Scholarly article on topic 'Retrospective study on Professor Zhongying Zhou's experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment on diabetic nephropathy'

Retrospective study on Professor Zhongying Zhou's experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment on diabetic nephropathy Academic research paper on "Medical engineering"

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Abstract of research paper on Medical engineering, author of scientific article — Kelei Su, Fangshi Zhu, Lizhong Guo, Yao Zhu, Wenlin Li, et al.

Abstract Objective To study and analyze the etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis and prescription for cases of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treated by Professor Zhongying Zhou (Prof. Zhou) with the help of dada mining technique, so as to inherit his clinical experience and academic thoughts. Methods After pretreatment of the medical record information, statistical software SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze and process the standardized data using the descriptive analysis, cluster analysis and association rules. Results Ninety-four entries derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) four-diagnostic information were selected. Through data mining, the highest frequency was yellow-thin-greasy tongue coating, followed by dark tongue, and then by thready-slippery pulse. The main self-conscious symptoms were limb numbness, dry mouth, frequent micturition, etc. With respect to pathogenesis, the etiology related to kidney reached 73.46%. The frequency of pathological factors for deficiency, blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm and dryness were 137.65%, 80.25%, 78.40%, 48.77%, 21.60%, and 14.20% respectively. A total of 236 kinds of herbs were used 2913 person times, averaging 17.98 herbs per prescription. Conclusion The pathological location of DN is in the kidney. The pathogenesis of the disease is deficiency in origin and excess in superficiality, the former of which include deficiency of the liver and kidney, and deficiency of both Qi and Yin. The main pathological factors are blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm, and dryness; and they act upon each other to form the complex pathogenesis in terms of blood stasis-heat, dampness-heat, phlegm-heat, and dryness-heat. All the above factors are always crucial in the aggravation of DN throughout the whole course of its pathological evolution.

Academic research paper on topic "Retrospective study on Professor Zhongying Zhou's experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment on diabetic nephropathy"

JTCM

Online Submissions:http://www.journaltcm.com info@journaltcm.com

JTradit Chin Med 2013 April 15; 33(2): 262-267 ISSN 0255-2922 © 2013 JTCM. All rights reserved.

CLINICAL EXPERIENCE

Retrospective study on Professor Zhongying Zhou's experience in Traditional Chinese Medicine treatment on diabetic nephropathy

Kelei Su, Fangshi Zhu, Lizhong Guo, Yao Zhu, Wenlin Li, Xingjiang Xiong

Kelei Su, First Clinical Medical College, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China Fangshi Zhu, Integrative Medicine Clinical Research Center, Jiangsu Province Academy of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210028, China

Lizhong Guo, Yao Zhu, Famous Doctor's Studio of Zhongying Zhou, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China

Wenlin Li, Department of Library, Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China Xingjiang Xiong, Department of Cardiology, Guang'anmen Hospital, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences, Beijing 100053, China

Supported by Jiangsu Province College Natural Science Research Project (No. 09KJD360001); Scientific and Technological Innovation and Achievements Transformation Special Projects of Jiangsu Province (BM2009903). Correspondence to: Prof. Lizhong Guo, Famous Doctor's Studio of Zhongying Zhou, Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine, Nanjing 210046, China. lzg1073@sina.com Telephone: +86-25-86798189, +86-25-85608666 Accepted: June 18,2012

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To study and analyze the etiology and pathogenesis, diagnosis and prescription for cases of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treated by Professor Zhongying Zhou (Prof. Zhou) with the help of dada mining technique, so as to inherit his clinical experience and academic thoughts.

METHODS: After pretreatment of the medical record information, statistical software SPSS 13.0 was used to analyze and process the standardized data using the descriptive analysis, cluster analysis and association rules.

RESULTS: Ninety-four entries derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) four-diagnostic information were selected. Through data mining, the highest frequency was yellow-thin-greasy tongue coating, followed by dark tongue, and then by thready-slippery pulse. The main self-conscious symptoms were limb numbness, dry mouth, frequent micturition, etc. With respect to pathogenesis, the etiology related to kidney reached 73.46%. The frequency of pathological factors for deficiency, blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm and dryness were 137.65%, 80.25%, 78.40%, 48.77%, 21.60%, and 14.20% respectively. A total of 236 kinds of herbs were used 2913 person times, averaging 17.98 herbs per prescription.

