Scholarly article on topic 'Climate change and challenges of water and food security'

Climate change and challenges of water and food security Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Anil Kumar Misra

Abstract Water and food security are the key challenges under climate change as both are highly vulnerable to continuously changing climatic patterns. Studies have predicted that the average global temperature may increase by 1.4–5.8°C and there would be substantial reduction in fresh water resources and agricultural yield by the end of the 21st century. Approximately 75% of the Himalayan glaciers are on retreat and will disappear by 2035. Moreover in Africa (Sub-Saharan Africa) by 2050 the rainfall could drop by 10%, which would reduce drainage by 17%. Majority of the fresh water resources has already been depleted and there is reduction in agricultural production globally with escalation in population and food demand. Some of the prominent climate change impacts are, growing deserts, and increase in the magnitude of floods and droughts. An extreme decline in crop yields in arid and semi arid areas globally has caused food shortages and a manifold increase in food inflation. Countries of Africa, Middle East, Arab and Asia have close economic ties with natural resource and climate-dependent sectors such as forestry, agriculture, water, and fisheries. This manuscript highlights groundwater recharge by utilization of wastewater using the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) method in irrigation and the significance and methods of artificial recharge of groundwater. This paper also presents easily and economically feasible options to ensure water and food security under climate change and recommend formation of effective adaptation and mitigation polices and strategies to minimizing the impact of climate change on water resources and irrigation.

Academic research paper on topic "Climate change and challenges of water and food security"

IJSBE 43 ARTICLE IN PRESS No. of Pages 13

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International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2014) xxx, xxx-xxx

Gulf Organisation for Research and Development International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment

ScienceDirect www.sciencedirect.com

Review Article

Climate change and challenges of water and food security

Anil Kumar Misra *

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, ITM University, Sector 23A, Palam Vihar, Gurgaon 122017, Haryana, India

Received 29 March 2014; accepted 30 April 2014

Abstract

Water and food security are the key challenges under climate change as both are highly vulnerable to continuously changing climatic patterns. Studies have predicted that the average global temperature may increase by 1.4-5.8 °C and there would be substantial reduction in fresh water resources and agricultural yield by the end of the 21st century. Approximately 75% of the Himalayan glaciers are on retreat and will disappear by 2035. Moreover in Africa (Sub-Saharan Africa) by 2050 the rainfall could drop by 10%, which would reduce drainage by 17%. Majority of the fresh water resources has already been depleted and there is reduction in agricultural production globally with escalation in population and food demand. Some of the prominent climate change impacts are, growing deserts, and increase in the magnitude of floods and droughts. An extreme decline in crop yields in arid and semi arid areas globally has caused food shortages and a manifold increase in food inflation. Countries of Africa, Middle East, Arab and Asia have close economic ties with natural resource and climate-dependent sectors such as forestry, agriculture, water, and fisheries. This manuscript highlights groundwater recharge by utilization of wastewater using the Soil Aquifer Treatment (SAT) method in irrigation and the significance and methods of artificial recharge of groundwater. This paper also presents easily and economically feasible options to ensure water and food security under climate change and recommend formation of effective adaptation and mitigation polices and strategies to minimizing the impact of climate change on water resources and irrigation.

© 2014 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Climate change; Water security; Food security; Adaptation & mitigation techniques

Contents

1. Introduction............................................................................... 00

2. Present status of water resources..................................................................................................................................00

3. Strategic challenges ....................................................................................................................................................00

4. Water security under climate change ............................................................................................................................00

* Mobile: +91 9873122054. E-mail address: anilgeology@gmail.com Peer review under responsibility of The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development.

2212-6090/$ - see front matter © 2014 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2014.04.006

A.K. Misra / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx

30 4.1. Unplanned recycling..........................................................................................................................................00

31 4.2. Planned recycling..............................................................................................................................................00

32 4.3. Utilization of wastewater for groundwater recharge..............................................................................................00

33 4.3.1. Identification of suitable area.........................................................00

34 4.3.2. Infiltration capacity of the Vadose Zone..................................................00

35 4.3.3. Hydrogeological consideration.........................................................00

36 4.3.4. Planning & management consideration...................................................00

37 4.3.5. Appropriate spacing................................................................00

38 4.3.6. Environmental consideration..........................................................00

39 4.4. Artificial recharge methods................................................................................................................................00

40 4.4.1. Feasibility studies..................................................................00

41 4.4.2. Analytical and testing ............................................................... 00

42 4.4.3. Designing and operation.............................................................00

43 4.4.4. Project implementation..............................................................00

44 4.4.5. Cost of recharge structures...........................................................00

45 4.4.6. Environmental impact...............................................................00

46 4.5. Rain water harvesting........................................................................................................................................00

47 5. Agriculture and food security ......................................................................................................................................00

48 5.1. Adaptation of advance agriculture practices..........................................................................................................00

49 5.2. Crop breeding....................................................................................................................................................00

50 5.3. Climate forecasting for crops ..............................................................................................................................00

51 5.4. Managing food security......................................................................................................................................00

52 5.5. Reduction in farming cost ..................................................................................................................................00

53 6. Conclusion and recommendation ................................................................................................................................00

54 7. Uncited references ......................................................................................................................................................00

55 Acknowledgements....................................................................................................................................................00

56 References ..................................................................................................................................................................00

59 1. Introduction

60 Water and food scarcity are the biggest problem glob-

61 ally and it severely affects the arid and semiarid regions/

62 countries. Climate change has resulted in increases in glob-

63 ally-averaged mean annual air temperature and variations

64 in regional precipitation and these changes are expected

65 to continue and intensify in the future (Solomon et al.,

66 Q4 2007). The impact of climate change on the quantity and

67 quality of groundwater resources is of global importance

68 because 1.5-3 billion people rely on groundwater as a

69 drinking water source (Kundzewicz and Doll, 2009). As

70 per the fourth IPCC assessment report the knowledge of

71 groundwater recharge and of levels in both developed

72 and developing countries is poor. There has been very little

73 research on the impact of climate change on groundwater'

74 (Kundzewicz et al., 2007).

