Scholarly article on topic 'Public Participation in Branding Road Corridor as Shopping Window or Batik Industry at Pekalongan'

Public Participation in Branding Road Corridor as Shopping Window or Batik Industry at Pekalongan Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — R. Siti Rukayah, Ardiyan Adhi Wibowo, Sri Hartuti Wahyuningrum

Abstract There are many cities in Indonesia that can be categorized as batik-industrial cities. Postal road that connects cities along the northern coast of Java Island passes right through Pekalongan. Through historical and naturalistic approach, this road is the promotional media for local citizens to display their industrial products, making it a shopping window. The image of Pekalongan as an industrial city is obtained naturally from the participation of its people. Pekalongan is a globally professional city that has sustained its image since 1800s. The continuation of the research is to compare Pekalongan to another city that has successfully implemented the concept and become an advanced industrial city.

Academic research paper on topic "Public Participation in Branding Road Corridor as Shopping Window or Batik Industry at Pekalongan"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 168 (2015) 76 - 86

AicE-Bs2014Berlin

(formerly AicE-Bs2014Magdeburg)

Asia Pacific International Conference on Environment-Behaviour Studies Sirius Business Park Berlin-yard field, Berlin, 24-26 February 2014

"Public Participation: Shaping a sustainable future "

Public Participation in Branding Road Corridor as Shopping Window or Batik Industry at Pekalongan

R. Siti Rukayah*a, Ardiyan Adhi Wibowob, Sri Hartuti Wahyuningruma

aArchitecture Department, Engineering Faculty, Diponegoro University _bArchitecture Department,Qur'anic Science University, Wonosobo, Central Java, Indonesia_

Abstract

There are many cities in Indonesia that can be categorized as batik-industrial cities. Postal road that connects cities along the northern coast of Java Island passes right through Pekalongan. Through historical and naturalistic approach, this road is the promotional media for local citizens to display their industrial products, making it a shopping window. The image of Pekalongan as an industrial city is obtained naturally from the participation of its people. Pekalongan is a globally professional city that has sustained its image since 1800s. The continuation of the research is to compare Pekalongan to another city that has successfully implemented the concept and become an advanced industrial city.

© 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review underresponsibilityofCentre for Environment-BehaviourStudies(cE-Bs),FacultyofArchitecture,Planning&Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia.

Keywords: Pekalongan; batik; image; city

1. Industrial city as city branding

Pratiwo, 2002, stated that The Groote Postweg (The Postal Road) greatly changed Java's spatial configuration, which had been formerly oriented on the axis between the kingdoms in the area and the trading towns on the north coast. Since The Postal Road enhanced the possibility of the raise of new settlements, new markets and trading places emerged. All the towns along the road were trading towns inhabited by multi ethnic groups. Research by Rukayah (2010) proved that the corridors of the Postal

* Corresponding author. Tel.:+6281 2281 2825; fax: +0-00-000-0000. E-mail address: tututrsiti@yahoo.com.

1877-0428 © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of Centre for Environment-Behaviour Studies (cE-Bs), Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.10.212

Road toward the center of the city have turned into commercial areas, like those in Bandung and Semarang.

The researchers aspire to unveil the potential of the road when it passes through Batik Pekalongan industrial area. Unlike other cities that produce batik-such as Yogyakarta, Surakarta, Cirebon, and Lasem-the city is located right on the road that connects all cities in Java's north coast. This research is expected to uncover othersides of batik from the perspective of urban design. Batik is very popular in Indonesia; even Malaysians once claimed it to be theirs. Batik has gained recognition worldwide, and it has been continuously developed to reach its current state.

There are many researches discovering patterns or characteristics of certain the industrial products, but there are not many of them unveil the characteristics of an industrial city. Since there are findings about the differences in pattern between batik made in the coastal cities and the mainland cities, researchers assume that these differences may be followed by distinction in urban design. Cultures of Indonesia contribute in shaping the pattern of the products made by local industries. The question is, what about the urban design?

