Scholarly article on topic 'The Development of the Coordination between 6-7 Year-old Pupils’ Vocal Apparatus and Musical Hearing in the Process of Singing: Latvian Music Teacher's Opinion'

The Development of the Coordination between 6-7 Year-old Pupils’ Vocal Apparatus and Musical Hearing in the Process of Singing: Latvian Music Teacher's Opinion Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Oksana Sersnova

Abstract The problem of the development of the coordination between 6-7 year-old children's vocal apparatus and musical hearing is topical, because before the age of 6, the vocal apparatus of children has not yet sufficiently developed and sounds are formed due to the vibrations of the edges of vocal cords. The aim of the research was to find out whether in their pedagogical activity music teachers apply individual learning strategies for teaching children, whether such strategies are necessary for the work with children and which learning strategies are the most effective for the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of singing. More than 50 music teachers working with 6-7 year-old children in kindergartens, music schools and general education schools participated in the questionnaire survey. The research results provide information regarding the music teachers’ understanding of the problems of the coordination between 6-7 year-old children's vocal apparatus and musical hearing and reveal their opinions concerning the possibilities to resolve these problems. On the basis of the questionnaire survey results, the recommendations for resolving the problems of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing have been worked out.

Academic research paper on topic "The Development of the Coordination between 6-7 Year-old Pupils’ Vocal Apparatus and Musical Hearing in the Process of Singing: Latvian Music Teacher's Opinion"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 106 (2013) 2681 - 2698

4th International Conference on New Horizons in Education

The development of the coordination between 6-7 year-old pupils' vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of singing: Latvian music teacherfs opinion

Oksana Sersnova*a

"Daugavpils University, Faculty of Education and managem ent, "Daugavpils", Latvia

Abstract

The problem ofthe development of the coordination between 6-7 year-old children's vocal apparatus and musical hearing is topical, because before the age of 6, the vocal apparatus of children has not yet sufficiently developed and sounds are formed due to the vibrations of the edges of vocal cords.

The aim of the research was to find out whether in their pedagogical activity music teachers apply individual learning strategies for teaching children, whether such strategies are necessary for the work with children and which learning strategies are the most effective for the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of singing. More than 50 music teachers working with 6-7 year-old children in kindergartens, music schools and general education schools participated in the questionnaire survey.

The research results provide information regarding the music teachers' understanding of the problems of the coordination between 6-7 year-old children's vocal apparatus and musical hearing and reveal their opinions concerning the possibilities to resolve these problems. On the basis ofthe questionnaire survey results, the recommendations for resolving the problems ofthe coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing have been worked out.

©2013TheAuthors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd.

Selectionandpeer-reviewunderresponsibilityofTheAssociationofScience,EducationandTechnology-TASET,SakaryaUniversitesi, Turkey.

Keywords: vocal apparatus, musical hearing, development of coordination, questionnaire survey, singing process.

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +37129897156. E-mail address: osivohina@mail.ru

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and peer-review under responsibility of The Association of Science, Education and Technology-TASET, Sakarya Universitesi, Turkey. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.12.309

1. INTRODUCTION

In the process of acquiring skills of singing, the central problem appears to be the development of the coordination between musical hearing and voice, because singing is a complicated process of sound forming and the coordination between hearing and voice or correlation between precise intoning and aural sense is important for this process.

Thurman and Welch (2000) have proved that at the age of 7, 30% of children cannot intone precisely, and less than 5% of them cannot do it even when they are 11 years old. The scholars point out that the age of 7 is a very essential period for vocal development. According to Menabeni (1987), at the age of 6, a permanent formation of vocal muscles is already starting to develop: consequently, we have to start developing the coordination between a child's vocal apparatus and musical hearing, because the age when the vocal muscles start developing is the most favorable time for teaching a child to sing precisely. The way the child has learnt to coordinate his voice will determine how he is going to sing in future, and to re-teach him to correctly coordinate his singing by ear will be very difficult.