75 Study of Global Climate Models (GCMs) projects

76 significant changes to^regional and globally averaged

77 precipitation and air temperature, and these changes will

78 likely have associated impacts on groundwater recharge

79 (Barret and Kerry, 2013). IPCC report (2008) predicts that

80 the climate change over the next century will affect rainfall

81 pattern, river flows and sea levels all over the world. Stud-

82 ies show that agriculture yield will likely be severely

83 affected over the next hundred years due to unprecedented

84 rates of changes in the climate system (Jarvis et al., 2010;

85 Thornton et al., 2011). In arid and semi-arid areas the

86 expected precipitation decreases over the next century

would be 20% or more. The accelerated increase in the 87

greenhouse gases (GHG) concentration in the atmosphere 88

is a major cause for climate change. As per the IPCC 89

(2007) report, the maximum growth in the emission of 90

greenhouse gases (GHG) has occurred between 1970 and 91

2004, i.e. 145% increase from energy supply sector, 120% 92

from transport, 65% from industry, 40% from change in 93

land use patterns and during this period global population 94

increases by 69%. As per the WMO (2013), the world expe- 95

rienced unprecedented high-impact climate extremes dur- 96

ing the 2001-2010 decade that was the warmest since the 97

start of modern measurements in 1850. Moreover, survey 98

of 139 National Meteorological and Hydrological Services 99

and socio-economic data and analysis from several UN 100

agencies and partners conducted by WMO concluded that 101

floods were the most frequently experienced extreme events 102

over the course of the decade. The amount of energy reach- 103

ing the earth's atmosphere every second on a surface area 104

of one square meter facing the sun during daytime is about 105

1370 Watts and the amount of energy per square meter per 106

second averaged over the entire planet is one quarter of this 107

(IPCC, 2007A). The global mean temperature has 108

increased by 0.74 °C during (Fig. 1) the last 100 years. Fur- 109

thermore studies conducted by Indian Space Research 110

Organization (ISRO) after the study of 2190 Himalayan 111

glaciers revealed that approximately 75% of the Himalayan 112

glaciers are on the retreat, with the average shrinkage of 113

3.75 km during the last 15 years (Misra, 2013). These find- 114

ings raise serious concerns over the accelerated retreat of 115

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glaciers in the Himalayan Mountains because it will increase the variability of water flows to downstream regions and threaten the sustainable water use planning in the world's most populous Ganga Basin. Studies (Maarten and Stankiewicz, 2006; Anthony Nyong, 2005) predict that by the year 2050 the rainfall in Sub-Saharan Africa could drop by 10%, which will cause a major water shortage. This 10% decrease in precipitation would reduce drainage by 17% and the regions which are receiving 500-600 mm/year rainfall will experience a reduction by 50-30% respectively in the surface drainage.

So, far much attention has been given to climate change adaptation as an anticipatory and planned process, managed through new policies, technological innovations and development interventions (Adger et al., 2005). But these policies and strategies are far from implementation and most of the fresh water resources are depleting at a very fast rate due to unprecedented escalation in demand from domestic, irrigational and industrial sectors. Impact of climate change such as depletion of water resources (Shallow & deep aquifer depletion) and decline in agricultural production has increased and has escalated food inflation globally and there is an acute shortage of food in many poor African and Asian countries, where people cannot afford expensive food and are dying of starvation. The condition is extremely severe in continents like Africa, where most of the northern portion is extremely dry. Western India, Middle East and Arab Countries, where most of the domestic, irrigational and industrial demands are met by Surface and groundwater are facing severe crisis due to depletion of water resources.

This condition can only be improved by increasing the crop yield and preventing further depletion of water resources. The paper highlights the best suitable methods, which are easily and economically feasible and can ensure water and food security under climate change if implemented properly. The manuscript also suggests a road map for long-term and near-term strategy for minimizing the impact of climate change on water resources and agriculture.

2. Present status of water resources

There are large uncertainties among the nations vulnerable to climate change impacts over the availability of water resources in the future. In 1955, only seven countries were found to be with water stressed conditions. In 1990 this number rose to 20 and it is expected that by the year 2025 another 10-15 countries shall be added to this list. It is further predicted that by 2050, 2/3rds of the world population may face water stressed conditions (Gosain, 2006). Majority of the Arab countries depend on the international water bodies for their requirement. Arab countries do not have any major source of water; they have to depend on natural precipitation and water conservation techniques. Nile river basin is the home of approximately 190 million people of Ethiopia, Eritrea, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, Congo, Tanzania, Kanya, Sudan and Egypt. Since majority of nations of the Nile river basin are among the top 10 poorest countries of the world therefore it is absolutely difficult for them to adopt any strategy of water management, which require investment. The Middle East and the OSS (Observatory of the Sahara and the Sahel) regions, which have the least natural water resources, both in absolute terms and in relation to its population (UNESCO, 2004) will be affected severely. Table 1 shows the world's natural renewable water resources as compared to OSS region.

