Scholarly article on topic 'Some Issues of Ethno-cultural Education in Modern Kazakhstan'

Some Issues of Ethno-cultural Education in Modern Kazakhstan Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — N.O. Baigabylov, A.R. Beisembaev, K.M. Baigusheva

Abstract In this article were determined substantial aspects and features of ethno-cultural education of modern Kazakhstan through the study regulation documents, based on content analysis. The authors come to the conclusion that ethnic and cultural education is important social and educational problem in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is considered as realization of human rights and capabilities of nations. Achieved results of ethno-cultural education in Kazakhstan are created conditions for greater use of the potential of ethnic and cultural education based on values of a culture of peace, tolerance and ethnic harmony.

Academic research paper on topic "Some Issues of Ethno-cultural Education in Modern Kazakhstan"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 89 (2013) 409 - 412

2nd Cyprus International Conference on Educational Research, (CY-ICER 2013)

Some Issues of Ethno-Cultural Education in Modern

Kazakhstan

Baigabylov N.0.a*, BeisembaevA.R.b, Baigusheva K.M.C

a L.N.GumilyovEurasian National UniversityFirst, 5Munaitpasov Street, 010008,Astana, Kazakhstan

b Innovative University of Eurasia, 45 Lomov Street, 140008, Pavlodar, Kazakhstan c L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National UniversityFirst, 5 Munaitpasov Street, 010008, Astana, Kazakhstan

Abstract

In this article were determined substantial aspects and features of ethno-cultural education of modern Kazakhstan through the study regulation documents, based on content analysis. The authors come to the conclusion that ethnic and cultural education is important social and educational problem in the Republic of Kazakhstan, which is considered as realization of human rights and capabilities of nations. Achieved results of ethno-cultural education in Kazakhstan are created conditions for greater use of the potential of ethnic and cultural education based on values of a culture of peace, tolerance and ethnic harmony.

© 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selectionand/or peer-reviewunderresponsibilityof Prof.Dr.Huseyin Uzunboylu,NearEastUniversity,FacultyofEducation, Cyprus

Keywords: Ethno-cultural education, ethno-cultural identity, ethno-cultural educational resources;

1. Introduction

The modern Kazakhstan is characterized by public modernization and tendency to global integration process, where education takes the leading position in modernization process. The president N.A. Nazarbayev had set a high bar to the national education, which should be competitive, high-quality, to consolidate the society, to guarantee the equality of nations and different religions, to maintain the united socio-cultural space of the country. Thus, the conception of Kazakhstani Humanitarian Education (1994) says: "... saving everything valuable reform it according to the ethnic needs of educated audience". This idea permeates in another documents: the Conception of

* Corresponding author: BaigabylovNurlan. Tel.: +7-702-113-2623. E-mail address: n.baigabyl@gmail.com

1877-0428 © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of Prof. Dr. Huseyin Uzunboylu, Near East University, Faculty of Education, Cyprus doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2013.08.868

state policy in educational area in Kazakhstan (1995), Conception of ethno-cultural education in the Republic of Kazakhstan (1996) which were approved by the National Council on state policy under the President of Kazakhstan. They emphasized that the establishment of state independence of the Republic of Kazakhstan, heading democratic reforms, the recognition of the rights and freedoms of any person in spite of nationality require the reorienting of all educational sphere to realization of national-cultural and linguistic interests of population, the creating of successive system of ethnic and cultural education, determine its substantial aspects and features.

2. Ethno-cultural educational space

Ethno cultural education is an education directed on keeping ethno cultural identity of the person by familiarizing to native language and culture simultaneously with values of world culture development. It should ensure the creation of conditions for person identification with his own native culture and learning of other cultures, to direct to the dialogue of cultures, their mutual enrichment, to promote the formation of the multilingual individual, who has ability to speak effectively native, state and Russian languages, following the model of "two loyalties": related to the own ethno-national group and to the state.

Definitely, the background of development of ethno-cultural education system in Kazakhstan is the creation of ethno-cultural educational environment, which implies the cultural basis, the field for ethnic cultures development, the material conditions to national and cultural communities.

Ethno-cultural educational space includes:

• Family

• The parent school (maternal education)

• Day care centers

• Schools

• Institutions

• National and cultural centers, etc.

Knowing native and state language from the early age contributes to the creation of ethnic and cultural space, to transformation of state language into communication language, teaching language, the list of items and their contents.

Today Kazakhstan has an experience of creating ethnic and cultural educational space within the school, which helps to save Kazakh and native languages, to formation of Kazakhstani self-consciousness and self-identity. Thus, in the Pavlodar region the Department of education has formed in the House of Friendship the "School of national revival", which includes the representatives of different diasporas living in this area. To date, over 500 children attending 14 national classes, Kazakh and Russian cultural centers. These classes created all the conditions for learning the native language, history, culture, customs and traditions of the people from their region. 30 teachers and supervisors of artists' studios teach the children.

Children study in different classes but they constantly communicate with each other, working together to choreography and music, organizing the concerts and learn Kazakh language, culture of Kazakhstan, study the tolerance, respect to traditions of the multinational Kazakhstan peoples.

The learning content of the "School of national revival" is defined by the author's teacher programs, directing to the knowledge of native culture, strengthening of tolerant behavior skills in multinational society through comparing of creative projects of tolerant personality model, analysis of the cultural identity of ethnic groups and common traditions of the people living on the Pavlodar region territory.

Teachers of the "School of national reviving" use educational technologies, theatricality and publishing of creative projects directed on upbringing of conscious attitudes to tolerance, respectfulness for ethnic groups and on ability to communicate with people of different nationalities and faiths.