Harris (2009) notes that it is not possible to develop one model of the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing that would be suitable for all children, because each child develops individually. Naturally, there are certain physiological peculiarities that are common for all 6-7-year-old children, but it is vital to realize that in order to develop the coordination successfully we have to work individually with each child, because the development of coordination involves the activity of both musical hearing and vocal apparatus.

To prove the importance and topicality of individual learning strategy for 6-7-year-old children when developing the coordination between their vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of mastering singing, a questionnaire survey among Latvian music teachers has been conducted. 71 music teachers working with 6-7-year-old children in kindergartens, music schools and general education schools participated in the survey.

The research aim is to get and clarify the Latvian music teachers' opinions concerning the need for an individual learning strategy at developing the coordination between 6-7-year-old pupils' vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of singing.

2. METHOD AND PARTICIPANTS

To get the Latvian music teachers' opinion about the need for an individual learning strategy at developing the coordination between 6-7-year-old pupils' vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of singing a questionnaire survey method was applied.

The teachers meeting the formal requirements for music teachers' education and having music as their main speciality participated in this survey. 40 (56.3%) teachers had a bachelor's degree, 31 (43.7%) - a master's degree. The age of the respondents was within the limits of 25 - 75, the average age being - 46 years. Standard deviation of the average age is 10 years.

Table 1. Respondents age groups

Age group Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

25-35 12 16,9 16,9

36-45 21 29,6 46,5

46-55 26 36,6 83,1

56-75 12 16,9 100,0

Teachers' experience of pedagogical service fluctuates between 4-47 years, and more than a half of respondents are older than 24. The average length of pedagogical service experience working with 67-year-old children is from 18 to 45 years, and for more than a half of respondents it exceeds 15 years.

Table 2. Respondents experience of pedagogical service

Pedagogical service group Frequency Percent Cumulative Percent

4-14 19 26,8 26,8

15-24 22 31,0 57,7

25-30 12 16,9 74,6

31-47 18 25,4 100,0

Latvian music teachers' survey consisted of four indicator groups where primary data were obtained by assessing respondents' answers according to Likert scale :

• indicators of cooperation (17);

• indicatorsof teaching(15);

• indicators of learning (25);

• indicators of lesson organization (8).

The secondary data were obtained by dimention reduction, making use of a factor analysis. The "Statistical Package for the Social Science (SPSS), version 19.0 for Windows, was used for data processing, statistic analysis and presentation ofthe research results.

In order to analyze the structure of factors in indicator groups of the survey, the research factor analysis was made, extracting the factors by the method of principal components and further application of Varimax rotation method (Extraction Method: Principal Component analysis; Rotation Method: Varmix with Kaiser Normalization). Varmix is an orthogonal rotation where the variables with great factor loading are minimized. The method is mostly used to simplify the interpretation of factors.

The criterion of sampling adequacy - (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy - KMO) - which in different question blocks of the survey fluctuates within the range of 0.634 (Indicators of lesson organization) to 0.813 (indicators of teaching) shows that the use of factor analysis is desirable.

3. THE RESULTS OBTAINED

The structure of factors of separate question blocks in the survey is represented in Table 3-7.

The tables show what percent of summary dispersion characterizes each of the extracted factors, and also the indicators having the greatest factor loading among the extracted factors. The aggregate indicators of the extracted factors are obtained by summing up the results of the respective indicators.