That question is necessary considering the fact that the existence of local industry in Pekalongan has been there since the 18th century, and that it is now growing fast and even creating its own place branding. In accordance with the statement from Beckmann & Zenker (2012), this research is important to be conducted. They explain about the importance of approach to new tasks for the place brand management: coordination, monitoring, and communication between the sub-brand units as key aspects of the process.

Place branding or place marketing appears mainly to promote cities as a tourist destination, or to promote cities that wish to sell their industrial products (Ham, 2008). In the world of architecture and urban design, we have known the term city landmark (Lynch, 1969). City landmark acts as a mental map for its citizens to have a better understanding of their city. For several decades, landmark has appeared in the urban design and has helped creating unique image for the city. Landmarks have indeed become brands and marketing tools for many cities or even countries. For example, landmarks of Eiffel tower in Paris, Sidney Opera House in Sidney, Big Ben in London, Twin Tower in Malaysia, and Merlion in Singapore have made the countries well-known all over the world.

In the era of the 1990s, paradigm changed, and shopping centers became the city image as the result of retail globalization (Rukayah, 2010). According to Ever (2002), cities in various nations have a uniformed façade by showcasing malls as the landmarks. Rukayah (2010) even discovered that the centers of traditional cities in Java have turned into commercial areas with shopping and trading buildings acting as city landmarks.

From those theories, Pekalongan as an industrial city brings out unplanned phenomenon as a city with the branding of "Batik City". The city image is not shaped by the architectural aspect or by the shopping center design. Empirical research shows that the development of shops and markets in this area is rather progressive, especially along the Postal Road. Daendels in 1811 designed this road to connect cities alongside the north coast of Java, and to defend the area from the attack of other nations. From the theoretical study, it is clear that architecture and shopping places are marketing tools that help showcase city branding.

This phenomenon needs answers. In Rio Declaration, Principle 22, it is stated that indigenous people, their communities, and other local communities have a vital role in environmental management and development because of their knowledge and traditional practices. States should recognize and fully support their identities, cultures and interests and enable their effective participationsto achieve the sustainable development.

Researchers confine this urban design research by discussing theories on city image and the appearance of paradigm stating that shopping center is the landmark and the city branding. These three theories are tightly tied each other. The image of the city firstly appeared in 1970, the shopping centers as

city landmarks appeared in the globalization era in 1990s and city branding gained recognition around 2000. The three of them appeared in different concepts. The latter two appeared to strengthen product marketing strategy and city marketing. Meanwhile, the former appeared to formulize the phenomenon of Lynch's research.

The background of this study is the fact that knowledge and theories about city branding have not yet uncovered the strength of people's participation while the participation actually plays a very important role. Street corridors as shopping windows are naturally designed, and they form a city branding.

How do indigenous people and their communities, along with the other local communities, play an important role in environmental management that shapes the city's spatial arrangement to become a promotional media for an industrial city and later shapes the city branding?

The purpose of this research is to discover the phenomena of the street corridor potency as promotional media for city branding. The target of this research is to give input to the government regarding the concept of the main road as promotional media of the city and also to complement the knowledge about the image of the city.

2. Literature review

2.1. The city landmark and characteristics of a particular city

The image of a city is the first and the strongest image reflecting how people feel about the city. According to Lynch (1969), an image requires an identity of an object or something that is different from others as well as a structure of the interconnecting pattern between the object and observers. There are five elements that create an image of a city. Among those five elements, city landmark is the one connected with this research the most. Landmark is a very important element from the city shape because it helps people to recognize an area.

Eiffel Tower in Paris catapults the city's branding so high; thus, this visual symbol has reached the status of worldwide recognition. Sydney also claims its recognition with the famous landmark of The Opera House. It hosts various events, resulting in the quick rise of Sidney's city brand (Ham, 2008).