The use of strong technological equipment such as deep tube wells and high-powered pumps for the abstraction of groundwater in majority of the vulnerable countries resulted in continuous unsustainable drawdown of aquifers. These pumps allowed faster drafting from aquifers, rivers, canals etc. and disturb the natural equilibrium of recharge and discharge. The country like India where the population is increasing in an unprecedented rate is likely to be water scarce by 2050. The water requirement in India by 2050 will be in the order of 1450 km3, which is significantly higher than the estimated water resources of 1122 km3 per year. Therefore to meet the shortfall requirement, it is necessary to harness additional 950 km3 per year over the present availability of 500 km3 per year (Gupta and Deshpande, 2004). Table 2 shows the basin wise water present in India. As per the study of the Ministry of Water Resource (MOWR) Govt. of India, the estimated irrigation return flow (RF) from the surface and groundwater irrigation is likely to be 223 km3 per year in the year 2050 for higher population growth rates giving 133 km3 per year. The total recyclable wastewater is estimated to be 177 km3 per year in 2050. Taking all these important factors into consideration, Gupta and Deshpande (2004) estimated the total resource availability in 2050 for higher population growth shown in Table 3.

Africa which is one of the world's driest continents is facing a very severe water crisis. Over 90% of Sub-Saharan Africa agriculture is rain-fed, and mainly under smallholder management (Batino and Waswa, 2011). As per the WHO/UNICEF report more than one billion people

Global Mean Temperature

0.61--—■—'—■—>—■—--■——>—■—i—■—j—14 6

-0.8 L--------1 i i___■ ___13.2

1860 1880 1600 1920 1840 1D60 1980 2000

Penod Rite

• Annual mean

_ ~ ^ 25 0.177*0052

■ Smoothed series - so o.i2f »0.026

BL S-95% decadal orror bare — ><«> o.o?«o.oi8

- ISO 0.045*0.012

Fig. 1. Global mean temperature during the last 100 years (source: IPCC, 2007A).

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Table 1

World's natural renewable resources (rounded off figures) (source: UNESCO, 2004).

Geopolitical regions (Groups of Countries) Total average internal and external resources (km3/year) Portion coming from outside of the region (external resources) (km3/year) Relatively constant portion (Surface and groundwater) (km3/year)

OSS region** 520 113 ~200

Europe 1900 10 600

Ex-USSR (the former USSR) 4400 430 1400

North America (USA and Canada) 6700 0 1700

Latin America (including the 13,000 3 4000

Caribbean)

Africa, excluding the OSS region 3500 0 1200

(but including the Madagascar)

Near the Middle East 480 17 100

Indian sub-continent and south east 6600 1000 1600

China (including Mongolia and 2800 0 1000

North Korea)

Japan and 'four dragons' 700 0 200

Australia and Oceania 2000 0 300

Total (without overlap) 42,600 12,300

OSS region**: Arabic Maghreb Union (AMU) countries: Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia. Permanent Interstate committee for drought Control in the Sahel (CILSS) countries: Burkina faso, Cape Verde, Cad, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Niger and Senegal. Intergovernmental authority on Development (IGAD) countries: Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Sudan and Uganda.

still use unsafe drinking water. The African river system identifies three river systems (Maarten and Stankiewicz, 2006) i.e. the areas receiving very low rainfall have virtually no perennial drainage (dry regime), then the areas with an intermediate range in which drainage density increases with increasing rainfall (intermediate rainfall regime) and the areas of high rainfall (high rainfall regime). The dry regime covers the largest area of the African continent i.e. approximately 41%, but most important is the intermediate rainfall regime which covers approximately 25% because this is the area where changes to precipitation would result in serious changes in drainage supply. Further as predicted by an ensemble of global climate change models by the second part of this century, climate change would directly affect African countries, 75% of which belongs to the intermediate stage. Fig. 2 shows the present rainfall regimes in t Africa and Fig. 3 shows the expected changes in the precipitation by the end of the 21st century on the basis of the composite of 21 leading fully coupled GCMs adapted by IPCC for forecasting purposes (CSAG, 2002). The studies conducted by several researchers predict that the crop yield will decline and the crop water demand will increase in the African continent especially in the dry land farms. A net 2.5 °C rise in temperature in Africa will result in a decline of net revenues from agriculture by US$ 23 billion (Kurukulasuriya and Mendelson, 2007). Thus it has become necessary now to take very seriously the impact of climate change on the present water resources and take necessary actions without any further delay.

3. Strategic challenges

Water conservation is one of the oldest activities practiced by old civilization to fulfill the required demand for water for irrigated agriculture and domestic needs in the

arid and semi-arid regions. In ancient times the recharge movement initiated by the local communities was aided and supported by emperors. The approaches that support farming communities to self-mobilize and self-organize for participatory learning and action could lead farmers to enhance their uptake of better technologies and improved use of farm-level resources in the wake of increased climate change and variability (Mapfumo et al., 2013). One of the most important facts of water resource management is that the conservation of water resources costs far less and it is more sustainable than treating non-potable and waste water and supplying it for the required needs. Further majority of water conservations strategies are relatively easily and economically feasible as compared to the water treatment plants. Therefore good strategies for artificial recharge to groundwater and conservation of water resources are necessary. Further, the irrigation system must be designed, installed, managed, and maintained properly, because it wastes lot of water. Modern irrigational equipment should be used and their regular maintenance is essential. Table 4 shows the performance of some of the water management strategies after considering global warming effects.

There are several key challenges related with policy and strategy making that have to be confronted. Some of the important challenges are as follows:-

(i) Collection of information and data and their sharing among countries related with climate change and its impact on water resources. It is necessary because water resource management requires, systematic and well planned actions based on accurate scientific data.

(ii) Majority of the countries have varying hydrological conditions, therefore adaptation of the same policies

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Table 2

Basin wise water in India (km3/year) source: MOWR (1999).

