Scholarly article on topic 'Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for CO2 Capture Using Polyaniline Solid Sorbent'

Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for CO2 Capture Using Polyaniline Solid Sorbent Academic research paper on "Chemical engineering"

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{"CO2 capture" / "Temperature swing adsorption" / "polyaniline solid sorbent"}

Abstract of research paper on Chemical engineering, author of scientific article — Ming-Wei Yang, Nai-chi Chen, Chih-hsiang Huang, Yi-ting Shen, Hong-sung Yang, et al.

Abstract To capture carbon dioxide from power plant flue gas which consists of 15% CO2 and 85% N2, with a temperature swing adsorption (TSA) by using polyaniline solid sorbent as the adsorbent, is explored experimentally and theoretically. First, single component adsorption equilibrium data of carbon dioxide on polyaniline solid sorbent is obtained by using Micro-Balance Thermo D-200. Then isotherm curves and the parameters are obtained by numerical method. The adsorption is expressed by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. After accomplishment of isotherm curves, the breakthrough curve experiment is investigated with single adsorption column. The experiments test the change in adsorbed gas concentration at the outlet by adsorbed gas, CO2, and non-adsorbed gas, helium. Finally, this study accentuates the TSA experiments on CO2 purity and recovery by operation variable discussion which includes feed pressure, adsorption temperature and desorption temperature to find optimal operation condition. The results of optimal operation condition are CO2 purity of 47.65% with a 92.46% recovery.

Academic research paper on topic "Temperature Swing Adsorption Process for CO2 Capture Using Polyaniline Solid Sorbent"

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Energy Procedía 63 (2014) 2351 - 2358

GHGT-12

Temperature swing adsorption process for CO2 capture using

polyaniline solid sorbent

Ming-Wei Yanga#, Nai-chi Chenb, Chih-hsiang Huangb, Yi-ting Shenb, Hong-sung Yangc,

Cheng-tung Choub*

a Taiwan Power Research Institute,Taiwan Power Company, New Taipei City 238, Taiwan ROC b Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhong-Li City 320, Taiwan ROC c Center for General Education, Hwa-Hsia Institute of Technology, New Taipei City 235, Taiwan ROC

Abstract

To capture carbon dioxide from power plant flue gas which consists of 15% CO2 and 85% N2, with a temperature swing adsorption (TSA) by using polyaniline solid sorbent as the adsorbent, is explored experimentally and theoretically. First, single component adsorption equilibrium data of carbon dioxide on polyaniline solid sorbent is obtained by using Micro-Balance Thermo D-200. Then isotherm curves and the parameters are obtained by numerical method. The adsorption is expressed by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm. After accomplishment of isotherm curves, the breakthrough curve experiment is investigated with single adsorption column. The experiments test the change in adsorbed gas concentration at the outlet by adsorbed gas, CO2, and non-adsorbed gas, helium. Finally, this study accentuates the TSA experiments on CO2 purity and recovery by operation variable discussion which includes feed pressure, adsorption temperature and desorption temperature to find optimal operation condition. The results of optimal operation condition are CO2 purity of 47.65% with a 92.46% recovery.

© 2014TheAuthors. Publishedby ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

Keywords: CO2 capture; Temperature swing adsorption; polyaniline solid sorbent

# Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-2-80782243; fax: +886-2-26822793. E-mail address: u620967@taipower.com.tw

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +886-3-4278733; fax: +886-3-4252296. E-mail address: t310030@ncu.edu.tw

1876-6102 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.256

1. Introduction

In recent years, the rapid industrial development makes too great a consumption of fossil fuel, which developed into the so-called "petroleum-based" pollution. Fossil fuel combustion produces waste gas such as SO2, NOX, CO2, and CO, which cause combined pollution. For example, acid rain is caused mainly by SO2 and NOX and the excess of CO2 produced causes greenhouse effect. Therefore, it can reduce the emissions of CO2 to the atmosphere through the capture and storage of CO2 in solving the problem of global warming [1,2]. One of the methods for treating this problem is to capture CO2 from power plant flue gases. The main types of technology for CO2 capture from flue gases are the following: absorption, adsorption, membrane separation, cryogenic distillation, etc [3]. Adsorption process has played an important role in recovery of CO2. In the past few years, the process and equipment improved and new types of adsorbents developed make the adsorption method more diversified.

