. immobilised onto silica (solid phase extractant)

(5 ppb; 10 min) model solns.

3x10 8 - 1 x10 5 M

1 x10 7 - 1 x10 4 M (1x10 7 M, 6 min)

1-10x10 7 & 1x10 5

- 0.01 M (0.1 ^M)

- Au-film plated in situ or preplated

- simultaneos detn. of Cu2+ + Hg2+

- study on accum. mechanism and possible speciation

- MDPT: 4-methoxy-2,6bis(3,5-di-methylpyrazoyl)-1,3,5 triazine

- s.e.: tartrate buffer (pH 4)

- MBTZ-SG: 2-mercaptobenzothia-model solns. zole functionalised silica gel; two linear ranges for calibration

model and real samples

coal ash

0.1-10 ppm (0.1 ppm; 3 min)

waste water, wine

- s.e.: diluted HNO3; intermediate reduction for 100 s.

- Z: natural zeolite (modif.); accum.

5x10 8 - 5x10 6 M model and (2x10 8 M, 3 min) real samples / regeneration scheme

during anal.

- s.e.: BRB (pH 4.6); modif. in situ;

no regeneration required

- s.e.: buffer (pH 6.5-7.5); analysis compared to the reference (AAS).

8x10 10 -3x10 8 M natural water, (2x10 10 M, 3 min) soil samples

(0.1 ^gl 1; 10 min) tap water

river water

Continued

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Measuring principles (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tAcc / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

C/PO (nano-Pt)

C/PW(s) (AMTZ-SG)

C/PO (DPN-SG)

C/PO (chitosan)

C/PO (Zincon)

(s.a. n-Au -3 diff. modifs)

CV, ASV

POT (dir.)

C/PO POT

(Cu-SALHMN) (dir.,titr.)

(dir.)

CNT-PE, CV

CNT(F)PE SWV

C/PO POT

(TMTDS) (dir.,FIA)

C/PO POT

(SAL / PSX) (dir., titr.)

- el. acc. Cu11 ^ Cu1 ^ Cu0 with intemediate catalysis;

- anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via complex.;

- el. redn./ anodic reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Cu2+ « Cu»-DPN

- chemical equilibrium and

steady-state potential for:

» Cu"-SALHMN

- o.c. accum. via compl.-sorption / anodic reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Cu2+ « Cu»-SA-nAu / M

- o.c. accum. via compl.-sorption / anodic reoxidn.

4x10 (4x10

8x10 (3x10

8 - 2x10 6 M

9 M, 10 min)

8 - 3x10 6 M 8 M, 20 min)

model solns.

commercial ethanol fuel

- Pt-particles, 20 nm characterised by SEM and XRF; LOD lowered by the effect of some surfactants

- electrode of the C/PW type stable in EtOH; AMTZ-SG: 2-amino- thiazole functionalized silica

1x10 7 - 0.01 M (8x10 8 M, 50s)

4x10 7 - 0.01 M (6x10 8 M, 12s)

tap water, multivitamin

tablets

- o.c. accum. via adsorption

- el. redn.; anodic reoxidn. 4.5 min)

2x10 7 - 7x10 6 M (8x10 8 M,

waste water samples

2-220 да L 1 (1 ^g L 1; 5 min)

natural waters, human hair

8x10 9 - 0.001 M water sample, (3-4x10 8 M; 5s) human hair

- SALHMN: N,N'-disalicylic-lene-hexameythylenediaminate; s.s.:

buffer (pH 4-6.5); interfs. study

- modif. content in CP: 25%(m/m);

s.e.: 0.1 M KNO3 (pH 6.5).

- modif.: 2-carboxy-2'-hydroxy-5' sulfo-formazyl benzene; s.e.:

PhB (pH 6.4)

- s.a.: self-assembled n-Au-parts.;

- modifs.: MMN-IT, MNFT, MNTT (SH-heterocyclic derivatives)

0.01-0.10 ^g L 1 (0.005 ^g L 1;--)

- chemical equilibrium and (5x10 8 M for

steady-state potential for: stac.;

Cu2+ « Cu" -TMTDS 2x10 7 M for FIA)

- chemical equilibrium and

steady-state potential for:

» Cu"-SAL

2x10 7 - 0.001 M (3x10 8 M; 8s)

samples,

- DPN-SG: dipyridyl group-functio- nalized nanoporous

waste water silica gel ; 288

- slope: Nenstian, ca 28.5 mV/dec.

- CNT(F): fluorinated carbon tap water, rat nano- tubes; electrode life-tail (blood) time for appl. in-vivo,

- TMTDS: tetramethylmodel and thiuram di- sulfide; real samples optimisation studies for

both stac. and FIA modes.

- SAL / PSX: salicylidine-functiona- lised polysiloxane; opt.: pH 2-5.5; titr. performed with EDTA

tL > 1 month

Continued

Table 1. Determination of noble metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form) Type of CPE (modifier) Technique (mode) Measuring principles (method sequences) Linearity range (LOD; tAcc / tR) Sample(s) analysed Other specification (remarks) Refs.

Cu2+ C/PO (naphthazarin) AdSV, POT (dir.,FIA) - chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Cu2+ « Cu'—TMTDS (2x10 6 M for stac.; (3x10 5 M for FIA) (tR < 50s) metal alloys with Cu-traces - modif.: 5,8-dihydroxy-1,4-naphto-quinone; s.s.: 0.1 M AmB/AcB; life-time, t > 60 days 291

Cu2+ C/PO (microalgae) DPCSV - o.c. accum via biosorption; - cathodic redn. 5x10 8 - 1 x10 6 M (5x10 10 M,--) model and real samples - microalgae sp.: Tetraselmis Chuii; added in content of 3-20%(m/m) 388

Cu2+ C/PO (H-BDBTU) POT (dir.) - chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Cu2+ « Cu"-BTU 1x10 5 - 0.001 M (1x10 5 M; 10s) model solns. - H-BDBTU: N-benzoyl-N',N'-di-n- butyl-thiourea; studies on the mechanism and eq. conditions 389

For other abbreviations and symbols, see the respective list at the end of the article

Table 2. Determination of heavy metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique Measuring principles Linearity range Sample(s) Other specification (modifier) (mode) (method sequences) (LOD; tACC / tR) analysed (remarks)

Cd2+ + Pb2+

Cd2++ Pb2+

Zn2+; Cd2+

Pb2++Cu2+

[HgO, Bi2O3 (s)]

C/SO + BiF,

(-- , Bi2O3)

C/PW(s)

(Hg2C2O4)

(BTT + am. SiO2)

(ZrP2O7-SG)

(BTZT / SBA-15)

C/PO POT

(MNT / n-Au) (dir.)

-eadcncu s^!» ot&s

anmca. mo&ít ^ Cd m^

- accum. via electrolytic 50 200 , 1 7nii redn.+ alloy formation; 5nn mn

- anodic rernidn. (20 L\ 5 min)

- accum. via ionexchange;

- redn.; anodic reoxidn.

tap and natural waters

model solns.

medicinal

plants,

pharms.

- o.c. accum (ionexchange)

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

3-1400 ng L 1 (3 ng L 1; 2 min)

- accum. via complex 110 x M

and sorption); redn. / rr „„ 7 .. „ . .

. . K ' (5x10 7 M; 2 min) reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium

and steady-state 3x10 8 - 3x10 4 M water,

6od"r:-MNT (2x10 8 M;6s) / nAu

human hair

- HgO, Bi2O3 added in CP (5%); tests on reproducibility (R < -, -, Q 5 %); 113

compared with MF- and BiF-SPE

- way of plating: (i) in-situ, (ii) ext.,

(iii) in-nascenti (via Bi2O3 redn.); detn. of Zn with high background

- adsor. accum. via „ ,„ 7 . 5..

l 6x10 7 - 4x10 5 M natural water

com,p ., (1x10 7 M; 2 min) (spiked)

- redn.; anodic reoxidn.

waste water

natural water

- simultanneous detn., compared with ref. analyses by AAS

- pharm.: ayurvedic tablets

- BTT: benzothiazole-thiol

- s.e.: phosphate buffer (pH 7.5)

- SG: functionalised silica gel;

- incl. optimalisation studies

- BTZT: 2-benzothiazolethiol, SBA- 15 nanostructured silica; s.e.: PhB

- MNT: 2-mercapto-5-3-nitrophenyl 1,3,4-thiadiazole; slope: Nenstian, ca 29.5 mV/ dec; s.s.: pH 2-4

Continued

Table 2. Determination of heavy metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique (mode)

Measuring principles

(method sequences)

Linearity range

(LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

Cd2- -Pb2-

Cd2- -Pb2-

Cd2- -

Pb2-, Cu2-

Pb2- -

Cd2+, Pb2+

Pb2+ -Cd2+

Pb2-, Cd2-

Pb2+, Cd2+

(PTD, in-situ)

C/PO (CCHA)

(Bi2O3 , in nasc.)

(CPA - ms.SiO2)

CNT-PE (- DNA)

2nd DLSV

C/PO SWASV

(-BiF / Fbg) (BIA)

C/SO - ZD (- BiF)

C/PO (DMG)

(a-CD, ß-CD)

(crown ethers)

(SH-ms.SiO2)

(plant tissue)

C/PO (1,8-DAN)

[(OH-AQ-Me)2S]

- el. accum. enhanced by sorption; anodic reoxidn.

6x10 9 (3x10 1

2x10 7 M M; 10 min)

- PTD: 1,10-phenanthroline-dione;

- s..e.: 0.05 M AcB (pH 4.7); interfs.

accum bcoml- - CCHA: N-p-

MEx . y p ' 4x10 8 - 3x10 6 M municipal, chlorophenylcinnamo-

x .. .. (1x10 9 M; 2 min) mineral waters hydroxamic acid; CP: anodic

- redn.; anodic reoxidn. v ' ' x

- accum. via electrolytic

redn (5 ^g L 1; 6 min)

- anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via compl. / adsorp.

- redn. / anodic reoxidn.

10-200 ppb (0.5 ppb; 20 min)

- accum. via el. (2x10 12 M for Pb,

enhanced by sorption; 7x10 12 M for Cu; anodic reoxidn. 2.5 min for both)

tap, mineral waters, urine

model solns.

fish tissue

regnt.

- BiF generated from oxide in nasc.; s.e.: 0.1 M acetate buffer (pH 4.5) - simult.detn. of PbII possible

- CPA: carbamoyl-phosphonic

acid - simult.detn. of Pb11 - Cu11 396

possible

- DNA coating serves for specific enhancement of the accum. 397 step; s.e.: PhB (pH 10.0)

- accum. via electrolytic

redn. (0.2 mg L 1 for Cd, tap water

- alloy formation; 0.1 ^g L1 for Pb) tea samples reoxidn.

- accum. via electrolytic (0.10 mg L 1 for Pb,

redn.+ alloy formation; 0.08 mg L1 for Cd; real samples

- anodic reoxidn. 2 min for both)

- Fbg: Fibrinogen (protective layer against surfactants) ; BIA-mode: batch injection analysis, m-volume

- ZD: natural zeolite doped in CP (serving for more effective 398 plating with BiF); s.e.: AcB (pH 4.5)

- accum. (compl. -adsort.)

- cathodic redn.

- accum. by ion-inclusion

effect; cathodic redn.

1x10 7- 2x10 5 M Pb

3x10 7- 3x10 5 M Pb

(6x10 7 M Pb, (2x10 5 M Cd)

- accum. via compl. 20-100 ppb

- redn.; anodic reoxidn. (1 ppb; 30 s)

- accum. via compl. 10-1500 ppb Pb

- redn.; anodic reoxidn. 20-1600 ppb Hg

- bioaccum. (ionexchange) (0.01 ppb)

- redn.; anodic reoxidn.

model solns.

alcoholic beverages

model solns.

