Scholarly article on topic 'Printed Flexible Gas Sensors based on Organic Materials'

Printed Flexible Gas Sensors based on Organic Materials Academic research paper on "Materials engineering"

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{"Printed sensor" / ammonia / "nitrogend dioxide" / humidity / "organic materials"}

Abstract of research paper on Materials engineering, author of scientific article — Petr Kuberský, Tomáš Syrový, Aleš Hamáček, Stanislav Nešpůrek, Jaroslav Stejskal

Abstract Functional ammonia, humidity and nitrogen dioxide sensors were fabricated by screen and gravure printing on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Ammonia and humidity sensors were based on resistive principle (chemiresistors) while an electrochemical sensor was used for nitrogen dioxide detection - a semi-planar, three-electrode topology with polymer electrolyte containing organic ionic liquid was utilized. New type of polyaniline hydrochloride colloid was used as a sensitive layer for ammonia detection whereas a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used for the humidity sensor. All sensors were completely prepared by printing technologies which enables future compatibility with R2R fabrication process intended for mass production of low cost and all-organic flexible gas sensors.

Academic research paper on topic "Printed Flexible Gas Sensors based on Organic Materials"

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Procedía Engineering 120 (2015) 614-617

Procedía Engineering

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

EUROSENSORS 2015

Printed flexible gas sensors based on organic materials

Petr Kuberskya*, Tomás Syrovyb, Ales Hamáceka, Stanislav Nespúreka, Jaroslav Stejskalc

aDepartment of Technologies and Measurement, University of West Bohemia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering/RICE, Univerzitni 8,

Plzeñ 30614, Czech Republic

bDepartment of Graphic Arts and Photophysics, University of Pardubice, Doubravice 41, Pardubice 533 53, Czech Republic institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, Prague 162 06, Czech Republic

Abstract

Functional ammonia, humidity and nitrogen dioxide sensors were fabricated by screen and gravure printing on flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrates. Ammonia and humidity sensors were based on resistive principle (chemiresistors) while an electrochemical sensor was used for nitrogen dioxide detection - a semi-planar, three-electrode topology with polymer electrolyte containing organic ionic liquid was utilized. New type of polyaniline hydrochloride colloid was used as a sensitive layer for ammonia detection whereas a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used for the humidity sensor. All sensors were completely prepared by printing technologies which enables future compatibility with R2R fabrication process intended for mass production of low cost and all-organic flexible gas sensors.

© 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EUROSENSORS 2015

Keywords: Printed sensor; ammonia; nitrogend dioxide; humidity, organic materials

1. Introduction

Gas sensors and systems have become essential in the protection of human health in several areas such as industrial manufacturing, personal safety protection and environmental monitoring. Especially the detection of hazardous and toxic gases (e.g. NO2 and NH3) and other parameters (e.g. temperature and humidity) is currently a natural part and parcel of a measurement procedure determining quality and comfort of human environment. Traditional metal oxide and electrochemical sensors are poorly integrated into low cost, battery-powered flexible

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +420 377 634 512; fax: +420 377 634 502. E-mail address: kubersky@ket.zcu.cz

1877-7058 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EUROSENSORS 2015 doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2015.08.746

Petr Kubersky et al. / Procedia Engineering 120 (2015) 614 - 617

devices intended for the future applications in The Internet of Things. Therefore, a growing attention has been paid to the use of organic materials and printing technologies [1] allowing the preparation of thin organic sensitive layers or organic-based electrolytes for printed chemiresistors [2-4] or electrochemical sensors [5-7], respectively. These organic-based sensors usually work at room temperature, exhibit low power consumption and can be fabricated on flexible substrates by using cost effective printing techniques. This fact makes them attractive for logistic sector (cold chain, monitoring of perishable goods during transport) and multi-sensor devices and systems which monitor environmental air-pollution or protect humans from dangerous concentrations of hazardous and toxic gases.