If the city landmark emphasizes more on one aspect or one building as a landmark, then Raubo (2010) added the city's mass detail as the indicator for city branding by using Saffron City Brand Barometer. Saffron emphasized more on the detail of the city unmistakable characteristics of a particular citythat immediately make visitors feel like they are indeed in a specific city. Examples of these are the London double-decker buses or the famous red telephone booths, the architectural heritage of Gaudi in Barcelona, and even the gondolas of Venice.

2.2. Mall as a landmark

Ever first discovered the phenomenon about building malls and changing city landscapes in the cities of Asia, Kotler and Kertajaya (2003) stated that malls offers shopping activities, recreations, and world-class entertainment that attract all generations of citizens. New malls, with either local or foreign base, are operating side by sideand become Virtual Global Village.

However, in research Hashimah & Ismail (2010) showed that the use of architecture as a marketing utility is not necessarily reap success. Research conducted at the complex historic shop houses Malacca proves lack of interest of visitors to the shopping activity at the venue. Thus it is possible the mall will be more attractive as a shopping and leisure facilities in the town center.

This paradigm appears along with the idea to market the product by using architecture as a marketing utility. Similarly, the theory of location in marketing strategy also states the importance of having a

location in the center of the city. City central as the place of mass festivity is fitting for product marketing activities. According to Kotler et al. (1993), one of the aims for place marketing is to promote a place's values and image so that potential users are fully aware of its distinctive advantages. This paradigm strengthens the purpose of development of all countries, especially for developing countries, including those in Asia, to offer modernity in the city visual and to create life style of the city dwellers.

2.3. City branding

Kavaratzis, 2013, stated that city Branding has gained popularity among city officials in recent years. The development and popularity of city brands are shown by the occurrence of several ranking systems such as the Anholt-GMI City Brands Index or the Saffron European City Brand Barometer. City brands are in many ways similar to company brands. The American Marketing Association defines 'brand' as 'a name, term, sign, symbol or design, or a combination of these, intended to identify the goods or services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competitors'.

Raubo (2010) concluded that place branding can be defined as the planning and execution of the entire process of creating, managing and/or improving the perceptions of a city's existing and potential customers and other stake holders. It aims to influence the spatial behaviour of those customers in a way, and it is also beneficial for the city's sustainability and development. Place branding focuses on the values of a city as a whole. All these characteristics of place branding are related to both tourists and residents. The branding is aimed for measuring the attractiveness of the city as a place to visit and to live in, and also for the purpose of investment in the city.

Regarding the ability of a city in creating city branding, Dinnie (2011) explained in her book about the physical elements that have already existed in a city. These elements include the unique and differentiated identity of the city, traditional landmarks and modern architecture, unique features and its recent place of development as well as tourism that can be the city branding of that particular city. From these physical elements, Dinnie explained the effort of shaping up city branding. These efforts include the execution of international events (such as Athens' city branding and the 2004 Olympic Games, the city branding of Barcelona), city branding through food culture, city branding through New Green Spaces, and so on. These events become facilities to market the city branding. The roles of media in general and social media or online branding in specific are also crucial to shape the city branding.

As was described Zaki & Ngesan (2012) through his research utilizing existing physical elements can improve the economy of the city. They apply the "concept of night city" in Alor Gajah district redesign with the aim of improving the city's economy. This is one form of city branding of unique identity of a city.

From the discussions above, researchers conclude that the city branding is a marketing strategy of a city. This effort starts from the physical potency of a city, and if a city doesn't have one, then the non-physical character will be utilized to market the image. Media is used to market the cities through events, press conferences, or publicity in social media.

2.4. The system of professional global city

The system of professional global city discussed here is in relation with the ability of an industrial city in shaping its city branding. In Soetomo (2009), professional town is a town that contains the process of village industrialization and is able to create showroom areas in the city central with lines of mass shops that decorate the city. Several professional cities implement the concept of city corridor as industrial and showroom areas but still manage to conserve the agrarian areas.

