Scholarly article on topic 'Designing Family Friendly Architecture Environments'

Designing Family Friendly Architecture Environments Academic research paper on "Sociology"

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OECD Field of science
{Family / "Collective Spaces" / "Residential Complexes" / Behaviorology / Territory}

Abstract of research paper on Sociology, author of scientific article — Mohammad Mashayekhi, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad, Soghra Niroumand Shishavan

Abstract Creating spaces with high qualities of life for the use of the families is of important subjects for design. This paper is trying to study two meanings of designing and sociology of architecture and knowing the family friendly environments and their qualities and the rate of them in residential town spaces. In this direction the behaviorology of users of a residential complex is done by using the theory of semiology and method of indirect evaluation and with analysis of the results; the behaviour of the different users is compared.

Academic research paper on topic "Designing Family Friendly Architecture Environments"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 51 (2012) 449 - 453


Designing family friendly architecture environments

Mohammad Mashayekhi a*, Mohammadjavad Mahdavinejad b, Soghra Niroumand

Shishavan c

a M. Arch, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalal Ale Ahmad Highway, Tehran, P.O.Box: 14115-111, Iran

b Assistant Professor of Tarbiat Modares University, Address, Tehran, P.O.Box: 14115-111, Iran c M. Arch, Academic Staff of University of Bonab, Velayat Highway, Bonab, P.O.Box:5551761167, Iran


Creating spaces with high qualities of life for the use of the families is of important subjects for design. This paper is trying to study two meanings of designing and sociology of architecture and knowing the family friendly environments and their qualities and the rate of them in residential town spaces. In this direction the behaviorology of users of a residential complex is done by using the theory of semiology and method of indirect evaluation and with analysis of the results; the behaviour of the different users is compared.

© 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer reviewer underresponsibility of Prof. Ay§e Çakir ilhan

Keywords: Family, Collective Spaces, Residential Complexes, Behaviorology, Territory;

1. Introduction

Creating suitable environment for families is the first priority of the residential complex. Physical structure of the environment in different levels of design including urban planning, site designing, façade designing and details of environmental elements should considered for providing social communications. Now some of the theories in social sciences whole and in urbanism specially emphasize to this issue that creating conscious discrepancies can prevent from separation of social communication in urban spaces. (Talebi: 2009) Furthermore coordination of "planning" and "space design" with cultural structure and being social communication in the space of the complex, it is ensured the achievement of the design ideas and total purposes. Open spaces around the buildings of the residential complexes, are kind of public spaces of these complexes that in spite of communication spaces, their social functions are more important than communication ones. In modern construction, investigators and builders are thinking to their benefits; and a few people think about needs and cultural and identical features. In fact, the most important challenge in private territory is the incompatibility of the physical and space of the residential complex with the cultural and behavioral properties of the residents.

* Corresponding Author name. Tel.: +98-9127369072 E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer review under responsibility of Prof. Ay§e Qakir ilhan doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.08.187

2. Definitions And Meanings

The very first keyword is "Family". Although the meaning of the family is familiar with the public, but there are different attitudes about family basics. Some of the researchers suppose the base of the constituting family, affectionate relationships. In this base the family is "legal connection of two different genders for the basis of durable relations, religious holiness and deep affective relations; that is with a kind of social contract and important cultural effects". (Engles: 1973: 171-205) On this basis marriage that was introduced as an important basis of the constituting family, is more important than the other social groups in a residential complex. Anthony Giddens defines the family as groups of people that connect to relative relations directly and the adults of it are responsible of caring children. Relative connections are the relations between people that are done through the marriage or through the ancestry that connects blood relatives (mothers, fathers, other children, grandfathers and so) together (Giddens: 2004: 424). Burgess and Locke in their book "family" mention that "family co nsists of a group of people who interact with each other through marriage, inbreeding and accepting as a child with each other as a husband, wife, mother, father, brother and sister and created a common culture and live in a special unit." (Burgess & Locke: 1953: 99) Mac Iver writes "The family is a group with sexual relations durable and distinctive that results in generation and upbringing of children" (Mac Iver: 1973: 196). But the subject of people treatment and the quality of the relationships of these people is different in time and place which gives family a heavenly meaning rather than social

"Residential Complexes" has different meaning regarding to the context. It can be considered residential complexes as a number of building blocks including different kinds of house (single unit, low rise a high rise apartments). In these complexes, apartment blocks are located in a lot and based on a of thought design. The blocks can compose each other in different shapes and create an open space in meaning relation with buildings. The residential complexes are designed based on permanent residence of the people. The people of the residential complexes usually include families that organized small groups in the form of an internal layer.

