Scholarly article on topic 'Petrogenesis, P–T–t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton'

Petrogenesis, P–T–t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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{"High-pressure mafic granulites" / " P–T–t path" / Petrology / "Jiaobei terrane" / "North China Craton"}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Pinghua Liu, Fulai Liu, Chaohui Liu, Fang Wang, Jianhui Liu, et al.

Abstract High-pressure (HP) mafic granulites in the Jiaobei terrane are composed predominantly of garnet mafic granulites, garnet–hypersthene granulites, and garnet amphibolites, and they are found as irregular lenses or deformed dike swarms within tonalitic–trondhjemitic–granodioritic gneisses and granitic gneisses. The HP mafic granulites contain four distinct metamorphic assemblages, of which the early prograde assemblage (M1) is represented by the cores of garnets, together with mineral inclusions of clinopyxene+plagioclase±quartz, and it formed at 740–770°C and 0.90–1.00GPa. In contrast, the peak assemblage (M2) consists of high-Ca cores in garnet, high-Al cores in clinopyroxene, and high-Na cores in plagioclase in the matrix, which formed under P–T conditions of 850–880°C and 1.45–1.65GPa. The peak metamorphism was followed by near-isothermal decompression (M3), which resulted in the development of orthopyroxene+clinopyxene+plagioclase±quartz±amphibole±magnetitie symplectites or coronas surrounding some garnet grains, with P–T conditions of 780–830°C and 0.65–0.85GPa. Surrounding some garnet grains are symplectites of amphibole+plagioclase+quartz±magnetitie, which formed during a cooling retrograde stage (M4) with P–T conditions of 590–650°C and 0.62–0.82GPa. An integrated study involving laser Raman analysis of mineral inclusions, cathodoluminescence imaging, and in situ U–Pb dating of zircons shows that the protolith ages of the HP mafic granulites are mainly 2550–2500Ma, and that the timing of the peak metamorphism of the HP mafic granulites ranges from 1900 to 1860 Ma, as recorded by the cores of metamorphic zircons. On the other hand, the medium- to low-pressure granulite–amphibolite facies retrogression occurred mainly at 1860–1820Ma, as recorded by the rims of some single zircon grains and the zircon grains that contain inclusions of garnet+orthopyroxene+plagioclase+sphene. The combination of petrography, mineral compositions, metamorphic reaction history, thermobarometry, and geochronology defines a near-isothermal decompressional clockwise P–T–t path for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites, suggesting that the Jiaobei terrane underwent initial crustal thickening during 1950–1860Ma, followed by relatively rapid exhumation, cooling, and retrogression in the period 1860–1820Ma. This tectonothermal path was probably generated by subduction and collision-related tectonic processes.

Academic research paper on topic "Petrogenesis, P–T–t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton"

Accepted Manuscript

Title: Petrogenesis, P-T-t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton

Author: Pinghua Liu Fulai Liu Chaohui Liu Fang Wang Jianhui Liu Hong Yang Jia Cai Jianrong Shi

PII: DOI:

Reference:

S0301-9268(13)00136-8

http://dx.doi.Org/doi:10.1016/j.precamres.2013.05.003 PRECAM 3769

To appear in:

Precambrian Research

Received date: Revised date: Accepted date:

31-1-2013 14-5-2013 16-5-2013

Please cite this article as: Liu, P., Liu, F., Liu, C., Wang, F., Liu, J., Yang, H., Cai, J., Shi, J., Petrogenesis, P-T-t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton, Precambrian Research (2013), http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.precamres.2013.05.003

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ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

1 Highlights

2 ► The inherited metamorphic cores and retrogressive rims can be identified in single zircon grains.

3 ► Retrogressive metamorphic mineral inclusions have been identified in zircon grains. ► A

4 near-isothermal decompressional clockwise P-T-t path for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites is

5 defined.

7 Petrogenesis, P-T-t path, and tectonic significance of high-pressure

8 mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton

9 Pinghua Liu*, Fulai Liu, Chaohui Liu, Fang Wang, Jianhui Liu, Hong Yang, Jia Cai, Jianrong Shi

10 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing 100037, China

12 Corresponding author: Dr. Pinghua Liu

13 Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences

14 26 Baiwanzhuang Road, Beijing 100037, China

15 E-mail address: lph1213@1126.com

16 Tel: +86 10 15011557374; fax: +86 10 68994781

18 Abstract

19 High-pressure (HP) mafic granulites in the Jiaobei terrane are composed predominantly of garnet

20 mafic granulites, garnent-hypersthene granulites, and garnet amphibolites, and they are found as

21 irregular lenses or deformed dike swarms within tonalitic-trondhjemitic-granodioritic gneisses

22 and granitic gneisses. The HP mafic granulites contain four distinct metamorphic assemblages, of

23 which the early prograde assemblage (Mi) is represented by the cores of garnets, together with

24 mineral inclusions of clinopyxene + plagioclase ± quartz, and it formed at 740-770 °C and

25 0.90-1.00 GPa. In contrast, the peak assemblage (M2) consists of high-Ca cores in garnet, high-Al

26 cores in clinopyroxene, and high-Na cores in plagioclase in the matrix, which formed under P-T

27 conditions of 850-880 °C and 1.45-1.65 GPa. The peak metamorphism was followed by

28 near-isothermal decompression (M3), which resulted in the development of orthopyroxene +

29 clinopyxene + plagioclase ± quartz ± amphibole ± magneitite symplectites or coronas surrounding

30 some garnet grains, with P-T conditions of 780-830 °C and 0.65-0.85 GPa. Surrounding some

31 garnet grains are symplectites of amphibole + plagioclase + quartz ± magneitite, which formed

32 during a cooling retrograde stage (M4) with P-T conditions of 590-650 °C and 0.62-0.82 GPa. An

33 integrated study involving laser Raman analysis of mineral inclusions, cathoduluminescene

34 imaging, and in situ U-Pb dating of zircons shows that the protolith ages of the HP mafic

35 granulites are mainly 2550-2500 Ma, and that the timing of the peak metamorphism of the HP

36 mafic granulites ranges from 1900 to 1860 Ma, as recorded by the cores of metamorphic zircons.

37 On the other hand, the medium- to low-pressure granulite-amphibolite facies retrogression

38 occurred mainly at 1860-1820 Ma, as recorded by the rims of some single zircon grains and the

39 zircon grains that contain inclusions of garnet + orthopyroxene + plagioclase + sphene. The

40 combination of petrography, mineral compositions, metamorphic reaction history,

41 thermobarometry, and geochronology defines a near-isothermal decompressional clockwise P-T-t

42 path for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites, suggesting that the Jiaobei terrane underwent initial

43 crustal thickening during 1950 to 1860 Ma, followed by relatively rapid exhumation, cooling, and

44 retrogression in the period 1860-1820 Ma. This tectonothermal path was probably generated by

45 subduction and collision-related tectonic processes.

46 Keywords: high-pressure mafic granulites; P-T-t path; petrology; Jiaobei terrane; North China

47 Craton

48 1. Introduction

High-pressure (HP) granulites are exposed in a number of collisional orogens ranging in time

50 from Archean (e.g. Belomorian tectonic province; Mints et al., 2010) to Cenozoic (e.g. Himalayas;

51 Liu and Zong, 1997). In general, HP mafic granulites are characterized by the stable mineral

52 assemblage of Grt + Pl + Cpx + Qz (in Qz-normative basic rocks) with subordinate minerals such

53 as amphibole and rutile depending on the activity of H2O and bulk composition, respectively

54 (abbreviations are after Whitney and Evans, 2010), whereas HP felsic and pelitic granulites consist

55 mainly of Grt + Ky + Pl + Kfs + Qz. HP granulites are mineralogically and texturally complex,

56 and they document numerous metamorphic reactions and derivative processes that provide

57 important insights into the tectonothermal evolution of metamorphism. Although HP

58 granulite-facies metamorphism is generally accepted as the product of regional crustal orogenesis,

59 there is still controversy concerning the genetic relations between the P-T-t paths of the HP

60 granulites and related rocks, their tectonic settings, and geodynamic models. HP granulites have

61 been recognized in at least two distinct tectonic settings. Some formed in overthickened crust with

62 large-scale thrusting in collisional orogens such as the Variscides (e.g. Carswell and O'Brein, 1993;

63 O'Brein, 2008; references therein), the Grenville Province (e.g. Indares, 1995, 1997; Indares and

64 Dunning, 2001), the Snowbird tectoninc zone (e.g. Baldwin et al., 2003, 2007; references therein),

65 and the Hengshan and Sanggan Complex of the North China Craton (NCC) (e.g. Zhao et al.,

66 2001b; Guo et al., 2002, 2005). These HP granulites characteristically record the entire

67 plate-tectonic process that includes subduction, collision, and exhumation. In contrast, it has been

68 suggested that some HP granulites represent crustal thickening and a subsequent exhumation that

69 were achieved by virtue of homogeneous, fold-dominated deformation of hot crustal domains in

70 an orogenic belt (Schulmann et al., 2002, 2008; Stipskä et al., 2004; Pitra et al., 2010), and that

71 such HP granulites do not indicate thrust-dominated tectonics. It is necessary, therefore, to

72 document in detail the metamorphic history and tectonic setting of HP granulites, as in the Jiaobei

73 terrane of the North China Craton (NCC), in order to clarify the processes involved.

A remarkable progress has been made in the study of HP granulites and HP amphibolites in

75 the NCC over the last couple of decades (Wang et al., 1991; Guo et al., 1993, 1998, 2001, 2002,

76 2005; Zhai et al., 1993, 1995; Geng and Ji, 1994; Ma and Wang, 1995; Li et al., 1998a, 1998b; Liu

77 et al., 1998, 2002; Wei et al., 2001; Zhao, 2001, 2009; Zhao et al., 2001a, 2001b, 2002, 2003, 2005,

78 2011, 2012; Zhai, 2004a, 2004b, 2009; Zhou et al., 2004, 2010; O'Brien et al., 2005; Zhang et al.,

79 2006a, 2006b; Li et al., 2010, 2011b; Liu et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2011b; Zhai and Santosh, 2011;

80 Zhao and Zhai, 2013; and references therein). The HP granulites of the NCC are exposed

81 predominantly in the Paleoproterozoic Trans-North China Orogen (TNCO), and include the

82 Jianping, Chengde, Huai'an, and Hengshan HP granulites (Fig. 1). So far, research on the HP

83 granulites of the NCC has been focused on the middle and northern segments of the TNCO, but

84 little work has been done on HP granulites of the Jiaobei area in the southeastern part of the NCC,

85 though Li et al. (1997) and Liu et al. (1998) discussed the significance of the HP metamorphism of

86 the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

It is widely accepted that the NCC witnessed HP granulite-facies metamorphism between

88 1950 and 1850 Ma, during which continent-continent collision occurred to form a unified cratonic

89 basement (Zhao et al., 2005, 2011, 2012; Zhai and Santosh, 2011; Zhao and Zhai, 2013; and

90 references therein). However, it has been noted that the HP granulites might also have experienced

91 retrogressive metamorphism following the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism, as suggested

92 by the complex genetic types of zircons present in these rocks. Thus, it is difficult to determine

93 whether or not the U-Pb zircon ages of 1950-1850 Ma represent the timing of the peak HP

94 granulite-facies metamorphism.

In this paper, we present detailed textural and mineralogical data for the HP mafic granulites

96 in the Jiaobei area. Using thermobarometry, we estimate the P-T conditions for the different

97 metamorphic assemblages of the HP mafic granulites. In addition, we report the results of a

98 detailed geochronological investigation, including identification of mineral inclusions, analyses of

99 cathoduluminescene (CL) images, and precise LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons. In

100 combination with the field relationships of the HP mafic granulites and their adjacent rocks, our

101 results place new constraints on the nature of the HP granulite-facies metamorphism and the

102 tectonic evolution of the Jiaobei terrane in the Eastern Block of the NCC.

