Scholarly article on topic 'The Effect of Physical Education and Sports School Training on Problem Solving Skills of the Athletes'

The Effect of Physical Education and Sports School Training on Problem Solving Skills of the Athletes Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Hasan Sozen

Abstract The aim of this study is to determine the effects of the students studying in the School of Physical education and Sports on problem solving skills. A total of 400 athletes participated in the study, including 200 studying in or graduated from the School of Physical Education and Sports. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982), was used to measure the problem solving skill level of the individual. The Turkish version of the problem Solving Inventory has been realized by Şahin, Şahin and Heppner (1993). For processing data, conventional statistical measures and methods were employed: means, standard deviations were computed. Athletes’-test was used for comparing groups. Statistical significance was set at p<.05. It has been observed that the total problem solving skills of the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports are higher than those of high school graduates (p<.05). In the statistical evaluation of sub-dimensions, it has been found that avoiding, thinking, estimator, self-trust and planned approach skills are statistically higher in the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports (p<.05). It has not been found any statistically significant difference in terms of impatient approach sub factor between the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports and those who do not study in the School of Physical Education and Sports (p>.05).

Academic research paper on topic "The Effect of Physical Education and Sports School Training on Problem Solving Skills of the Athletes"

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Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 46 (2012) 4186 - 4190 —

WCES 2012

The effect of physical education and sports school training on problem solving skills of the athletes

Hasan Sozen a *

aOrdu University, School of Physical Education and Sport, Ordu 52200, Turkey

Abstract

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of the students studying in the School of Physical education and Sports on problem solving skills. A total of 400 athletes participated in the study, including 200 studying in or graduated from the School of Physical Education and Sports. Problem Solving Inventory, developed by Heppner and Peterson (1982), was used to measure the problem solving skill level of the individual. The Turkish version of the problem Solving Invento ry has been realized by §ahin, §ahin and Heppner (1993). For processing data, conventional statistical measures and methods were employed: means, standard deviations were computed. Athletes' -test was used for comparing groups. Statistical significance was set at p<.05. It has been observed that the total problem solving skills of the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports are hi gher than those of high school graduates (p<.05). In the statistical evaluation of sub-dimensions, it has been found that avoiding, thinking, estimator, self-trust and planned approach skills are statistically higher in the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports (p<.05). It has not been found any statistically significant difference in terms of impatient approach sub factor between the athletes studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports and those who do not study in the School of Physical Education and Sports (p>.05).

©2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu Keywords: School of Physical Education and Sports, Problem solving.

1. Introduction

Physical education and sports started to be done in order to gain superiority in wars for young people and soldiers since the late 17th century and early 18th century. The aim of these activities was to develop the national feeling. For this purpose, F.L.John done this study throughout his life and he developed the physical education and sports in Germany. It was since 1825 that physical education and sports became a subject at colleges and universities and then in 1876 it became a school department at schools in Germany and spread to whole Europe. As to Turkey, physical education department in Gazi University started its education as a three-year in 1932 and in 1980 it became a four-year department.

Physical education and sports training has itself become a profession today although it occurs in individual's organism physiologically. Physical education phenomenon which is a part of training process and sport phenomenon requiring full time joining brings about a social interaction and development necessarily. The desires of the individuals in the classroom environment which is established supposing that they have common features to help

* Hasan Sözen, Tel.: +90-544-825-5290 E-mail address: sozenhasan@yahoo.com

ELSEVIER

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.06.223

one another, to show of muscle, to endear himself visually during their education and their desires' resonating with other individuals provide a social development (Turkfapar, 2007). When they reach equal level with their both professional and sportive performances, the statues of the individuals in the society attending physical education and sports activities change because of the increase in their incomes and they cause more vertical mobility in the society. This case also causes social mobility to increase (Erkal, 1982).

Problem was defined as an obstacle against available difficulties gathered by an individual to reach his target (Bingham, 1983). Keeneland described the problem as the difference between the available and expected situation of something (Keeneland, 1999). According to Morgan, problem was described as the case of conflict when the individual encountered and hindrance while reaching a target and he defended that it would be harder to reach the target with this hindrance and finding the best way to overcome the hindrance meant solving the problem (Morgan, 1982). People face a lot of situations for solving problems in their daily lives. Problem solving is reasoning and problem-overcoming process starting from the individual's feeling the difficulties that he faces in reaching a target and to the duration that he spends till he finds a solution to it (Ulkiier, 1988). This process aims to look for the ways to restore the organism's inner balance and to get rid of the stress through obeying the rules and decreasing the hindrances. Therefore, problem solving is a comprehensive knowledge and skill which should be learnt and obtained and it should always be enhanced (Bingham, 1983; Sungur, 1992).