Table 3. Indicator of Cooperation

Factors

A teacher'sawarenessabout B16

peculiaritiesofvoiceapparatus B14

and musical hearing and B8

Component J_2_

0,838 0,796 0,778

problems of coordination B6 0,773

B12 0,772

BIO 0,697

Attention to development of B5 0,881

coordination for each pupil B4 0,811

B2 0,775

B3 0,691

B1 0,531

Individual work with pupils B9 0,909

B13 0,906

B17 0,857

Frequent encountering with B7 0,898

coordination development B15 0,896

problems Bll 0,834

% ofVariance 22,7% 18,9% 15,8% 14,6%

Table 4. Indicators of Teaching

Factors Component 1 2 3

C4 0,773

C5 0,722

Individual work with pupils CI C9 0,640 0,635

C2 0,624

C3 0,617 0,403

C12 0,648

C15 0,648

C14 0,601

A teacher's work C10 0,565

C13 0,540 0,438

C6 0,524

CI 0,424

Teaching/learning process C7 0,856

C8 0,717

% ofVariance 23,2% 18,3% 12,6%

Table 5. Indicators of Learning

Factors

Component 1 2

A teacher's attention

A pupil's activity

A teacher's activity

0,720 0,717 0,673 0,667 0,647 0,484 0,478

0,685 0,674 0,614 0,513 0,513 0,443 0,438

D22 0,659 Dil 0,575 D14 0,531 D13 0,708 Development of D12 0,624 coordination D19 0,552 D15 0,517 _% of Variance_15,1%_14,1%_10,6%_8,9%

Table 6. Indicators of Lesson Organization

Factors Component 1 2 3

Organisation of singing E7 0,784

process E3 0,754

E8 0,739

Self-control during E5 0,772

singing El 0,760

E4 0,524

Listening in one's own E6 0,863

singing E2 0,705

% ofVariance 23,5% 19,3% 16,2%

For further interpretation, standardization of factor assessments was done. Standardized assessments are normally distributed with the mean value 0 and dispersion which is equal to 1 (-N (0.1)). Standardized assessments were distributed according to the normal distribution law. Standardization of factor values allows classifying respondents within each of the factors depending on their indicators, which can be higher or lower than the mean value.

Frequent encountering with coordination _ development problems

Individual Kork with pupils -

Attention to development of coordination for .

each pupil

A teacher :s awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical healing and -problems of coordination

1 1 l 1 1 I

1 1 1 1 1 1

u u | ||

Fig. 1. Factors of Cooperation (Boxplot)

Factors A teacher's awareness about peculiarities of vocal apparatus and musical hearing and problems of coordination and Frequent encountering with coordination development problems are distributed according to the law of normality (Kolmagorov - Smirnov test shows the level of statistic significance Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) >0.05). The distribution of factors Attention to developm ent of coordination for each pupil and Individual work with pupils differs significantly from the normal distribution considerably differs from the normal distribution.

Numerical values of Factors of Cooperation vary within the range of 1 -5. The smallest variance of range changes is that ofthe factor Attention to development ofcoordinationforeach pupil, where all respondents' assessment is not lower than 3, but that of a half of respondents - higher than 4.6. The greatest variance (a= 0,930)is that of the factor Individual work with pupils. Half of respondents assess it higher than 4, but 25% of respondents assess it by 5.

Assessments of Factors of Cooperation, based on Friedman Test, have statistically significant differences. The factor Attention to development of coordination for each pupil is assessed higher (Median=4,60), the factor - A teacher's awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical hearing and problems ofcoordination - lower (Median=3,83).

Table 7. Factors of Cooperation (Descriptive Statistics)

A teacher's awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical hearing and problems of coordination Attention to development of coordination for each pupil Individual work with pupils Frequent encountering with coordination development problems

Mean 3,80 4,44 4,00 3,75

Median 3,83 4,60 4,00 4,00

Mode 3,50 5,00 5,00 4,00

Std. Deviation ,749 ,583 ,930 ,924

Range 3,67 2,00 4,00 3,67

Minimum 1,33 3,00 1,00 1,33

Maximum 5,00 5,00 5,00 5,00

Percentiles 25 3,50 4,20 3,33 3,00

50 3,83 4,60 4,00 4,00

75 4,33 5,00 5,00 4,33

Between factors Attention to development of coordination for each pupil and Individual work with pupils a medium strong linear correlation is observed (r=0,524). Between factors A teac her's awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and m usical hearing and problem s of coordination and Attention to developm ent of coordination for eac h pupil as well as between factors A teacher's awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical hearing and problems of coordination and Frequent encountering with coordination developm ent problems (r=0.319) there are significant but medium weak correlations.