- DMG: dimethyl glyoxime

- interfs. from Ni11 and Hg11

- CDs: cyclodextrins; incl. studies on diff. prfm. of a-CD and ß-CD

- s.e.: aqueous solns.- 40% MeOH 401

- simult. detn. of Cu11 also tested

- SH-ms.SiO2: thiol-ctng. mesopo- rous silica; simult. detn. of Hg11

- modif.: grass weed natural waters (Pennisetum)

- s.e.: acetate buffer (pH 5)

- accum. via compl.; redn.

- anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via complexation;

- e. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

50-2000 ppb (30 ppb; 10 min)

model solns.

- DAN: diamminonaphthalene -CP acts as conducting polymer

- modif.: bis[1-hydroxy-9,10-6x10 10 - 6x10 6 M anthra- quinone-methyl]sulfide; 405

(4x10 10 M; 11 min) no interfs from various metal 405

ions, Me2+

waters

Continued

Table 2. Determination of heavy metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Mfasu'|ing Linearity range Sample(s) Other specification

(mode) [= sequences) (LOD; ^ / tR) analysed (remaries)

(DPEs, 3 types)

(o-, m-, p-PD/E)

(APA-MMS)

(ZrP2O7-SG)

AB/PO (I , in-situ)

C/PO (OF-S)

C/PO (Dithizone)

(fruit tissue)

FIA / WJD

DPASV, FIA

C/POs POT

(- DTBA / MBA) (dir., titr.)

C/PO CV,

(SiO2 / Al2O3) DPASV

C/PO CV,

(CaII-MMT) DPASV

C/PO DPV,

(NFR, in-situ) AdCSV

C/SO (QPu-TU)

C/SO (chitosan)

1x10 10 - 1x10 6 - accum. via electrolytic M, natural water,

redn; anodic reoxidn. depending on DPE; tea samples (10-100 pM; -- )

- accum. via complexation;

- e. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- PbII-vs- APA affinity;

- el. redn. by econst;

- o.c. acc. (ionexchange);

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via spec. sorption;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- accum. by adsorption to S;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

5x10 8 - 1 x10 5 M (1x10 9 M; 10 min)

1-25 ppb Pb (RSD < ± 2.5%)

model solns.

model solns.

- D: natural or synthetic diamond (particle size: 1 or 50 ^m); DPE: 60 diamond paste electrode

- PD/E: phenylendiamine (three isomers) admixed in CP / 406

electro-polymerised; interfs. of 406

- APA-MMS: acetamid-phonic

acid functionalised mezoporous SiO2; WJD: wall-jet detector

3x10 9 - 5x10 6 M ^ - SG: functionalised silica gel;

-.л mm о ■ % waste water . , , , . ... -, „. „ 407 (4x10 10 M; 2 min) - interfs. study with Zn, Cd, Sn, Tl

2x10 8 - 4x10 6 M water (6x10 9 M; 10min) samples

- AB: acetylene black (replacing graphite powder); addition of I 51 further enhances the sensitivity

5-1000 ng L1 hair sample - OF-S: ^g^f^tomM

. 1 . . , , .. silica (not specified); t > 4 408

(5 ng L 1; 1 min) (spiked) months

- o.c. accum. via 8x10 8 - 1 x10 5 M complex.; (5-8x10 8 M; 8

- redn / anodic reoxidn. min)

soil samples

- interfs. study with Zn, Cd, Cu, Hg;

- samples collected at metallurgic plant; analyses compared to AAS

- o.c. accum via biosorption; MEx / cathodic redn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Cu2+ « Cu'—TMTDS

- o.c. accum. via sorption;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via ion-exch.;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via adsorption of complex; cathodic redn.

1-10 mg L 1 (5 ng mL 1; 1 min)

water (spiked),

laboratory

- fruit: dried / pulverised pineapple; - interfs. study with 15 410 Men+ ions;

Bio-CPE regeneration by EDTA

5x10 8 M for CPE-1 humate 4x10 8 M for CPE-2 extracts

2x10 9 - 5x10 5 M (1x10 9 M; 5 min)

real samples

( -- )

(6x10 9 M, -- )

water samples

- two modifs: dithiodibenzoic acid, mercaptobenzoic acid (added in: 25%, m/m); evaluation of ßPbTBA

- modif.: mixed oxide, studied with TG, XRF, FTIR; added as 5% (m)

- MMT: montmorillonite; s.e.: 0.01 M HCl; comparison with bare CPE

0.5-200 ng mL 1 (0.2 ng mL 1; 1 min)

lake, mineral waters, drinks (powdered)

- NFR : Nuclear fast red; s.e.:

buffer (pH 3) - 5x10 5 M modif.; 413

intefs.s.

- o.c. accum. via chelating ;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum via biosorption;

- cathodic redn.

0.005-5(0) mg L 1 (0.2 mg L 1; 10 min)

water samples (tap, lake, and

- QPu-TU: thiourea-functionalised macroporous resin QuadraPure; 30% (m) in CP; s.e.: 0.1 M AcB;

10-110 ng mL-1 (2 ng mL-1; -- )

water, pharm., human blood and urine

- s.e.: 0.5 M HCl; no interfs. from Cd, Tl, Sn, Cu (10-fold excess)

waste w

Continued

Table 2. Determination of heavy metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique (mode)

Measuring principles

(method sequences)

Linearity range

(LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

Cd2+-Pb2+

Cd2+-Pb2+

Tl1 , 111 (TlCl4 )

In3+ -Cd2+-Pb2+

SnIV (SnO2-)

Sb3- -Cu2+

(-BiF, in-situ)

(-Bi-powder)

C/TCP (unm.)

(-BiF, in-situ)

DPASV, SWASV

(CCSA)

C/SO (BiF in-situ) C/SO (Bi-powder)

(Alizarin violet)

C/PO (BPR)

C/PO (SWy-2)

C/PO (BPR)

CB/iP;^,[2P^p/bsPE ^OT

- Fe(phen)3 ) (dir0

C/PO (BPR)

DPASV with RDE

C/PO [2 types] POT CPy/ (dir.)

- accum. via

complexation, el. redn.+ 50-500 ^g L 1 Tl1 alloy formation; --

- anodic reoxidn.

- accum. via

complexation, el. redn.+ 25-500 ^g L 1 Tl1 alloy formation; --

- anodic reoxidn.

model solns.

model solns.

- accum. via ion-pairing as {H-TCP+; TlCl4 }; redn. with ICONST in SP-regime

- accum. via electrolytic redn.+ alloy formation;

- anodic reoxidn.

(1x10 7 M; 3 min) model solns.

25-250 и L 1 In111 (10 и L 1; 5 min)

- accum. via electrolytic 0 2-1 mg L 1 redn.+ alloy formation; ' , 1 . .

- anodic reoxidn. (0.1 mg L 1; 5 min)

- o.c.-accum. via complex; MEx / redn. / an. reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via complex.;

- el. redn. (Sn11 ^ SnO)

- MEx / anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via ion-exch. ;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- o.c. accum. via chelating ;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Bi3+ « (POE/OPE)+BiI4

- o.c. accum. via chelating ;

- el. redn. / anodic reoxidn.

8x10 9 - 1 x10 6 M canned food (4x10 9 M; 2 min) sample

0.1-50 i^g L 1 (0.1 и L 1; 2 min)

waste water, canned food

4x10 (1x10

1x10 (5x10

! - 1x10 6 M water sample, 10 M; 5 min) nickel alloy

! - 5x10 7 M 10 M; 3 min)

water sample, human hair

(4x10 6 M ... type 1) (2x10 6 M ... type 2) tR = 20-40s)

suppositories,

2x10 9 - 5x10 7 M water sample, (1x10 9 M; 2.5 min) human hair

- accum. via electrolytic redn; anodic reoxidn.

10-50 ni (5 ng m

I mL 1 Sb111 . 1; 5 min)

- chemical equilibrium and steady-state potential for: Sb3+ (CPy/ TPhT)+SbI4

(4x10 6 M ... type 1) (5x10 6 M ... type 2) tR = 20-30 s)

CRMs (iron and steel)

waste water, antibilharzial

- s.e.: 0.1-1.0 M NaOH (pH > 121; studies on Tl-deposition at 256 BiFE plated from Bi(OH)4

- s.e.: 0.1 M AmB (pH 9.5); study on behavIour of Tl+Pb+Cd mIxt. 258 In atypIcal supportIng medIa

- TCP: trlcresyl phosphate (binder); s.e.: 0.1 M HCl + 2 M 333, KCl; study on differentiation of 416 Tl1 and Tl111

water (spiked) CRM (soil)

model solns.

- s.e.: 0.1 M AcB + 0.2 M KBr; studies on simultaneous detn. of In+Cd+Pb and detn. of In111 alone

- s.e.: 0.2-1.0 M HCl (pH < 2) + 0.005 M N_H_+ (stabilising agent); 2 5

studies on detn. of tin as SnII

- s.e.: AcB (pH 4.5); studies on adsorpt. mechanism of accum.

- BPR: bromo-pyrogallol red; s.e.:

(a) 0.1 M AcB, (b) 4 M HCl; pre-redn. SnIV ^ Sn" by chem. agent

- SWy-2: Na-montmorillonite; ion-exchange with adsorption of Bi111

- BPR: bromo-pyrogallol red; s.e.: 0.3 M HCl + 2x10 5 M BPR; incl.. interfs. studies with various Men+

-POE: polyoxyethylene, OPE: octyl-phenyl ether, "phen": 1,10-phenan-throline); s.s.: buffers

(pH 3-9)

- BPR: bromo-pyrogallol red; s.e.: 0.1 M HCl + 3x10 5 M BPR; incl.. interfs. studies with various Men+

- RDE: rotated disc electrode; s.e.: HCl + KI + ascorbic acid (sep. of Sb- and Cu-peaks)

- CPy: cetyl pyridinium, TPhT: tri-phenyl tetrazolium, s.m.: pH 4-10; little interfs. from Cd2+, Hg2-, Bi3-.

ointment

Continued

Table 2. Determination of heavy metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form) Type of CPE (modifier) Technique (mode) Measuring principles (method sequences) Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR) Sample(s) analysed Other specification (remarks) Refs.

As'1' + AsV C/SO (+ AuF, ex situ) SP (CCSA) - accum. by electrolytic redn. - oxidn. with ICONST As111: 3 ppb (15 s.) AsV: <1 ppb (5 min) river water (polluted) - interf. from Cu11 (Cu:As >5:1) - with diffn. of AsIII vs AsV 247

AsV (HAsO42 ) C/TCP (unm.) POT (titr.) - chemical equilibrium with ion-pairing: HAsO42 u CPyB+HJAs^OJJ (0.2 mg L 1 AsV) mineral water, org. compds. - TCP: tricresyl phosphate (binder) - CPyB: cetylpyridinium bromide - dry ashing of solid samples 98

AsV (HAsO42 ) C/PO (FeII-clinoptite) POT (dir.) - ion-pairing equilibrium, steady-state potential for: HAsO42 u (ZE)2-HAsO42 2 2x10 8 - 0.001 M (3x10 8 M; 5-10 s) natural water, waste water - modif.: natural zeolite; pH 4-10; tL for CP-ISE > 2 months; incl. evaluation of kPOTi 298

For other abbreviations and symbols, see the respective list at the end of the article

Table 3. Determination of the remaining metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors: Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique Measuring principles (modifier) (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / y

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

Fe2+'3+

PtIV, I r'", OsIV

(DPEs, 3 types)

C/PO + Nf (1,10-phen)

C/PO (Cyclam)

(+ PbF, in-situ)

(ZEs: 3 types)

SWASV, AD

CtAdSV

(Dowex 50W)

C/SO + MF DPCSV (DMG, in situ) CCSA

C/PO (DMG)

DPCSV, AD / HA

anaoCCUcmreoeXiedCntrolytiC ^ d'Sir0-roM0PPM; p*"™

- accum. (electrolytic redn) 6x10 6 - 2x10 s M fuel ethanol

- anodic reoxidn. (2x10 6 M; 5 min) samples

POT - chemical equilibrium and

, .. ^ , steady-state potential for: (dir., №.) Co2+ U Co11-Cyclam

6x10 6 - 0.1 M (3x10 6 M; -- )

waste water

(electroplating

baths)

- accum. via compl.; electro- ixio catalysis assisted el. redn.