Territory and its effects on the space should be clarified. The subject "sphere of influence of the people" mentioned as "territory", determines important part of relations between people and their environments. It is of special importance in different population of the society. People use territory as a different way. American anthropologist Edward T. Hall is from initial researchers that has surveyed the need for territory in humans. His researches on the realm, has led the environmental behaviorology into new proportion in relationship with others. (Hall: 1992: 86) Possession of credibility of the work of a place or restrict. So manipulation in it is allowed with its owner only. Furthermore for good understanding of this subject, at first, it is to know the privacies and personal spaces. (Hall: 1992: 86) In residential complexes as a place for private living, it is necessary to advise plans to meet demands for bringing out health people.

3. Literature Review

The researches usually are related to the subject home and residential complexes or the dimension of the social aspect of family and its relations in residential complex. Although the subject "social sustainability of the architectural spaces" has been changed into an important subject in designing and producing spaces, but it is less investigated in residential area as more important and wider subject in architecture. The experience of the residence in tall buildings that proposed as a new settlement pattern, after releasing modern rules; although was parts of technical achievements of human and a response to the problems of the population growth in cities, but this new pattern showed its defection rapidly; and after one decade the waves of criticisms was started until according to Charles Jencks, "Modern Architecture died."(Jenks: 1996: 6) Social relations between people in a time and place, is spread dialectic semantic of culture that is explained in relationship with human environment and place. The kind of forming architecture and after creating it, the kind of using it is a cultural feedback of social situation that the users of an architectural space live in it. But this view is not representative of all interactions of the society with architecture. This objective spirit makes it possible to reserve the activities of the people independent of others." (Simmel, 1911) "Changing dialectic form superior material into material procedure and superior subjective into

subjective" is a Simmelien expression of below idea. In cultural structures, content of the mental processes - super material procedure- is such expressed that is independent from subjective conditions or psychological evolution. (Oaks, 1980)To put it simply, taking shape of forms, visualizes some parts of the culture. As a result the culture finds identity independent of people of the society and does not disappear with their death. From Williams' viewpoint the idea of culture and the act of culturing contains promise of the human release from stagnation (Milles and Bright: 2006:10). But the interactional relation between visualization forms of culture such as built environments with the users that grow in that culture is a semiological relations.

4. Research Process

4.1. The Purpose Of The Research

Recognition of the quality of spaces of residential complexes from view point of the kind of relationship between users

Encouraging the family presence in public spaces in residential complexes with purpose of characteristic explanation and the properties of suitable environments for the presence of the families

4.2. The Research Question

Considering the proposed purposes in previous section the research questions are: 1. Is there any relation between designed space in residential complexes and the quality of families presence in there

2. What kind of spaces is suitable for families' presence? And which characteristics should have these spaces in residential complexes?

4.3. The Research Method and Sampling

Figure 1: a sample of behavioral setting, Right: complete intimacy, Middle: semi dominance, Left: complete dominance, (Reference: the authors)

This research is a quantitative as well as qualitative research that has done quantity measurements and is discussed quality about these measurements. Some techniques for gathering data are direct observation and partnership one; and of course implementation of questionnaire has organized the other part of the data. This study has done using correlation test. (Groat & Wang: 2002: 212)

In this research statistical society was residents of Ekbatan residential complex in Tehran and the sample was selected randomly. Behavioral setting with complete dominant contains public environments that located in passing routes such as building entrance and main routes. Semi-dominant behavioral setting contains spaces that are obvious from main routes and public seeing.