104 2. Geologic setting

105 2.1 Regional setting

The NCC (Fig. 1) outcrops over an area of >300,000 km , preserves evidence of a long and

107 complex history of crustal evolution and cratonization history, and is an ideal natural laboratory

108 for the investigations of Precambrian subduction-accretion-collision tectonics. It is generally

109 accepted that the NCC formed by the ~1850 Ma collisional amalgamation of the Eastern and the

110 Western Blocks along the TNCO (Fig. 1; Zhao et al., 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001a, 2001b, 2002, 2003,

111 2005, 2010, 2011, 2012; Zhao, 2001, 2009; Wilde et al., 2002; Guo et al., 2005; Kroner et al.,

112 2005, 2006; Zhang et al., 2007, 2009; Lu et al., 2008; Li et al., 2010; Wang et al., 2010b; Liu et al.,

113 2011a; Zhao and Zhai, 2013), although other models for the formation and evolution of the NCC

114 have also been proposed (Wu et al., 1998; Zhai et al., 2000a, 2001, 2005, 2010; Zhai and Liu,

115 2003; Kusky and Li, 2003; Zhai, 2004a, 2009; Santosh et al., 2006, 2010, 2012, 2013; Faure et al.,

116 2007; Kusky et al., 2007; Li and Kusky, 2007; Trap et al., 2007, 2012; Zhai and Peng, 2007; Wang,

117 2009; Wang et al., 2010c; Zhai and Santosh, 2011; Kusky, 2011). The TNCO is 100-300 km wide

118 and ~ 1500 km long, and contains a northern area of voluminous HP granulites and retrograde

119 eclogites with near-isothermal decompression-type clockwise P-T paths (Fig. 1; Zhai et al., 1993,

120 1996; Zhai, 2009). The presence of these HP mafic rocks is considered as robust evidence for

121 continental collision between the Eastern and Western Blocks to form the TNCO (Zhao et al.,

122 2001b, 2011, 2012; Guo et al., 2002, 2005; Zhang et al., 2006b; Zhao, 2009; Zhao and Zhai,

123 2013).

The Paleoproterozoic Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt (JLJB) is located in the Eastern Block, and

125 subdivides the block into the Longgang and Langrim Blocks (Fig. 1; Zhao et al., 2005). The JLJB

126 is a nearly north-south trending zone that extends for about 1200 km from the southern Jilin,

127 through the Liaodong peninsula, into the Jiaodong peninsula, and with a width of 100-200 km. It

128 consists of greenschist to lower amphibolite facies and rarely granulite facies sedimentary and

129 volcanic successions, with associated granitic and mafic intrusions. The sedimentary and volcanic

130 successions include the Macheonayeong Group in North Korea, the Ji'an and Laoling Groups in

131 the southern Jilin, the North and South Liaohe Groups in the eastern Liaoning peninsula, the

132 Fenzishan and Jingshan Groups in the Jiaobei terrane, and the Wuhe Group in the Anhui Province

133 (Fig. 1). These groups have similar transitional stratigraphic successions from a basal clastic-rich

134 sequence and a lower bimodal volcanic sequence, through a middle carbonate-rich sequence, to an

135 upper pelite-rich sequence (Li et al., 2001, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005, 2006, 2011a, 2012; Luo et

136 al., 2004, 2006, 2008; Zhao et al., 2005; Lu et al., 2004, 2005, 2006; Li and Zhao, 2007; Zhou et

137 al., 2008b; Tam et al., 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c).

Associated with sedimentary and volcanic successions are mafic intrusions and granitoids.

139 The mafic intrusions are dominated by dolerites and gabbros metamorphosed from greenschist and

140 lower amphibolite facies (Zhao et al., 2005; Li and Zhao, 2007), while the granitoids include

141 pre-tectonic monogranitic gneisses and post-tectonic alkaline syenites, rapakivi granites and

142 porphyritic monzogranites, exposed in the southern Jilin and eastern Liaoning areas. Available

143 geochronological data show that majority of the sedimentary-volcanic successions and

144 pre-tectonic granitic gneisses in the JLJB were formed around 2200-2000 Ma, and were

145 metamorphosed and deformed at ~1910 Ma, while the post-tectonic porphyritic monzogranites

146 and alkaline syenites were emplaced at 1860-1840 Ma (Luo et al., 2004; Zhao et al., 2005; Lu et

147 al., 2006; Li and Zhao, 2007).

148 2.2 Jiaobei terrane

The Jiaobei terrane is exposed in the southern segment of the JLJB in the Eastern Block of

150 the NCC (Fig. 1), bordered by the Bohai Sea in the north, the West Shandong terrane in the west,

151 and with the Tan-Lu Fault forming the junction between the Jiaobei terrane and the Sulu HP to

152 ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) orogenic belt to the southeast, and bounded by the

153 Yantai-Qingdao-Wulian Fault (Fig. 2). The terrane is mainly composed of early Precambrian

154 basement rocks, Neoproterozoic Penglai Group, Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and local

155 voluminous Mesozoic igneous intrusions (Fig. 2). The early Precambrian rocks mainly consist of

156 tonalitic-trondjhemitic-granodioritic (TTG) and granitic gneisses, metamorphic BIF-bearing

157 supracrustal rocks (named Tangjiazhuang Group and Jiaodong Group), the Paleoproterozoic

158 Khondalite Series (named Jingshan Group and Fenzishan Group), and some lenses or sheets of

159 metamorphic mafic-ultramafic rocks.

The TTG and granitic gneisses are widely exposed in the Jiaobei terrane from northern Qixia

161 to southern Laixi-Laiyang. They are characterized by a strong ductile deformation, mylonitic

162 fabrics, extensive migmatization, and granulite facies metamorphism, and have segregations of

163 light-colored granitic material (leucosome) within dark colored amphibole, biotite, and

164 pyroxene-rich layers. The recently available high-precision geochronological data suggest that the

165 Jiaobei TTG and granitic gneisses formed around ~2900, 2750-2700, 2550-2500, and ~2100 Ma,

166 and that they record two high-grade metamorphic events at ~2500 and ~1860 Ma, respectively, for

167 the TTG and granitic gneisses (Tang et al., 2007; Jahn et al., 2008; Zhou et al., 2008a; Liu et al.,

168 2011b, 2013a; Wan et al., 2011).

The widespread Paleoproterozoic Khondalite Series in the Jiaobei terrane is composed of the

170 Jingshan and Fenzishan Groups, which uncomformably overlie the Archean banded orthogneisses.

171 The Jinshan Group has been divided into two lithological assemblages: Al-rich gneisses and

172 marbles. The Al-rich gneisses are mainly Sil-Grt-Bt schist-gneisses, quartzo-feldspathic gneisses,

173 and Bt leptynites. There are also some intercalations of amphibolite and mafic granulite. The

174 marbles contain serpentine marble and dolomitic marble with thin layers and lenses of amphibolite.

175 SHRIMP zircon U-Pb apparent2 •°'Pbr06Pb ages, obtained from detrital zircons in the Jinshan

176 Group, range from 2900 to 2100 Ma, with metamorphic zircons in some samples recording

177 apparent 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1950-1800 Ma (Wan et al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008b; Liu et al., 2011d;

178 Tam et al., 2011). The Fenzishan Group, chiefly found in Miaohou and Menlou within the Qixia

179 area, and Fenzishan within the Laizhou area, consists of serpentine and dolomitic marbles, Bt

180 leptynites, Sil-Bt schist-gneisses, and arkose-quartzites, all of which record an upper greenschist

181 to low amphibolite-facies metamorphism. Wan et al. (2006) reported SHRIMP zircon U-Pb

182 apparent2 '0,Pbr06Pb ages from detrital zircons in the Fenzishan Group that range from 2800 to

183 2200 Ma, and with metamorphic zircons in the same samples recording 1950-1850 Ma 20'Pb/206Pb

184 ages, similar to the events recorded in the Jinshan Group. It is suggested, therefore, that the

185 Fenzishan and Jinshan groups are the same unit, but that they underwent different metamorphic

186 histories. Recent metamorphic studies have also shown that some HP pelitic granulites in the

187 Jinshan Group, with peak P-T conditions of 1.25-1.62 GPa and 830-890 °C, are characterized by

188 assemblages of Grt + Ky + Kfs + Pl + Bt + Rt + Ilm + Qz (Zhou et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2010a;

189 Tam et al., 2012a).

Unconformably overlying the Paleoproterozoic Fenzishan and Jinshan groups is the

191 Neoproterozoic Penglai Group, chiefly composed of meta-limestone, slates, and quartzites. The

192 Penglai Group is exposed mainly in the Penglai area and in the northern part of the Qixia area. In

193 situ U-Pb ages obtained from detrital zircons in the Penglai Group range from 1700 to 1100 Ma,

194 probably indicating Neoproterozoic deposition for the Penglai Group (Li et al., 2007; Chu et al.,

195 2011). The Mesozoic granitoids that were intruded into the Precambrian metamorphic basement

196 consist of granodiorites and biotite granites, emplaced mainly at 160-150 Ma and 130-120 Ma

197 (Miao et al., 1998; Wang et al., 1998; Zhang et al., 2003; Yang et al., 2012).

199 3. The Jiaobei HP mafic granulites

Early descriptions of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites come from localities near Nanshankou

201 and Lijiacaopo-Zanggezhuang villages in the Malingzhuang area, Laixi Country, Shandong

202 Province (Li et al., 1997; Liu et al., 1998). More recent field investigations and in-depth studies

203 have identified more than 30 new HP mafic granulite outcrops in the Jiaobei terrane (Liu et al.,

204 2010; Tam et al., 2012c). Like the HP mafic granulites that are exposed in the central TNCO of the

205 NCC (Zhai et al., 1993; Li et al., 1998b; Zhao et al., 2001b; Guo et al., 2002; O'Brien et al., 2005),

206 the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites are widely distributed within the TTG or granitic gneisses along

207 the Pingdu-Laixi-Qixia belt, and they constitute a HP metamorphic belt that trends northeast to

208 southwest and extends for nearly 200 km. The following four types of HP mafic granulites are

209 identified on the basis of rock assemblages and their neighboring rocks in the Jiaobei terrane (Fig.

210 2-3).

1. Irregular lenses of HP mafic granulite that range from 0.1 m to more than 3.0 m in width

212 and from 0.5 m to more than 20.0 m in length within the Archean TTG or granitic gneisses (Figs.

213 4a, 4b). The long axes of the lenses or boudins are always parallel to the regional strike of

214 foliation in the TTG or granitic gneisses. The strong ductile deformation and retrogressive

215 metamorphism often occurs in the rims of the HP mafic granulite lenses. This kind of HP mafic

216 granulite is well exposed in the road-side outcrop near Lijiaquan village in the Tingkou area, Qixia

217 country, and the lenses may have been derived from metamorphic basic intrusive rocks, including

218 gabbro and doleritic dykes.

2. Deformed parallel dike swarms in the Mazhenkou outcrop of the HP mafic granulites are

220 found within the deformed TTG or granitic gneisses, and they range in width from 0.5 m to more

221 than 3.0 m, and in length from 10.0 m to more than 100.0 m (Fig. 4c). In some outcrops, this type

222 of HP mafic granulite can be seen to have undergone a strong ductile deformation along with the

223 country rock, and the strongly deformed HP mafic granulites are always characterized by

224 boudinage. In the Zhaoyuan outcrops, especially in the inner part of the HP mafic granulite dikes,

225 numerous coarse-grained garnet porphyroblasts occur with well-preserved symplectitic coronas

226 composed of Pl + Qz + Amp (the so-called 'white socket' in Chinese literature) (Fig. 4d).

3. In some places, the strongly retrogressive HP mafic granulites, and the meta-ultramafic

228 rocks, can be observed within the same outcrop, and they are in contact with each other and occur

229 within the TTG gneisses. For example, in the Nanlan outcrops, Ol-Opx serpentinite (some 2.0 m

230 in width) occurs within the inner part of the high-grade metamorphic mafic-ultramafic complex.

231 In contrast, Amp-Opx-Cpx granulites, characterized by numerous well-preserved fine-grained

232 symplectitic coronas of Cpx + Opx + Pl + Qz, occur in the outer margins of the complex.

4. In some places, a high-grade metamorphic complex of HP mafic granulites, banded

234 magnetite quartzites, and supracrustal rocks forms lenses within the TTG or granitic gneisses in

235 the Jiaobei terrane. For example, in the Yangjiazhai outcrops, the lenses (some as big as 2.0 km2)

236 consist of HP mafic granulites, banded magnetite quartzites, and Spl-bearing Ol marbles.