Sl. No. Basin ASW AMR EUSW RGW SGW

1 Indus 73.30 58.60 46.00 26.50 1338.20

2a Ganga 525.00 401.30 250.00 171.60 7834.10

2 (b + c) Brahmaputra + Meghana 585.70 477.50 24.00 35.10 1018.50

3 Godavari 111.40 107.10 76.30 40.60 59.40

4 Krishna 78.10 61.00 58.00 26.40 36.00

5 Cauvery 21.60 18.90 19.00 12.30 42.40

6 Pennar 6.70 6.20 6.70 4.90 11.10

7 EF : Between Mahanadi & Pennar 33.50 15.30 13.10 18.80 41.30

8 EF: Between Pennar & K. Kumari 16.50 16.00 16.50 18.20 66.00

9 Mahanadi 66.90 60.20 50.00 16.50 119.70

10 Brahmani - Baitarni 33.00 32.60 18.30 4.10 43.40

11 Subarnaretha 12.80 9.70 6.80 1.80 10.80

12 Sabarmati 3.80 3.40 1.90 3.20 28.20

13 Mahi 11.00 10.70 3.10 4.00 12.60

14 WF: Kutchh, S'tra, luni 15.10 13.60 15.00 11.20 113.20

15 Narmada 46.00 36.90 27.50 10.80 18.40

16 Tapi 16.90 16.20 15.00 8.30 7.50

17 WF: Tapi & Tadri 87.40 80.30 11.90 17.70 11.20

18 WF: Tadri to K. Kumari 113.50 97.80 24.30 0.00 0.00

19 Inland drainage: Rajasthan 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

20 MR: B'desh and Myanmar 31.00 24.80 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total 1889.20 1548.10 683.40 432.00 10812.00

* EF: East Flowing; WF: West Flowing; MR: Minor Rivers; K. Kumari: Kanyakumari; S'tra: Saurashtra; B'desh: Bangladesh; Available Surface Water (ASW); Average Monsoon Runoff (AMR); Economically Utilizable Surface Water (EUSW); Replenishable Groundwater (RGW); Static Reserve of Groundwater (SGW).

Table 3

Water resources availability based on low and high population growths for 2050 (km3); source: Gupta and Deshpande (2004).

Water available Water required Anticipated Possible measures to meet the deficit

during 2001 during 2050 water deficit EUSW+GW in excess of 1998 Recyclable waste water Irrigation return flow RAGWR Water availability

500 973-1450 473-950 SW = 420 GW = 202 Total = 550** 103-177* 33-133 125 1311-1485

RAGWR = Retrievable Artificial Groundwater Recharge; EUSW = Economically Utilizable Surface Water; GW = Groundwater. Ignored water quality issues.

After considering 17% decline in storage for surface sedimentation.

and strategies by each country is not possible. The policies and the action plan will be different for each country based on its hydrological conditions.

(iii) Climate change has increased the frequency and intensity of the natural calamities and now it has become necessary to invest in the study of these natural calamities and their future impacts and prepare a comprehensive plan to minimize their impact on countries.

(iv) Among all the challenges the biggest challenge is the financing of the climate change study related projects and the adaptation of their recommendation because these investments are not profitable.

(v) Many poor and developing countries are unable/hesitant to construct expensive infrastructure required to meet climate change related challenges because of imperfect information and data about intensity of climate change impact on their country.

To minimize the impact of climate change on water resources it is necessary to understand and evaluate the vulnerability of water resources to global warming impacts. After understanding these impacts only policies and strategies should be formed and implemented. All efforts should be made to present future impacts by reducing greenhouse gas emission

4. Water security under climate change

In most developing countries, especially African and Asian, there are urgent needs to understand the dynamics of local climate and make predictions to respond to climate variability and change. The economies of most developing countries depend heavily on climate-sensitive sectors such as water, agriculture, fisheries, energy and tourism, climate change therefore poses a serious challenge to social and economic development in developing countries. (Munang

A.K. Misra/International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx

Fig. 2. Precipitation in the African continent at the end of 20th century (source: Maarten and Stankiewicz, 2006).

scape irrigation, industrial processes and replenishing a 322

groundwater aquifer (groundwater recharge) can help in 323

minimizing the impact of climate change on crop yield 324

and water resources. Recycled water for irrigation requires 325

less treatment than recycled water for domestic purposes 326

and till date no documented case of human health problems 327

has been reported by the use of unconventional water for 328

irrigational purposes. Through the natural water cycle the 329

earth has recycled and reused water for millions of years. 330

Water recycling by giving technological support can speed 331

up these natural processes. Usually the recycling of uncon- 332

ventional water may be classified as planned recycling and 333

unplanned recycling. 334

4.1. Unplanned recycling 335

It occurs usually in the cities located near the banks of Q5 336

the rivers. These cities take water from rivers to fulfill their 337

demands of domestic and industrial purposes. Cities dis- 338

charge their wastewater in downstream and draw water 339

from upstream and after recycling it is reused. 340

4.2. Planned recycling

Fig. 3. Predicted changes in the precipitation in the African continent due to climate change at the end of the 21st century (source: Maarten and Stankiewicz, 2006).

313 et al., 2013). The shortage of water can be augmented from

314 wastewater utilization after suitable treatment (FAO, 2012).