It was Le Corbusier that first created this concept of urban design to region design. He depicts the concept of urban region in a triangular diagram. The development of the particular area is a sustainable concept. Farming area is in the middle, while urban development is in the regional corridor. This model is developed within the concept of linear city development in New Urbanism, but is complemented with Transit Oriented Development in the nodes alongside the corridor. The concept of professional city is developed within the regional development framework. This concept will develop the economic activities in that particular city. The life of trading and service sectors will appear, shaping this small rural city into a professional city.

Fig.1. Human settlement from Le Corbusier (Source: Soetomo, 2009)

2.5. Conclusions of theory discussion

From the discussion above, it can be concluded that the image of the city appears because of the physical architectural aspect or the urban design aspect that becomes the characteristic of that city (during the 1970s). In the era of retail globalization in the 1990s, the role of capitalists helps a city to buildits city. In this era,shopping malls become the city landmarks. Around 2000, the role of the community creates stakeholders. The capitalists along with the citizens create the image of the city. We can see this as their effort to promote the city for the purpose of investment, tourism, and creation of comfort in settlements.

They dig up the city potentials-both from the physical and non-physical sides-that are the characters of the city as city branding. From this discussion, a theory gap appears to be unobserved. This gap is about the effort of community participation in creating a city design that naturally builds its own city branding.

3. Research method

The data collection process is done through a series of research. Old data about Pekalongan and any information regarding the Postal Road are acquired through several research and journals whereas the recent data are taken within the last 10 years, where markets, shops, and malls grow very rapidly alongside the road. The lines of shops that belong to the merchants have existed since the past 10 years. These merchants live in their industrialized houses right behind the storefronts. News from the press about the phenomena of the appearance of city image that creates city branding is also part of the data collection process.

Researchers directly go to the field to observe trading activities in market areas, shops, and stores along the road. Several industrial houses located on each side of the road are used as research samples. Interviews are conducted with each informant acting as the key person. Based on the theory of city branding, the informants are governments or decision makers, the citizens, the businessmen or private sectors, tourists, and investors.

Researchers limit this research only within certain aspects of urban design. This research intends to raise a case on how city branding naturally molded. There are urban design aspects that help create the popularity of industrial activities in this city. Pekalongan city naturally and increasingly brands itself as an attractive place for tourists, invertors, business owners, and workforces. This research does not intend to compare the scale of success of different city brandings. This research only focuses on the phenomena of city branding that appear without the hands of governments. This architectural and urban design research limits the theory discussion within the aspects of landmark, shopping centers as city landmarks, and city branding. These aspects are the shift in paradigm regarding the image of a city.

4. Pekalongan as a case study

Industrial activities have existed since the 1800s. These activities started out from three home industry areas. They are located linearly from south to north, in the direction of the city center. There are many merchants running their businesses to the city, generating the growth of rich merchants in these areas. The rich merchants created a living space with the style of jengki architecture (the work of Indonesian architects in post Dutch colonialism era). The space for industry, called pranggok, is integrated with the living space, creating a signature character in industrial houses (Wibowo, 2013).

Great Post Road

Buaran home industri

|—I[] Pekajanganhome industry

□Rn □□□

Wonopringgo home industry

Batik industrial house with Jengki architecture and Pranggok

Fig.2. Coridor industry (Source: researcher, 2013)

Researchers limit this research to not discuss the architecture uniqueness of the houses. There is a strong phenomenon about the segregation in social classes in the industrial area. The segregation among rich merchants, workers, and traders appear in the urban design. The traders build shops alongside the main road where as rich merchants run their own industrial business in three places. These three industrial locations shape the linear track as a connector between the south and the north area toward the city. Researchers name this track the industrial corridor. Meanwhile, the display space for the traders alongside the main road that connects the city of north coast is called the shopping windows corridor.