Of course, such an experience contributes to the saving ethnic components in educational process of such schools as national ones. The pupils of such schools have high level of motivation in learning native languages and customs, which became open due to several factors:

- The quality of education in national schools mast not give away the quality of education in public

schools;

- The parents understanding of importance to save the ethnic and cultural children identity;

- Supporting the ethnic and cultural activities and interest to ethnicity by society, promoting the importance of ethnic diversity.

- The rise of national consciousness among the dominant group, appearing of ethnic elements in public schools.

- Opportunities for organizing the life in the view of ethnic features, supporting of material culture with the elements of ethnics and handmade, the return of human not machine measuring.

- Teacher's interest in teaching native culture.

The listed factors, existed in our reality, have been lost, but they can be restored. This idea is proclaimed as dominant in all recent educational records, there is an understanding of these problems' importance; the idea runs through the programs. The ethnic and cultural education restores the values, which always united us into single nation, and allows feeling confident within your nationality or faith. Confident and peaceful existence removes the danger of conflicts within society and penetration of the destructive tendencies from the outside, "... The happiness of the people should be the ideal goal of any management" (Confucius).

Ethnic and cultural education is a holistic process of learning and practical development of ethnic heritage (physical, spiritual, social), the formation process and individual education in the traditions of ethnic culture that combined the mono-ethnic depth of native culture and poly-ethnic latitude.

By presenting itself as a complex interdisciplinary phenomenon, that explores the content of ethnic and cultural component in the process of education, ethnic and cultural education has many unsolved issues in pedagogy.

The problem of ethnic and cultural education can be solved in different ways:

• Through the ethnic pedagogy of educational process;

• It's region studying;

• Deepening of ethnic and cultural, ethnic-artistic content of the education.

Should be said that all these paths intersect each other and are implemented in the educational process of a specific region. Thus, the regional model of education of Pavlodar region is characterized by poly-ethnic orientation, to which the principle of the dialogue of cultures is inherent.

The principle of regionalization in modern education of Kazakhstan system is formed on the basis of accounting of national membership of people living in one area, which involves a variety of approaches to the solution of educational problems. Consequently, the socializing function of education, aimed to support the reproduction of social experience, to achieve optimum adaptation to the modern social - civilizational and cultural realities, to fix the valuable guidelines of life in the minds of a new generation, has acquired the national-regional shade.

According to the researchers of regional educational system (A.D. Kaidarova, T.K. Solodukhina, A.Yu. Belogurova and others), the state and national interests should be reflected in educational content, and regional educational policy should be regulated within saving the single educational sphere of Kazakhstan Republic.

The modern school of Kazakhstan tries to solve the problem of development and realization by the practice of national and regional education component in which cultural peculiarities of the region; traditions, customs and language of the people are reflected. Methods, tools, requirements of the regional and overall ethnic and cultural education process, upgrade paths of the content of education in the modern middle and high school are discussed in the pedagogical science of recent years; come out different concepts and models.

Thus, in modern pedagogy the problem of ethnic and cultural education, suggesting comprehension of mono-ethnic depth and poly-ethnic latitude, issues of intercultural interaction, has not yet found a complete solution. The phenomenon of ethnic and cultural education integrates the problems of the study of ethnic culture and its interpretation in the process of education.

At this period different approaches to the problem of ethnic and cultural education are successfully implemented in the education of Kazakhstan:

• Ethno-philological - through the development of ethno-language, improving of linguistic competence;

• Ethno-artistic - through depth of attention to the folk art culture in the educational process;

• Ethno-pedagogical - through ethno-pedagogy of educational process;

• Region studying - through local history, with varying degrees of depth and breadth of its ethnic and cultural issues in education;

• Cultural - through the knowledge of ethnic culture as a part of civilized culture;

• Ethno-cultural - through the knowledge of ethnic culture in its systemic integrity.

3. Conclusion and Recommendations

The problem of ethnic and cultural education demands the development and specification of its content at different stages of formation of the personality, methods and technologies of realization, improvement of ethnic and cultural competence and preparation of the teacher for its implementation, development of program and educational and methodical equipment.

Ethnic and cultural education exists in flexible borders from mono-cultural to poly-cultural education, being dissolved in a limiting condition of generality of global education. We consider that the problem of ethnic and cultural education includes interaction of both vectors, and its mono-ethnic vector is necessary for preservation of national identity in the individual, and the poly-ethnic vector is the tool for permission of international contradictions and tolerance formation in intercultural interaction.

In recent years Kazakhstan achieved important results in formation of ethnic and cultural education, necessary pedagogical and organizational-legal conditions for realization of the purposes and problems of ethnic and cultural education are created:

• The regulatory base of development of ethnic and cultural education is formed, the network of educational establishments/classes with the ethnic and cultural component, providing profound studying of the native language and culture is created;

• Pupils join national cultural, spiritual and moral-ethnic values, while the tendency of a withdrawal from ethnic apartness, strengthening of a role of intercultural education at the expense of introduction of courses «ethnos and culture», inclusions of ethnic and cultural models in the maintenance of subject courses on history and geography is observed;

• Models of ethnic and cultural education are developed and implemented in practice: subject and thematic, valuable, design, for example, pupils write scientific projects about an ethnic originality of different folks living in the territory of Kazakhstan;

• Programs of additional ethnic and cultural education on the basis of schools with an ethnic and cultural component and the national and cultural centers are realized: folklore, choreographic, choral, musical studios and ensembles, museum and local history work, ethnographic expeditions;

• The scientific-methodical base of development of ethnic and cultural education is created

The reached results of development of ethnic and cultural education in Kazakhstan create opportunities for wider use of potential of ethnic and cultural education on the basis of values of culture of the world, tolerance and an international consent.