315 Some of the techniques like artificial recharge and use of

316 unconventional water (reuse of wastewater after recycling)

317 are effective solutions to minimize the impact of such prob-

318 lems. The unconventional water can play a major role in the

319 management of water resources and agricultural activities

320 in dried and semi dried areas. Recycling and reuse of waste-

321 water for beneficial purposes such as agricultural and land-

Planned recycling of wastewater is developed with the 342

goal of beneficially reusing a recycled water supply. Many 343

cities established a water recycling master plan to utilize 344

precious water resources. Under such a plan, all the 345

water-related measures are examined for wastewater recy- 346

cling and all activities within the city are carried out (estab- 347

lishment of efficient water and wastewater systems within 348

the city) following the master plan. The objectives of such 349

recycling master plan include the creation and nurturing of 350

a water cycle that has a minimal impact on the 351

environment. 352

Another important way of reusing the unconventional 353

water is through artificial recharge of the dried aquifer sys- 354

tems with partially treated water. Such type of aquifer 355

recharge is only possible where the subsurface lithological 356

conditions and the groundwater condition are favorable, 357

a high degree of upgrading can be achieved by allowing 358

sewage effluent to infiltrate into the soil and move down 359

to the groundwater. The unsaturated lithology (Vadose 360

Zone) then acts as a natural filter and can remove essen- 361

tially all suspended solids, biodegradable materials, bacte- 362

ria, viruses and other microorganisms (Fadlelmawla 363

et al., 1999). 364

This type of artificial recharge to groundwater with 365

wastewater can be very useful to prevent depletion of 366

groundwater in arid and semiarid areas, where precipita- 367

tion is extremely low and almost no rechargeable water is 368

available. This process is also called Soil-Aquifer Treat- 369

ment (SAT). Several practical applications of SAT technol- 370

ogy are available throughout the world. One of the biggest 371

is at Whittier Narrows, Los Angeles, USA, which has a 372

recharge area of approximately 279 ha forms a small basin 373 is divided into 15 sub-basins. The scheme disposes of Q6 374

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750 Ml/day using only about one third of the basin during normal operation. The major objective of the scheme is to replenish groundwater for local abstraction and only 16% of the recharge is renovated wastewater. No measurable impact has been detected on either groundwater quality or human health (Nellor et al., 1985).

Artificial recharge with wastewater is totally depending on the properties of the subsurface lithological conditions. The areas where Vadose Zones are not supportive (hard rock areas, older alluvial plain with thick clay and silt layers) for groundwater recharge, artificial recharge structures, like horizontal shaft and vertical shaft, equipped with artificial set of lithologies (Figs. 4 and 5) can be very effective. Artificial lithologies are equipped with geotextiles that perform both separation and filtration functions and improve the performance of recharge structures manifold. These structures usually vary in shape and size and can be used in construction in hard rock and older alluvial plains also. These structures are very effective if formed up to the depth of shallow aquifers (Misra et al., 2013). Moreover the purification mechanisms through an artificial set of lithology is much better than the natural conditions.

4.3. Utilization of wastewater for groundwater recharge

The artificial recharge to groundwater with wastewater depends on a number of factors such as porosity, permeability, hydraulic conductivity, transmissivity and the most important stratigraphical arrangement. In majority of the cases the subsurface sequencing of the layers and the aquifer depth creates problems. Thus the selection of the possible locations for the construction of artificial recharge facility should be established taking care of factors such as suitable site, infiltration capacity, hydrogeological conditions, systematic planning and environmental considerations. Based on these considerations Soil-Aquifer Treatment (SAT) facility can be established.

4.3.1. Identification of suitable area

Identification of a suitable area for such recharge schemes should be demarcated very carefully. Such areas should be as far as possible with any urban settlement and be a micro or mini watershed. Demarcation of areas should be based on the following criteria. (a) A minimum of 20 m depth to the groundwater levels with continuous declining trends is required to allow for geopurification processes (infiltration and absorption) before the infiltrating wastewater reaches the groundwater. This much of depth also allows for groundwater mounding during the recharge process without affecting the infiltration process (RIGW, 1999). (b) Where groundwater quality is good and there is no alternative source of water (c) where discharge from wells and hand pumps are inadequate.

4.3.2. Infiltration capacity of the Vadose Zone

Infiltration capacity of the Vadose Zone is a very important factor that governs the rate of saturation of the zone

of aeration. Therefore the lithological zones with an infiltration rate of 0.30 m/day or more are most suitable.

4.3.3. Hydrogeological consideration

Integration of data obtained from field, laboratory analysis and simulation methods are generally used to develop an understanding of the hydrogeological system as a basis for predicting potential consequences. Some of the important considerations that are important for such projects are as follows

(i) The aquifer characteristics at the recharging site must have good hydrogeological conditions such as storage coefficient, availability of storage space and permeability.

(ii) Young alluvium buried channels, alluvial fans and sand dunes etc. are some of the best places for recharge.

(iii) In hilly terrain and hard rock areas, fractured, weathered to semi weathered and cavernous rocks are the best sites for recharge.

4.3.4. Planning & management consideration

Planning and management of artificial recharge projects need careful consideration of several water management objectives, water routing capabilities, economics, off-site effects and different other factors. Water requirement for irrigation purposes can be fulfilled by geopurified wastewa-ter, if it is carried out with systematic planning. A large amount of wastewater is generated in urban areas. After partial treatment this water can be used for artificial recharge of groundwater aquifer, which can be exploited for irrigational purposes. For creating partial treatment facility near the recharge and discharge area planning should be based on hydrogeological consideration and based on easily and economically feasible techniques.

4.3.5. Appropriate spacing

It is also important that there should be appropriate spacing between the two recharge structures. Because when the recharge water begins to merge with the existing groundwater, a mound will develop that drastically reduces the recharge rate. Further if many recharge structures are placed side by side the hydraulic gradients of these recharges will become zero due to superposition, due to this the mound will continue to grow and the recharge rate will drop more quickly (Chatdarang, 2001). Therefore two recharge structures should be at least 1000 m away from each other for getting good results.