- 5x10 7 M

(nioxime / NO2 system) ' (4x10 10 M; 2 min)

- accum. via ion-exchange + sorption / el. redn.;

- anodic reoxidn.

(3 ppm; 15 min)

- oc. accum by ion-pairing 1-6000 ^g L 1

- redn. + reoxidn. (5 ng L 1; 12 min)

C/PW(s) /

AMTS (+ DMG, DPCSV in-situ)

(CTAB, DPCSV

Septonex; pot (titr.) applied in-situ)

- ads. accum. by chelating

- redn. (cathodic or ICONST )

- accum. via chelating + adsoption; cathodic redn.

- accum. via adsoption (as Ni''-AMT) / MEx + DMG; deposition / cathodic redn.

- accum. via ion-pairing as CTA(Sept)+ ; Meu63(4) / extraction; cathodi6c redn.

(5x10 7 M; 60s)

model solns.

model solns.

tap, mineral waters

crude oil (digested)

5x10 9 - 5x10 7 M fuel ethanol

(3x10 9 M; 25 min) samples

8x10 9 - 1 x10 6 M fuel ethanol

(2x10 9 M; 20 min) samples

waste water

1-10x10 6 for Pt,Ir; 1-50x10 8 for Os; , .. (5x10 9 M Os; 60s) (spiked)

- D: natural or synthetic diamond (particle size: 1 or 50 ^m); DPE: 54 diamond paste electrode

- Nf: Nation® (stabiliser of carbon paste in EtOH; results of analysis 423 compared to reference AAS

- Cyclam: agent entraping Co2+ via its ion-diameter; solns. cntg. 25% 424

EtOH; Nerstian slope: 28.4 mV/ dec.

- s.e.: 0.1 M AmB+5x10 4M nioxime + 0.25 M KNO2; detn. of Co11 in presence of Ni + Zn at high excess

- ZEs: zeolites; characterisation by XRF + particle size-analysis

- s.e.: 0.005 M HCl (pH 3) 426

- interfs. from Hg'' and Ag'

- coupled with MWD and

buffering samples with NH3 (to 244

pH 9) and spiked with Ni2+ ions

- DMG: dimethyl glyoxime; detn. 427 compared with GF-AAS 427

- solid-like CPE (sTable 1n EtOH-solns.); AMTS: aminothiazole der. 105 silica; intermediate transfer

Continued

Table 3. Determination of the remaining metals at carbon paste electrodes and sensors: Survey of methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Measuring principles (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) analysed

Other specification (remarks)

(CPyB; in-situ)

C/PW (s) (a-CD clp + ARS)

(ALC / ARS)

(ARS, In situ)

(ALC, in situ)

C/PW (s) (CPHA-MS)

POT (dir.)

2nd DLSV

2nd DLSV

AdSV (SWV)

- accum. via ion-painng as CPy+; MeCl63(4) /sorpt.;

- cathodic redn.

- accum. via inclusion and compl.; chem. equilibrium

- accum. via adsorption / complex.; cathodic redn.

of the ligand (in modif.)

- adsort. accum. as compl.

- cathodic redn. of ligand

- accum. via adsorption / compl. of ThIVO-ALC;

- cathodic redn.of ligand

- accum. via adsorption of the complex UO2-CPH;

- cathodic redn.:2 UVI^UIV

5-10x10 7 M Ru,Rh „„D ....

1x10 6 M M Pd; model solns - CPyB: cetylpyridinium bromide; 428

1xl0 M M Pd; model solns. initial study ondetn. of Me111»1' 428 ( --; 1 min)

1x10 4 - 0.1 M (8x10 5 M; -- )

5-20x10 10-1-8x10 7 M (3x10 10 M, 4 min)

- modif.: a-cyclodextrin cross-pharms. linked polymer mixed with Alizarin 107 Red S

food samples hAicgBh

modif.: Alizarine Complexon; high scan-rate (200 mV/s); s.e.: 445, AcB + phthalate (pH 4.5); no 446 AlIII-interfs.

1 x10 9 - 4x10 7 M minerals, - ARS: Alizarin Red 'S'; s.e.: mixed 447, (6x10 10 M; 3 min) CRM (ore sp.) acetate / phthalate buffer (pH 4-6)448

3x10 9- 8x10 7 M (5x10 10 M; 3 min)

5-50 ppb (1 ppb; 20 min)

clays, CRMs (ore sps.)

model solns.

- ALC: Alizarin complexon reagent 449, incl. interfs studies (10 Me-ions) 450

- CPHA-MS: carbamoyl-phosphonic acid in self-assembled mesoporous silica; no interfs. from Me-anions

C/PO SWCSv - accum. via adsorption to 1 x10 7 - 2x10 5 M stream - modif.: natural zeolite; high sele- 451

(montmorillonite) SWCSV modif.; cathodic redn.: (4x10 8 M; -- ) sediments ctivity over other rare-earth ions 451

(ALC, in situ)

- anodic reoxidn.

Me(h)3+

*) Me .....Y Sc, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb (light rare earths); Me(h) ..

earths(l)). (h)

- adsort. accum. by compl. ca 1x10 7 m Me

ca. 5x10 8 M Me

Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu (heavy rare

CRM (nodular cast iron)

- ALC: Alizarin Complexon (soln.)

- rare earths quantified as a sum

of both Me., and Me,„; individual 452

ions not identified; AcB /

phthalate

C/PO (+ MeF) (TP; in-situ)

(ARS, in situ)

AdSV - accum. via adsoprtion of AdSnV the Mg(OH)2-TP adduct; (SWV) cathodic red2n. of ligand

nd - accum. via adsorption of

2 DLSV Ca»-ARS; redn. of ligand

C/PO PO

[A-MnO2 (spinel)] PO

CV, DPV, POT (dir.),

C/PW (s) (natural zeolite)

6x10-9 (5x10

- 9x10-8 M 9 M; 1 min)

- TP: thiopenton; s.e.: PhB (pH tap water, 11); no interfs. of Al, Ca, Fe, Zn, human urine Pb; indirect detn. (compared to AAS)

- accum: redn. MnIV^ Mn111 followed by intercalation (insertion) of LiI into the spinel structure; re-oxidn.

AD, - accum. via ion-exchange

FIA equivalent to Na'-conc.

3x10 8 - 2x10 6 M tap water; milk, :,ARSLJAlizarin Red S sno 0i02 m 9 >< r- ■ % u M KOH; regeneration in 0.2 M

(9x10 9 M; 1.5 min) human serum hCi

- modif.: 25% A-MnO, (m/m) in CP; 2

- s.e.: borate buffer / Tris (pH 7-10)

- no interfences by Me+ / Me2+ ions;

POT: Nerstian slope, 79 mV/dec.

- modif. dispersed in electrode bulk;

- indirect detn. (via another analyte)

3x10 6- 0.002 M - 0.01 M

7 M; 30 / 5 s)

8x10 (POT) (6x10

natural waters, pharms (tabs.)

1-50 ppm Na+

model solns.

303, 455457

(JO22+)

For other abbreviations and symbols, see the respective list at the end of the article

Table 4. Determination of non-metal ions, complexes, and molecules at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form) Type of CPE (modifier) Technique (mode) Measuring principles (method sequences) Linearity range (L°D; tAcc ' y Sample(s) analysed Other specification (remarks) Refs.

Cl , Br C/PO (Fec-CXP) SWV - functioning via modif. as redox receptor; binding X anion and its oxidn. 10-100 i^M Cl model solns. - Fec-CXP: Ferrocene functiona-lised calix[4]pyrrole; interfs. by fluoride (as the single F ion) 458

Br C/PO (Hg"-Py / PTC) POT (titr.) - PTC as carrier for Br ion; - chem. equilibria between H+ « PTC-HBr 1x10-5 - 0.03 M (4x10-6 M; -- ) tap water - Py: pyridine, PTC: protontransfer compound (not specified); opt. pH 4.0-8.3; Nerstian slope: 61 mV/pH 308

Continued

.Table 4. Determination of non-metal ions, complexes, and molecules at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique Measuring principles (modifier) (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tACC / tR)

Sample(s) Other specification analysed (remarks)

I , In

(n == 3, 5)

C/TCP (binder as modif.)

C/TCP (binder as modif.)

C/PO (LDH)

(CTAB, in situ)

(CCSA)

C/PO (CTAI)

(DPEs, 3 types)

POT (dir.)

CP-composite CV, HV O^Ag / n-Ag) AD / IC

C/PO CV, AD,

(SGAm+PW12) FIA

(MMS+PMo)

C/PO (+ membr.) (AgI / Ag2S mixt.)

CV, DPV

POT (dir.)

C/PO POT

(CoILTPPA) (dir.)

C/PO (FePC)

(Ru"(phen)3 Cl2)

C/PO (CrIILSBC)

POT (dir.,titr.)

C/PO (BFEFM)

CV, CA DPV

C/PO CV,

(Fec-EPhE) DPV

C/PW (s)

[Ni"-Fe(aq)

(CN)5]

CV, CA LSV, FIA

- accum. via ion-pairing / extr. (after el. oxidn. I ^I2)

- cathodic redn. ( L^I )

- accum. via ion-pairing / extr. (after electrode oxidn.); redn. by I^

- accum. via ion-pairing / MEx; anodic oxidn.

- accum. via ion-pairing;

- oxidn and extraction; cathodic redn.

- ion-pairing of membr.

- chemical equilibrium for: I / I3 « {CTA+; I / I3 }

- accum. via electrolytic redn; anodic reoxidn

- interaction Ag and I ; redox behaviour of I / I2

- e|. oxidn. at Econst

- electrocatalytic redn. with renewable modif.

POT (dir.)

5x10 (3x10

7- 5x10 5 M 7 M; 5 min)

- elchem. activity of modif. + catalytic effect

- ion-pairing (at membrane);

- chemical equilibrium for: X « AgX ; eq. potential

- chemical equilibrium for: CN « CoTTPA-CN adduct

- catalytic effect + oxidn.

- equilibrium potential

- ECL-effect by strongly oxidative intermediate

- chemical equilibrium for: SO42 u Cr-SB-SO4 adduct;

(1 i^M XO3 )

pX = 2.6-4.7 CN pX = 2.0-6.5 I

(tR = ca 30 s)

2x10 5 - 0.01 M (9x10 6 M; 5 s)

1x10 6 - 0.005 M

( -- )

1x10 5 - 0.001 M

( -- )

2x10 6 - 0.05 M (9x10 7 M; 10 s)

- electrocatalysis-assisted oxidn. of SO2 anion

- electrocatalysis-assisted oxidn. of SO2 anion

- electrocatalysis-assisted oxidn. of SO 2 anion

KI-ctng.

tablets

- Kl-tbs: distributed to people that

live nearby nuclear power-plants; 100

- incl. study on interfs. from

3x10 7- 5x10 5 M (1x10 7 M; 5 min)

50 i^M - 1 mM ( 0.05 ^M; -- )

8x10 9- 5x10 6 M (2x10 9 M; 3 min)

5x10 5 - 0.1 M (4x10 5 M, 30 s)

(1x10 7 M; -- )

0.64-64 да L 1 (0.47 ^g L 1 = 4 nM)

5x10 6 - 0.001 M (3x10 6 M; -- )

mineral - s.e.: 0.5 M NaCl + 0.1 M HCl water, - IO3 chem. pre-red. with N2H5+ table salts - hidjh selectivity (Cl : I = 1052:1)

ground,

waters

- LDH: layer double hydroxide;

- s.e.: chloride-based medium

- CTAB: cetyltrimethylammonium table salts bromide; s.e.: 0.1 M NaCl ;

- incl. interf. studies of X and Y

pharms. (relaxant)

- Q+: org. cation (ion-pair moiety)

- CTAI: cetyltrimethyl ammonium 305 iodide; Nerstian s.: -55 mV/dec.

vitamins, - D: natural or synthetic diamond,

DPE: diamond paste electrode; 55 table salts no intefs. by Cl and Br ions

powder,

model solns. (in stream)

model solns.

model solns.

mineral water

model solns.

model solns.

mineral water

- ^Ag / nAg: micro- / nano-silver powder; org. iodide-compounds 109 also studied; ^-volume: 20 ^L

- SGAm-PW12: phospho-wolframo- functionalised silicagel derivatised with amino-group (3-D modif.)