Problem solving skill is of great importance in sports as well as in each profession. It means that the individual will be able to have better theoretical and practical knowledge about sports for the society by selecting the sports as a job through training. The knowledge gained through the training in physical education and sports high schools may enable the individual to pass problem solving phase more easily and faster. The athletes creating solutions to the problems more easily will be more efficient in transferring their knowledge to young individuals.

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of education in the School of Physical Education and Sports on problem solving skills.

2. Method

2.1. Participants

A total of 400 athletes participated in the study, including 200 (age: 23.66 ± 3.72) students studying in or graduated from the School of Physical Education and Sport and 200 (age: 23.94 ± 3.53) athletes not studying in the School of Physical Education and Sports and graduated from high school.

2.2. Procedure

Problem-Solving Inventory, originally developed by Heppner and Petersen (1982), was used to measure the problem-solving skill level of the individual. Adaptation of Problem Solving Inventory to Turkish was made by §ahin, §ahin and Heppner (1993). Problem-solving Inventory is a kind of six - point likert scale consisting of thirty-five items evaluating the perceptions and the methods of approach of the individual about problem solving. The grading range which can be taken from the scale is 32-192. The height of the total points taken from the scale reveals that the individual perceives himself to be insufficient about problem solving abilities. According to the factor analysis in the country, it has been determined that the inventory is composed of six different dimensions. These include thinking approach, avoiding approach, estimator approach, self-trust approach and planned approach. In grading, among positive dimensions, (Thinking Approach, Estimator Approach, Self-trust Approach and Planned Approach) low grades show the efficiency in problem solving and high grades show the way of finding efficient solutions to the problems. As to negative dimensions (Impatient Approach, Avoiding Approach), high points refer to the tendency of using these factors more in problem solving perception (Sava§ir & §ahin, 1997).

Cronbach a internal consistency factor obtained in the reliability study of the scale for all is .76.

2.3. Statistics

For processing data, conventional statistical measures and methods were employed: means, standard deviations were computed. Athlete't-test was used for comparing groups. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.

3. Results

Table 3.1. Descriptive distribution of the grades that the athletes got from the problem solving inventory

Sub-dimensions N X ± Std.D.

Impatient approach 400 31.45 ±5.37

Avoiding approach 400 12.93 ±4.51

Thinking approach 400 15.00 ±4.82

Estimator approach 400 9.54 ±3.34

Self-trust approach 400 18.38 ±5.24

Planned approach 400 11.73 ±3.92

Total Inventory Score 400 102.57 ±15.45

Table 3.2. The t-test values of the total grade that the athletes got from the problem solving inventory

Variable Educational Status N X ± Std.D. p

Total Inventory Score Phy.Edu and Sport 200 95.30 ±16.84 .000*

High School 200 109.84 ±9.42

*p<0.01

Table 3.3. The t-test values of the grades that the athletes got from the low dimensions of the problem solving inventory

Sub-dimensions Educational Status N X ±Std.D. P

Impatient approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 31.06 ±5.57 .137

High School 200 31.84 ±4.94

Avoiding approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 11.52 ±4.50 .000*

High School 200 14.35 ±4.05

Thinking approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 13.54 ±5.09 .000*

High School 200 16.46 ±4.04

Estimator approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 8.87 ±3.55 .000*

High School 200 10.21 ±2.98

Self-trust approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 16.33 ±5.34 .000*

High School 200 20.42 ±4.27

Planned approach Phy.Edu and Sports 200 10.51 ±4.13 .000*

High School 200 12.94 ±3.27

*p<0.01

4. Discussion

According to the result of the study it has been observed that the total problem solving skills of the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High School or graduated from this school were better than those who graduated from senior high school (Table 3.2).