4.3.6. Environmental consideration

It is very important to carry out a detailed environmental impact assessment of each selected location and project before the implementation, which includes mitigation and monitoring planning. The most important factor for environmental consideration is that in any circumstances the selected site should not be within or upstream of a groundwater drinking community and no recharge should be planned where groundwater is flowing into the river.

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Table 4

Performance of water management strategies after considering the Global warming effects (source: Nelson, 2007).

More effective

Not affected

Less effective

9 Landscape conservation 9 Conservation rate structures 9 Agricultural water conservation 9 Water marketing 9 Urban storm water management

9 Saltwater groundwater intrusion barriers to protect coastal aquifers 9 Water system reoperation

9 Interagency collaboration and integrated water management strategies 9 Floodplain management 9 Watershed Restoration

9 Wastewater recycling 9 Interior water conservation 9 Groundwater cleanup

9 Traditional river diversions

9 Traditional groundwater pumping

9 Traditional surface storage facilities

9 Ocean water desalination

Given existing energy requirements.

Fig. 4. Design of horizontal shaft structure equipped with artificial set of lithology suitable for hard rock areas, older alluvial plains and places with high surface runoff.

recharge methods include three (Sakthivadivel, 2007) 484

important components (i) Area of the watershed to pro- 485

duce runoff (ii) a storage facility (soil profile, surface reser- 486

voirs or groundwater aquifers); and (iii) a target area to 487

beneficially use the water (agriculture, domestic or indus- 488

try). According to O'Hare et al. (1986) some of the impor- 489

tant factors, which are considered for artificial recharge are 490

(a) Availability of wastewater (b) Quantity of source water 491

available (c) Resultant water quality (after reactions with 492

native water and aquifer materials) (d) clogging potentials 493

(e) Underground storage space available (f) Depth of 494

underground storage space (g) Transmission characteristics 495

of the aquifer (h) Applicable methods (injection or infiltra- 496

tion) (i) Legal/institutional constraints (j) Costs (h) Cul- 497

tural/social considerations. The programs of the artificial 498

recharge are usually conducted in four phases. 499

4.4.1. Feasibility studies 500 The feasibility study is the detailed evaluation of the 501

entire recharge project that includes planning, demarcation 502

of the area for recharge, groundwater levels and their 503

declining trend, precipitation over the demarcated area, 504

available quantity of water, study of the geological condi- 505

tions, hydrological variability within the aquifer, chemical 506

mixing of surface waters with native groundwater, the nat- 507

ure of probable migration of recharged water and econom- 508

ical feasibility of the entire project. 509

4.4.2. Analytical and testing 510 Analytical and testing programs are based on the results 511

of the feasibility analysis. The test programs are usually 512

Fig. 5. Design of vertical shaft structure equipped with artificial set of lithology suitable for hard rock areas and older alluvial plains and places with low surface runoff.

481 4.4. Artificial recharge methods

482 Artificial recharge methods were specially design for

483 uses in the arid and semi arid regions of the world. These

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A.K. Misra /International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx 9

designed, using different existing facilities. This work includes, analysis and testing of quality of water and the pre-treatment required, conveyance system required to bring the water to the recharge site, chemical and physical modeling of recharge options, detailed chemical analysis of co-mingled waters that have different initial chemical signatures, measurement of infiltration capacity of soil and recharge rates.

4.4.3. Designing and operation

Design of the recharge structure is based on the outcome of the feasibilities, analytical and testing studies. If the design is not compatible with the existing ground environment, then the operation of the recharge structure will completely stop within few days. This phase includes the works like designing of injection wells, induced recharge structures; recharge shafts with filter, and different land improvement and watershed management techniques.

4.4.4. Project implementation

Successful implementation of any recharge project is based on the results of the above mentioned three phases of the project. Usually project implementation phase consists of full scale program parameters that include site for well/shaft/infiltration ponds if required, major future options for sourcing of surface water, planning of different recharge management techniques during regular operations and continuous monitoring and maintenance of entire working mechanism of the project.

4.4.5. Cost of recharge structures

Cost of any recharge structure depends upon the source water treatment, source water transportation, resistance to siltation and clogging and the most important stability of recharge structure. The cost of construction, operation, monitoring and maintenance usually depends on the design of the recharge structure and its compatibility with the existing ground environment. Generally the construction and operational costs of the recharge structure is far less than those required for domestic water supply using tankers. Table 5 shows the capital cost and operational cost of various recharge structures.

4.4.6. Environmental impact

Usually recharge structures do not show any harmful environmental affects if its design, operation, maintenance and monitoring are carried out following standard feasibility study recommendations. While planning the recharge structures, the environmental considerations include, ecological effects on soil, hydrologic and aquatic ecosystems, effects on the species and most important the possible effects on people's use of water resources for recreation. Majority of the recharge methods which use surface infiltration systems for recharge and depend on subsurface lith-ological infiltration rate are very susceptible to clogging by suspended particles, chemical impurities and biological activities. The clogged top layer of the rechargeable ground surface reduces its infiltration rate. Thus clogging of infil-

tration systems of the artificial recharge structures is a major operational problem. The clogging causes water logging problems that led to several environmental hazards such as soil salinity, loss of vegetation covers/irrigated area. Further due to water logging, water borne diseases, infectious diseases and several diseases spread by mosquitoes are common and often create panic situations.

4.5. Rain water harvesting

In rain water harvesting the source of recharge water is rainfall only, while in the case of artificial recharge structures it could be rainwater, surface runoff, river or canal water or wastewater. Rain water harvesting can be defined as receiving, collection, storage, and use of rainwater for domestic, industrial and irrigational purposes. Besides its application domestic, industrial and irrigational purposes it may be effectively utilized to recharge groundwater aquifers.