- PMo12: H3[P(Mo3O10)/nH2O

- MMS: mesoporous molecular sieve

- Nernstian slopes: 69 (for CN ) & 58 mV/dec (I ); indication of CN 306 requires regeneration of CP

- TPPA: 3,4-tetra pyridino-porphira- zinate; no interfs of Cl-,Br-, I-, and SCN-; Nernstian s.: 60 mV / dec.

- FePC: Fe"-phthalocyanine; detn. of S "-org. compds. also studied

- phen: phenanthroline; s.e.: pH 4-6

- SBC: Schiff base complex (N,N'-ethylene-bis(5-hydroxy-salicylidene-iminate; pH 4-9

4x10 6 - 0.01 M (2x10 7 M, DPV)

4x10 6- 1 x10 4 M (2x10 7 M, DPV)

3x10 6 - 0.003 M (9x10 7 M, LSV)

- BFEFM: bis (ferrocenyl-ethyl)-real sample fluorenone; kinetic parameters evaluated; opt. pH 8.0

model solns.

samples

- Fec-EPhE: 1-[4-(ferrocenyl-ethy-nyl) phenyl]-ethanone; kinetic 464 parameters evaluated; pH 8.0

- modif. characterised by XRD,UV s.e.: PhB (pH 8-10); long tL

Continued

Table 4. Determination of non-metal ions, complexes, and molecules at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE (modifier)

Technique Measuring principles (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range (LOD; tAcc / У

Sample(s) Other specification analysed (remarks)

C/PO (pE-conf.)

[P(Mo3OJ4]8

C/PO + BE P(Mo3O)4 / BUR3 1G4

C/PO (Rh-Biue)

(Ni-caiix[4]

arene)

(n-CM / Mn-

CV, - precipitation via complex;

BIA FIA indirect detn. via its redn.

1-2G pM (G.3 pM; -- )

sea water,

bacterial

bio-films

AD, FIA

CV, DPV

CV, AD

C/PO CA,

(MPP-si-Sb2O3) LSV

C/PO CV,

(CTAB; in-situ) LSV

C/PO CV, CA,

(SiO2 / Nb2O5) LSV

C/PO CV,

(Ru»-BPD) FIA

(Mb+colloid- CV Au)

- ECL-signai (BUR oxidn);

- indirect detn. of HPO 2

- eiectrocataiytic effect

- amperometric oxidn.

- eiectrocataiytic effect

- anodic oxidn.

- eiectrocataiysis-assisted oxidn. of H2O2 (ECONST)

- eiectrocataiytic reduction of O2 via modif. effect

2x1G 1G - 1x1G 8 M (8x1G 11 M ; ECL)

5x1G 5-9x1G 4 M (3x1G 5 pM-- )

2x1G 6-1x1G 4 M (1x1G 6 M; -- )

water samples

model solns.

rain water

- intefs. from SiO44 suppressed by HNO3 + MoO42 ; bio-films 466 collected in Roman catacombs

- BE: benzene; BJR: Butyl-Rhod-amine 'B'; ECL: electrochemilu- 467 minescence; opt. s.e.: pH >10

- Rh-Blue: RhIII4[RuII(CN)6]3

- modif. deposited eiectroiyticaiiy

- L: 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyi-25, 2,7-bis( G.G5

rt-butyi-25, 2,7-s(diethyicarbamoyimethoxy) G5 M NaCiO + G.GG1 M Na

1x1G 5-7x1G 4 M (2x1G 6 M; 1G s)

1-13 mg L-1 ( < 1 mg L-1)

- electrocatalytic reduction

of O2 via effect of modif. 1-10 mM

(charged as CTAB+)

(+ membr.)

C/PO CA, LSV

(MPP-si-SnO2) (with RDE)

C/PO (DAN)

Fe(CN)63

in-situ

(poiy-o-TO)

C/PO (PW-12)

C/PO (VIVO-SBC)

(Ni-DFTAA)

DPV, FIA

CV, CA

CV, CA

CV, CA

CV, LSV

CV, FIA

- eiectrocataiytic reduction

- eiectrocataiytic effect

- cathodic redn.

- eiectrocataiytic effect

- cathodic redn.

- eiectroiytic oxidn. within the LSV-scan

- electrocatalytic reduction of O2 via modif. effect

- formation of triazole der. and its electrolytic oxidn.

- electrocatalytic reduction of NO2 via modif. effect.

- electrocatalytic reduction

- eiectrocataiytic redn. of NO2 by modif. (mediator)

- eiectrocataiytic reduction

- eiectrocataiytic oxidn. / redn. via modif. effect

1-14 mg L-1 ( < 1 mg L-1; 5 s)

(1x1G 5 M; --) 1G-11G pM

14 ppb (3 ppm)

(5G pM; -- ) (G.2 mM; -- )

5x1G 5 - G.GG1 M (3x1G 5 M, -- )

5x1G 4 - G.G2 M (3x1G 4 M, -- )

3x1G 5 - G.GG1 M (3x1G 5 M, 2 s )

4x1G 6 - G.GG4 M (6x1G 7 M, -- )

(down to 1 pM)

model solns.

water solns (with

dissolved

water solns.

model solns.

model solns.

model solns.

- n-CM / Mn-oxides: nanostructured manganese(II,IV) 470 oxides of Crypto- melane type, 5 % (m/m) in CPE

- MPP: tetrakis(1-methyl-4-i 21H,23H-porphine immobilised by sol-gel method; 4-el. oxidn

- CTAB: cetyltrimethylammonium bromide; modif. attached using 472 hydrophobic adsorption

immobilised by sol-gel method; 473 -el. process; s.e.: 1 M KCl 473

. process

- modif.: [Ru(bipy)2dppz]2+ polymer

- s.e.: HCl-based medium

- Mb: myoglobin

- s.e.: 0.1 m BR-buffer (pH 7)

cured meat - cellulose-acetate membrane; (preserved stabilisation soln.: AA + m-PhA + 476 by NO -) EDTA; compared with JV-VIS

model solns.

samples

model solns.

- MPP: tetrakis(1-methyl-4-py 21H, 23H-porpnine ion; studies '' 477 on mechanism and rc. kinetics

- DAN: 2,3-diammino-naphthalene; in FIA-mode: up to 478 150 detns./ h.

- overpotential lowered for 700

mV; reaction at higher pH; 479

mechanism, kinetic, and activity coeffs. ( y± )

poiy-o-TO: poiy(ortho-toiuidine); 48G 3dn requires highly acidic soins

samples redn requires highly

water - PW-12: KPJM^OJJlHSO,;

electrocatalysis evaluated via samples reaction kinetics

model solns.

- SBC: Schiff base complex; mechanism, diffusivity, kinetics and electrocatalysis studied.

- modif.: 6,17-

aqueous diferrocenyidibenzo- 5,9,14,18-soins.

tetraaza[14]annuien-Ni"

of O2 via effect of modif.

of NO2 via modif. effect.

of NO2 via modif. effect.

Continued

Table 4. Determination of non-metal ions, complexes, and molecules at carbon paste electrodes and sensors. Survey of Methods

Ion, sp. (form)

Type of CPE Technique Measuring principles (modifier) (mode) (method sequences)

Linearity range Sample(s) Other specification (LOD; tACC / tR) analysed (remarks)

NH OH,

C/PO (NH4HPO4

+ si4-SnO24)

POT (dir.,titr.)

C/PO CV, BA

(coumestan) DPV

C/PO (NbV-

si+H2TCPP) C/PO2 (+ SX-pol.)

(Fe-tSPhP / SiAl)

C/PO (Co"-Pc)

CV, FIA

CV, CA

AD / CZE

- chemical equilibrium for: NH4+(soln.) u NH4+(E-bulk)

- electrocatalytic oxidation of N N/ 1 via modif. effect

- electrocatytic effect

- anodic oxidn.

8x10 7 - 0.04 M natural (2x10 7 M, 60 s) waters

( -- )

1 x10 5 - 5x10 4 M solns.

(pH 7)

- electrocatalytic oxidation 5x10 5 - 6x10 4 M model

- electrocatalytic oxidation

- electrocatalytic oxidation

(3x10 5 M, -- )

20-200 i^M N2H4 (10 i^M i n PhB )

(Cu7Co"-HCF) CA, CCP of N2H4 via modif. effect ( -- )

solns.

model solns, water samples

model solns.

C/PO (Q / HQ)

C/PO (Co"-Pc)

CV, LSV

- electrocatalytic oxidation

7x10 6 - 8x10 4 M waste (5x10 6 M, for DPV) waters

- electrocatalytic oxidation 1x10 4 - 1x10 5 M of N2H4via modif. effect (7x10 5 M, -- )

- modif.: prepared by the sol.-gel method; kPoTi coeffs evaluated; 304 sub-Nerstian response for ISE

solns.

aqueous

- mechanism, reaction kinetics + catalytic activity being studied

- modif.: meso-

tetracarboxyphenyl- porphyrin + grafted silica / Nb2O5

- tSPhP: tetrakis-(2,6-difluoro-3-sulfo-natophenyl)porphyrinate on SiO2/Al2O3 / siloxan polymer

- Pc: Phthalocyanine; method for "on-chip" separation and usable 487 for org. R- / Ar-hydrazines

HCF: hexacyanoferrate; s.e.: PhB (pH 7); mechanism, react. 488

kinetics and diffusion processes 488 studied

- s.e.: buffer (pH 10); overpotential lowered for >500 489 mV; water was sampled at wood- 489 &-paper factory

industrial boiler feed water

- Pc: Phthalocyanine; redn. in highly alkaline solns. (pH 13); no interfs. from common ions

of N2H4 via modif. effect

of N2H4 via modif. effect

CA, DPV of N2H4 via modif. effect

For other abbreviations and symbols, see the respective list at the end of the article

the fact that carbon paste still represents one of the most popular electrode materials with almost unlimited applicability in basic research, highly specialised investigations, as well as in practically oriented electroanalysis as documented in Tables 1-4. Secondly, the recent turbulences in the area of CPEs, CMCPEs, CP-biosensors, and CP- detectors have shown that carbon paste is also one of the most flexible substrates. This can be illustrated by the fact that the respective activities with carbon pastes have already absorbed innumerable outputs coming from progressive and new technologies. Starting with developments of novel types of electrodes, including various innovations of these configurations, continuing via a massive testing of new modifiers and mediators, up to the introduction of completely new carbon paste mixtures, in which both graphite and binder moieties are replaced by alternate materials.

Finally, a deeper analysis of the recent databases, together with older archives, allows us to speculate on some up-coming trends and future prospects, when the following directions and trends can be outlined:

(i) Development of new methods and procedures that obey criteria of the green-chemistry concept; especially, in the area of environmental inorganic analysis with metal-modified electrodes that would alternate or - more likely replace - the mercury-based analogues.