238 4. Analytical techniques

239 4.1. Mineral analyses

Ten typical HP mafic granulite samples from the Jiaobei terrane were selected for mineral

241 analysis. All mineral analyses were made with an electron microprobe (JXA-8100) housed at the

242 Department of Geology, Peking University. Operating conditions were 15 kV and 10 nA with a

243 point beam with spot size of 1^m. Natural and synthetic phases from the SPI Company of the

244 USA were used as standards. The data were processed with online ZAF-type corrections.

245 4.2. Laser Raman and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircons

246 Zircons from the three HP mafic granulites were separated using standard heavy liquid and

247 magnetic techniques, and then handpicked under a binocular microscope in the Mineral Separation

248 Laboratory of the Institute of Regional Geological Survey in Langfang, Hebei Province. The

249 selected crystals, together with the zircon standard TEMORA (Black et al., 2003), were embedded

250 in 25 mm epoxy discs and ground to approximately half their thicknesses. Mineral inclusions in

251 zircons were identified by laser Raman spectroscopy (RANISHAW RM-1000) at the National Key

252 Laboratory of Continental Dynamics, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Beijing, China.

253 The analytical results for the mineral inclusions in zircon are listed in Table S1. The internal

254 zoning of the zircon grains was revealed by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging obtained at the

255 Beijing SHRIMP Centre, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, using a FEI PHILIPSXL 30

256 SFEG SEM operating at 15 kV accelerating voltage with a 120 ^A beam, and a scanning time of 2

257 minutes.

258 4.3. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses

The zircons from the three HP mafic granulite samples were analyzed for U, Th, and Pb

260 using the LA-ICP-MS facility at the Tianjin Institute of Geology and Mineral Resources, China

261 Geological Survey, Tianjin, China. Laser sampling was performed using a Newwave UP 213 laser

262 ablation system. All analyses were conducted with a beam diameter of 25 ^m, a 10 Hz repetition

263 rate, and an energy of 2.5J/cm. A Thermo Finnigan Neptune MC-ICP-MS instrument was used to

264 acquire the ion-signal intensities. Standards GJ1 and M127 were used during our analyses, and

265 they were assessed in two out of every 5-10 analyses. The data were evaluated using

266 ICPMSDataCal 3.4. Concordia diagrams and weighted mean calculations were made using

267 Isoplot/Exver.3. The detailed operating conditions of the laser ablation system and the

268 MC-ICP-MS instrument and data reduction are identical to the conditions described by Hou et al.

269 (2009).

271 5. Petrography

On the basis of microstructures, reaction relations between mineral phases, and the

273 compositional profiles of minerals, four mineral assemblages are recognized in the Jiaobei HP

274 mafic granulites, including pre-peak prograde assemblages (M1), peak HP granulite-facies

275 assemblages (M2), a post-peak near-isothermal decompression granulite-facies assemblage (M3),

276 and a late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage (M4).

277 5.1. Pre-peak prograde assemblage (M1)

Like most other granulite-facies terranes around the world, much of the early prograde

279 metamorphic history in the Jiaobei mafic granulites has been lost during subsequent annealing at

280 the peak stage, and as a result of the post-peak high-temperature events. The only early prograde

281 textures preserved are represented by fine-grained inclusions of Cpx + Pl ± Qz within the cores of

282 garnet porphyroblasts in sample QX9-1 (Figs. 5a, 5b).

283 5.2. Peak HP granulite-facies assemblage (M2)

The peak metamorphic stage preserved in the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites is characterized by

285 the absence of Opx, and microstructures and mineral assemblages at the peak stage are similar to

286 those of other HP mafic granulites in the NCC. The peak stage elsewhere in the NCC is typically

287 represented by the assemblage Grt + Cpx + Pl + Qz, found, for example, in the Sanggan and

288 Hengshan HP mafic granulites (Guo et al., 1998, 2001, 2002; Zhao et al., 2001b). In the Jiaobei

289 HP mafic granulites, the peak mineral assemblage is preserved as relatively coarse-grained garnet,

290 clinopyroxene, plagioclase, and quartz. More specifically, the typical Jiaobei peak metamorphic

291 mineral assemblage is characterized by high-Ca cores in garnet, high-Al cores in clinopyroxene,

292 and high-Na cores in plagioclase in the matrix of the HP mafic granulites (Figs. 5b, 5d). The

293 mineral assemblage is consistent with most others found in HP mafic granulites around the world

294 (O'Brien and Rotzler, 2003; O'Brien, 2008; and references therein).

295 5.3. Post-peak near-isothermal decompression granulite-facies assemblage (M3)

In the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites, symplectites and symplectic coronas surrounding relict

297 garnets are widespread, and they are made up of Opx + Pl ± Cpx ± Amp ± Mag ± Ilm ± Qz (Figs.

298 6a, 6b). These textures represent the M3 metamorphic stage that followed the peak stage. The

299 symplectitic texture consists of intergrowths of fine-grained worm-like Opx +Pl ± Cpx ± Amp ±

300 Mag ± Ilm ± Qz around the embayed garnets. Locally, the worm-like symplectites of Opx + Cpx +

301 Pl seem to have completely resorbed the garnet, in which case the symplectite forms a

302 pseudomorph after the garnet. These symplectites and coronas have been observed in many other

303 granulite-facies terranes where they have been considered to represent the decompressional

304 process following the peak of the HP granulite-facies metamorphism (e.g. Harley, 1989; Casewell

305 et al., 1993; Zhao et al., 2001b; Guo et al., 2002; O'Brien and Rotzler, 2003). The typical

306 metamorphic reactions between the mineral phases in the M3 stage are as follows:

Grt + Cpx + Qz ^ Opx + Pl + Mag

Grt + Cpx + Qz + H2O ^ Opx + Amp + Pl + Mag

Grt + Cpx2 + Qz + H2O ^ Opx + Cpx3 + Amp + Pl + Mag

310 5.4. Late amphibolite-facies retrogressive assemblage (M4)

In the Jiaobei high- and medium-pressure mafic granulites, a late amphibolite-facies

312 retrogressive stage is represented by fine-grained symplectites and coronas of Amp + Pl ± Qz ±

313 Mag (Figs. 6c, 6d). In most cases, the worm-like Amp + Pl ± Qz ± Mag symplectites or coronas

314 occur around embayed or nearly round garnet grains that lack a corona of Opx + Pl symplectite.

315 The formation of the Amp + Pl symplectite may be related to the following reactions (Harley,

316 1989):

317 Cpx + Pl + H2O ^ Amp

318 Grt + H2O ^ Amp + Pl

319 Grt + Cpx + H2O ^ Amp + Pl

320 Grt + Cpx + Qz + H2O ^ Amp + Pl

(6) (7)

322 6. Mineral chemistry

323 6.1. Garnet

Representative garnet analyses are given in Table S2, and all garnet analyses are plotted in

325 the grossular-spessartine-almandine-pyrope triangular diagram (Fig. S1). Garnets only formed in

326 the Jiaobei pre-peak prograde and the peak HP granulite-facies stages, and they are dominantly

327 almandine (48%-78%), with grossular (12%-35%), pyrope (8%-29%), and minor spessartine

328 (1%-10%) (Table S2). Microprobe and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analyses reveal two

329 types of variations: (1) zoning patterns within individual garnet grains from the same HP mafic

330 granulite sample; (2) significant variations between garnets from different HP mafic granulite

331 samples.

The zoning profiles of garnets that are surrounded by plagioclase and quartz in the HP mafic

333 granulites are shown in Fig. S2. The garnets are characterized from core to rim by a decrease in

334 grossular, an increase in spessartine and almandine, and a lack of variation in pyrope (Fig. S2).

335 The cores of near-euhedral grains are compositionally homogeneous with flat profiles, and they

336 possibly represent the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism. The outermost rims have low

337 grossular and high almandine contents (Fig. S2), which reflects a resetting by diffusion and net

338 transfer reaction during post-peak decompression.

Significant compositional differences exist between garnets from the different HP mafic

340 granulites samples (Table S2; Fig. S1). The cores of garnets from some HP mafic granulites have

341 relatively high grossular and pyrope, and relatively low almandine contents, compared to garnets

342 from other HP mafic granulites (Table S2; Fig. S1). These compositional characteristics suggest

343 that garnet compositions were controlled not only by the metamorphic P-T conditions, but also by

344 the chemical compositions of the host rocks.

In comparison with garnets formed during the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphic stage in

346 other early Precambrian granulite-facies terranes worldwide, the CaO and MgO contents of the

347 Jiaobei M2 stage garnets are respectively about 12.0 wt % and 4.0 wt % higher and lower than in

348 garnets in the Sanggan HP mafic granulites (Guo et al., 2002), the Kouibli HP mafic granulites

349 (Pitra et al., 2010), and the Kanja Malai-Perundurai HP mafic ganulites (Saitoh et al., 2011), but

350 they are similar to the CaO and MgO contents of garnets in the Hengshan HP mafic granulites

351 (Zhao et al., 2001b) and the Snowbird mafic granulites (Baldwin et al., 2003). These data may

352 indicate that the peak temperature and pressure conditions of the Jiaobei HP granulites were

353 similar to those in the Hengshan and Snowbird mafic granulites.

354 6.2. Plagioclase

Table S3 lists representative analyses of all textural types of plagioclases, including

356 plagioclase inclusions within garnet, coarse-grained matrix-plagioclase, plagioclase from Px + Pl

357 symplectitic coronas, and plagioclase from Amp + Pl symplectitic coronas.

In most samples, the plagioclase inclusions within garnet show no pronounced compositional

359 variations, and they are andesine in composition. However, a distinct compositional zoning from

360 bytownite cores to labradorite rims characterizes the plagioclase inclusions within the garnet of

361 sample QX9-1a. It is noted that plagioclase inclusions within the garnet of sample QX11-1 have

362 the lowest calcium content amongst the different plagioclase inclusion samples.

In general, plagioclases in symplectites are more calcic than other types of plagioclase, and

364 they vary from andesine to bytownite (Fig. S3). Plagioclase in a symplectite in HP mafic granulite

365 QX9-1a shows a distinct compositional zoning, varying in composition from bytownite to

366 labradorite (Table S2; Fig. S3). The higher anorthite contents of the symplectite plagioclase are

367 always present in the rims in contact with or close to a garnet grain (Figs. S4, S5). There is a

368 pronounced compositional difference between plagioclase in the Opx + Cpx + Pl symplectites

369 (QX9-2 and QX9-1a) and plagioclase in the Amp + Pl symplectites (PD22a-06) (Table S2; Fig.S3),

370 implying that plagioclase composition is chiefly controlled by the chemical composition of the

371 host bulk-rock.

Coarse-grained matrix-plagioclases from QX11-1, PD13c-01, PD2a-2, and QX87-1 are

373 generally less calcic than symplectite plagioclase, and they vary from andesine to labradorite.

374 There is significant compositional zoning from core to rim in the coarse-grained

375 matrix-plagioclases. For example, a plagioclase in sample QX9-1a, 0.20 mm across, and located

376 between a large garnet crystal and a corona with clinopyroxene, shows compositional zoning from

377 An50 (core) to An80 (rim) (Figs. S4, S5). The compositional data imply that plagioclase

378 compositions in the Jiaobei HP granulites are controlled by the chemical composition of the

379 bulk-rock as well as the textural context.

380 6.3. Clinopyroxene

Representative clinopyroxene analyses are given in Table S4, including inclusions in garnet,

382 matrix grains, and the clinopyroxene in coronas and symplectites. All clinopyroxenes are

383 dominated by a diopside-hedenbergite component together with enstatite-ferrosilite and

384 Ca-tschermaks (Fig. S6). The remarkable feature of the clinopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP

385 granulites is the pronounced variation in Al2O3 contents, ranging from 1.50 to 5.00 wt % (Table

386 S4). However, it should be noted that the Al2O3 contents of clinopyroxenes in the matrix are

387 higher than in the clinopyroxene inclusions within garnets or the worm-like clinopyroxenes in

388 coronas and symplectities (Fig. S7), and this implies that the matrix clinopyroxenes formed at a

389 higher pressure than other types (Anovitz, 1993).