Several types of rainwater harvesting structures can be constructed based on the type of catchment surface used (after Kahinda and Taigbenu): (1) in situ rainwater harvesting structures, where the system uses part of the target area as the catchment area, for instance construction of small ridge and furrow structures in agriculture fields (2) ex situ, rainwater harvesting structures where the system uses an uncultivated area as its catchment area, for instance diversion of surface runoff water into a collection basin (3) domestic rainwater harvesting structures, where the system collects water from rooftops, courtyards, compacted or treated surfaces, store it in tanks for domestic uses.

5. Agriculture and food security

According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, in most recent estimates, the number of people suffering from chronic hunger has increased from under 800 million in 1996 to over a billion (FAO, 2009). Majority of the world's hungry population are in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. These regions have large rural populations, widespread poverty and extensive areas of low agricultural productivity due to stea-

Table 5

Construction and operational costs of Artificial recharge methods (source: UNEP International Environment Centre, 2004).

Artificial recharge structure type Capital cost/1000 m3 Operational

of recharge structure cost/1000 m3/year

Injection well (alluvial area) $551 $21

Injection well (hard rock) $2 $5

Spreading channel (alluvial $8 $20

Recharge pit (alluvial area) $515 $2

Recharge pond or percolation $1 $1

pond (alluvial area)

Percolation tank (hard rock $5 $1

Check dam $1 $1

A.K. Misra / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx

604 dily degrading resource bases, weak markets and high cli-

605 matic risks (Vermeulen et al., 2012). As per the current

606 knowledge and options for supporting farmers, particu-

607 larly smallholder farmers, in achieving food security

608 through agriculture under climate change actions in follow-

609 ing (Vermeulen et al., 2012) areas should be taken:

610 (a) Accelerated adaptation to progressive climate change

611 over decadal time scales.

612 (b) Management of agricultural risks associated with

613 increasing climate variability and extreme events.

614 (c) Mitigation actions that involve both carbon seques-

615 tration and reduction of emissions.

Moreover the pressurized irrigation with sprinklers is extre- 629

mely useful in increasing the water use efficiency in mod- 630

ernizing the agriculture system. Furthermore adaptation 631

of mobile technique can play a big role in monitoring 632

and controlling crop irrigation systems. With these instru- 633

ments a farmer can control his irrigation systems from a 634

phone or computer instead of driving to each field. The 635

major challenge is to accelerate the adaptation of modern 636

techniques in irrigation with which the crop productivity 637

cannot be increased. Fig. 6 shows the framework for agri- 638

cultural water management in the context of the climate 639

change. 640

5.2. Crop breeding 641

617 5.1. Adaptation of advance agriculture practices

618 Adaptation of advance technologies can help in making

619 the framing more easy and productive task. The good agri-

620 cultural practice involves providing adequate water to

621 plants so that excess standing water can be prevented.

622 Excessive amounts of water can cause poor aeration of

623 the root system leading to inhibition of plant development;

624 therefore avoiding water stress is particularly important in

625 arid regions. Further use of GPS tractors, along with

626 sprayers can minimize the farming cost. These tractors

627 can accurately drive themselves through the field after

628 receiving the correct work plan in their computer system.

Adaptation of plant breeding can improve the quality, 642

performance and diversity of crops with the objective of 643

developing plants better adaptable to human needs. Studies 644

show that for overcoming abiotic stresses in crops, the crop 645

breeding technique has been proved to be an effective 646

means of increasing food production (Evenson and 647

Gollin, 2003), and mitigating climate change effects 648

(Burney et al., 2010). Crop breeding techniques not only 649

enhance the crop quality and yield and but also increase 650

the tolerance of environmental pressures like soil salinity, 651

high temperature and drought conditions. Therefore large 652

scale adaptation of crop breeding is essential to ensure food 653

security. 654

Fig. 6. Proposed framework for agricultural water management in the context of climate change.

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A.K. Misra / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx 11

655 5.3. Climate forecasting for crops

656 Erratic climatic conditions and their variability with

657 time play an important role in the crop production and

658 overall yield. Most of the crop failures worldwide are asso-

659 ciated with either a lack or excess of rainfall. Precise cli-

660 mate forecasting can reduce the risks of crop failure and

661 also help in the pre and post decision making processes

662 for better agricultural yield. Several studies have evaluated

663 the potential benefits of using seasonal climate forecasts on

664 the decision making process in agriculture (Jones et al.,

665 Q7 2003; Hansen, 2002). Further the nature of the forecasting

666 also influences the ability of farmers to respond like farm-

667 ers are more concerned about within-season characteristics

668 of rainfall rather than the total seasonal rainfall amounts.

669 The value of forecasts diminishes if information is received

670 after the number of pre-planting decisions are made, there-

671 fore the forecasting should be in time and specific.

672 5.4. Managing food security

673 Managing food security and its sustainable development

674 is one of the biggest challenges worldwide. Majority of the

675 world's poor population lives in South Asia and Sub-Sah-

676 aran Africa countries, nearly 1.7 billion people (Chen and

677 Ravallion, 2007) and out of this, approximately for 860

678 Q8 million people there food security. Countries are not able

679 to provide sufficient quantities of nutritious food to these

680 people so that they can live healthily. It is strongly believed

681 that there is enough food in the world to feed everyone ade-

682 quately but the problem is distribution and management.

683 Therefore development and implementation of a food secu-

684 rity plan is necessary that must include procedures for han-

685 dling threats, product tampering, and product storage and

686 distribution plan along with a monitoring procedure.