CONCLUSION: The pathological location of DN is in the kidney. The pathogenesis of the disease is deficiency in origin and excess in superficiality, the former of which include deficiency of the liver and kidney, and deficiency of both Qi and Yin. The main pathological factors are blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm, and dryness; and they act upon each other to form the complex pathogenesis in terms of blood stasis-heat, dampness-heat, phlegm-heat, and dryness-heat. All the above factors are always crucial in the aggravation of DN throughout the whole course of its pathological evolution.

© 2013 JTCM. All rights reserved.

Key words: Diabetic nephropathies; Retrospective studies; Data mining; Clinical experience

BACKGROUND

Professor Zhongying Zhou (Prof. Zhou) is a native of

Nantong City in Jiangsu Province of China, born in August 1928. He learned medical skill following his father since childhood, and began to run his own private clinic at twenty. Now he is the lifelong professor, doctoral supervisor and chief physician in Nanjing University of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). He is also the lifelong director of the Association of Chinese Medicine, the first batch of special government allowance winner, one of the guiding teachers for inheriting the academic experience of prestigious Chinese physicians, the representative national inheritor of worldwide non-material cultural heritage projects (Chinese medicine field), and national famous veteran doctor of TCM. He was elected as the first batch of "National Great Master of TCM" in 2009. Prof. Zhou was once appointed as the vice president of the Jiangsu provincial Hospital of TCM; and the dean of Nanjing University of TCM.

He has successively presided over 36 items of national, ministerial or provincial subjects, obtained 24 achievements in scientific research, formulated 5 kinds of new drugs, obtained 6 items of invention patents, published 216 academic papers, and a total of 29 kinds of books and teaching materials. As one of the pioneers of Chinese medicine education in internal medicine, Prof. Zhou has made great contributions to the development of higher education of TCM. Prof. Zhou has been engaged in clinical treatment, teaching activities and scientific research for more than 60 years with rich knowledge and experience. He has created some new TCM theories, such as "stagnant heat theory", "latent toxin theory", "altering drugs with changeable syndrome theory", "complex methods for prescription theory", "syndrome differentiation for pathogenesis theory", "the secondary etiology", and "five characteristics in syndrome differentiation", which have been widely used in treatment of acute, stubborn and serious diseases.1-3

In the present study, statistical methods were adopted to mining the effective cases of diabetic nephropathy (DN) treated by Prof. Zhou, so as to analyze and summarize Prof. Zhou's clinical experience in TCM treatment of DN.

METHODS

General data

All the medical cases were derived from Prof. Zhou's outpatient service in the period from February 1990 to June 2010. The detailed data were recorded by his students, including the patient's name, sex, age, visiting date, past medical history, and clinical manifestations; the relevant physical and chemical inspections, the diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment principle and method, concerned, and the prescription and doses, etc. Inclusion criteria: 1) comply with Western Medicine diagnostic criteria, diagnosed as DN; 2) the information

is complete, including the clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and/or treatment method, drug, etc. A total of 92 cases in this series with 162 clinical visits had met the research's criteria. Of them, 46 cases were male, and 46 female. The age range was 28-81 years, mean 59.48.

Information collection

All the data inputted into the "Visual FoxPro 6.0" (Microsoft Corporation, Washington, USA) management system software for Prof. Zhou's diagnosis and treatment information was transferred into Excel patterns, then the cases which had met the research's criteria were screened out. The SQL-Server 2005 software (Microsoft Corporation, Washington, USA) was used to establish the medical cases database for collecting and storing, at last the materials were turned into word document.

Pretreatment of medical record information

Due to the diverse comprehensive abilities in different batches of students followed with Prof. Zhou, there are some problems, such as wrongly written characters, the irregular expression of four diagnostic information, non-standard expression of pathogenesis and herbs. Consequently, pretreatment of medical records have to be done firstly.

The pretreatment: 1) the wrong words were corrected; 2) standardization and unification of the jargon: the criteria were based on the normative textbooks: diagnostics of Chinese Medicine,4 Traditional Chinese Pharmacology,5 the Chinese Materia Medica,6 Formulas of Chinese Medicine7 and Chinese Internal Medicine,8 etc. For example, "lower limb numbness", "hands and feet numbness", "four limbs numbness", "limb numbness", "arms numbness," and "fingers and toes numbness" should be unified into "limb numbness"; "Yin deficiency", "Yin consumption", and "Yin damage" should be unified as "Yin deficiency"; "big rehman-nia", "raw rehmannia", "fine raw rehmannia" unified for "raw rehmannia", and so on.