Leal et al. [4] using 3-aminopropyl groups to modify surface of silica gel. This exhibited a CO2 adsorption capacity as 0.41 and 0.89 mmol/g under an anhydrous and hydrous environment, respectively. Tlili et al. [5] performed the adsorption experiment with 5A zeolite for feed composition 13%CO2 and 87%N2. Their experiment tests different generation methods. Their experimental results with desorption by heating only could achieve 99% purity of CO2 and recovery from 45% to 79% at different temperatures. As adding a N2 purge the CO2 recovery increased to more than 98% but CO2 purity decreased. Su and Lu [6] explored dual-bed TVSA process with 13X zeolite for feed component 15%CO2 and 85%N2. The experimental results show that the process could concentrate CO2 to more than 90%.

This study uses the polyaniline solid sorbent, which is prepared by the Taiwan Power Research Institute and employed TSA process for recovery and concentration of CO2 from flue gases. For simplifying experiments in this study, the flue gas is assumed to have removed sulfide and steam so that the content of feed mixtures gas for experiments is made to be 15.03%CO2 and 84.97%N2. The effects on experiments are discussed for operation variables to find the optimal operating condition.

2. Experiment

Fig. 1. is the experimental devices in this study. The polyaniline solid sorbent, which is based on silicone and aminated modification on the surface of the sorbents by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane is prepared at the Taiwan Power Research Institute. The adsorbent is heated in the oven at 100oC for 12 hours before experiment. Feed gas is purchased from Jian-Fa Gases Co., Ltd. The valves include check valves, solenoid valves and air-actuated valves. The CO2 concentration is detected by gas chromatograph, which is manufactured by China Chromatography Co., Ltd. Some other experimental characteristics are described in Table 1.

Table 1. Characteristics of adsorbent and bed

Adsorbent Weight of Bed length Outside Inside Diameter of Density of Surrounding

adsorbent (g) (cm) diameter of diameter of adsorbent adsorbent (g temperature

bed (cm) bed (cm) (mm) cm-3) (K)

polyaniline 372 98.3 2.75 2.24 1.4~2.8 1.7172 298

solid sorbent

Fig. 1. (a) Micro-Balance Thermo D-200; (b) experimental device TSA

This study uses Micro-Balance Thermo D-200 to obtain adsorption equilibrium data of CO2 on polyaniline solid sorbent and discusses variables of breakthrough curve experiment to obtain the feed time for single-bed five-step TSA experiment. TSA experiments for CO2 separation are studied. The five-step TSA process includes feed at low temperature (step 1), heating (step 2), counter-current depressurization (step 3), purge (step 4), and cooling (step 5). The flow diagram of five-step TSA process is described in Fig. 2. In TSA experiments, product comes from the outlet of counter-current depressurization step and purge step.

Fig. 2. Single-bed five-step TSA process

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Adsorption equilibrium curve

Because that pressure change has affected buoyant force in the experiments, we have corrected it by the Blank Experiment to improve measurement accuracy in Fig. 3(a). Fig. 3(a) shows when the pressure increases or temperature decreases, the sample weight decreases. From Archimedes' principle, when gas pressure increases or temperature decreases, the gas density increases, which leads to the increasing of buoyant force and the sample weight decreasing. Fig 3(b) shows the adsorption equilibrium data of carbon dioxide which had been measured at three different temperatures, 301K, 311K, and 321K, up to 12 bars in a Micro-Balance Thermo D-200. When temperature increases, the CO2 adsorbed quantity decreases. The adsorption is expressed by the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm.

* PsqmApm

m= TTrj- (1)

L-tj=\ i i

q«i = ai\\ + ai ,2x T, bi = bi,0 exp(bi,\ /T X m = m,\ + m,2 /T

where n*t is the equilibrium adsorptive quantity, and qm,i is the saturated adsorptive quantity.