Figure 2: scheme of behavioral settings site plan in ratio with traffic routes: 1. Complete dominancy, 2. Semi dominancy, 3. Complete intimacy (the authors)

Diagram 1: comparison of the use rate of the families from behavioral settings

5. Survey and Data Description

The test of this research has done through observation and recording users of the spaces such as behavioral setting or stopping with identical score and distinguishing between kinds of users in behavioral settings. So the number of users has recorded from 6 a.m. until 12 p.m. in the separation of kinds of users; and by using this method, three behavioral settings including complete dominant, semi dominant and complete intimacy, was tested. The results of this test is shown in the below table. The results of the test are:

The sum of the users is 1108 people; 28% families, 11% lonely people, 10% children and 32% the young. So the families are spread group of the users of behavioral setting after the young. By investigating the chart the properties of below are distinguished: Rush hour for all settings is about 15- 18 (chart 1).The most density of the use is related to semi dominance spaces (chart 1). In afternoon hours the users are more density relative to morning (chart 1). In behavioral setting 1 (complete dominant), the most users are elderlies and the young (diagram 3 & 5) .In behavioral setting (semi dominance) the most users are families. (diagram 1)In behavioral setting 3 (complete intimacy) the most users are the young. (diagram 5) The presence of children is noticeable in the afternoon. (diagram 4) Lonely people use behavioral setting in night hours. (diagram 2) The presence of users has the least rate in 12- 15 hours. (chart 1)The young have more presence in more hours of the day and in most spaces than the other groups. (diagram 5)The families like other groups have more presence in all behavioral settings in the afternoon hours; but this presence reduces at night hours speedily. (diagram 1)

It can be interfered from 4, 5, 6 and 9 that the most suitable behavioral setting for the family presence is semi dominance setting.

6. Discussion and Conclusion

After investigation of data and comparison of their ratios, the

result of the test shows that the families have most rate of use of space in the afternoon hours and in semi dominance behavioral settings.

Based on the studies and the purposes of the research, analyzing data of the tests the below results are concluded:

The families are more interested in semi dominant spaces; So that near 60% of statistic use of behavioral settings by families is placed in this behavioral setting. Therefore the family presences in this behavioral setting is much more than other ones.

The presence of families is related to lighting. In other accurate words, the families like to use complex spaces in the afternoon and evening; but their use is reduced speedily with reducing light and reaches at zero in the final hours of night. The presence of the families in complex spaces is related to the presence of other groups. So that with reducing the presence of other groups, the users reduces

Diagram 2: comparison of the use rate of the lonely people from behavioral settings

Night I Evening

■ Afternoon

■ Noon Morning

I daybreak

complete semi complete dominantdominant privacy

Diagram 3: comparison of the use rate of elders from behavioral settings

Diagram 4: comparison of the use rate of childeren from behavioral settings

Night I Evening

■ Afternoon I Noon


■ daybreak

complete semi complete dominant dominant privacy

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

Diagram 5: comparison of the use rate of the young from behavioral settings

these spaces sensibly, too. The young in spite of the families, are interested in complete dominant or complete intimacy spaces. The elderlies are interested in complete dominant spaces more than other groups. As mentioned, most suitable behavioral setting for family presence is semi dominant setting; this correspondence is such analyzed that these settings provide the security resulted in people presence in this space despite reserving of the family territory. But families use these spaces only in afternoon hours. This issue can be interpreted such that visualization of family in common urban life, achieves only in afternoon hours; in other words people do their personal works and take role in family in afternoon hours. Based on the cases 3 & 6 also high density of users from 15 to 21 of semi dominant it can be said that main use of families is possible only in these hours and they are interested in this behavioral setting intensively and as a result suitable environment for families should be in this restricted time and

7. Note

1. The structure of residential complexes functions from situation conditions and quantities such as the number of habitats and the kind of their relation with each other.

2. With supposing considering each family as one user and equivalent alone person

3. The behavior of the users are different in behavioral settings in holidays and other seasons because of changes in conditions of users and educational year


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