Statistical methods

Statistical software SPSS 13.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA) was used to analyze and process the standardized data with the help of descriptive analysis, cluster analysis, and association rule analysis, etc.

RESULTS

Frequency distribution of four diagnostic information

Based on the occurrence of diabetes, DN patients may have various symptoms with a long-term lingering course. Some of them only show laboratory abnormalities, with no obvious self-conscious symptoms. There were 94 kinds of diagnostic entries for the four diagnostic information in the 92 DN patients with 162 clinical visits. Table 1 lists those with a frequency greater

than 16. The tongue and pulse information showed that the highest frequency was 86 for thin-greasy-yellow tongue coating, followed by 66 for dark tongue, and 54 for thready-slippery pulse. They are all located in forefront of the symptom frequency table along with other symptoms with high frequency, such as greasy-yellow tongue coating, yellow tongue coating, dark red tongue, dark purple tongue, crackled tongue, thready pulse, thready-slippery pulse. The self-conscious symptoms with high frequency were limb numbness, dry mouth, frequent micturition, dry stool, extremities edema, fatigue, bubble urine, poor sleep, yellow urine, dizziness, hyperhidrosis, soreness and heaviness in waist and knees, etc.

able 1 Frequency distribution of four diagnostic information

Symptom Frequency Ratio

Yellow thin greasy tongue coating 86 0.5309

Limb numbness 66 0.4074

Dark tongue 66 0.4074

Dry mouth 62 0.3827

Frequent micturition 56 0.3457

Thready slippery pulse 54 0.3333

Dark red tongue 53 0.3272

Thready pulse 52 0.3210

Dry stool 50 0.3086

Extremities edema 41 0.2531

Fatigue 34 0.2099

Yellow greasy tongue coating 26 0.1605

Bubble urines 25 0.1543

Yellow tongue coating 25 0.1543

Poor sleep 24 0.1481

Yellow urine 24 0.1481

Dizziness 23 0.1420

Hyperhidrosis 21 0.1296

Soreness and heaviness in waist 21 0.1296

and knees

Loose stool 20 0.1235

Facial edema 20 0.1235

Abdominal distension 20 0.1235

Thready slippery pulse 20 0.1235

Cough 19 0.1173

Aversion to cold 19 0.1173

Blurred vision 19 0.1173

Crackled tongue 18 0.1111

Dark purple tongue 17 0.1049

Eating can be satisfied 16 0.0988

Low back pain 16 0.0988

Frequency distribution of pathogenesis

the deficiency of both Qi and Yin, chronic disease transforming into collateral stasis, collateral heat leading to blood stasis reached to 40.74% , 24.07% , 24.07% respectively. The results show that the main pathogenesis of DN is deficiency of liver and kidney and chronic disease transforming into collateral stasis.

Table 2 Frequency distribution of pathogenesis

Pathogenesis Frequency Ratio

Deficiency of liver and kidney 93 0.5741

Deficiency of both Qi and Yin 66 0.4074

Chronic diseases transforming to collaterals stasis Collaterals heat leading to blood stasis Dampness and heat accumulating in the interior 39 39 34 0.2407 0.2407 0.2099

Dampness and heat stagnated 26 0.1605

Yin deficiency leading to heat-dryness 18 0.1111

Kidney deficiency and liver excess 18 0.1111

Stomach- Qi failed to descend 15 0.0926

Phlegm accumulating with blood stasis 13 0.0802

Asthenia of the spleen and stomach 13 0.0802

Wind and phlegm accumulating with blood stasis 9 0.0556

Ying of heart blocked 8 0.0494

Dampness-heat and phlegm accumulating with blood stasis 7 0.0432

Deficiency of spleen and kidney 7 0.0432

Dampness-heat injured Yin 5 0.0309

Deficiency of liver and spleen 5 0.0309

Wind generated from dryness blood 5 0.0309

As shown in Table 2, the highest frequency was 93 for deficiency of liver and kidney, accounting for 57.41%;