Table 2. Parameter of the Langmuir-Freundlich isotherms for CO2

ai1 (mole/kg) ai2 (mole/kg) bi0 (1/bar) bi1 (K) ni1 (-) ni2 (K)

38.59 -3.58X10-2 9.30x10-5 1.69x103 1.38 -2.29x102

0.0000 -0.0002 ~ -0.0004

SZ ■Ï?

I -0.0006

§ -0.0008

-0.0010 -0.0012

Pressure (bar)

Fitting line, 301K • Experimental data,301K Fitting line, 311K * Experimental data,311K Fitting line, 321K ♦ Experimental data,321K

Pressure (bar)

Fig. 3. (a) Buoyancy effect of adsorbent; (b) adsorption equilibrium curve of CO2

3.2. Breakthrough curve experiment

The experiment tests the change in adsorbed gas concentration at the outlet by adsorbed gas, CO2, and non-adsorbed gas, helium. This study considers variables for breakthrough time by varying the operating conditions, such as adsorption temperature, feed composition and feed rate and observed the effects on breakthrough curve in Fig. 4. When adsorption temperature increases, the CO2-adsorbed quantity decreases, so does the breakthrough time decrease. This phenomenon can be observed from the adsorption equilibrium experiment. When feed rate increases or feed composition of CO2 increases, the amount of CO2 into the bed increases, which cause the decreasing of breakthrough time, but the effect of feed composition of CO2 on breakthrough time is small at high temperature. As mentioned above adsorption temperature and feed rate have greater affect on breakthrough time.

1.2 -1.0 -0.8 -

y 0.6 -

0.4 -0.2 -

• Co=5% T=301K o Co=5% T=311K T Co=5% T=321K

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

y 0.6 -

„..•■"•"¡I"""""

T O 9 • •

• Co=10% T=301K o Co=10% T=311K t Co=10% T=321K

0.0 wü'*.-.-

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

1.2 1.0 0.8

0.2 -0.0

• Co=15% T=301 K o Co=15% T=311K t Co=15% T=321 K

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

1.0 0.8

tttt 0oo° ▼ ou ••

T o° ▼ O o • * 0 • •

> o -1- • Feed flow rate=0.45 Umin(STP) O Feed flow rate=0.9 L/min(STP) ▼ Feed flow rate=1.62 Umin(STP)

0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 Time (s)

Fig. 4. The effect of adsorption temperature on adsorption breakthrough curve (a) inlet CO2 mole fraction 0.05; (b) mole fraction 0.1; (c) mole fraction 0.15; (d) the effect of feed rate on inlet CO2 mole fraction 0.05 and at 301K

The desorption experiments are investigated by helium in Fig. 5. After each adsorption breakthrough experiments, the bed is fed by pure helium to perform desorption without changing other operating conditions. The results show that the desorption time decreases when operating temperature increases from 301K to 321K, because the higher the temperature, the less CO2 adsorption quantity.

Co=5% T=301K Co=5% T=311K Co=5% T=321K

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

Co=10% T=301K Co=10% T=311K Co=10% T=321K

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

1.2 -,-

0.8 - T : 0.6 -0.4 -0.2 -

Co=15% T=301K Co=15% T=311K Co=15% T=321K

500 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 Time (s)

Fig. 5. The effect of temperature on desorption experiments with pure helium (a) inlet CO2 mole fraction 0.05 at previous adsorption experiment; (b) inlet mole fraction 0.1 at previous adsorption experiment; (c) inlet mole fraction 0.15 at previous adsorption experiment

3.3. Single-bedfive-step TSA process

The single-bed five-step TSA is explored in this study. The changes of CO2 concentration and recovery in desorption step is discussed. The definition of the recovery is:

~ product flow rate * product concentration

Recovery =--(2)

feed flow rate * feed concentration

This section discusses operating variable to find the optimum operating condition by TSA process. The TSA process operating conditions are given in Table 3. The variable studied as follows: adsorption temperature, desorption temperature, and feed pressure.