In this study, ammonia, humidity and nitrogen dioxide sensors intended for the above-mentioned applications are presented. All sensors show good sensitivity, reversibility and stability of the response in the tested range and they were newly fabricated by gravure and screen printing.

2. Sensor fabrication and measurement setup

2.1. Ammonia and humidity sensor

Chemiresistive ammonia and humidity sensors (Fig. la,b) were fabricated by gravure printing (Norbert Schlafli Labratester) of organic-based sensitive layers on flexible PET foil (unless otherwise stated, Melinex ST504, thickness 175 jim). Novel type of polyaniline (PANI) hydrochloride, which was synthesized in chloroform in the presence of surfactant, was used for the ammonia sensor while aqueous dispersion of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) was used for the humidity sensor. Subsequently, carbon interdigital electrodes (IDE) were screen printed (EKRA El) onto both active layers. The layout of the IDE structures were 500/500 \im (gap/finger width) and 200/200 |nm for the ammonia and humidity sensor, respectively.

2.2. Nitrogen dioxide sensor

Fully printed nitrogen dioxide sensor was solely fabricated by screen printing technology (Fig. lc). Fabrication process consisted of three basic steps: (i) printing of bottom electrode structure (counter and pseudoreference electrode), (ii) printing of the organic-based electrolyte layer, (iii) printing of the working electrode. The sensor layout was thoroughly described in our previous work [5,8], where material specification and printing process were discussed in detail.

2.3. Sensor testing

All sensors were characterized by means of gas test system for parallel measurement up to six samples. It consisted of a test chamber, five mass flow controllers, a PC and two gas tanks: (i) reference gas mixture (100 ppm NO2 or 1000 ppm NH3 for our experiments), (ii) synthetic air. Required gas concentrations were prepared by mixing

Fig. 1. (a) ammonia sensors; (b) nitrogen dioxide sensors; (c) humidity sensors.

Petr Kubersky et al. IProcedia Engineering l2G (2Gl5) öl4 - öl?

Petr Kubersky et al. / Procedía Engineering 120 (2015) 614 - 617

Table 1. Sensor parameters

Parameter NH3 sensor NO2 sensor RH sensor

Detection principle chemiresistive electrochemical chemiresistive

Tested range 0-50 ppm 0-20 ppm 20-80 %

Theoretical limit of detection (LOD)/the lowest practically 30/500 ppb 20/200 ppb 0.05/1 %

detected concentration*

Response/recovery times (Wtio)** 6/17 min 70/60 s <30 s/18 min

Hysteresis*** 13% 5% 15%

* Limit of the gas test system.

** Calculated as an average value from five repeated exposures to 10 ppmfor NH3 sensor, 2 ppmfor NO 2 sensor, 60% for RH sensor *** The maximum value in the tested range.

through this ratio to particular application. Response times, LOD and hysteresis in Table 1 were determined using the procedure described in our previous work [5]. The slope of the calibration curves for ammonia and humidity sensors were determined from linear parts of the dependencies (see line in Fig. 2b) as described in Refs. [3,10,11].

4. Conclusion

We demonstrate successful fabrication of fully printed sensors on flexible PET substrates for the detection of ammonia, humidity, and nitrogen dioxide. All sensors were prepared by gravure and screen printing without using metal-based printing pastes which reduces the production cost and makes these sensors ideal candidates for mass production. Additionally, the use of organic materials as sensitive layers and the absence of metallic electrodes enable to produce all-organic, "green" sensors that can be environmentally disposed of after their life cycle.

Acknowledgements

This research was supported by the European Regional Development Fund; by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the Regional Innovation Centre for Electrical Engineering (RICE), project No. CZ.l.05/2.1.00/03.0094, by the research project FLEXPRINT No. 01010022 under the auspices of the Czech Competence Centres Programme and by the Student Grant Agency of the University of West Bohemia in Pilsen, grant No. SGS-2015-020 "Technology and Materials Systems in Electrical Engineering".

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