390 6.4. Orthopyroxene

Table S5 lists representative core and rim compositions of matrix orthopyroxene,

392 compositions of worm-like orthopyroxene in symplectites and coronas, and compositions of

393 orthopyroxene inclusions within garnet. In a single sample, there are no significant compositional

394 variations among the different types of orthopyroxene (Table S5; Fig. S8). In contrast, the

395 orthopyroxenes from different HP mafic granulites show pronounced differences in the XMg ratios

396 (0.23-0.62) and Al2O3 contents (0.43-3.00 wt %), and these differences may be chiefly controlled

397 by the chemical compositions of the host bulk-rocks (Table S5). According to the nomenclature of

398 Deer (1997), the compositions of the analyzed orthopyroxenes range from hypersthene to eulite

399 (Table S5; Fig. S8).

400 6.5. Amphibole

Amphibole analyses have been divided into two groups: (1) cores of matrix amphiboles; (2)

402 amphiboles in symplectites associated with symplectitic plagioclase. Representative analyses are

403 listed in Table S6. According to the nomenclature of Leake et al. (1997) the compositions of the

404 amphiboles range from ednite to pargasite (Fig. S9). Matrix amphiboles associated with

405 hypersthene and clinopyroxene have higher TiO2 contents (1.61-2.59 wt %) than the amphiboles

406 in symplectites (0.14-1.16 wt %). According to the classification of Ji (1991), most matrix

407 amphiboles plot in the granulite-facies, whereas the symplectitic amphiboles plot in the

408 amphibolite facies (Fig. S10).

410 7. Thermobarometric evaluation

Generally, partially equilibrated mineral assemblages can record major parts of the P-T

412 conditions undergone by HP mafic granulites (Elvevold and Gilotti, 2000; O'Brien, 2008). The

413 prograde metamorphic history is mainly recorded by minerals that are preserved as inclusions

414 within garnet (Zhao et al., 2001b; Guo et al., 2002). In contrast, many characteristic

415 decompressional textures, such as coronas, symplectites, reaction rims, and compositional zoning

416 are vital for defining the retrograde P-T path. On the basis of petrographic observations of the

417 textural relationships in the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites, three critical mineral parageneses have

418 been selected for further study in order to determine the P-T conditions during the different

419 metamorphic stages outlined above, namely Grt + Cpx + Pl + Qz, Grt + Opx + Pl + Qz, and Grt +

420 Amp + Pl + Qz.

421 7.1. Pre-peak prograde stage (Mi)

In the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites, fine-grained Cpx + Pl ± Qz inclusions within the cores of

423 the coarse-grained garnets, which are not connected by cracks, have been recognized as typical

424 prograde assemblages. Accordingly, the core compositions of garnet and the fine-grained

425 inclusions of clinopyroxene and plagioclase were chosen for P-T calculations of the pre-peak

426 prograde stage (M1). Temperatures were calculated using Grt-Cpx geothermometers and the

427 following formulae:

(1) T (°C) = ((-6173(XCa)2) + 6713XCa + 1879 + 10P(kb))/(lnKD + 1.393)) - 273 (Krogh,

429 1988)

(2) T (°C) = (2790 + 10P (kb) + 3140 XCa)/(lnKD + 1.735)) - 273 (Powell, 1985)

(3) T (°C) = (3030 + 10.86P (kb) + 3104 XCa)/(lnKD + 1.9034)) - 273 (Eill and Green, 1979)

Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz geobarometers, using the following formulae, allowed us to estimate early

433 prograde metamorphic pressures:

(4) P (kbar) = 2.60 + 0.01718 T (K) + 0.0035967(K) lnKD (Eckert et al., 1991)

(5) P (kbar) = 1.425 + 0.017929 T (°C) + 0.0035962T (°C) lnKD (Newton and Perkins, 1982)

Eight Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz pairs of the two HP mafic granulite samples yielded a P-T range of

437 0.90-1.00 GPa and 740-770 °C (Fig. S11a; Tables S7, S8), which is representative of the

438 conditions of the pre-peak prograde stage of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

439 7.2. Peak HP granulite-facies stage (M2)

The characteristic peak mineral assemblage in the Jiaobei mafic granulites is Grt + Cpx + Pl

441 ± Qz ± Rt. The core compositions of garnet grains with the highest grossular contents, the

442 coarse-grained matrix clinopyroxenes with the highest jadeite contents, and the coarse-grained

443 matrix plagioclases with the lowest anorthite contents, were chosen for calculating the peak P-T

444 conditions of the HP granulite-facies stage (M2).

Using the same geothermometers and geobarometers as those chosen for the M1 stage, 10

446 Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz pairs of the three HP mafic granulite samples yielded a P-T range of 1.45-1.65

447 GPa and 850-880 °C, which is representative of the peak conditions of the HP granulite-facies

448 stage in the Jiaobei rocks (Fig. S11b; Tables S7, S8).

449 7.3. Post-peak near isothermal decompression granulite-facies stage (M3)

The typical M3 assemblage contains worm-like orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, and

451 plagioclase in symplectites that are the products of garnet breakdown. The compositions of the

452 rims of the residual garnets (which have lower grossular contents), the worm-like orthopyroxenes

453 and clinopyroxenes with the lowest jadeite contents, and the plagioclases around the residual

454 garnets were chosen for calculating the P-T conditions during the post-peak near isothermal

455 decompression granulite-facies stage (M3). Temperatures were calculated using Opx-Cpx

456 geothermometers and the following formulae:

(6) T (°C) = [24787 + 678P(GPa)]/[15.67 + 14.37 + TiCpx + 36.9(Fe"Tpx - 3.25Xts + (LnKD)z]

=2+xCpx

- 273, Xts = (Al + Cr - Na)Cpx (Taylor, 1998)

(7) T (°C) = 7341/[3.355 + 2.44(XFe)Cpx - lnKD] - 273 (Wells, 1977)

Grt-Opx-Pl-Qz geobarometers, using the following formulae, were used to estimate

461 post-peak metamorphic pressures:

(8) P (kbar) = 3.47 + 0.01307T (K) + 0.003504T (K) LnKD (Bhattacharya et al., 1991)

(9) P (kbar) = 3.694 + 0.01282 T (°C) + 0.00350387(°C) lnKD (Newton and Perkins, 1982)

Eight Opx-Cpx pairs of two samples and two Grt-Opx-Pl-Qz pairs of one sample yielded a

465 P-T range of 0.65-0.85 GPa and 780-830 °C (Fig. S11c; Tables S9, S10), representing the P-T

466 conditions during the post-peak near isothermal decompression granulite-facies stage in the

467 Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

468 7.4. Late amphibolite-facies retrograde stage (M4)

The representative M4 assemblage is defined by the appearance of amphibole and plagioclase

470 in hydrous symplectites around garnets. The compositions of the rims of the residual garnets

471 (which have lower grossular contents), and the worm-like amphiboles and plagioclases in the

472 symplectites around the residual garnets, were chosen for calculating the P-T conditions during

473 the late amphibolite-facies retrograde stage of metamorphism (M4).

Temperatures were calculated using Grt-Amp geothermometers and the following formulae:

(9) T (°C) = [2880 + 3280((XCa)Grt)]/(LnKD + 2.426) - 273 (Graham and Powell, 1984)

476 (10) T (°C) = [1504 + 1784((XCa)Grt + (XCa)Grt)]/(LnKD + 0.720) - 273 (Ravna, 2000)

Grt-Amp-Pl-Qz geobarometers, using the following formulae, allowed us to estimate

478 metamorphic pressures during the late amphibolite-facies retrograde stage:

(11) PMg (bar) = [79507 + 29.14 x T(K) + 8.3144 x T(K) x LnKD]/10.988 (Kohn and Spear,

480 1990)

(12) PFe (bar) = [35327 + 56.09 x T(K) + 8.3144 x T(K) x LnKD]/11.906 (Kohn and Spear,

482 1990)

Three Grt-Amp-Pl-Qz pairs of one sample yielded a P-T range of 0.62-0.82 GPa and

484 590-650 °C (Fig. S11d; Tables S11, S12), representing the P-T conditions during the late

485 amphibolite-facies retrograde stage in the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

487 8. Mineral inclusions and cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of zircon

488 We studied zircons separated from three samples of HP mafic granulite in the Jiaobei terrane.

489 They are QX9-1, a Grt mafic granulite, QX66-2, a Grt amphibolite, and QX11-1, a Grt-Hyp

490 granulite. Petrographic observations show that they contain typical retrogressive products of the

491 Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

492 8.1. Grt mafic granulite (QX9-1)

Zircons from QX9-1, a Grt mafic granulite, have irregular, rounded, oval, and prismatic

494 shapes, dark purplish red colors, lengths that range from 150 to 350 ^m, and length to width ratios

495 of 1:1 to 2.5:1 (Figs. 7, 8). Based on CL imaging, crystal habits, and mineral inclusions, these

496 zircon grains can be subdivided into two types. Type one is characterized by homogeneous

497 medium-luminescent metamorphic cores surrounded by relatively homogeneous low-luminescent

498 metamorphic rims (Fig. 7). Luminescence of the cores and rims is homogeneous, typical of a

499 metamorphic origin. Widths of the rims are quite variable, ranging from a few to more than 50 ^m.

500 Laser Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of rare inclusions of Ap in cores and rims. Type

501 two zircon grains are anhedral or nearly rounded, characterized by homogeneous medium- to

502 low-luminescence, and mineral inclusions of Ap + Opx + Pl + Grt + Sph (Table S1). CL image

503 features and the crystal habits of type two zircon grains also indicate a metamorphic origin.

504 8.2. Grt amphibolite (QX66-2)

Zircon grains from QX66-2, a Grt amphibolite, have irregular, stubby, spherical to oval, and

506 prismatic to pyramidal shapes, dark purplish red colors, strong zoning, lengths of 50-200 ^m, and

507 length to width ratios of 1:1-3:1 (Fig. 9). Three types of these zircon grains are recognized on the

508 basis of CL imaging, crystal shapes, and mineral inclusions. Type one zircon grains show

509 relatively low-luminescent inherited magmatic cores, some of which are surrounded by narrow

510 low- to medium-luminescent metamorphic rims. The inherited cores contain rare mineral

511 inclusions such as Ap. CL images of inherited cores show a pronounced zoning of magmatic

512 origin (Figs. 9a, 9b). Type two zircon grains exhibit relatively homogeneous low-luminescent

513 metamorphic cores, and narrow high- to medium-luminescent metamorphic rims (Figs. 9c, 9d).

514 Laser Raman spectroscopy indicates the presence of rare mineral inclusions of Ap + Qz + Pl in

515 core domains of the zircon grains. Type three zircons are characterized by relatively homogeneous

516 medium-luminescent CL images (Fig. 9e-9h), indicating a metamorphic origin. Zircon grains of

517 type three contain mineral inclusions of Ap + Qz + Pl (Table S1).

518 8.3. Grt-Hyp granulite (QX11-1)

519 Zircon grains from QX11-1, a Grt-Hyp granulite, have mainly rounded, oval, and irregular

520 shapes, dark purplish red colors, lengths of 100-250 ^m, and length to width ratios of 1:1 to 2:1.

521 Based on CL imaging, crystal shapes, and mineral inclusions, these zircons are subdivided into

522 two types. Type one zircon grains show homogeneous low-luminescent CL images, and contain

523 rare mineral inclusions such as Grt + Ap (Table S1; Figs. 10, 11). Type two zircons also show

524 relatively homogeneous medium-luminescent CL images. Laser Raman spectroscopy indicates the

525 presence of rare mineral inclusions of Ap in the type two zircon grains (Table S1; Figs. 10, 11).

527 9. U-Pb dating of zircons

The results of 194 U-Pb analyses on 184 zircon grains from Grt mafic granulite (QX9-1), Grt

529 amphibolite (QX66-2), and Grt-Hyp granulite (QX11-1) are summarized in Tables S13-S15, and

530 plotted on 207Pb/235U-206Pb/238U diagrams with 1a errors (Fig. 12-14).