Table 3. TSA operation condition

Adsorbent Adsorbent Feed time (min) Feed Adsorption Desorption Feed pressure

regeneration regeneration component temperature (K) temperature (K) (atm)

time (hrs) temperature (K)

T2 373.14 30 15.03% CO2, 308, 313, 318, 353, 363, 373, 1.05, 1.10, 1.15

84.97% N2 323 383

Fig. 6 shows the results of experiments for the TSA process. When adsorption temperature increases, the adsorptive quantity decreases. It can be observed from the previous experiments, so that the CO2 purity and recovery decrease. When the desorption temperature increases, the CO2 desorptive quantity increases which causes the increasing of the CO2 purity and recovery. When feed pressure increases, the adsorptive quantity increases and the feed rate increases. When feed pressure increases from 1.05atm to 1.10atm, CO2 purity increases but recovery deceases; however, when feed pressure increases further from 1. 10atm to 1.15atm, there is no significant increase on CO2 purity but CO2 recovery decreases. The following is the optimum condition obtained: adsorption temperature 308K, desorption temperature 383K, and feed pressure 1.10atm. The results of optimal operation condition are CO2 purity of 47.65% with a 92.46% recovery.

—— T,dso„„on=3°eX ........■>..............T,dso,.on=313K

—■— "^„„„„„»з^к

—■ "adsorptio„=323K

—— T,dso„,io„=3°8K

........■>..............T,dso„,io„=313K

—■---T,iso,,io„=318K

—T,<so„,io„=323K

-— T4so„ion=3°8K

............... T,ds0„lmn=313K

—T,iso„i„n=318K

"adsorplion=323K

Fig. 6. The effect of desorption temperature on CO2 purity and recovery at (a) 1.05 atm feed pressure (b) 1.1 atm feed pressure (c) 1.15 atm feed pressure (d) 1.05 atm feed pressure (e) 1.1 atm feed pressure and (f) 1.15 atm feed pressure

4. Conclusions

This study uses the polyaniline solid sorbent to test its performance on CO2 capture. For adsorption equilibrium experiment, the adsorption capacities at 301K are higher than those at other temperature conditions (311K and 321K). After accomplishment of isotherm curves, the breakthrough curve experiment is investigated with single adsorption column. From the breakthrough experimental results, it is observed that adsorption temperature and feed rate have greater effect on breakthrough time. The TSA experiments discuss operating variable (adsorption temperature, desorption temperature, and feed pressure) to find the optimum operating condition. The optimal operation condition for single-bed five-step TSA process is observed to be: adsorption temperature 308K, desorption temperature 383K, and feed pressure 1.10atm. The results of optimal operation condition are CO2 purity of 47.65% with a 92.46% recovery.

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank the financial support from Taiwan Power Research Institute, Taiwan Power Company.

References

[1] Benson SM and Orr Jr. FM "Carbon dioxide capture and storage", MRS Bull., 2008; 33: 303-305.

[2] Yu KMK, Curcic I, Gabriel J and Tsang SCE, "Recent advances in carbon dioxide capture and utilization", ChemSusChem, 2008; 1: 893-899.

[3] IPCC, IPCC special report on carbon dioxide capture and storage. IPCC. Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA: 2005.

[4] Leal O, Bolivar C, Ovalles C, Garcia JJ and Espidel Y, "Reversible adsorption of carbon dioxide on amine surface-bonded silica gel", Inorg. Chim. Acta, 1995; 240: 183-189.

[5] Tlili N, Grevillot G and Vallieres C, "Carbon Dioxide Capture and Recovery by means of TSA and/ or VSA", Int. J. Greenhouse Gas Control, 2009; 3: 519-527.

[6] Su F and Lu C, "Carbon Dioxide Capture From Gas Stream by Zeolite 13Z Using a Dual-column Temperature/ Vacuum Swing Adsorption", Energy Environ. Sci., 2012; 18: 9021-9027.