(ii) Further adaptations of the already existing methods in terms of improved performance, combination with other techniques, compatibility with analysers of new generation, or even acceptability given by actual economic and ecologic demands. In this respect, a majority of carbon pastes have great promise as a cheap, easy-to-prepare, and - in the native form - also almost non-toxic material.

(iii) Regarding future trends in practical analysis with CPEs, one can get a rough estimate by comparing the abundance of the individual methods for particular analytes or groups of analytes. For inorganic ion and molecules, this is feasible by means of Tables I-IV presented above, whereas for organic, pharmaceutical and biological compounds that have not been surveyed here, it can be seen in the actual reviews [40,41] or,

eventually, via some original papers reporting on analyses of typical substances of interest (see e.g. [491-500]).

(iv) A growing role of carbon pastes as a laboratory platform during the development, testing, and later mass production of new types of screen-printed electrodes, sensors, and integrated cells based on carbonaceous materials.

(v) More intensive efforts in the use of new carbon pastelike formulations versus the traditional carbon paste mixtures, when one or even both main components will be substituted by alternate substances. This approach is already feasible at present, as shown with some mixtures containing new forms of carbon and / or ionic liquids.

And it is possible that such a mixture of so-far unknown type would be someday applicable as a fluid to the dropping carbon electrode (DCE) - a non-mercury variant of the DME and hitherto unrealised Adams' vision which had once led to the discovery of the carbon pastes themselves [2-5].

Acknowledgements:

Financial grants from the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sports of the Czech Republic (project MSM0021627502 and Research Centrum, LC 06035) are gratefully acknowledged.

This article has been compiled on the occasion of the 50th Anniversary of Awarding the Nobel Prize for Chemistry to Professor Jaroslav Heyrovsky.

Abbreviation & symbols used

A) a: stoichiometric coefficient; AAS: atomic absorption spectrometry; acc(um).: accumulation (pre-concentration); AcB: acetate buffer; AD: amperometric (potentiostatic) detection; AdSV: adsorptive stripping voltammetry; AFM: atomic force microscopy; am.: amorphous; AmAc: ammonium acetate; AmB: ammonia buffer; (aq): aqua (H2O); ASV: anodic stripping voltammetry; AuF: gold film; AuF-CPE: gold film-plated carbon paste electrode.

B) b: stoichiometric coefficient; BIA: batch injection analysis; Bi-CPE: bismuth powder- modified carbon paste electrode; Bi2O3-CPE: bismuth oxide-modified carbon paste electrode; BiF: bismuth film; BiF-CPE: bismuth film-plated carbon paste electrode; Bi-PE: bismuth paste electrode; BRB: Britton-Robinson buffer.

C) C: carbon (graphite); CA: chronoamperometry;

CCP: classical (stripping) chrono-potentiometry; CCSA: constant current stripping analysis; CD: cyclodextrine; chem.: chemical; CILE(s): carbon ionic-liquid electrode(s); CMCPE(s), chemically modified carbon paste electrode(s); coeff.: coefficient; compl.: complexation, complexed; conc.: cencentration, concentrated; CNTs: carbon nanotubes; CN(T)PE(s): carbon nanotube paste electrode(s); CP: carbon paste; CPE(s): carbon paste electrode(s); CPEE: carbon paste electroactive electrode; CP-ISE(s): carbon paste ion-selective electrode(s); C/PO: carbon paste, paraffin oil-based mixture; CP-UMEs: carbon paste ultramicro-electrodes; C/SO: carbon paste, silicone oil-based mixture; CRM(s): certified reference material(s); CtAdSV: (electro)catalysis-assisted adsorptive stripping voltammetry; CTAB: cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide; ctng.: containing; CV: cyclic voltammetry; COU: coulometry; CZE: capillary zone electrophoresis.

D) D: diamond; DCE, dropping carbon electrode; dec.: decade; der.: derivative; detn.: determination, determined; dir.: direct; 2nd-DLSV: second order-differential linearscan voltammetry; DME, dropping mercury electrode; DNA, deoxyribonucleic acid; DPE: diamond paste electrode; DPV: differential pulse voltammetry; DPA(C) SV: differential pulse anodic(cathodic) stripping voltammetry.

E) Econst : constant potential (potentiostatic mode) ECL-D: electrochemiluminescence (signal) detection EDTA: ethylene-diamminotetraacetic acid; EIS electrochemical impedance spectroscopy; EH-CPE electrically heated carbon paste electrode; el./elec. electron / electrolysis, electrolytic; eq.: equilibrium; ESA: electrochemical stripping analysis; EtOH: ethanol.

F) Fc: ferrocene; FIA: flow injection analysis; Fig(s): figure(s); FT-IR: Fourier transform infrared (spectroscopy).

G) g: gram; GF: graphite furnace; GrE: groove electrode.

H) Hb: hemoglobin; HA(V): hydrodynamic amperometry (voltammetry); HPLC: high performance liquid chromatography.

I a J) i: stoichiometric coefficient; ICONST: constant current; IL(s): ionic liquid(s); interfs.: interferences (interference effects); incl.: including; IC: ion-chromatography; IR: infrared (spectroscopy); ISE: ion-selective electrode; j: stoichiometric coefficient. K) kPOT. : (potentiometric) selectivity coefficient. L) L: liter; L: ligand; LSV: linear scan (sweep) voltammetry.; LOD: limit of detection; LOQ: limit of quantification (determination).

M) m: milli; M: molar concentration [mol L-1]; m-: meta; MCM-41: (commercial) molecular sieve; mE: mini-electrode; MF: mercury film; MeF: metallic film; memb.:

membrane; MeOH: methanol; MEx: medium exchange; MI-CPE: magnet-incorporated carbon paste electrode; min.: minute; mixt.: mixture; m/m: mass ratio; modif.: modifier, modified; ms.: mesoporous; MWD: microwave-assisted digestion (decomposition). N) n: counting coefficient; n-: nano; NAD(H): nicotinamide dinucleotide; NMR: nuclear magnetic resonance. O) o- ortho; o.c.: open-circuit; opt.: optimum, optimal; org.: organic; ox: oxide; oxidn.: oxidation. P) p-: para; PbF: lead film; PbF-CPE: lead film-plated carbon paste electrode; Pc: phthalocyanine; PhB: phosphate buffer; pharm(s): pharmaceutical(s); ph / Ph: phenol, phenyl; pH: acidity /alkality unit; pharm(s): pharmaceutical formulation(s); phen: phenanthroline; PO: paraffin oil (binder); POT: potentiometry; ppm: part-per-million (concentration unit); ppb: part-per-billion (conc. unit); PSA: potentiometric stripping analysis (with chemical oxidation); PW: paraffin wax; pX: -log [X]; py / Py: pyridine.

Q) Q / HQ: quinone / hydroquinone; QPu: quadra-pure. R) R: (electric) ohmic resistance; RDE: rotated disc electrode; red.: reduced; redn.: reduction; regnt.: regeneration, regenerated; reoxidn.: reoxidation; RSD: relative standard deviation [%]; RTIL(s): room-temperature ionic liquid(s).

S) s: second; (s): solid state; Sb-CPE: antimony powder-modified carbon paste electrode; Sb2O3-CPE: antimony oxide-modified carbon paste electrode; SbF: antimony film; SbF-CPE: antimony film-plated carbon paste electrode; s-CPE: solid-like carbon paste

References

electrode; sep.: separation / separated; s.e.: supporting electrolyte; s.s.: sample solution; sp.: species; sp(s): specimen(s); SEC: spectroelectro-chemistry; SECM: scanning electrochemical mictroscopy; SEM: scanning electron mictroscopy; simult.: simultaneous; SO: silicone oil; SX: siloxane; SP: stripping potentiometry; SPE(s): screen-printed electrode(s); soln(s): solution(s); sorpt.: (ad)sorption; stac.: stacionary; STM: scanning tunneling microscopy; SV: stripping voltammetry; SWV: square-wave voltammetry; SWA(C)SV: square-wave anodic(cathodic) stripping voltammetry. T) tACC : accumulation time (period); tab.: table; tb(s): tablet(s); TCP: tricresyl phoshate; tL: life-time; tR/EQ: response / equilibrium time; TCP: tricresyl phosphate; TG: thermogravimetry; titr.: titration, titrated; TRIS: buffer (commercial formulation); tEQ: equlibrium time. U) unm.: unmodified (bare, pure); UV/VIS: ultraviolet / visible spectrometry.

V) V: volt (electrical unit); var.: various; v/v: volume ratio.

W) W: wax.

X) XPS: X-ray (roentgen) probe spectroscopy; XRF: X-ray fluorescence. Y) y± : activity coefficient. Z) ZE: zeolite.

• Other symbols: -- ... not specified, not found; 3-D: three dimensional; fi: stability (complexity) constant; |j: micro; ■ N: valence (oxidation state); nm + / - : ion charge.

Thanks to willingness of the Editorial board of the CEJC, the authors were allowed to prepare their list of references in atypical form - as the full-text versions, presenting also the respective title for each article. It is believed that such exceptional approach, offering a lot of additional information, will be appreciated mainly by the readers themselves.

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M. Torimura, A. Miki, A. Wadano, K. Kano, and T. Ikeda, Electrochemical investigation of photoreduction catalyzed by cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. (PCC-7942) in exogenous quinones and photoelectrochemical oxidation of water. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 496 (2001): 2128.

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M. Etienne, C. Delacote, and A. Walcarius, Interest of mesoporous organic-inorganic hybrids in electroanalysis: Illustration for mercury binding to thiol-functionalized silica-based materials; in Progress in Electrochemistry Research, ed. M. Nunez. (Hauppauge (NY): Nova Science Publishers, 2005), pp.145-184. W. Yantasee, C. Timchalk, G. E. Fryxell,

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L.-D. Li, W.-J. Li, C.-Q Sun, and L.-S. Li, Fabrication of carbon paste electrode containing 1:12 phosphomolybdic anions encapsulated in modified mesoporous molecular sieve MCM-41 and its electrochemistry. Electroanalysis, 14 (2002): 368-375.

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M. Zendehdel, A. Babaei, and S. Alami, Intercalation of xylenol orange, morin, and calmagite into NaY-zeolite and their application in a dye / zeolite modified electrode. Journal of Inclusion Phenomena and Macrocyclic Chemistry, 59 (2007): 345-349.

D. Gligor, L. M. Muresan, A. Dumitrum, and I. C. Popescu, Electrochemical behavior of carbon paste electrodes modified with methylene green immobilized on two different X-type zeolites. Journal of Applied Electrochemistry, 37

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J. Li, M.-H. Huang, X.-Q. Liu, H. Wei, Y.-H. Xu, G.-B. Xu, and E.-K. Wang, Enhanced electrochemiluminescence sensor from tris(2,2'-bipy)Ru" incorporated into MCM-41 and ionic liquid-based carbon paste electrode. Analyst (UK), 132 (2007): 687-691. I. Svancara, K. Kalcher, and K. Vytras, Solid Electrodes Plated with Metallic Films. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 3 (1997): 207-225.

I. Svancara, R. Pazdera, R. Metelka, E. Norkus, and K. Vytras, Some aspects of using stripping

potentiometry for measurements with carbon paste electrodes plated with mercury- and gold films; in Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants - III (in Czech), eds. K. Vytras, J. Kellner, and J. Fischer (University of Pardubice, 2001), pp. 123-134.

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[245] E. Tesarova, A. Krolicka, A. Bobrowski,

I. Svancara, and K. Vytras, A study on [254] simultaneous determination of indium and cadmium at mercury-based and bismuth film-plated electrodes, Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 10 (2004): 2132.

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[247] I. Svancara, K. Vytras, A. Bobrowski, and K. Kalcher, Determination of arsenic at a gold-plated carbon paste electrode using constant [256] current stripping analysis. Talanta, 56 (2002): 45-55.