687 Moreover there should be a corrective action that prevents

688 products from entering commerce.

689 5.5. Reduction in farming cost

690 Artificial recharge can play a major role in minimizing

691 the farming cost. There are a number of examples that

692 proof its utility in irrigation sector. In 2000, the Interna-

693 tional Water Management Institute (IWMI) carried out a

694 study in India on the project "Madhya Ganga Canal Pro-

695 ject (MGCP), which occupies lower Ganga canal com-

696 Q9 monds. The study wa^carried out on Lakhaoti Branch

697 canal of the MGCP, which spreads over 205.6 thousand

698 hectares and covers the area of western Uttar Pradesh 699Q10 (UP) in India. Under this experiment excess river water

700 was used to recharge the groundwater via earthen canals.

701 The experiment was successful in raising the groundwater

702 table to 6.6 meters and brought down the cost of pumping

703 for irrigation from Rs. 4500 per ha meter to an economical

704 level of Rs. 2700 per ha meter. The conclusion of this study

705 is that the prevailing practices of supplying water only dur-

706 ing summer/dry seasons need to be changed. In fact during

monsoon such supplies should be carried out to help farm- 707

ers to grow water intensive crops, this way both irrigation 708

and recharge of groundwater will take place. 709

The construction of structures like "ooranies" is another 710

example. These are big or small types of dugout tanks and 711

ponds constructed thousands of years ago in very large 712

numbers (more than 500,000) in the Peninsular India. 713

These "ooranies" were constructed to fulfill the demand 714

for water for agriculture and domestic purposes. There 715

are several shallow dug wells near these tanks which are 716

recharged with tank water. Further many wells which are 717

used for drinking purposes, located near the tank and tank 718

beds are artificially recharged from the tank into these wells 719

to provide a clean water supply throughout the year with 720

natural filtering (DHAN foundation, 2002). The structures 721

like "ooranies" if formed in large scales especially in the 722

arid and semiarid areas, the problems of water scarcity 723

for domestic and irrigational purposes can be solved up 724

to some extent despite drastic changes in climate. 725

6. Conclusion and recommendation 726

Climate changes have started showing its impact on 727

water resources and agricultural yield worldwide. Majority 728

of the countries in arid and semiarid areas totally depend 729

on precipitation and rivers originating in tropical and tem- 730

perate regions. The overall water stress is continuously 731

increasing and due to climate change a sharp decline in pre- 732

cipitation is expected in these regions. Studies also predict 733

reduction in frequency and escalation in the intensity of 734

rainfall, which will result in frequent drought and floods. 735

Unsustainable depletion of groundwater will likely be 736

worsened by reduced surface water infiltration in arid 737

and semiarid areas and the increase in intrusion of salt 738

water to coastal aquifers from sea level rise will further 739

reduce the availability of usable groundwater. 740

Agricultural sector and food securities are threatened and 741

if the basic adaptive measures such as changes in crop pat- 742

tern, crop breeding and types and innovative technologies, 743

which use less water are not used global food production 744

especially in arid and semi-arid areas will further decline. 745

The present situation in the majority of the arid and semiarid 746

countries is not satisfactory. These countries are not able to 747

fulfill the required demand for water and food for people. 748

The implementation of recycling and reuse of wastewater 749

is a good option in these countries. Groundwater recharge 750

using artificial recharge structures and Soil Aquifer Treat- 751

ment (SAT) systems equipped artificial set of lithologies 752

through wastewater can help in minimizing the impact of cli- 753

mate change on water resources and agricultural yield. 754

The present study recommends the following measures 755

to minimize the impact of climate change on water 756

resources and crop yield. 757

• Regions which are most vulnerable to climate 758

change, should adapt strategies to manage climate 759

change risk. Easily and economically feasible tech- 760

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A.K. Misra / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment xxx (2014) xxx-xxx

niques and strategies should be formed in the countries falling under this category. The strategies will vary from one country to other depending on their hydrological conditions.

• Countries with arid and semi arid regions should be encouraged to invest and finance research projects related to climate change studies and data collection related to water.

• Improvement in irrigation infrastructure should be carried out in all vulnerable countries to cope with climate change risks. Farmers should be trained for alternative livelihoods in areas expected of severe impact of climate change.

• Programs related to groundwater development such as rainwater harvesting, watershed management, formation of artificial recharge facilities with waste-water and rainwater should be implemented on a large scale in all vulnerable areas.

• Artificial recharge of groundwater with partially treated wastewater can be an added advantage to reuse policies of water in all arid and semi-arid countries. This technique has proven advantages over the direct application of treated wastewater.

• Agricultural sector requires large amounts of water, which will definitely affect water availability for domestic and industrial requirements in future. Therefore more emphasis should be given to watershed development and upgrading rain fed agriculture through rainwater harvesting and artificial recharge systems.

• Multi-disciplinary approach and advanced techniques should be adopted in the evaluation of vulnerability of different water resources and their associated systems that add to global warming.

• Approximately with 90 percent certainty IPCC report revealed that emission of greenhouse gases is responsible for current global warming trends. Therefore all possible efforts should be carried out for reducing green-house gas emission—particularly carbon-dioxide released through the burning of fossil fuel.

• Global warming affects the environment of the entire world. Thus for minimizing the impact of climate change on water management public awareness and involvement are needed. Hydrologists can play an important role in increasing the awareness with discussions with students, business groups, cor-porates and communities through conferences.

7. Uncited references

IPCC (2005), UNEP (2011). Acknowledgements

I thank all the faculty members of the Civil Engineering Department, of ITM University, for providing working facilities and also for continuous encouragement.

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