Frequency distribution of pathological factors

The pathological factor frequency distribution (Table 3) showed that the highest frequency was 223 for deficiency, accounting for 137.65% ; while the ratio for blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm and dryness reached to 80.25%, 78.40%, 48.77%, 21.60% and 14.20% respectively. Among them, the frequency of "deficiency" appeared over 100% . This phenomenon may be related to the multiple-time appearance of "deficiency" in pathological factors by Prof. Zhou's differentiation. For example, "deficiency" appeared two times in his differentiation of "kidney deficiency and liver excess, Yin deficiency leading to heat-dryness, and chronic disease transforming into collateral stasis". It is indicated that deficiency, blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm and dryness are the main pathological factors for DN, and this phenomenon is consistent with the analysis results of syndrome frequency distribution. It is worth explaining were that many physicians advocate the internal-toxin pathogenic theory in development of DN; So, toxin is located in the end of the list. Possibly, most of the outpatient cases of DN haven't developed into the azotemia period.

able 3 Frequency distribution of pathological factors

Pathological factors

Frequency

Deficiency 223 1.3765

Blood stasis 130 0.8025

Heat 127 0.7840

Dampness 79 0.4877

Phlegm 35 0.2160

Dryness 23 0.1420

Wind 17 0.1049

Toxin 4 0.0247

Frequency distribution of the onset correlative viscera

The frequency distribution of the onset correlative viscera (Table 4) showed that the top frequency of the occurrence in kidney is 73.46%, followed by the liver which is 67.90% . This indicates that the location of DN is in the kidney, mainly involving the liver. And it may be closely related to Xiajiao with the same origin of liver and kidney. The occurrence in collaterals is 49.38%, related to the chronic disease transforming into collaterals. Pathogenesis of DN generally belongs to fundamental deficiency with excess of the symptoms. Fundamental deficiency means insufficiency of the liver and kidney, while the symptom excess means the damp-heat-stasis existence in the collaterals.

Table 4 Frequency distribution of the onset correlative viscera

The onset correlative viscera Frequency Ratio

Kidney 119 0.7346

Liver 110 0.6790

Stomach 26 0.1605

Spleen 21 0.1296

Lung 12 0.0741

Heart 12 0.0741

Gallbladder 7 0.0432

Collateral 80 0.4938

Frequency distribution of the herbs prescribed

In all the prescriptions, 236 kinds of herbs were used 2913 person/times for the 92 patients with 162 clinical visits, averaging 17.98 herbs per prescription. The frequencies for Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Guiji-anyu (Ramulus Euonymi), Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radi-cis), and Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae) used were respectively over 100 person/times; and for Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), Jiangcan (Bombyx Batryticatus), Yumixu (Stigma Maydis), Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti), Taizishen (Radix Pseudostellariae), Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici), Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Shanzhuyu (Fructus Macrocapii), Zexie (Rhizoma Alis-matis), Zhisangbaipi (Roasted Cortex Mori Albae Radi-cis), Fuling (Tuckahoe), Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosan-thin), and Sangye (Folium Mori) respectively more than 50 person/times (30.86%).

As shown in Table 5, after making classified statistics according to the herb's efficacy, the total frequencies

for Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Shanzhuyu (Fructus Macrocapii), Shanyao (Rhizoma Di-oscoreae Oppositae), Shihu (Herba Dendrobii Nobilis), Sangjisheng (Herba Morinae Chinensis), and Tusizi (Semen Cuscutae) used were 471 person/times, accounting for 16.17%. They were used for nourishing the liver and kidney. The total frequencies for Taizishen (Radix Pseudostellariae), Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis Japoni-ci), Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthin), Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), Gegen (Radix Puerariae), Shihu (Herba Dendrobii Nobilis), Beishashen (Radix Glehni-ae), and Nanshashen (Radix Adenophorae) used were 305 person/times, accounting for 10.47% . They were used for supplementing Qi and nourishing Yin. The total frequencies for Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi), Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), Jiangcan (Bombyx Batryticatus), Sangye (Folium Mori), Mudanpi (Cortex Mout-an Radicis), Shudahuang (Stewed Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati), and Shuizhi (Hirudo) used were 448 person/times, accounting for 15.38%. They were used for cooling blood and removing blood stasis. Yumixu (Stigma Maydis), Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti), Zexie (Rhizoma Alismatis), Fuling (Poria), Jicaihua (Herba Capsel-lae), and Tufuling (Rhizoma Smilacis Glabrae) were used for removing dampness; Huoxiang (Herba Cen-trantherae Cochinchinensis) and Peilan (Herba Eupatorii Fortunei) were used for dissipating dampness; Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis), Chaocangzhu (Roasted Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae), Fabanxia (Prepared Rhizoma Pinel-liar), and Huangbai (Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis) were used for drying dampness; and Chaocangzhu (Roasted Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae), Fabanxia (Prepared Rhizoma Pinelliar) and Zhisangbaipi (Roasted Cortex Mori Albae Radicis) were used for resolving phlegm. These herbs for removing dampness, resolving dampness, drying dampness and resolving phlegm were used altogether 545 person/times, accounting for 18.71% . From aspects of the treatment principle and the herbs used, we can know that the main pathological factors of DN are deficiency, blood stasis, heat and dampness, phlegm and dryness. The pathological location of DN is in the kidney with close relationship with the liver.