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[250] S. A. A. Elsuccary, I. Svancara, R. Metelka, [258] L. Baldrianova, M. E. M. Hassouna, and

K. Vytras, Applicability of bismuth film carbon paste electrodes in highly alkaline media. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 9 (2003): 5-17.

[251] I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, [259] S. A. A. Elsuccary, A. Economou,

S. Sotiropoulos, A. Bobrowski, and K. Vytras, Stripping voltammetry of metal-ion mixtures at bismuth film-plated electrodes; in Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants - VI (in Czech), eds. K. Vytras, J. Kellner, and J. Fischer (University of Pardubice, 2004), pp. 229-246. I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, M. Vlcek, R. Metelka, and K. Vytras, A role of the plating regime in the deposition of bismuth films onto a carbon paste electrode: Microscopic study. Electroanalysis, 17

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E. Tesarova, L. Baldrianova, A. Krolicka, I. Svancara, A. Bobrowski, and K. Vytras, Role of supporting electrolyte in anodic stripping voltammetry of In(III) in the presence of Cd(II) and Pb(II) using bismuth film electrodes; in Sensing in Electroanalysis, eds. K. Vytras and K. Kalcher. (Pardubice: University of Pardubice, 2005), pp. 75-87.

K. Vytras, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, A. Bobrowski, and I. Svancara, Comments to Stripping voltammetric determination of copper(II) at bismuth-modified carbon substrate electrodes; in Sensing in Electroanalysis, eds. K. Vytras, K. Kalcher. (Pardubice: University of Pardubice, 2005), pp. 49-58. I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, T. Mikysek, and K. Vytras, Determination of tin(II) at bismuth-modified carbon paste electrodes: An initial study; in: Monitoring of Environmental Pollutants - VII (in Czech), eds.: K. Vytras, J. Kellner, and J. Fischer. (Pardubice: University of Pardubice, 2005), pp. 139-148. I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, S. B. Hocevar, S. A. A. Elsuccary, A. Economou, S. Sotiropoulos, B. Ogorevc, and K. Vytras, Recent advances in anodic stripping voltammetry with Bi-modified carbon paste electrodes. Electroanalysis, 18 (2006): 177-185. L. Baldrianova, I. Svancara, M. Vlcek, A. Economou, and S. Sotiropoulos, Effect of Bi(III) concentration on the stripping voltammetric response of in-situ bismuth-coated carbon paste and gold electrodes. Electrochimica Acta, 52

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I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, T. Mikysek, and K. Vytras, Anodic stripping voltammetry at bismuth-modified electrodes in ammonia-buffered media. Scientific Papers of University of Pardubice, Series A; 12 (2006): 5-19.

L.-Y. Cao, J.-B. Jia, and Z.-H. Wang, Sensitive determination of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by differential

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[260] I. Adraoui, M. E. Rhazi, and A. Amine, Fibrinogen-coated bismuth film electrodes for voltammetric [270] analysis of lead and cadmium using the batch injection analysis, Analytical Letters, 40 (2007): 349-367. [271]

[261] I. Svancara, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, M. Vlcek, K. Vytras, and S. Sotiropoulos, Microscopic studies with bismuth-modified carbon paste electrode substrates: Morphological transformations of bismuth microstructures and [272] related observations; in Sensing in Electro-analysis - 2, eds. K. Vytras and K. Kalcher. (University of Pardubice, 2007), pp. 35-58. [273]

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[263] R. Pauliukaité, R. Metelka, I. Svancara, A. Krolicka, A. Bobrowski, K. Vytras, E. Norkus,

and K. Kalcher, Carbon paste electrodes modified [275] with Bi2O3 as sensors for the determination of cadmium and lead. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 374 (2002): 1155-1158.

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[265] L. Baldrianova, P. Agrafiotou, I. Svancara, K. Vytras, and S. Sotiropoulos, The determination

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I. Svancara, S. B. Hocevar, L. Baldrianova, E. Tesarova, and K. Vytras, Antimony-modified carbon paste electrodes: Initial studies and prospects. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 13 (2007): 5-19. R. Pauliukaite and K. Kalcher, On using of CPE and SPCE modified by Bi2O3 and Sb2O3 for trace analysis of some heavy metals; in YISAC '01: 8th Young Investigators' Seminar on Analytical Chemistry, Book of Abstracts (University of Pardubice, 2001), pp. 10-11. A. Bobrowski, A. Krolicka, and E. Lyczkowska, Carbon paste electrode plated with lead film: Electrochemical characteristics and application in adsorptive stripping voltammetry. Electroanalysis, 20 (2008): 61-67.

A. Economou and A. Voulgaropoulos, A study of the square-wave modulation for the determination of trace metals by anodic and adsorptive stripping voltammetry with bismuth film electrodes. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 10 (2004): 33-46. R. Pauliukaite and K. Kalcher, Determination of Traces of Cd(II) and Pb(II) Using a Bi-Modified Carbon Paste and Screen-Printed Carbon Electrodes; in US-CZ Workshop on Electrochemical Sensors - Prague '01, Book of Abstracts; eds. J. Barek and J. Drasar J. (Prague: Czech Chemical Society, 2001), pp. 30-31. R. Pauliukaite, R. Metelka, I. Svancara, A. Krolicka, A. Bobrowski, E. Norkus, K. Kalcher, K. Vytras, Screen-printed carbon electrodes bulk-modified with Bi2O3 or Sb2O3 for trace determination of heavy metals. Scientific Papers of the University of Pardubice, Series A; 10 (2004): 47-58. R. Metelka, M. Stoces, J. Krejcl, M. Bartos, I. Svancara, P. Kotzian, and K. Vytras, Development and characterization of new types of screen-printed bismuth-based sensors; in:

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[285] K. Vytras, J. Kalous, and J. Jezkova: Automated potentiometry as an ecologic alternative to two-phase titrations of surfactants. Egyptian Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 6 (1997): 107-123.

[286] L. Tymecki, M. Jakubowska, S. Achmatowicz, [297] R. Koncki, and S. Glab, Potentiometric thick-film graphite electrodes with improved response to copper ions. Analytical Letters, 34 (2001): 71-78.

[287] A. Abbaspour and S. S. M. Moosavi, Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for determination [298] of copper(II) by potentiometric method. Talanta,

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[288] M. Javanbakht, A. Badiei, M. R. Ganjali, P. Norouzi, A. Hasheminasab, and M. Abdouss, Use of organo-functionalized nanoporous silica gel to improve the lifetime of carbon paste electrode for determination of Cu(II). Analytica [299] Chimica Acta, 601 (2007): 172-182.

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for determination of copper based on N,N'- [300] disalicylidenehexametylene-diaminate copper(II) complex. Sensor Letters, 5 (2007): 565-571.

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R. Chaisuksant, L. Pattanarat, and K. Grudpan, Naphthazarin modified carbon paste electrode for determination of copper(II). Microchimica Acta, 162 (2008): 181-188.

M. H. Mashhadizadeh, K. Eskandari, A. Foroumadi, and A. Shafiee, Copper(II) modified carbon paste electrodes based on self-assembled mercapto compounds-gold-nanoparticle. Talanta, 76 (2008): 497-502. M. Javanbakht, M. R. Ganjali, P. Norouzi, A. Badiei, A. Hasheminasab, and M. Abdouss, Carbon paste electrode modified with functionalized nanoporous silica gel as a new sensor for determination of silver ion. Electroanalysis, 19 (2007): 1307-1314.

M. N. Abbas and G. A. E. Mostafa, New triiodomercurate-modified carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric determination of mercury(II). Analytica Chimica Acta, 478 (2003): 329-335.

M. H. Mashhadizadeh, M. P. Talakesh, Mahnaz, and H. M. M. Hamidian, A novel modified carbon paste electrode for potentiometric determination of mercury(II) ion. Electroanalysis, 18 (2006): 2174-2179.

M. J. Gismera, J. R. Procopio, and M. T. Sevilla, Characterization of mercury-humic acids interaction by potentiometric titration with a modified carbon paste mercury sensor. Electroanalysis, 19 (2007): 1055-1061. M. J. Gismera, M. T. Sevilla, and J. R. Procopio, Potentiometric carbon paste sensors for lead(II) based on dithiodibenzoic and mercaptobenzoic acids. Analytical Sciences (Japan), 22 (2006): 405-410.

M. M. Ardakani, M. A. Karimi, M. H. Mashhadizadeh, M. Pesteh, M. S. Azimi, and H. Kazemian, Potentiometric determination of monohydrogen arsenate by zeolite-modified carbon-paste electrode. International Journal of Environmental Analytical Chemistry, 87 (2007): 285-294.

G. A. E. Mostafa, Development and characterization of ion selective electrode for the assay of antimony. Talanta, 71 (2007): 14491454.

G. A. E. Mostafa and A. M. Homoda, Potentiometric carbon paste electrodes for the determination of bismuth in some pharmaceutical preparations. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 81 (2008): 257-261.

H. R. Pouretedal and M. H Keshavarz, Cyclam modified carbon paste electrode as

a potentiometric sensor for determination of [311] cobalt(II) ions. Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao (Chemical Research in Chinese Universities), 21 (2005): 28-31.

[302] M. Galik, M. Cholota, I. Svancara, A. Bobrowski,

and K. Vytras, A Study on stripping voltammetric [312] determination of osmium(IV) at a carbon paste electrode modified in situ with cationic surfactants. Electroanalysis, 18 (2006): 22182224. [313]

[303] M. F. S. Teixeira, E. T. G. Cavalheiro, M. F. Bergamini, F. C. Moraes, and N. Bocchi, Use of a carbon paste electrode modified with spinel-type manganese oxide as a potentio-metric sensor for lithium ions in flow injection [314] analysis. Electroanalysis, 16 (2004): 633-639.

[304] C. F. B. Coutinho, A. A. Muxel, C. G. Rocha,

D. A. de Jesus, R. V. S. Alfaya, F. A. S. Almeida, Y. Gushikem, and A. A. S. Alfaya, Ammonium ion sensor based on SiO2 / ZrO2 / phosphate-NH4+ [315] composite for quantification of ammonium ions

in natural waters. Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society, 18 (2007): 189-194.

[305] M. N. Abbas, Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for iodide on the basis of cetyltrimethylammonium iodide ion-pair. [316] Analytical Sciences (Japan), 19 (2003): 229233.

[306] J. Tan, J. H. Bergantini, A. Merkoci, S. Alegret, and F. Sevilla, Oil dispersion of AgI/Ag2S salts

as a new electroactive material for potentiometric [317] sensing of iodide and cyanide. Sensors & Actuators B, Chemical; 101 (2004): 57-62.

[307] A. Abbaspour, M. Asadi, A. Ghaffarinejad, and

E. Safaei, A selective modified carbon paste electrode for determination of cyanide using tetra-3,4-pyridinoporphyrazinato-cobalt(II). [318] Talanta, 93 (2005): 931-936.

[308] M. Shamsipur, S. Ershad, N. Samadi, A. Moghimi, and H. Aghabozorg, A novel chemically modified carbon paste electrode based on a new mercury(II) complex for selective potentiometric determination of bromide ion. [319] Journal of Solid State Electro-chemistry, 9

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[309] A. Soleymanpour, E. H. Asl, and M. A. Nasseri, Chemically modified carbon paste electrode [320] for determination of sulfate ion, SO42-, by potentiometric method. Electroanalysis, 18

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H. Ibrahim, Y. M. Issa, and H. M. Abu Shawish, Chemically modified CPE for the potentiometric determination of Dicylomine hydrochloride under batch and in FIA conditions. Analytical Sciences (Japan), 20 (2004): 911-916. S. I. M. Zayed, New plastic membrane and carbon paste ion selective electrodes for potentiometric determination of Triprolidine. Analytical Sciences, 20 (2004): 1043-1048.

H. Ibrahim, Chemically modified carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric FIA of Piribedil in pharmaceutical preparation and urine. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 38 (2005): 524-632.