Fig. 2. Factors ofTeaching (Boxplot)

The distribution of the factor Individual work with pupils differs significantly from the normal distribution, but the rest of the two from the group Factors ofTeaching have normal distribution. Difference in assessments of all factors is statistically significant. The respondents assess the factor Individual work with pupils higher, but the factor - A teacher's work- lower; besides, half of the respondents assess this factor lower than 4.

Table 8. Factors ofTeaching (Descriptive Statistics)

Individual work with pupils A teacher's work Teaching/learning process

Mean 4,41 3,95 4,21

Median 4,60 4,00 4,20

Mode 4,60 4,00 4,20

Std. Deviation 0,557 0,594 0,550

Range 3,20 3,25 2,40

Minimum 1,80 1,75 2,60

Maximum 5,00 5,00 5,00

Percentiles 25 4,20 3,50 3,80

50 4,60 4,00 4,20

75 4,80 4,50 4,60

A strong linear correlation is observed between all the factors ofthis group.

Table 9. Spirman correlation coefficient between Factors ofTeaching

Individual work with pupils A teacher's work Teaching/learning process

Individual work with pupils 1 0,608** 0,735**

A teacher's work 0,608" 1 0,628**

Teaching/learning process 0,735" 0,628** 1

Development of coordination — A teacher 's activity — A pupil 's activity — A teacher :s attention —

Fig. 3. Factors ofLearning (Boxplot)

All Factors of learning have a normal distribution, which allows comparing the mean values of these factors by applying parametric methods. The dependent samples do not display significant differences between the factors A teacher's attention and A teachers activity according to the Students' criterion (Paired Samples Test, Sig. (2-tailed) = 0.106). The assessments of the latter factors have statistically significant differences. The respondents have assessed the factor Development of coordination higher, but the factor A pupil's activity- lower.

Table 10. Factors of Learning (Descriptive Statistics)

A teacher's attention A pupil's activity A teacher's activity Development of coordination

Mean 4,16 3,64 4,05 4,27

Median 4,20 3,71 4,20 4,37

Mode 4,40 3,86 3,80 4,13

Std. Deviation 0,574 0,590 0,629 0,455

Range 2,80 2,86 2,80 2,38

Minimum 2,20 1,86 2,20 2,63

Maximum 5,00 4,71 5,00 5,00

Percentiles 25 3,80 3,28 3,60 4,00

50 4,20 3,71 4,20 4,37

75 4,60 4,14 4,60 4,62

All Factors of Learning correlate. A stronger correlation is observed between the factors A teacher's attention and Development of coordination (r=0,766). The correlation between A pupil's activity and Development of coordination is non-linear. If A pupil's activity increases to 4 grades, Development of coordination also increases, but a higher assessment of A pupil's activity does not show the correlation between these factors.

ö a 4,50-

S g 4,00-

U 3 3'50" o

O 3,00" 2,50-

Fig. 4. Scatter diagram with squared regression in A pupil's activity un Development of coordination space

Listening in one 's mt?« singing ~ Self-control during singing ~ Organisation of singing process -

Fig. 5. Factors ofLesson Organization (Boxplot)

From Factors of Lesson Organization only Self-control during singing is distributed normally. The factor Listening to one's own singing has the smallest variance and the highest estimate. Significant correlations between the factors of this group are not observed.

A pupil's activity

Table 11. Factors of Lesson Organization (Descriptive Statistics)

_Organization of singing process Self-control during singing_Listening in one's own singing

Mean 2,65 2,80 3,75 Median 2,66 2,66 4,00 Mode 2,67 3,00 4,00 Std. Deviation 0,699 0,665 0,429 Range 3,00 2,67 2,50 Minimum 1,00 1,33 2,00 Maximum 4,00 4,00 4,50 Percentiles 25 2,33 2,33 3,50 50 2,66 2,66 4,00 _75_3,00_3,33_4,00_

By a two-stage cluster analysis the respondents were split into two homogenous clusters. The respondents of the first cluster (53.5% from the cluster) estimated all factors higher than the mean value given by the group. The respondents of the second cluster (46.5%) assessed all factors lower

than the mean value given by the group. The average age of the respondents of the first cluster is 46.53 years. The average age of the respondents of the second cluster is 45.39 years. According to the t-test criterion, age differences are not statistically significant even ifthe level of significance is 10% (p = 0.648). The significance level is the precision with which the hypothesis can be rejected.