According to the results of the grades that the athletes got from the low dimensions of the problem solving inventory, when we search the related articles measuring the Impatient Approach, one of the negative factors of the inventory, it has been observed that it includes the following attitudes and behaviours that the individual turns to the first solution formula that comes to his mind while solving the problems and acts according to it, stands on the details to much without reaching the main problematic subject, cannot create new and a lot of solutions in order to solve the problem and cannot interpret the probability of success of possible solution choices, does not take into consideration the other factors except himself which may contribute to the solution of the problems he faces and does not consider different ways of dealing with the problem as he approaches his problems highly emotionally. According to this scope, there was no significant difference between the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools and the athletes who graduated from senior high school (Table3.3).

When measuring articles are searched, it has been observed that Avoiding Approach, one of the negative factors, includes the following attitudes and behaviours that the individual loses his self-trust about how to deal with the problem if he fails in his first attempts at solving his problems, if the first solutions are ineffective, , he searches the reasons why these were ineffective, he thinks about how he should collect the information in order to determine the problem he faces exactly and he avoids thinking deeply about the factors affecting the solution to the related problem positively or negatively after solving the problem. According to this scope, the athletes graduated from senior high school show this approach more than the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools (Table 3.3).

Thinking approach, one of the positive factors, includes the following attitudes and behaviours; while solving a problem and making a decision, thinking about all the available options, comparing the choices with each other, revising the results one by one, guessing the advantages and disadvantages and the issues that the problem may cause before applying a certain problem solution, when faced a problem, first revising the problem, determining the problem fully and clearly, collecting all the necessary information about the problem and taking them into consideration, after applying the decision, the result's being in accord with the expectations. According to this approach, the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools use the thinking approach more than senior high school graduates (Table 3.3).

It has been observed that the Estimator approach, one of the positive factors, includes the following attitudes and behaviours that the individual compares the result he gets and the result he thinks is the best after trying a certain way to solve a problem, he thinks all the methods together that he can apply for solution and he considers his emotions regarding a problem. According to the results of the study, , the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools use the estimator approach more than senior high school graduates (Table 3.3).

Self-trust approach, one of the positive factors, implies the individual's self-trust when he is given time and when he encounters new cases, his adequacy to solve the new and difficult problems efficiently and creatively and his approaching the problems in accordance with this trust. Besides, it includes the following behaviours that the individual should follow a systematic way while solving a problem, comparing the solutions and also making a decision. It is accepted that the approach also reflects the self-trust of the individual while solving his problems, his confidence in his problem solving skill, his making decisions about himself and his being happy about these decisions. According to the results of the study, the athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools use the self-trust approach more than senior high school graduates (Table 3.3).

Planned approach, one of the positive factors, includes the following attitudes and behaviours such as individual's being in the capability to solve his problems even if not in the first attempt, his making decisions about himself and his being happy about these decisions and his taking the responsibility of his decisions, when he faces a problem, his not tending to another subject without thinking about it and solving it and when he makes a plan to solve a problem, his trusting in himself in carrying out the problem. According to the results of the study, the

athletes who study in Physical Education and Sports High Schools use the planned approach more than senior high school graduates (Table 3.3).

In a study conducted by Talan, it was found that the total grades of problem solving inventory differed according to the students' programmes (Taylan, 1990).It was also shown in our study that different standards of learning may create differences in individuals' problem solving skills.

In some of the different studies, it was determined that there were significant differences between the problem solving skills and classes of the students as they proceeded higher classes and their problem solving skills enhanced as their education levels increase (Ulupmar, 1997; Tumkaya & Iflazoglu, 2000; Gul§en, 2008). In a study conducted by Ozen, it was declared that those who did post-graduate education perceived themselves as better problem solvers than those who were in other levels of education and senior high school graduates perceived themselves as worse problem solvers than other groups (Ozen, 2004).In a study conducted on football coaches by Katkat, determined a significant difference between different levels of education regarding the problem solving skills of the coaches (Katkat, 2005). It was also found in our study that the individuals studying in upper classes had better problem solving skills although their areas of interest were the same.

5. Conclusions

According to the results of the study, Physical Education and Sports High School training had positive effects on problem solving skills of the athletes. It is thought that the individuals who have better problem solving skills understand the problem better. Thus, it may be thought that the process of adaptation to the society of the athletes who have better problem solving skills is faster and accordingly they may be more useful to the society.

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