Y. M. Issa, H. Ibrahim, and H. M. Abu Shawish, Carbon paste electrode for the potentiometric flow injection analysis of Drotaverine in serum and urine. Microchimica Acta, 150 (2005): 4754.

M. N. Abbas and G. A. E. Mostafa, Gallamine-tetraphenylborate-modified carbon paste electrode for potentio-metric determination of gallamine triethiodide (Flaxedil). Journal of Pharmaceitical and Biomedical Analysis, 31 (2003): 819-826.

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Y.-H. Li, H.-Q. Xie, and F.-Q. Zhou, Alizarin violet modified carbon paste electrode for the determination of trace silver(I) by adsorptive voltammetry. Talanta, 67 (2005): 28-33. A. Mohadesi and M. A. Taher, Stripping voltammetric determination of silver(I) at carbon paste electrode modified with 3-amino-2-mercapto quinazolin-4(3H)-one. Talanta, 71 (2007): 615-619.

A. V. Laganovsky, Z. O. Kormosh, A. O. Fedorchuk, V. P. Sachanyuk, and O. V. Parasyuk, AgCrTiS4: Synthesis, Properties, and Analytical Application. Metallurgic Material Transactions - B, 39 (2008): 155-159. W. Huang, C. Yang, and S. Zhang, Anodic stripping voltammetric determination of mercury by use of a sodium montmorillonite-modified carbon-paste electrode. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 274 (2002): 998-1001. Y.-T. Kong, G.-H. Choi, M.-S. Won, and Y.-B. Shim, Determination of Hg2(2+) ions using the specific reaction with a picolinic acid N-oxide modified electrode. Chemical Letters, 31 (2002): 54-55.

A. Walcarius, M. Etienne, and C. Delacote, Uptake of inorganic Hgll by organically modified silicates: Influence of pH and chloride concentration on the binding pathways and electrochemical monitoring of the processes. Analytica Chimica Acta, 508 (2004): 87-98. M. Colilla, M. A. Mendiola, J. R. Procopio, and M. T. Sevilla, Application of a carbon paste electrode modified with a Schiff base ligand to mercury speciation in water. Electroanalysis, 17 (2005): 933-940.

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C. T. Gautier, W. T. L. da Silva, M. O. O. Rezende, and N. El Murr, Sensitive and reproducible quantification of Cu2+ by stripping with a carbon paste electrode modified with humic acid. Journal of Environmental Science Health, Part A; 38 (2003): 1811-1823. S. Yang, X.-Q. Lu, Y.-H. Xue, X.-Q. Feng, and X.-F. Wang, 4-methoxy-2,5-bis(3,5-dimethylpyrazoyl)-1,3,5-triazine modified carbon paste electrode for trace Cu(II) determination by differential pulse voltammetry. Rare Metals, 22

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S. Kilinc Alpat, Ü. Yuksel, and H. Akgay, Development of a novel carbon paste electrode containing a natural zeolite for the voltammetric determination of copper. Electrochemistry Communications, 7 (2005): 130-134. N. Liu and J. F. Song, Catalytic adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of copper(II) on a carbon paste electrode. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 383 (20050: 358-364. E. C. Canpolat, E. Sar, N. Y. Coskun, and

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Y.-F. Kuang, J.-L. Zou, L.-Z. Ma, Y.-J. Feng, and P.-H. Deng, Determination of trace Cd(II) in water sample using 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione modified carbon paste electrode. Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 36 (2008): 103-106.

K. Fanta and B. S. Chandravanshi, Differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetric determination of cadmium(II) with N-p-chlorophenyl-cinnamohydroxamic acid modified carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 13 (2001): 484-492. W. Yantasee, Y.-H. Lin, G. E. Fryxell, and

B. J. Busche, Simultaneous detection of cadmium, copper, and lead using a carbon paste electrode modified with carbamoyl-phosphonic acid self-assembled monolayer on mesoporous silica (SAMMS). Analytica Chimica Acta, 502 (2004): 207-212.

I. Adraoui, M. E. Rhazi, and A. Amine, Fibrinogen-coated bismuth film electrodes for voltammetric analysis of lead and cadmium using the batch injection analysis. Analytical Letters, 40 (2007): 349-368.

L.-Y. Cao, J.-B. Jia, and Z.-H. Wang, Sensitive determination of cadmium and lead by using differential pulse stripping voltammetry with in-situ bismuth-modified zeolite doped carbon paste electrodes. Electrochimica Acta, 53 (2008): 21772182.

C.-G. Hu, K.-B. Wu, X. Dai, and S.-S. Hu, Simultaneous determination of lead(II) and cadmium(II) at a diacetyl-dioxime modified carbon paste electrode by differential pulse stripping voltammetry. Talanta, 60 (2003): 17-24.

M. G. Roa, S. M. T. Ramirez, M. A. R. Romero, and L. Galicia, Determination of lead and cadmium using a poly-cyclodextrin-modified carbon paste electrode with anodic stripping voltammetry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 377 (2003): 763-769.

V. S: Ijeri and A. K. Srivastava, Voltammetric determination of lead at chemically modified electrodes based on crown ethers. Analytical Sciences (Japan), 17 (2001): 605-608. W. Yantasee, Y. H. Lin, T. S. Zemanian, and G. E. Fryxell, Voltammetric detection of lead(II) and mercury(II) using a carbon paste electrode

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H.-Q. Xie, Y.-H. Li, F.-Q. Zhou, H.-S. Guo, and

B. Yi, Determination of trace tin by adsorptive voltammetry at an alizarin violet modified carbon paste electrode. Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 29 (2001): 822-824. Y.-H. Li, H.-Q. Xie, F.-Q. Zhou, and H. S. Guo, Determination of trace tin by anodic stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 18 (2006): 976-980.

W.-S. Huang, Voltammetric determination of bismuth in water and nickel metal samples with a sodium montmoril-lonite (SWy-2) modified carbon paste electrode. Microchimica Acta, 14

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H.-S. Guo, Y.-H. Li, P.-F. Xiao, and N.-Y. He, Determination of trace amount of bismuth(III) by adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry at carbon paste electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta, 534 (2005): 143-147.

H.-S. Guo, Y.-H. Li, X.-K. Chen, L.-B. Nie and N.-Y. He, Determination of trace antimony(III) by adsorption stripping voltammetry at carbon paste electrode. Sensors, 5 (2005): 284-292. D. Watanabe, T. Furuike, M. Midorikawa, and T. Tanaka, Simultaneous determination of copper and antimony by differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry with a carbon-paste electrode. Bunseki Kagaku (Japan Analyst), 54

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C. D. Mattos, D. R. do Carmo, M. F. de Oliveira, and N. R. Stradiotto, Voltammetric determination of total iron in fuel ethanol using a 1,10-fenanthroline / Nafion carbon paste-modified electrode. International Journal of

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[429] I. Svancara, M. Galík, and K. Vytras, Stripping voltammetric determination of platinum metals at

a carbon paste electrode modified with cationic [440] surfactants. Talanta, 72 (2007): 512-518.

[430] B. Rezaei; M. Ghiaci, and M. E. Sedaghat, A selective modified bentonite-porphyrin carbon paste electrode for determination of Mn(II) by

using anodic stripping voltammetry. Sensors & [441] Actuators B, Chemical; 131 (2008): 439-447.

[431] M. Rlevaj, P. Tomcík, Z. Janosíková, D. Bustln, and R. G. Compton, Determination of trace Mn(II) in pharma-ceutical diet supplements by cathodic stripping voltammetry on bare carbon

paste electrode. Chemia Analyticzna (Warsaw), [442] 53 (2008): 153-161.

[432] I. Svancara, P. Foret, and K. Vytras, A Study on the determination of chromium as chromate at a carbon paste electrode modified with surfactants. Talanta, 64 (2004): 844-852.

[433] A. M. Gevorgyan, S. V. Vakhnenko, and [443] A. T. Artykov, Thick-film graphite-containing electrodes for determining selenium by stripping voltammetry. Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 59 (2004): 371-380.

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Aguilera, J. M. Palacios Satander, I. Naranjo Rodríguez, and J. L. H. H.de Cisnéros, An oxidative procedure of the electrochemical determination of chromium(VI) using modified carbon paste electrodes. Bulletin of Electrochemistry, 21 (2005): 529-535. X.-W. Zheng, Z.-J. Zhang, Q. Wang, and H.-C. Ding, Electrogenerated chemilumi-nescence determination of Mo(VI) based on its sensitizing effect in electrochemical reduction luminol. Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 31 (2003): 1076-1078. Y.-H. Li, Y.-X. Wang, and M.-H. Huang, Determination of trace vanadium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 20 (2008): 1440-1444. J.-N. Li, J. Zhang, P.-H. Deng, and J.- J. Fel, Carbon paste electrode for trace zirconium(IV) determination by adsorption voltammetry. Analyst (UK), 126 (2001): 2032-2035. J.-N. Li, J. Zhang, P.-H. Deng, and Y.-Q. Peng, Adsorption voltammetry of the mix-polynuclear complex of zirconium-calcium-alizarin red S at a carbon paste electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta, 431 (2001): 81-87.

Y.-H. Li, Q.-L. Zhao, and M.-H: Huang, Adsorptive anodic stripping voltammetry of zirconium(IV)-alizarin red S complex at a carbon paste electrode. Microchimica Acta, 157 (2007): 245249.

S.-M. Liu, J.-N. Li and X. Mao, Stripping voltammetric determination of zirconium with complexing preconcentration of zirconium(IV) at a morin-modified carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysls, 15 (2003): 1751-1755. S.-M. Liu, J.-N. Li, and X. Mao, Determination of zirconium by second-order derivative adsorption voltammetry of zirconium (IV)-morin complex at a carbon paste electrode. Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 32 (2004): 195-197.

S. M. Liu, J.-N. Li, S.-J. Zhang, and J. Q. Zhao, Study on the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of trace cerium at a carbon paste electrode modified in situ with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. Applied Surface Science, 252 (2005): 2078-2084. J.-N. Li, S.-M. Liu, Z.-H. Yan, X. Mao, and P. Gao, Determination of trace metals in industrial boron carbide by solid sampling optical emission spectrometry. Optimization of DC arc excitation. Microchimica Acta, 154 (2006): 241-243. M. Javanbakht, H. Khoshsafar, M. R. Ganjall,

P. Norouzi, A Badei, and A. Hashe-minasa, Stripping voltammetry of Ce(III) with a chemically modified carbon paste electrode containing [456] functionalized nanoporous silica gel. Electro-analysis, 20 (2008): 203-206.

[445] S.-M. Liu, L.-H. Yi, and J.-N. Li, Studies on anodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry of gallium(III)-alizarin complexone at carbon paste electrodes and its application. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 31 (2003): 1489-1492. [457]

[446] Y.-H. Li, Q.-L. Zhao, and M.-H. Huang, Cathodic adsorptive voltammetry of gallium-alizarin red S complex at a carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 17 (2005): 343-347.

[447] J. Zhang, J.-N. Li, and P.-H. Deng, Adsorption voltammetry of the scandium-alizarin red S [458] complex onto a carbon paste electrode. Talanta,

54 (2001): 561-566.

[448] J.-N. Li, F.-Y. Yi, D.-S. Shen, and J. J. Fei, Adsorptive stripping voltammetric study of scandium-alizarin complexan complex at a carbon paste electrode. Analytical Letters, 35 [459] (2002): 1361-1372.

[449] S.-M. Liu, J.-N. Li, and P. Gao, Anodic adsorptive stripping voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode

for determination of trace thorium. Analytical [460] Letters, 36 (2003): 1381-1392.