531 9.1. Grt mafic granulite (QX9-1)

U-Pb LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from QX9-1 define two discrete age groups (Table

533 S13; Fig. 12). Twenty metamorphic cores with low Th/U ratios (0.01-0.03) yielded relatively old

534 apparent 2

07Pb/206Pb

ages ranging mainly from 1878 ± 21 to 1864 ± 13 Ma, with a weighted mean

535 age of 1870 ± 7 Ma (20 spots). The 207Pb/206Pb ages from the metamorphic core domains are

536 consistent with the HP granulite-facies metamorphic ages recorded by Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz-bearing

537 metamorphic zircon domains in specimen PD13d-02 of Liu et al. (2012b), and the 20'Pb/206Pb ages

538 are therefore interpreted as recording the time of the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism in

539 the Grt mafic granulite specimen QX9-1. In contrast, 53 spot analyses on metamorphic rims and

540 other metamorphic zircon domains with low Th/U ratios (0.01-0.16) yielded relatively younger 54 1 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1862 ± 16 to 1822 ± 17 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 1848 ± 4 Ma (53

542 spots). These ages are similar to the metamorphic ages (1839 ± 3 Ma) recorded in the Opx-bearing

543 zircon domains in sample PD16a-02 of Liu et al. (2012b), and the magmatic ages (1852 ± 9 Ma)

544 recorded by banded zones in magmatic zircons in a meta-diorite described by Dong et al. (2011).

545 The relatively younger 2 07Pb/206Pb

ages should therefore represent the timing of the retrogressive

546 metamorphism in the Grt mafic granulite (QX9-1).

547 9.2. Grt amphibolite (QX66-2)

548 The 207Pb/206Pb ages recorded in different domains of zircons from QX66-2 can be

549 subdivided into four groups (Table S14; Fig. 13). Thirteen pre-metamorphic inherited (magmatic)

550 cores with Th/U ratios of 0.25-0.52 yielded reliable 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging mainly from 2547 ±

551 13 to 2501 ± 13 Ma, and with a weighted mean age of 2527 ± 9 Ma (13 spots). Considering the

552 inherited core domains have pronounced oscillatory and banded zoning, the 207Pb/206Pb ages

553 should represent the ages of the protolith of the retrogressive HP mafic granulite specimen

554 QX66-2. Seven inherited cores with Th/U ratios of 0.28-0.40, and no zoning, recorded relatively

555 younger 207Pb/206Pb ages of 2526 ± 13 to 2496 ± 12 Ma with a weighted mean age of 2514 ± 9 Ma

556 (7 spots). These ages may represent the timing of the late Neoarchean high-grade metamorphism

557 of the Grt amphibolite specimen QX66-2. Eleven spot analyses on metamorphic zircon domains

558 with low Th/U ratios (0.01-0.04) yielded 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1898 ± 23 to 1865 ± 21 Ma, similar

559 to the HP granulite-facies metamorphic ages recorded by domains of metamorphic zircons from

560 specimens QX9-1 and PD13d-02 (Liu et al., 2012b). Therefore, the 207Pb/206Pb ages are

561 interpreted as timing the early HP granulite-facies metamorphism of Grt amphibolite specimen

562 QX66-2. Sixteen spot analyses on domains of metamorphic zircons with low Th/U ratios

563 (0.01-0.08) yielded the youngest 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1861 ± 21 to 1824 ± 40 Ma, with a weighted

564 mean age of 1848 ± 11 Ma (16 spots) (Table S14; Fig. 13), and these ages are consistent with the

565 metamorphic age of 1839 ± 3 Ma recorded by zircon domains in the Opx-bearing sample

566 PD16a-02 (Liu et al., 2012b) as well as the metamorphic age of 1848 ± 4 Ma for the retrogressive

567 rims in sample QX9-1. Thus, the youngest

207Pb/206Pb

ages are interpreted as timing the

568 retrogressive metamorphism of Grt amphibolite specimen QX66-2.

569 9.3. Grt-Hyp granulite (QX11-1)

570 Two groups of 207Pb/206Pb ages in the metamorphic zircons from sample QX11-1 are

571 recognized on the basis of CL images, mineral inclusions, and U-Pb dating (Table S15; Fig. 14).

572 Fourteen spot analyses on metamorphic zircons with low Th/U ratios (0.03-0.16), yielded 5 7 3 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1880 ± 14 to 1869 ± 13 Ma, with a weighted mean age of 1873 ± 8 Ma (14

574 spots), consistent with the timing of the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism in samples

575 PD13d-02 and QX9-1. Thus, the 207Pb/206Pb age of 1873 ± 8 Ma is interpreted as timing the early

576 HP granulite-facies metamorphism of the Grt-Hyp granulite specimen QX11-1. In contrast, 61

577 spot analyses on metamorphic zircon domains with rare mineral inclusions yielded relatively

578 younger 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 1864 ± 15 to 1804 ± 21 Ma with a weighted mean age of

579 1848 ± 4 Ma (61 spots) (Table S15; Fig. 14). These younger ages are similar to the retrogressive

580 ages in other HP mafic granulites from the Jiaobei terrane, and they should represent, therefore,

581 the retrogressive metamorphic ages of the Grt-Hyp granulite specimen QX11-1.

583 10. Discussion

584 10.1. Protolith and metamorphic ages

585 10.1.1. Protolith ages

586 The inherited cores in some zircon domains in the retrogressive HP mafic granulite

587 (PD16a-02) exhibit a pronounced oscillatory zoning of magmatic origin (Liu et al., 2012b). These

588 zircons yielded a weighted mean 207Pb/206Pb age of 2753 ± 22 Ma, and this age has been

589 interpreted as the crystallization age of the protolith of the retrogressive HP mafic granulite

590 (PD16a-02; Liu et al., 2012b). Tam et al. (2011) obtained a SHRIMP zircon 207Pb/206Pb age of

591 2703 ± 12 Ma from magmatic zircons in a HP mafic granulite in the Nansu area, and this age was

592 also interpreted as the crystallization age of the protolith. These ages are comparable to the

593 emplacement ages of the TTG gneisses in this area. The TTG gneisses have protolith ages of

594 2750-2700 Ma, as reported from the Laixi and Qixia areas (Tang et al., 2007; Jahn et al., 2008;

595 Liu et al., 2011b, 2013a). As described above, some inherited magmatic zircon core yielded

596 weighted mean ages of 2527 ± 9 Ma and 2544 ± 36 Ma for Grt amphibolite (Table S16; Liu et al.,

597 2012b), and these ages are interpreted as protolith ages. Zhang et al. (2003) also obtained a similar

598 protolith age of 2530 ± 17 Ma for an amphibolite in the Laizhou area. Furthermore, Late Archean

599 dioritic, TTG, and granitic gneisses were emplaced between 2564 and 2520 Ma (Zhou et al., 2008a;

600 Wan et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2013a), and are widely distributed in the Jiaobei terrane. These

601 isotopic age data indicate that the protolith ages of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites fall in multiple

602 periods, which include at least the periods 2750-2700 and 2550-2500 Ma.

603 10.1.2. Metamorphic ages

Numerous geochronological studies have been examined for the metamorphic basement

605 rocks in the Jiaobei terrane (Table S16). However, these studies were commonly unable to

606 distinguish the timing of the peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism from the later retrogressive

607 metamorphism. There is a large variation in ages ranging from 1950 to 1800 Ma (Table S16), and

608 the exact meaning of these ages requires further analysis.

The metamorphic cores and retrogressive rims can be identified in CL images of some zircon

610 grains from Grt mafic granulite sample QX9-1. The cores record consistent '

07Pb/206Pb

ages of

611 1878 ± 21 to 1864 ±13 Ma with a weighted mean age of 1870 ± 7 Ma. Abundant metamorphic

612 zircons from various rocks in the Jiaobei terrane also record similar 207Pb/206Pb ages, ranging

613 mainly from 1900 to 1860 Ma, including metamorphic ages of 1878 ± 14, 1873 ± 7, 1877 ± 17,

614 1882 ± 2, and 1884 ± 42 Ma for Grt amphibolite, Grt-Hyp granulite, meta-ultramafic rock, Grt-Px

615 granulite, and the two-mica Sil-Grt gneiss, respectively (Table S16; Liu et al., 2011d; Tam et al.,

616 2011; Liu et al., 2012b). Especially, Mineral inclusions that grew during the the HP

617 granulite-facies metamorophic stage, such as Grt + Cpx + Pl + Rt + Qz, were first identified as

618 inclusions in metamorphic zircons from Amp-Opx-Cpx granulite PD13d-02 (Liu et al., 2012b).

619 These zircons yield similar 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1925 ± 27 to 1853 ± 21 Ma, with a weighted mean

620 age of 1872 ± 12 Ma (Liu et al., 2012b). Therefore, these ages are interpreted as the timing of the

621 peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism of the HP granulites in the Jioabei terrane.

Retrogressive rims can be identified in CL images of some zircons from Grt mafic granulite

623 sample QX9-1(Fig.7-8). Laser Raman analysis reveals that some retrogressive zircons contain a

624 mineral assemblage of Grt + Opx + Pl + Sph, indicative of middle- to low-pressure

625 granulite-facies metamorphism (Fig. 15). Compared with the cores of some zircons, these rims or

626 retrogressive zircons record younger 207Pb/206Pb ages ranging from 1862 ± 16 to 1822 ± 17 Ma,

627 with a weighted mean age of 1847 ± 4 Ma. A recent study reported that abundant retrogressive

628 zircons from Grt-Hyp granulite and Grt amphibolite contain Opx and Amp inclusions, and record

629 similar 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1849 ± 11 to 1817 ± 13 Ma (Liu et al., 2012b). Furthermore, other

630 metmorphic rocks within the Jiaobei terrane record similar retorgression ages, and Faure et al.

631 (2003) reported an amphibole 40Ar/39Ar age of 1803 ± 12 Ma in HP mafic granulite in the Jiaobei

632 area (Table S16). Therefore, these younger ' 07Pb/206Pb ages are interpreted as the timing of the

633 post-peak retrogressive metamorphism of the HP granulites within the Jiaobei terrane.

In addition, Liu et al. (2012a) obtained a partial melting age of 1860 ± 4 Ma recorded by

635 magmatic zircons from granitic leucosome within HP mafic granulite. Dong et al. (2011) reported

636 a magmatic event dated at 1852 ± 9 Ma based on analyses of magmatic zircons in meta-diorite.

637 These age data indicate that a magmatic event occurred during exhumation of the Jiaobei HP

638 terrane.

639 10.2. P-T-t path and tectonic implications

640 10.2.1. P-T-t path

The mineral assemblages of the four metamorphic stages, their P-T thermobarometry,

642 metamorphic reaction textures and mineral chemistry, combined with isotopic data can be used to

643 reconstruct the P-T-t path of the Jiaobei terrane HP mafic granulites which is important for

644 understanding the tectonic evolution of the southern segment of the JLJB. The early prograde

645 stage (M1), represented by mineral inclusions of Cpx + Pl ± Qz in the cores of garnets, is confined

646 at P-T conditions of 740-770 °C and 0.9-1.0 GPa. The peak (M2) stage, which is characterized by

647 the mineral assemblage of Grt + Cpx + Pl ± Qz ± Rt, recording the P-T conditions of 850-880 °C

648 and 1.45-1.65 GPa (Fig. 16). The metamorphic zircons formed in the M2 stage record the peak HP

649 granulite-facies metamorphic ages of 1900-1860 Ma (Fig. 16). Following M2 is the post-peak (M3)

650 stage, at which the Cpx + Pl + Opx symplectite developed together with Ilm, Mt and Qz in the

651 rims of garnets, recording the P-T conditions of 780-830 °C and 0.65-0.85 GPa. The retrograde

652 (M4) stage featured by the Amp + Pl + Qz + Ilm symplectite is confined at P-T conditions of

653 590-650 °C and 0.62-0.82 GPa (Fig. 16). The metamorphic zircons formed in the M3 and M4

654 stages record post-peak retrogressive ages of 1860 to 1820 Ma. These mineral assemblages, their

655 P-T conditions, and isotopic data define a clockwise P-T-t path for the HP mafic granulites,

656 suggesting that the rocks underwent near-isothermal decompression and subsequent cooling

657 following the peak metamorphism, implying that the Jiaobei terrane underwent initial crustal

658 thickening followed by rapid exhumation/uplift, which is consistent with the collisional

659 charateristics of the JLJB suggested by Bai et al., (1993), Li et al (2011a) and Zhao et al., (2011).