Fig. 6. Distribution of teachers into clusters by pedagogical service

The first cluster includes 34.2% of teachers whose pedagogical service is from 31 to 47 years long. The second cluster includes 39.4% of teachers whose pedagogical service is from 15 to 24 years, but according to Chi-Square test, these differences are not statistically significant (p=0.261)

The first cluster includes 42% of teachers with master's degree, the second cluster includes 45.5% of teachers with master's degree, but the differences are not statistically significant (p = 0.482).

1,00" ,50-,00--,50-■1,00-

mi iw uèli

1 u m »

Z: A teacher's awareness about «peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical hearing and problems of coordination r-i Z: Attention to development of

coordination for each pupil □ Z: Individual work with pupils hZ: Frequent encountering with m coordination development problems

Cluster Group

□ Z: Individual work with pupils H Z: A teacher's work

□ Z: Teaching/learning process

□ Z: A teacher's attention

□ Z: A pupil's activity

m Z: A teacher's activity

□ Z: Development of coordination

□ Z: Organisation of singing process H Z: Self-control during singing

□ Z: Listening in one's own singing

Fig. 7. The mean value of cluster factors for the respondents

Table 12. Factor describingstatistics

Cluster Group

N Mean Std. Deviation

38 4,07 0,539

33 3,48 0,835

38 4,69 0,382

33 4,15 0,642

38 4,28 0,850

33 3,68 0,927

38 4,11 0,795

33 3,32 0,891

38 4,67 0,306

33 4,10 0,624

38 4,31 0,413

33 3,52 0,477

38 4,53 0,358

33 3,84 0,516

38 4,44 0,394

33 3,85 0,592

38 3,93 0,443

33 3,30 0,559

38 4,39 0,461

33 3,66 0,573

38 4,52 0,325

33 3,98 0,408

38 2,76 0,758

33 2,53 0,612

38 3,08 0,603

33 2,47 0,583

38 3,90 0,281

33 3,57 0,501

A teacher's awareness about peculiarities of voice apparatus and musical hearing and problems of coordination

Attention to development of coordination for each pupil Individual work with pupils

Frequent encountering with coordination development problems

Individual work with pupils

A teacher's work

Teaching/learning process

A teacher's attention

A pupil's activity

A teacher's activity

Development of coordination

Organization of singing process

Self-control during singing

Listening in one's own singing

The algorithms of classification trees allow for solving classification tasks and easy interpretation of the results obtained from the developed model. A classification tree intended to classify teachers into clusters was created by using such characterizations as: Education, Age, Pedagogical service, Service as a music teacher (6-7).

3.1. Projection ofthe Classification TreeAnalysis

To the first cluster are ascribed 77.8% of teachers whose length of pedagogical service working with 6-7 year-old children is more than 25.5 years and 45.3% of teachers having a shorter pedagogical service period. At splitting into clusters teachers with pedagogical service longer than 25.5 years, the next important criterion is education. All the respondents holding a master's degree are ascribed to the first cluster.

61.9% of teachers under 40.5 and the length of pedagogical service less than 25.5 years are included in the first cluster.

Teachers with a bachelor's degree under 40.5 and the length of pedagogical service less than 25.5 years may be ascribed to the first cluster with the probability of 84.6%.

The classification tree allows us to find out what percentage of respondents from the present sample group satisfies the requirements of the projection. The greatest part of the respondents -46.1% of them - satisfies the requirements of the projection: 65.5% of teachers with pedagogical service more than 25.5 years and age more than 40.5 years are ascribed to the second cluster. Besides, on the basis on the development of the classification tree, a discriminant analysis of factor abilities can be made. The differentiating ability ofthe cluster is Service as a music teacher (6-7).