[450] J.-N. Li, F.-Y. Yi, Z.-M. Jiang, and J.-J. Fei, Adsorptive voltammetric study of Th(IV) alizarin complex at a carbon paste electrode. Microchimica Acta, 143 (2003): 287-292. [461]

[451] K.-B. Ji and S.-S. Hu, Square wave voltammetric determination of trace amounts of europium(III) at montmoril-lonite-modified carbon paste electrodes. Collection of Czecho-slovak Chemical Communations, 69 (2004): 1590-1599.

[452] J.-N. Li, S.-M. Liu, X. Mao, P. Gao, and Z.-H. Yan, [462] Trace determination of rare earths by adsorption voltammetry at a carbon paste electrode. Journal

of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 561 (2004): 137-142.

[453] O. A. Farghaly, A novel method for determination

of magnesium in urine and water samples with [463] mercury film-plated carbon paste electrode. Talanta, 63 (2004): 497-501.

[454] N. Liu and J.-F. Song, Determination of free calcium at a carbon paste electrode adsorptive stripping voltam-metric method. Fenxi Huaxue [464] (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 33 (2005): 1261-1264.

[455] M. F. S. Teixeira, F. C. Moraes, O. F. Filho, and N. Bocchi, Voltammetric determination of lithium ions in pharma-ceutical formulation using [465]

a L-MnO2-modified carbon-paste electrode. Analytica Chimica Acta, 443 (2001): 249-255. M. F. S. Teixeira, F. C. Moraes,

E. T. G. Cavalheiro, and N. Bocchi, Differential pulse anodic voltammetric determination of lithium ions in pharmaceutical formulations using a carbon paste electrode modified with spinel-type manganese oxide. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 31 (2003): 537-543.

M. F. S. Teixeira, M. F. Bergamini, and N. Bocchi, Lithium ions determination by selective pre-concentration and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry using a carbon paste electrode modified with a spinel-type manganese oxid. Talanta, 62 (2004): 603-609. I. Szymanska, H. Radecka, J. Radecki, P. A. Gale, and C. N. Warriner, Ferrocene-substituted calix[4]pyrrole modified carbon paste electrodes for anion detection in water samples. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 591 (2006): 223-228. A. Walcarius, G. Lefévre, J. P. Rapin,

G. Renaudin, and M. François, Voltammetric detection of iodide after accumulation by Friedel's salt. Electroanalysis, 13 (2001): 313-320.

Q. He, J.-J. Fei, and S. H. Hu, Voltammetric method based on an ion-pairing reaction for the determination of trace amount of iodide at carbonpaste electrodes. Analytical Sciences (Japan), 19 (2003): 681-686.

H. Hamidi, E. Shams, B. Yadollahi, and

F. K. Esfahani, Fabrication of bulk-modified carbon paste electrode containing a-PW12O403- polyanion supported on modified silica gel: Preparation, electrochemistry and electrocatalysis. Talanta, 74 (2008): 909-914.

H. Wang, G. Xu, and S. Dong, Electrochemiluminescence of dichlorotris (1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium(II) with peroxydisulfate in purely aqueous solution at carbon paste electrode. Microchemical Journal, 72 (2002): 4348.

J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, and H. Karimi Maleh, Electrocatalytic determination of sulfite at the surface of new ferrocene derivative-modified carbon paste electrode. International Journal of Electrochemical Sciences, 2 (2007): 257-269. J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, and H. Karimi-Maleh, Electrocatalytic determination of sulfite using 1-[4-(ferrocenyl-ethynyl)phenyl]-1-ethanone modified carbon paste electrode. Asian Journal of Chemistry, 20 (2008): 483-494. S. S. Kumar and S. S. Narayanan,

Electrocatalytic oxidation of sulfite on a nickel aquapentacyanoferrate modified electrode: Application for simple and selective determination. Electroanalysis, 20 (2008): 1427-1433. [475]

[466] J. C. Quintana, L. Idrissi, G. Palleschi, P. Albertano, A. Amine, M. El Rhazi, and D. Moscone, Investigation of amperometric detection of phosphate: Application in seawater [476] and cyanobacterial biofilm samples. Talanta, 63

(2004): 567-574.

[467] Y. Xue, X.-W. Zheng, and G.-X. Li, Determination of phosphate in water by means of a new electrochemi-luminescence technique based on

the combination of liquid-liquid extraction with [477] benzene-modified carbon paste electrode. Talanta, 72 (2007): 450-456.

[468] V. M. Ivama and S. H. P. Serrano, Rhodium-prussian blue modified carbon paste electrode (Rh-PBMCPE) for amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide. Journal of Brazilian Chemical Society, 14 (2003): 551-555. [478]

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[470] Y. H. Lin, X. L. Cui, and L. Y. Li, Low-potential [480] amperometric determination of hydrogen peroxide

with a carbon paste electrode modified with nanostructured cryptomelane-type manganese oxides. Electrochemistry Communications, 7 [481]

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[471] E. S. Ribeiro, S. L. P. Dias, Y. Gushikem, and L. T. Kubota, Cobalt(II) porphyrin complex immobilized on the binary oxide SiO2/Sb2O3: electrochemical properties and dissolved oxygen [482] reduction study. Electrochimica Acta, 49 (2004): 829-834.

[472] Q. He, C.-G. Hu, X.-P. Dang, Y.-L. Wei, and S. Hua, Electrocatalytic reduction of dioxygen at cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide modified carbon paste electrode. Electro-chemistry, 72 [483] (2004): 5-8.

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[474] G.-H. Lu, D.-W. Long, T. Zhan, and H.-Y. Zhao,

The electrochemical behavior of a ruthenium (II) [485]

- Polypyrindine complex and its electrocatalyis of nitrite. Fenxi Huaxue (Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry), 30 (2002): 1115-1118. S.-Q. Liu and H.-X. Ju, Nitrite reduction and detection at a carbon paste electrode containing hemoglobin and colloidal gold. Analyst (UK), 128

(2003): 1420-1424.

M. Badea, A. Amine, M. Benzine, A. Curulli,

D. Moscone, A. Lupu, G. Volpe, and

G. Palleschi, Rapid and selective electrochemical determination of nitrite in cured meat in the presence of ascorbic acid. Microchimica Acta, 147

(2004): 51-58.

W. S. Cardoso and Y. Gushikem, Electrocatalytic oxidation of nitrate on a carbon paste electrode modified with Co(II) porphyrion adsorbed on SiO2 / SnO2 / phosphate prepared by the sol-gel method. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electrochemistry, 583 (2005): 300306.

L. Idrissi, A. Amine, M. El Rhazi, and F. E. Cherkaoui, Electrochemical detection of ntrite based on the reaction with 2,3-diaminonaphthalene. Analytical. Letters, 38 (2005): 1943-1955. R. Ojani, J. B. Raoof, and E. Zarei, Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite using ferricyanide: Application for its simple and selective determination. Electrochim. Acta, 52 (2006): 753-759. R. Ojani, J. B. Raoof, and E. Zarei, Poly(o-toluidine) modified carbon paste electrode: A sensor for electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite. Electroanalysis, 20 (2008): 379-385.

R. Ojani, V. Rahmanifar, and P. Naderi, Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrite by phosphotungstic heteropolyanion. application for its simple and selective determination. Electroanalysis, 20 (2008): 1092-1098. M. A. Kamyabi and F. Aghajanloo, Electrocatalytic oxidation and determination of nitrite on carbon paste electrode modified with oxovanadium(IV)-4-methyl salophen. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry and Interfacial Electro-chemistry, 614 (2008): 157-165.

E. Casero, F. Pariente, E. Lorenzo, L. Beyer, and J. Losada, Electrocatalytic oxidation of nitric oxide at 6,17-diferrocenyldibenzo[b,i]5,9,14,18-tetraaza[14]annulen-Ni(II) modified electrodes. Electroanalysis, 13 (2001): 1411-1416.

H. R. Zare and A. Nasirizadeh, Electrocatalytic characteristics of hydrazine and hydroxylamine oxidation at coumestan modified carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 18 (2006): 507-512.

C. A. Pessoa, Y. Gushikem, and S. Nagasaki,

Cobalt porphyrin immobilized on a niobium(V) oxide grafted - silica gel surface: Study of the catalytic oxidation of hydrazine. Electroanalysis, 14 (2002): 1072-1076.

[486] S. T. Fujiwara, Y. Gushikem, C. A. Pessoa,

and S. Nakagaki, Electrochemical studies [495] of a new iron porphyrin entrapped in a propylpyridiniumsilsesquioxane polymer

immobilized on a SiO2 / Al2O3 surface. Electroanalysis, 17 (2005): 783-788.

[487] W. Siangproh, O. Chailapakul,

R. Laocharoensuk, and J. Wang, Microchip [496] capillary electrophoresis / electro-chemical detection of hydrazine compounds at a cobalt phthalo-cyanine modified electrochemical detector. Talanta, 67 (2005): 903-907. [497]

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[489] J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, and M. Ramine, Electrocatalytic oxidation and voltammetric determination of hydrazine on the tetrabromo-p-benzoquinone modified carbon paste electrode. Electroanalysis, 19 (2007): 597-603.

[490] C. D. C. Conceiçao, R. C. Faria, O. Fatibello, [499] and A. A. Tanaka, Electrocatalytic oxidation

and voltammetric determination of hydrazine in industrial boiler feed water using a cobalt phthalocyanine-modified electrode. Analytical Letters, 41 (2008): 1010-1021. [500]

[491] Z. D. Chen and M. Hojo, Determination of phenol using a carbon paste electrode modified with overoxidized polypyrrole/polyvinylpyrrolidone films. Bunseki Kagaku, 56 (2007):669-673.

[492] X. Cheng, Q. J. Wang, S. Zhang, W. D. Zhang, P. G. He, and Y. Z. Fang, Determination of four kinds of carbamate pesticides by capillary zone electrophoresis with amperometric detection at a polyamide-modified carbon paste electrode. Talanta, 71 (2007):1083-1087.

[493] N. German, S. Armalis, J. Zima, and J. Barek, Voltammetric determination of fluoren-9-ol and 2-acetamidofluorene using carbon paste electrodes. Collection of Czechoslovak Chemical Communications, 70 (2005):292-304.

[494] S. Shahrokhian and M. Ghalkhani, Simultaneous

voltammetric detection of ascorbic acid and uric acid at a carbon-paste modified electrode incorporating thionine-nafion ion-pair as an electron mediator. Electrochimica Acta, 51

(2006):2599-2606.

A. G. Angelikaki and S. T. Girousi, Sensitive detection of tetracycline, oxytetra-cycline, and chlortetracycline in the presence of copper(II) ions using a DNA-modified carbon paste electrode. Chemia Analityczna, 53 (2008):445-454.

J. Wang and X.-J. Zhang, Needle-type dual microsensor for the simultaneous monitoring of glucose and insulin. Analytical Chemistry, 73 (2001):844-847.

J. B. Raoof, R. Ojani, and A. Kiani, Apple-modified carbon paste electrode: A biosensor for selective determination of dopamine in pharmaceutical formulations. Bulletin of Electrochemistry, 21 (2005):223-228.

H. R. Zare, N. Nasirizadeh, M. Mazloum-Ardakani, and M. Namazian, Electrochemical properties and electro-catalytic activity of hematoxylin modified carbon paste electrode toward the oxidation of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH). Sensors and Actuators B-Chemical, 120 (2006):288-294. H. Qi, X.-X. Li, P. Chen, and C.-X. Zhang, Electrochemical detection of DNA hybridization based on polypyrrole/ss-DNA/multi-wall carbon nanotubes paste electrode. Talanta, 72

(2007):1030-1035.

K. Jiao, Y. Ren, G. Y. Xu, and X. Z. Zhang, Voltammetric study on deoxyribonucleic acid immobilization and hybridization on stearic acid/ aluminum ion films and the detection of specific gene related to phosphinothricin acethyl-transferase gene from Bacillus Amyloliquefaciens gene. Chinese Journal of Analytical Chemistry, 33 (2005):1381-1384.