660 10.2.2 Tectonic implications

The tectonic setting responsible for the HP granulite-facies metamorphism is a hot topic

662 within the tectonic and metamorphic fields. Possible tectonic settings include: (1) overthickened

663 crust (~50 km-thick) associated with large-scale thrusting in a collisional orogenic belt (e.g.

664 Carswell and O'Brien, 1993; Indares, 1995, 1997; Zhao et al., 2001b; Guo et al., 2002; O'Brien et

665 al., 2008); (2) crustal thickening and subsequent exhumation of the HP granulites during

666 homogeneous fold-dominated deformation of hot crustal domains within some orogenic belts (e.g.

667 Feybesse and Milesi, 1994; Schulmann et al., 2002, 2008; Stipska et al., 2004; Pitra et al., 2010);

668 and (3) the formation of HP granulites near the base of a normal-thickness continental crust

669 (30-35 km-thick) by thermal perturbations at the base of the crust followed by isobaric cooling

670 towards a cratonic geothermal gradient. HP granulites are thought to record the long-term

671 evolution of the lower crust (e.g. Percival and Card, 1983; Percival and McGrath, 1986; Handy

672 and Zingg, 1991), and here we consider the most likely tectonic setting of the Jiaobei HP mafic

673 granulites.

The Jiaobei terrane is located in the southeastern segment of the JLJB in the NCC. The

675 Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the crust within the JLJB is controversial, and various

676 tectonic models have been proposed for the tectonic setting and evolution of the JLJB, including

677 arc-continent collision model (Bai, 1993; Faure et al., 2004; Lu et al., 2006) , and the opening and

678 closure of an intra-continental rift model (Zhang and Yang, 1988; Peng and Palmer, 1995; Li et al.,

679 2004a, 2004b, 2005, 2006, 2011a, 2012; Luo et al., 2004, 2008; Li and Zhao, 2007).

Bai (1993) suggested that the Longgang and Rangnim Blocks are two exotic Archean

681 continental blocks, and the JLJB represented an intervening island arc and back-arc basin.

682 Northward subduction beneath the southern side of the Longgang Block during the

683 Palaeoproterozoic formed an active continental margin, whereas the Rangnim Block remained a

684 passive continental margin (Bai and Dai, 1998). In contrast, Faure et al. (2004) suggested an

685 alternative arc-continent collision model where the mafic-ultramafic and sedimentary rocks of the

686 North Liaohe Group formed in a magmatic arc belt that developed above a south-directed

687 subduction zone between a northern Archean block and a southern block that included the South

688 Liaohe Group. This magmatic arc belt was subsequently overthrust onto Archean basement to the

689 north during an arc-continent collision. Lu et al. (2006) suggested a similar arc-continent collision

690 model where subduction and subsequent collision of the Longgang Block beneath the Langrim

691 Block was followed by crustal thickening, melting, and subsequent orogenic collapse. Kusky and

692 Santosh (2009) prosposed that the deformation and metamorphism of the JLJB were caused by the

693 intracontinental orogenesis in a collision-related basin that developed during the 1920 Ma

694 collisional event between the northern margin of the NCC and part of the Columbia

695 supercontinent.

The rifting-closure model for the JLJB was initially proposed by Zhang and Yang (1988)

697 who speculated that the Eastern Block of the NCC underwent rifting during the early

698 Paleoproterozoic, leading to formation of the sedimentary-volcanic successions and granitoids and

699 mafic intrusions. Subsequently, the rift basin closed during the late Paleoproterozoic to form the

700 JLJB. This rifting-closure model has been recently modified by Sanzhong Li and his collaborators

701 (Li et al., 2001, 2003, 2004a, 2004b, 2005, 2006, 2011a, 2012; Luo et al., 2004, 2006, 2008; Li

702 and Zhao, 2007), who argued that the processes involved in underplating, collision and

703 delamination within the deep lithosphere controlled the tectonic evolution of the crust in the JLJB.

704 In addition, some researchers proposed that the Jiaobei HP mafic and pelitic granulites in the

705 southeastern part of the JLJB provide evidence that the JLJB is a Paleoproterozoic rift- and-

706 collisional belt, and further suggested that the Archean Longgang and Langrim Blocks were

707 originally part of a single continental block that underwent Paleoproterozoic rifting, leading to the

708 formation of volcanic-sedimentary sequences, the emplacement of the granitoids and mafic

709 intrusions, and closure of the rift through subduction and collision at ~1930-1900 Ma (Zhou et al.,

710 2008b; Zhao et al., 2011, 2012; Tam et al., 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c).

However, none of these models can fully explain all of the features of the Paleoproterozoic

712 JLJB. For example, the arc-continent collision model cannot explain the absence of calc-alkaline

713 igneous associations within the JLJB. Whereas, the rifting-closure model cannot reasonably

714 explain the presence of polyphase compressive deformation, clockwise P-T paths, and significant

715 depletion of high field strength elements (HFSE) (Sun et al., 1993; Faure et al., 2004; Wang et al.,

716 2011a; Liu et al., 2012b) in the Paleoproterozoic mafic rocks of the JLJB. Although the nature of

717 the JLJB is still controversial, it is now commonly accepted that it represents an orogenic belt that

718 formed between the Langrim and Longgang Blocks at 1950-1800 Ma (Bai et al., 1993; Faure et

719 al., 2004; Li et al., 2004, 2005, 2012; Luo et al., 2004, 2006, 2008; Lu et al., 2006; Li and Zhao et

720 al., 2007; Zhou et al., 2008b; Tam et al., 2011, 2012a, 2012b, 2012c; Wang et al., 2011a). A

721 number of collision-related granitic rocks have been identified in the northern part of the JLJB

722 (Cai et al., 2002; Lu et al., 2004, 2005, 2006; Li and Zhao, 2007). Previous and present studies

723 (Tam et al., 2011, 2012c) reveal that the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites are characterized by a

724 clockwise P-T-t path with decompression and cooling after peak HP granulite-facies

725 metamorphism (Fig. 17; Liu et al., 1998; Liu et al., 2010; Tam et al., 2012c). The HP pelitic

726 granulites with prograde zoning of garnets in the Jiaobei terrane record a similar P-T-t path (Fig.

727 17; Zhou et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2010a; Tam et al., 2012a). This suggests that the HP granulites

728 within the Jiaobei terrane underwent complex tectonothermal evolotion at 1950-1800 Ma,

729 including crustal thickening (M1 and M2), uplift and exhumation (M3), and subsequent cooling

730 (M4). Clockwise P-T-t paths that involve decompression are generally thought to be related to

731 subduction and collision (England and Thompson, 1984; Thompson and England, 1984; Harley,

732 1989; Caswell and O'Brien, 1993; O'Brien and Rotzler, 2003; Brown, 2007).

Recently, Zhou et al. (2008b), Wang et al. (2010a) and Tam et al. (2012a) reported

734 Paleoproterozoic HP pelitic granulites from the sourthern segment of the JLJB (Fig. 17). The

735 existence of HP pelitic granulites is important for recognition of collisional orogens because only

736 palte tectonic processes involving subduction and continent-continent collision can bring the

737 sedimentary precursors of pelitic rocks into a lower crust where they experience HP

738 granulite-facies metamorphism (e.g. Zhao et al., 2012). This suggests that the presence of HP

739 pelitic and mafic granulites within the JLJB impies that the evolution of the JLJB must have been

740 involved in subdution-collision tectonic processes. In other words, even though the JLJB formed

741 by the opening and closing of a rift basin (e.g. Zhang and Yang, 1988; Luo et al., 2004, 2008; Li et

742 al., 2004, 2005, 2006, 2011a, 2012; Li and Zhao, 2007), this rift basin must have developed into

743 an ocean basin at least in its southern segment, where the oceanic lithosphere was subducted,

744 leading to the final closure of the ocean basin with the formation of the HP pelitic granulites (Zhao

745 et al., 2012; Zhao and Zhai, 2013). In this sense, the JLJB can be regarded as a Paleopreoterozoic

746 rift-and-collision belt in the Eastern Block in the NCC.

747 10.3. Tectonic-thermal events in the Jiaobei terrane

748 As previous and precent studied (Fig. 18; Tables S16), important tectonic-thermal events in

749 the sourthern segment of the JLJB have been summarized as follows.

75 0 3500-3100 Ma: The age group recorded in the inherited (magmatic and detrital) zircons from

751 various meta-sedimentary rocks in Fenzishan Group, Late Archean (~2550 Ma) granitic gneisses,

752 and Mesozoic granites, suggests that a Meso-Paleoarchean basement with components up to at

753 least 3500 Ma old possibly exists within the Jiaobei terrane (Ji, 1993; Wang et al., 1998; Li et al.,

754 2005; this study).

755 ~2900 Ma: This age has been identified in abundant magmatic zircons from the Jiaobei TTG

756 gneisses, representing the timing of emplacement of the TTG gneisses in the Jiaobei area. Nd and

757 Hf isotope data indicate that the protoliths of the TTG gneisses originated in a relatively juvenile

758 crust, with a limited contribution from older crustal components (Jahn et al., 2008; Liu et al.,

759 2013a). It is also worthy to note that the presence of the ~2900 Ma TTG gneisses distinguishes the

760 Jiaobei terrane from other tectonic units in the NCC.

761 2750-2700 Ma: This period witnessed most significant magmatic events in the Jiaobei area,

762 including a emplacement of the Neoarchean granitic and mafic magmas at 2750-2700 Ma (Tang

763 et al., 2007; Jahn et al., 2008; Tam et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012b; Liu et al., 2013a) and a partial

764 melting event of the TTG gneisses and older supracrustal rocks at ~2700 Ma (Faure et al., 2003;

765 this study).

766 2550-2450 Ma: This period shows an important late Neoarchean magmatic event, including

767 the emplacement of mafic, dioritic and granitic magmas at 2550-500 Ma (Zhang et al., 2003; Wan

768 et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2012b; Zhou et al., 2008a; Liu et al., 2013a). Previous and precent studies

769 indicate that this magmatic event involved not only the recycling of old crustal material, but also

770 the formation and growth of new juvenile crust. On the other hand, abundant metamorphic zircons

771 separated from Meso-Paleoarchean TTG gneisses (Jahn et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2011b)

772 dioritic-granitic gneisses (Wan et al., 2011; Liu et al., 2011b, 2013a), retrogressive HP mafic

773 granulites record consistent 2 i0,Pbr06Pb ages around 2520-2500 Ma (Liu et al., 2012b), which

774 supports the Jiaobei terrane experienced an important metamorphic event at late Neoarchean.

775 2450-2100 Ma: This period is represented by the ages of inherited (magmatic or detrital)

776 zircons from various meta-sedimentary rocks within the Jingshan and Fenzishan groups (Wan et

777 al., 2006; Zhou et al., 2008a; Liu et al., 2011d). In addition, Paleoproterozoic meta-gabbro and

778 granitic gneiss (2102-2095 Ma) have been also identified in the north part of the the Laiyang area

779 (Liu et al., 2011b, 2013b), indicating an important Paleoproterozoic juvenile crust-forming and

780 magmatic event probably occurred at this time.

781 2100-1950 Ma: This is the probable timing of deposition of the youngest sediments in the

782 Jingshan and Fensishan groups on a continental margin. This age interval is consistent with the

783 youngest inherited ages of 2100 ± 10 Ma recorded in the inherited (magmatic or detrital) zircons

784 from Si-Grt-Pl gneiss (e.g. Liu et al., 2011d).

1950-1900 Ma. The nature of the Jiaobei metamorphic event at 1950-1900 Ma is uncertain.

786 However, many previous and present data leads us to think that these ages probably represent the

787 timing of the pre-peak prograde metamorphism of the Jiaobei HP granulites (Table S16; Fig. 18).