SUMMARY

It has been proposed that "The main path for developing the theory of TCM is to research the academic thoughts and clinical experience from the prestigious Chinese physicians, which are embodied in treatment of large amount of medical cases; and it is an effective measure to inherit and innovate their academic thoughts and clinical experience by multi-level and in-depth study."9-13 This paper summarized Prof. Zhou's clinical experience in treating DN from aspects of the syndrome, pathogenesis, and the drug used.

able 5 Frequency distribution of the herbs prescribed

Herbs Frequency Ratio

Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae) 110 0.6790

Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi) 108 0.6667

Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis) 103 0.6358

Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae) 101 0.6235

Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae) 91 0.5617

Jiangcan (Bombyx Batryticatus) 88 0.5432

Yumixu (Stigma Maydis) 87 0.5370

Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti) 80 0.4938

Taizishen (Radix Pseudostellariae) 74 0.4568

Maidong (Radix Ophiopogonis Japonici) 71 0.4383

Huanglian (Rhizoma Coptidis) 68 0.4198

Shanzhuyu (Fructus Macrocapii) 62 0.3827

Zexie (Rhizoma Alismatis) 56 0.3457

Zhisangbaipi (Roasted Cortex Mori Albae Radicis) 55 0.3395

Fuling (Poria) 54 0.3333

Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthin) 54 0.3333

Sangye (Folium Mori) 53 0.3272

Danshen ( Radix Salviae 45 39 0.2778 0.2407

Miltiorrhizae) Chaocangzhu (Roasted Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae)

Danpi (Cortex Moutan Radicis) 39 0.2407

Huoxiang (Herba Centrantherae Cochinchinensis) 35 0.2160

Peilan (Herba Eupatorii Fortunei) 35 0.2160

Shudahuang (Stewed Radix et Rhizoma Rhei Palmati) Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici) 34 33 0.2099 0.2037

Gegen (Radix Puerariae) 27 0.1667

Fabanxia (Prepared Rhizoma Pinelliar) 27 0.1667

Shanyao (Rhizoma Dioscoreae Oppositae) 26 0.1605

Shihu (Herba Dendrobii Nobilis) 25 0.1543

Beishashen(Radix Glehniae) 25 0.1543

Jicaihua (Herba Capsellae) 24 0.1481

Jixueteng (Radix Cissi Kerrii) 24 0.1481

Shuizhi (Hirudo) 24 0.1481

Sangjisheng (Herba Morinae Chinensis) 23 0.1420

Tusizi (Semen Cuscutae) 21 0.1296

Nanshashen (Radix Adenophorae) 21 0.1296

Huangbai (Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis) Tufuling (Rhizoma Smilacis f -rt /1 blV/1 £> 1 20 20 0.1235 0.1235

Vjiti-fc'/ ticJ Shanzha (Fructus Craaegi Pinnatifdae) 20 0.1235

The syndrome of DN is complicated and changeable, but it is always related to kidney deficiency. As to the long course and various symptoms of DN, Prof. Zhou strongly advocated "syndrome differentiation for patho-

genesis", with the aim of extracting the common characteristic from miscellaneous symptoms. In the process of pathogenesis evolution, limb numbness is due to disharmony of Qi and blood, and low back pain due to Qi and blood stagnation; kidney- Yin deficiency gives rise to dry mouth and hyperhidrosis, and kidney-Qi deficiency results in soreness of the waist and knees, and fatigue; bubble urines and frequent urination are due to instability of kidney-Qi, and aversion to cold due to deficiency of kidney- Yang. Abnormal circulation of body fluid may lead to extremities edema; the adverse ascending of turbid fluid may go to the stomach causing nausea, or go to the head causing dizziness. Tinnitus is due to kidney deficiency; poor sleep and dizziness due to insufficiency of reservoir of marrow, and blurred vision due to malnutrition of the eyes. In a word, the disease location of DN is mainly in the kidney. In addition, limb numbness has the highest frequency in the self-conscious symptoms. This may be related to the peripheral neuropathy under the internal environment of high blood glucose level.