Fig. 8. Classification tree

Estimated Marginal Means of Individual work with pupils

Cluster Group

4,204,00"

3,80" /

3,60" QT \

3,40- \ /

3,20" 3,00"

4-14 15-24 25-30 31-47

Pedagogical service group

Fig. 9. The mean of the factors (Individual work with pupils) depending on the respondents' pedagogical service

At assessing the factor Individual work with pupils by two-factor dispersion analysis, we estimated whether the Cluster Group and Pedagogical Service Group variables effect the given factor, as well as mutual correlations between them. The variable Cluster Group effects the dependent variable Independent work with pupils (Tests of Between-Subjects-Effects, p=0.03). Statistically significant factorial correlation was not observed (Test of Between-Subjects-Effects, p=0.612). The factor Individual work with pupils was estimated comparatively high by teachers with pedagogical service from 31 to 47 years and ascribed to the first cluster, while teachers with pedagogical service from 25 to 30 years and ascribed to the second cluster estimated this factor quite low.

Estimated Marginal Means of Development of coordination

Cluster Group

15-24 25-30

Pedagogical service group

Fig. 10. Factorial means (Development of coordination) depending on respondents' pedagogical service

A two-factor dispersion analysis helped to define the mutual correlation between the factors Cluster Group and Pedagogical Service at estimating the factor Development of coordination(Tests of Between-Subjects-Effects, p=0.053). Despite the fact that the respondents of the first cluster estimate Development of coordination higher than the respondents of the second cluster, nonetheless the respondents of the first cluster with pedagogical service from 4 to 14 years estimate this factor lower, while the respondents of the second cluster belonging to the same group estimate this factor higher.

Development of coordination

Individual work with pupils

Fig. 11. Scatter diagram with a linear regression on the plane of Individual work with pupils and Development of coordination

A direct relationship between Individual work with pupils and Development of coordination is observed (r=0.718, sig.O.OOl). The correlation coefficient is above 0.7, therefore the correlation is considered strong, and consequently Individual work with pupils and Development of coordination are mutually dependent. If one increases, the other increases as well.

Tencliiiig.'leaiiiiiig process

Individual work with pupils

Fig. 12. Scatter diagram with a linear regression on the plane of Individual work with pupils and Teaching/learning process

A direct relationship between Individual work with pupils and Teaching/learning process is observed (r=0.576, sig.<0.001). The correlation coefficient is smaller than 0.7, but bigger than 0.4, thus the correlation is considered to be medium strong and, consequently, Individual work with pupils and Teaching/learning process are mutually dependent.

4. CONCLUSIONS

1. To a greater or lesser extent, all the respondents pay attention to the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing of each pupil. Half of respondents give special attention to it. Not all teachers know the peculiarities of the vocal apparatus and musical hearing of each pupil and are able to deal with coordination problems.

2. The majority of teachers consider the individual work with pupils important for the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing. The teachers of the first cluster with master's degree and pedagogical service from 31 to 47 years widely apply it in their pedagogical practice. Teachers with a master's degree and pedagogical service from 31 to 47 years pay more attention to the development of coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing than the teachers with the length of pedagogical service from 25 to 30 years.

3. Teachers have admitted that individual work helps teachers to identify problems of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing for each pupil and discover their causes. Consequently, an individual approach is the methodological basis of the development of the coordination between the vocal apparatus and musical hearing in the process of acquiring singing.

Acknowledgements

This work has been supported by the European Social Fund within the Project "Support for the implementation of doctoral studies at Daugavpils University! Agreement Nr. 2009/0140/1DP/1.1.2.1.2/09/IPIA/VIAA/015.

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Harris, M. (2009). Music and the young mind: enhancing brain development and engaging learning. New York: R&L Education,.

Thurman, L., & Welch, G. (2000). Bodymind and Voice: Foundations of Voice Education. G. Welch, The developing voice (Ipp. 704-717). London: Bodymind & Voice Minnesota, the Voice Care Network.

Менабени, A. (1987). Методика обучения сольному пению. [Methodology of Teaching Solo Singing] Москва: Просвещение.