1900-1860 Ma: The timing of the high grade metamorphism has been documented by

789 SHRIMP and LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of zircons from TTG and granitic gneisses, meta-mafic

790 and -ultramfic rocks, and various meta-sedimentary rocks in the Jiaobei terrane over past 10 years

791 (Table S16; Fig. 18). The timing of the granulite-facies metamorphism ranges from 1961 Ma to

792 1832 Ma (Table S16; Fig. 18). In our previous and present studies, however, most metamorphic

793 zircon domains with or without index HP granulite-facies mineral inclusions, such as Grt + Cpx +

794 Pl + Qz + Rt from the Jiaobei HP granulites and their country rocks record consistent 2 •°'Pb/206Pb

795 ages ranging from 1898 to 1864 Ma (Table S16; Fig. 18). Thus, only one Paleoproterozoic HP

796 granulite-facies metamorphic event (1900-1860 Ma) is unequivocally established in the Jiaobei

797 terrane.

1860-1800 Ma: A precise younger age group is well-recorded in the outmost zircon rims and

799 Opx-bearing zircon domains from meta-mafic rocks and their country rocks (Fig. 18; Table S16).

800 For example, the retrogressive rims of some zircons in the Grt mafic granulite (QX9-1) and

801 Opx-bearing zircon domains in the Grt-Hyp granulite (PD16a-02) record younger weighted mean

802 207Pb/206Pb

ages of 1847 ± 4 Ma and 1839 ± 3 Ma, respectively, which are consistent with

803 40Ar/39Ar ages of 1830- 803 Ma for amphiboles from the HP mafic granulites (Faure et al., 2003).

804 Thus, the regional post-peak granulite- to amphibolite-facies overprint in the Jiaobei terrane has a

805 well-constrain at 1860-1800 Ma.

807 11. Conclusions

Systematically petrological and geochronological analyses of the HP mafic granulites within

809 the Jiaobei terrane, together preexisting data yield the following conclusions.

1. The Jiaobei HP mafic granulites are composed chiefly of Grt mafic granulites, Grt-Hyp

811 granulites, and Grt amphibolites, and occur mainly as irregular lenses or as a set of deformed dike

812 swarms within the TTG gneisses or granitic gneisses. They crop out in a HP metamorphic belt at

813 least 200 km long from SW Pingdu to NE Qixia within the Jiaobei terrane.

2. The HP mafic granulites contain four distinct metamorphic mineral assemblages (M1-M4).

815 The early prograde assemblage (M1) is represented by the cores of garnets, together with mineral

816 inclusions of Cpx + Pl ± Qz, and it formed at 740-770 °C and 0.90-1.00 GPa. The peak

817 assemblage (M2) consists of high-Ca cores in Grt, high-Al cores in Cpx, and high-Na cores in Pl in

818 the matrix, which formed at P-T conditions of 850-880 °C and 1.45-1.65 GPa. The peak

819 metamorphism was followed by near-isothermal decompression (M3), which resulted in the

820 development of Opx + Cpx + Pl ± Qz ± Amp ± Mag symplectites or coronas surrounding relict

821 garnet, recording P-T conditions of 780-830 °C and 0.65-0.85 GPa. Surrounding some relict

822 garnet grains are new fine-grained symplectites of Amp + Pl + Qz ± Mag, which formed during a

823 cooling retrograde stage (M4) with P-T conditions of 590-650 °C and 0.62-0.82 GPa.

3. Zircon U-Pb data, combined with CL images and mineral inclusions in different zircon

825 domains, reveal that the protolith ages of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites fall in multiple periods,

826 which include at least the period 2550-2500 Ma, and that the timing of the HP granulite-facies

827 metamorphism ranges from 1900 Ma to 1860 Ma, as recorded by metamorphic zircon cores. The

828 medium- to low-pressure (LMP) granulite-amphibolite facies retrogressive metamorphism

829 occurred in the period 1860-1800 Ma, as recorded by metamorphic zircon rims and the

830 retrogressive zircons with LMP granulite facies mineral inclusions of Grt + Opx + Pl.

4. Mineral assemblages, their P-T conditions, and zircon U-Pb data together define a

832 clockwise P-T-t path for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites that involves near-isothermal

833 decompression and near-isobaric cooling following the peak metamorphism. This data, combined

834 with previous studies, suggest that the Jiaobei terrane must have been involved in subduction- and

835 collision-related tectonic processes during the period 1950-1800 Ma.

836 Acknowledgements

837 We thank Qihan Shen, Lilin Du, Ziran Zhao, Lingling Xiao, En Meng, Ling Yan, Huaikun Li,

838 Jianzheng Geng, Huaimin Xue and Jinguang Wang for assistance and discussions. We also

839 sincerely thank Prof. Guochun Zhao and two anonymous reviewers for their constructive

840 comments and editorial corrections. This study was financially supported by the Nation 973

841 Project of Chinese Ministry of Science and Technology (grant no. 2012CB416603), the National

842 Natural Scientific Foundation of China (grant nos. 40725007 and 40921001), the Basic Scientific

843 Research Foundations of the Institute of Geology, Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences (grant

844 no. J1212), and the Geological Investigation Project of China Geological Survey (grant nos.

845 1212011120150 and 1212010811065).

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MANUSCRIPT

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160(3-4), 323-340.

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high-pressure pelitic granulites from the Jiaobei massif. Chinese Science Bulletin 49(14),

1942-1948.

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1360 Zhou, X.W., Zhao, G.C., Geng, Y.S., 2010. Helanshan high pressure pelitic granulite: Petrologic

evidence for collision event in the western block of the North China Craton. Acta Geologica

1362 Sinica 26(7), 2113-2121.

1364 Figure captions

1366 Fig. 1. Tectonic framework of the NCC showing the location of the HP granulites and JLJB in the

1367 Eastern Block (after Zhao et al., 2005, 2011). 1, Zhou et al. (2010). 2, Wei et al. (2001). 3-5, Ma

1368 and Wang (1995) and Li et al. (1998a). 6-9, Zhai et al (1993, 1995), Guo et al. (2002, 2005), Liu

1369 et al. (2002), Zhang et al. (2006a) and Wang et al. (2011b). 10-13, Wang et al.(1992), Zhao et

1370 al.(2000, 2001b), O'Brien et al.(2005) and Zhang et al.(2006b). 14, Zhao et al. (2000) and Yu et al.

1371 (2001). 15-16, Xiao et al. (2010). 17-19, Liu et al. (1998), Zhou et al.(2004), Liu et al. (2010) and

1372 Tam et al. (2012a, 2012c). 20, Lee et al. (2000).

1374 Fig. 2. Simplified geological map showing the geological setting of the HP granulites in the

1375 Jiaobei terrane (after Lu et al., 1996).

1377 Fig. 3. Geological sketch map showing the geological setting of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites

1378 and sample locations. (a) Pantao area. (b) Nanshankou area. (c)Tangjiazhuang area. (d)

1379 Tanggezhuang area.

1381 Fig. 4. Representative field photographs from the Jiaobei area showing the relationships between

1382 the HP mafic granulites and their country rocks. (a) and (b) HP mafic granulites as enclaves

1383 preserved in migmatitic TTG gneisses. (c) HP mafic granulites as deformed dikes preserved in

1384 TTG gneisses. (d) 'White eye' texture preserved in Grt amphibolite.

1386 Fig. 5. Representative photomicrographs showing typical textures of HP mafic granulites from the

1387 Jiaobei area. (a) BSE image and (b) PPL (plane polarized light) image of Cpxj + Ph as inclusions

1388 preserved in Grt. (c) Grt + Cpx2 + Pl as an index HP granulitic mineral assemblage identified in

1389 the matrix of sample QX9-1a, with a symplectite of Cpx3 + Amp3 + Pl around Grt. Image in PPL.

1390 (d) Symplectite of Cpx3 + Amp3 + Pl around Grt. Image in PPL.

1392 Fig. 6. Photomicrographs showing typical textures of the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites (all in plane

1393 polarized light). (a) Symplectite of Opx + Pl + Qz + Mag surrounding Grt. (b) Symplectite of Cpx

1394 + Opx + Pl + Qz + Mag surrounding Grt. (c) Symplectite of Amp + Pl + Qz + Mag surrounding

1395 Grt with coarse-grained Cpx in matrix. (d) "White eye" texture composed of Amp + Pl + Qz +

1396 Mag preserved in Grt amphibolite.

1399 Fig. 7. Plane polarized light (PPL) images, cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and LA-ICP-MS

1400 U-Pb ages of host zircons from Grt mafic granulite specimen QX9-1. (a) Zircon grain QX9-1.3

1401 with no mineral inclusions. (b) CL image of the same zircon as in (a) showing

1402 medium-luminescent metamorphic core and low-luminescent metamorphic rim, and 207Pb/206Pb

1403 ages. (c) Zircon grain QX9-1.33 with no mineral inclusions. (d) CL image of the same

1404 metamorphic zircon as in (c) showing a medium-luminescent metamorphic core and

1405 low-luminescent metamorphic rim, and 207Pb/206Pb ages.

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1407 Fig. 8. Plane polarized light (PPL) images, cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and LA-ICP-MS

1408 U-Pb ages of host zircons from Grt mafic granulite specimen QX9-1. (a) Zircon grain QX9-1.16

1409 with no mineral inclusions. (b) CL image of the same zircon as in (a) showing

1410 medium-luminescent metamorphic core and low-luminescent metamorphic rim, and 207Pb/206Pb

1411 ages. (c) Zircon grain QX9-1.55 with no mineral inclusions. (d) CL image of the same

1412 metamorphic zircon as in (c) showing a medium-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age.

1414 Fig. 9. Plane polarized light (PPL) images, cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and LA-ICP-MS

1415 U-Pb ages of host zircons from Grt amphibolite specimen QX66-2. (a) Zircon grain QX66-2.41

1416 with no mineral inclusions. (b) CL image of the same zircon as in (a) showing low-luminescent

1417 magmatic zoning, and a 207Pb/206Pb age. (c) Zircon grain QX66-2.17 with no mineral inclusions.

1418 (d) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (c) showing a relatively homogeneous

1419 low-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age. (e) Zircon grain QX66-2.76 with no mineral

1420 inclusions. (f) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (e) showing a medium-luminescent

1421 CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age. (g) Small round zircon grain QX66-2.54 with no mineral

1422 inclusions. (h) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (g) showing a

1423 medium-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age.

1425 Fig. 10. Plane polarized light (PPL) images, cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and LA-ICP-MS

1426 U-Pb ages of host zircons from Grt-Hyp granulite specimen QX11-1. (a) Zircon grain QX11-1.2

1427 with no mineral inclusions. (b) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (a) showing a

1428 relatively homogeneous low-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age. (c) Zircon grain

1429 QX11-1.16 with no mineral inclusions. (d) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (c)

1430 showing a relatively homogeneous medium-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age.

1432 Fig. 11. Plane polarized light (PPL) images, cathodoluminescence (CL) images, and LA-ICP-MS

1433 U-Pb ages of host zircons from Grt-Hyp granulite specimen QX11-1. (a) Zircon grain QX11-1.79

1434 with no mineral inclusions. (b) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (a) showing a

1435 relatively homogeneous low-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age. (c) Zircon grain

1436 QX11-1.33 with no mineral inclusions. (d) CL image of the same metamorphic zircon as in (c)

1437 showing a relatively homogeneous medium-luminescent CL image, and a 207Pb/206Pb age.

1439 Fig. 12. 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U diagrams showing U-Pb analyses of zircon from Grt mafic

1440 granulite specimen QX9-1.

1442 Fig. 13. 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U diagrams showing U-Pb analyses of zircon from Grt amphibolite

1443 specimen QX66-2.

1446 Fig. 14. 206Pb/238U-207Pb/235U diagrams showing U-Pb analyses of zircon from Grt-Hyp granulite

1447 specimen QX11-1.

1449 Fig. 15. Back scattered electron (BSE) images showing typical mineral inclusions in retrogressive

1450 zircons from the Grt mafic granulite specimen QX9-1. (a) Grt; (b) Pl; (c) Opx; (d) Sph.

1452 Fig. 16. Generalized P-T-time path for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites. EA, epidote

1453 amphibolite-facies; AM, amphibolite-facies; GR, granulite-facies; HGR, high-pressure

1454 granulite-facies. The Al2SiO5 polymorph transformation reactions are from Salje (1986). Fields of

1455 metamorphic facies and subfacies are from Spear (1993). Ab = Jd + Qz (Holland, 1980).