Generally, the pathogenesis of DN is deficiency in origin and excess in superficiality. Deficiency in origin may include liver and kidney deficiency, and Qi and Yin deficiency; both the Qi and Yin deficiency may appear throughout the whole course of disease. A long-course disease may affect kidney, and kidney insufficient will bring about renal water not nourishing hepatic wood, which ultimately leads to liver and kidney deficiency. Blood stasis, heat, dampness, phlegm and dryness are taken as the pathological products determine the pathological nature of excess syndrome for DN, once formed, they will become new pathogenic factors.

Blood stasis, phlegm, dampness and dryness stagnate in the renal collaterals, blocking the circulation of body fluid and Qi. The dysfunction of the kidney in controlling the water, with losing and reducing of the essence and fine substances, aggravates edema and albuminuria. And the symptoms of excess may be transformed into pathogenic heat after long-term insidious accumulation, resulting in injury of Qi and Yin. For example, if blood stasis can not be eliminated, new blood can not be normally generated, which may lead to blood deficiency, making the condition more serious. So, blood stasis, phlegm, dampness and dryness are taken as the common pathological factors, and they may tangle with the pathogenic heat to constitute the complex pathogenesis in terms of dry-heat, dampness-heat, blood stasis-heat, phlegm-heat respectively. Association rules were adopted as a kind of analysis method to make a deep data mining of the herbs which Prof. Zhou used for DN treatment. This paper described and analyzed the results of data mining, but not presenting all of the data because of their huge length.

In the comparison of correlation degree between the symptoms and drugs, Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi),

Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis), Yumixu (Stigma Maydis) are used for dry mouth; Chaocangzhu (Roasted Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae) is used for yellow urine. Thready pulse mostly needs Huangqi (Radix Astragali Mongolici), Shanzhuyu (Fructus Macrocapii), Jicaihua (Herba Capsellae), Hanliancao (Herba Ecliptae Prostra-tae), Dijincao (Herba EuphorbiaHumifuse), Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi), Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis), Yumixu (Stigma Maydis), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Taizishen (Radix Pseudostellariae), Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), Peilan (Fortune Eupatorium Herb), Jiangcan (Bombyx Batryticatus) and Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti). Bubble urines mostly needs Shanzhuyu (Fructus Macrocapii), Danpi (Cortex Moutan Radicis), Fuling (Tuckahoe), Chaocangzhu (Roasted Rhizoma Atractylodis Lanceae), Yumixu (Stigma Maydis), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae), Zexie (Rhizoma Alismatis), Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi), Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), while yellow tongue coating mostly needs Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi), Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti), Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), Shengdihuang (Radix Rehmanniae). Dry mouth, yellow urine, bubble urines, yellow tongue coating are the manifestations of damp-heat accumulation, and the drugs for clearing heat and removing dampness should be prescribed.

In the comparison of correlation degree between the pathogenesis and drugs, Taizishen (Radix Pseudostellari-ae) is used for deficiency of both Qi and Yin. Jiangcan (Bombyx Batryticatus), Sangye (Folium Mori), Zelan (Herba Lycopi Hirti), Xuanshen (Radix Scrophulariae), Tianhuafen (Radix Trichosanthin), Digupi (Cortex Lycii Radicis), Zhimu (Rhizoma Anemarrhenae), and Guijianyu (Ramulus Euonymi) are used for chronic illness transforming into collateral stasis; while for collateral heat causing blood stasis, one more herb named Sheng-dihuang (Radix Rehmanniae) is needed. It is worth noting that Sangye (Folium Mori) is usually used for relieving the exterior disorder by evacuating wind and heat. Because Sangye (Folium Mori) has a sweet taste and the cold nature: sweet taste is good for nourishing blood, and cold nature is beneficial for cooling blood; and the sweet taste and cold nature may help in descending Qi and supplementing Yin. As it is described in Ben Cao Xin Bian14 that the efficacy of Sangye (Folium Mori) is

much better than Sangbaipi (Cortex Mori Albae Radicis), which is good at tonifying marrow of bones, benefiting essence of the kidney, stopping sweat of body, nourishing the brain and brightening the eyes, and activating the blood and generating the body fluid.

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