1457 Fig. 17. PT diagram showing comparative metamorphic P-T paths in the basement rocks of the

1458 Jiaobei terrane, North China Craton. The metamorphic P-T paths are: (1) HP mafic granulites (this

1459 study); (2) HP pelitic granulites (Tam et al., 2012a); (3) HP mafic granulites (Tam et al., 2012c); (4)

1460 HP pelitic granulites (Zhou et al., 2004); (5) HP mafic granulites (Liu et al., 1998); (6)

1461 Medium-pressure pelitic granulites (Tam et al., 2012b); (7) Al-rich gneisses (Wang et al., 2010).

1462 The Al2SiO5 polymorph transformation reactions are from Salje (1986).

1464 Fig. 18. Geochronology distribution map of late Paleoproterozoic metamorphic ages in the early

1465 Precambrian basement rocks of the Jiaobei area. The number in brackets corresponds to the order

1466 number in Table S16.

1467 Supplementary Figures and Tables

1468 Fig. S1. Gro-(Alm + Spes)-Pyr compositional diagram for garnets from the Jiaobei HP mafic

1469 granulites. C and R represent cores and rims of garnet grains, respectively.

1471 Fig. S2. Compositional zoning in garnet from the HP mafic granulite specimen QX9-1a. (a) Back

1472 scattered electron image of garnet. (b) Compositional profiles of the garnet in Fig. A2a.

1474 Fig. S3. An-Ab-Or compositional diagram for plagioclases from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

1476 Fig. S4. Compositional zoning of plagioclase (QX9-1a) formed at peak HP granulite-facies

1477 metamorphism (stage M2). (a) Back scattered electron image of plagioclase. (b) X-ray mapping

1478 images of plagioclase. (c) Compositional profiles of the plagioclase in Fig. A3a.

1480 Fig. S5. XAb and X^ relationships between the cores and rims of plagioclases from the Jiaobei HP

1481 mafic granulites. (a) Peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism (stage M2). (b) Near-isothermal

1482 decompression granulite-facies retrogression (stage M3). C and R represent the cores and rims of

1483 plagioclases, respectively.

1485 Fig. S6. Wo-Fs-En diagram of clinopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites (after Deer,

1486 1997). 1, inclusions in garnet; 2, matrix grains; 3, clinopyroxene in coronas and symplectites.

1488 Fig. S7. Relationships between XMg and AlVI of clinopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP mafic

1489 granulites.

1491 Fig. S8. Wo-Fs-En diagram of orthopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites (after Deer,

1492 1997). 1, Opx as inclusions in garnet; 2, Opx from the matrix; 3, rims of matrix grains; 4, Opx in

1493 coronas and symplectites. Eu, Eulite; Fe-Hyp, Ferrohypersthene.

1495 Fig. S9. Classification of calcic amphiboles from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites (after Leake,

1496 1997). 1, inclusions in garnet; 2, cores of matrix grains; 3, coronas and symplectites surrounding

1497 garnets.

1499 Fig. S10. Relationships between Ti and (Na + K) of amphiboles from the Jiaobei HP mafic

1500 granulites (after Ji, 1991).

1502 Fig. S11. Temperature-pressure plots showing the results of geothermobarometry and calculations

1503 for each of the analyzed Jiaobei HP mafic granulite samples. (a) Early prograde metamorphism

1504 (stage M1). (b) Peak HP granulite-facies metamorphism (stage M2). (c) Near-isothermal

1505 decompression granulite-facies retrogression (stage M3). (d) Late amphibolite-facies retrogression

1506 (stage M4). Al2SiO5 polymorph transformation lines are from Salje (1986). 1, Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz

1507 geobarometer (Newton and Perkins, 1982); 2, Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz geobarometer (Eckert et al., 1982);

1508 3, Grt-Cpx thermometer (Eill and Green, 1979); 4, Grt-Cpx thermometer (Powell, 1985); 5,

1509 Grt-Cpx thermometer (Krogh, 1988); 6, Cpx-Opx thermometer (Taylor, 1998); 7, Cpx-Opx

1510 thermometer (Wells, 1977); 8, Grt-Opx-Pl-Qz geobarometer (Bhattacharya et al., 1991); 9,

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

1511 Grt-Opx-Pl-Qz geobarometer (Newton and Pinkins, 1982); 10, Grt-Amp thermometer (Graham

1512 and Powell, 1984); 11, Grt-Amp thermometer (Ravna, 2000); 12, Grt-Amp-Pl-Qz (Fe)

1513 geobarometer (Kohn and Spear, 1990); 13, Grt-Amp-Pl-Qz geobarometer (Mg) (Kohn and Spear,

1514 1990).

1515 Table S1

1516 Representative mineral inclusions in zircons from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites

1517 Note: ++, Major phase; +, Minor phase.

1519 Table S2

1520 Representative analyses of garnets from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

1521 Note: (1) FeOT, all iron is assumed to be Fe2+and amount of Fe3+ was calculated from stoichiometric constrains

1522 using the program AX (Powell et al., 1998), the same below; (2) XMg, Mg/(Mg + Fe2+); (2) Alm, 100 x Fe2+/(Fe2+ +

1523 Mg + Ca + Mn); Prp, 100xMg/(Fe2+ + Mg + Ca + Mn); Grs, 100 x Ca/(Fe2+ + Mg + Ca + Mn); Sps, 100 x

1524 Mn/(Fe2+ + Mg + Ca + Mn).

1526 Table S3

1527 Representative analyses of plagioclases from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

1528 Notes: (1) M1, fine-gained Pl as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts; M2, Pl in the matrix; M3, Pl in symplectites or

1529 corons around garnet porphyroblasts with Opx and Cpx; M4, Pl in kelyphites or coronas with Amp around garnet

1530 porphyroblasts; (2) Ab = 100 x Na/(Na + K + Ca); An = 100 x Ca/(Na + K + Ca); Or = 100 x K/(Na + K + Ca).

1532 Table S4

1533 Representative analyses of clinopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

Notes: (1) M1, Cpx as fine inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts; M2, Matrix-type coarse-grained Cpx; M3, Vermicular Cpx in symplectites or coronas around garnet porphyroblasts with Opx and/or Amp; (2) XMg, Mg/(Mg + Fe2+).

1539 Table S5

1540 Representative analyses of orthopyroxenes from the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites.

1541 Notes: XMg, Mg/(Mg + Fe2+).

1543 Table S6

1544 Notes: (1) M3, Brown symplectic Amp around garnet porphyroblasts with Opx and Cpx, or matrix-type Amp with

1545 Opx and Cpx; M4, Green Amp in symplectites or coronas around garnet porphyroblasts without Opx and Cpx, or

1546 matrix-typeAmp around Opx or Cpx; (2) XMg, Mg/(Mg + Fe2+).

1548 Table S7

1549 Temperature estimates (°C) for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites obtained using the Grt-Cpx

1550 thermometer.

1551 Notes: X(Fe2+/Mg), F; XCa, Ca/(Ca + Mn + Fe + Mg). T1, Eill and Green (1979); T2, Powell (1985); T3, Krogh (1988)

1553 Table S8

1554 Pressure estimates for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites obtained using the Grt-Cpx-Pl-Qz

1555 geobarometer.

1556 Note: P1, Newton and Perkins (1982). P2, Eckert (1991).

1558 Table S9

1559 Temperature estimates for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites obtained using the Opx-Cpx

1560 thermometer.

1561 Notes: all samples were recrystallized during M3.

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MANUSCRIPT

1563 Table S10

1564 Pressure estimates for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites obtained using the Grt-Opx-Pl-Qz

1565 geobarometer.

1566 Notes: Pj and P2 were calculated using the methods of Newton and Perkins (1982) and Bhattacharya et al. (1991),

1567 respectively.

1569 Table S11

1570 Temperature estimates for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites based on the Grt-Amp thermometer.

1571 Notes: (1) Sample PD22a-06 was recrystallized during M4; (2)PMg and PFe were calculated using the Mg

1572 end-menber and Fe end-menber methods of Kohn and Spear (1990), respectively.

1574 Table S12

1575 Pressure estimates for the Jiaobei HP mafic granulites based on the Grt-Amp-Pl-Qz

1576 geobarometer of Kohn and Spear (1990).

1577 Notes: Pb* indicates radiogenic lead; Common Pb was corrected using measured 204Pb; all errors are 1 sigma.

1579 Table S13

1580 LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from the Grt mafic granulite specimen QX9-1.

1581 Notes: Pb* indicates radiogenic lead; Common Pb was corrected using measured 204Pb; all errors are 1 sigma.

1583 Table S14

1584 LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from the Grt amphibolite specimen QX66-2

1585 Notes: Pb* indicates radiogenic lead; Common Pb was corrected using measured 204Pb; all errors are 1 sigma.

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MANUSCRIPT

1587 Table S15

1588 LA-ICP-MS analyses of zircons from the Grt-Hy granulite specimen QX11-1.

1589 Note: Pb* indicates radiogenic lead; Common Pb was corrected using measured 204Pb; all errors are 1 sigma.

1591 Table S16

1592 Summary of Precambrian geochronological data for selected rocks in the Jiaobei area.

1594 Notes: *, a single zircon age. 1, Zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating. 2, Zircon SIMS U-Pb. 3, Zircon LA-ICP-MS

1595 U-Pb dating. 4, Zircon TIMS U-Pb dating. 5, Sm-Nd isochron. 6, Amphibole 40Ar/39Ar dating.

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIP

Granphical abstract

1870 ± 18 Ma

1854 ± 16 Ma

(£=1.45-1.65 [т=850 - 880°<

\(P=0.90~ I.OOGPa LNT=740-770eC

P=0.62 - 0.82GPa 1=590-650* С

I I I I I I I I I

400 600 800

1000 1200

Mage 11 ot ys

Jinshan Group Mata-mafic TTG/Granitic Mesozoic granite Fault Sample Location -ultramafic rocks gneisses

QX9-1a

QX9-1a

800 pm

QX9-1.3

1870 ±18 Ma

1854 ±16 Ma

QX9-1.33

1843 ± 14 Ma

1868 ±15 Ma

-t\j j- i-t- ivia ^^

QX9-1.16

1878 ± 18 Ma

1859+ 19 Ma

QX9-1.55

1828 ± 15 Ma

50 цт

1881 ± 18 Ma

1841 ±21 Ma

QX11-1.2 CL

О 1 1878 ± 14 Ma

0X11-1.16 CL

1871 ± 18 Ma

50 pm J

маде öö от уз

A M m V^H ^ ^ \ r k 50 pm QX 11-1.79 CL o 1840 ±15 Ma ITS! 50 pm

OX 11-1.33 ^^^^^^^ PL (c) |J_ ^^^^^^ 50 pm QX11-1.33 CL ^H^^«¡A vSk» ^^H o 1824 ±20 Ma prjj 50 Mm

Mean = 1847 + 4 Ma MSWD = 0.45, n = 53

QX9-1 (Grt mafic granulite)

Mean = 1870 i7Ma MSWD = 0.10, n = 20

5.1 5.3

207Pb/"5U

Mean = 2527 ± 9 Ma MSWD = 1.20, n = 12

QX66-2 (Grt amphibolite)

Mean = 1848 ± 11 Ma MSWD = 0.20, n = 16

207Pb/"sU

Mean = 1848 ± 4 Ma MSWD = 0.65, n = 61

0.30 4.6

QX11-1 (Grt Hyp granulite)

Mean = 1873 ± 8 Ma MSWD = 0.06, n = 14

5.0 5.2

207Pb/235U

4 <»«•

Quaternary |

TTG/Gran- 1 •tic gneiss 1 Ago of Jing i shan Group 1

Mesozo-ic covor

Mesozoi-c granite

121* Penglai Group

Fenzish-an Group

Jingsha* n Group

Sulu UHP met-f—Region-

I al Fault

amorphic belt

Yantai-Qingdao -Wulian Fualt

Age of Fenzi shan Group

Age of TTG/G-ranitic gneiss

Ago of mota-maf-ic/ultramfic rock

i i I i i i i I i i INI I i i i i I i i i i

600 800 TfC)

1000 1200

£ 0.8

600 800 T(*C)