The combination between industrial district and the display space makes a significant advancement inthis area that it creates The World's City of Batik as Pekalongan's city branding. The large amount of retails along the roads mark the city branding. There are also several shopping centers that are already famous among Indonesian citizens and even international tourists. Among them are Setono Wholesale Market and stores area in the district of Tirto. These shopping centers are located in the far East and the far west of the city. Moreover, there are also large home industries in the middle of the city: Kauman Village and Pesindon Tourism Village.

According to the history, the whole sale market started out from the craftsmen community that agreed to form Businessmen Coop in 1942. Furthermore as its business maneuver, the coop tried initiating a textile factory that was then leased to another party due to the business depression during 1980s. Then in 1999, their partner (the company especially active in the field of small-capital businesses) came up with an initiative to evoke the business. Finally, in the 8th of June 2000, the whole sale market was built. The building used was formerly a textile factory with patched-up facilities (Prastyani, 2005).

Fig.3. Post wegtrack that connects the cities in Java (Source: The Map of Java, 1729)

In 2010, the coop managed the wholesale market. With the existence ofthe whole sale market, this city has already had a facility to run its businesses: textile industry products, fragrant roots crafts, and also banana tree crafts business (Budiharjo, 2007). At the present day, the wholesale market is still one of biggest shopping places in Pekalongan.

The location is very strategic, making it easy for visitors to stop by in the area. The strategic location also invites several businessmen from other cities to use the place as a wholesale market. Meanwhile, shopping centers along Tirto Street shape a corridor of shopping window. The display for the industrial products is located along the main road that connects the big cities of Java's north coast. The road is now a large shopping window corridor and become a city landmark.

The next development of central industry takes place in a settlement group of craftsmen that has functioned from generation to generation. Each house owns a display window to support the business. This adds the showroom function to the houses, along with the production and general living functions. This area is considered younger than the wholesale market, and has been officiated as Batik Village since 2007.

Another shopping center started to grow naturally and vastly. It is similar to the whole sale market where stores are only showrooms that function as trading facilities. The products come from the traditional craftsmen that are settled behind these store fronts. The existence of stores creates symbiosis with producers around the area.

In 2008, the city was the source of craftsmanship with 2000 business units and 10000 workforces. There were also 608 new business units with 5821 workforces that year. Thus, the city had total 2608 business units in 2008 (Nurainun, 2008). Aside of the four large business centers, other small industry clusters also appear in this city. All these industrial centers add the attraction value of the city and strengthen the city branding.

5. Findings and discussion

The city has developed interesting tourist attractions that were shaped from the community's local efforts since the 18th century. The efforts of the community include the forming of craftsmen coops and

the initiating of the whole market.nowadays; the market is one of the biggest trading centers located right along the main road. The craftsmen have also utilized the ex-factory as kiosks. Based on the traders' data, it is stated that:

"... because we use the former factory building for kiosks, we don't have to pay too high for the lease. Thus we can sell quality products with cheap price..."

When it first started, the wholesale market only had 50 kiosks. Now it's developed into having 300 kiosks. The effort of the community to use this building creates a mutual symbiosis with the government. The formerly abandoned building is now taken care. The joint work of the government, private sector, and the community in developing the market makes this area one of the most well-known shopping touristattractions in this city.

Research by Risyanto (2008) showed that the government, the private sector, and the people have done several efforts such as rebuilding and reconstructing market place, providing facilities and marketing strategy media to improve of the city. This efforts are able to increase the number of visitors and make the market one of the main shopping tourist attractions of the city.

Urban design in this city is different from the other batik-producing cities. The main road splits the city, and this road becomes a street corridor acting as shopping window. The condition of the crowded road changes the street corridor into an area of trading and tourism for local and international visitors. Aside of having an area to display its industrial products, this cityalso has home industry centers. Moreover, some other industrial villages have developed into tourism villages. There is uniqueness in the industrial houses in those villages, which is the dividing of the main house and the industrial house for workers. The naturally shaped spatial arrangement of the house is based on the agglomeration of social classes in the society, dividing the people into groups of traders, rich merchants, and workers.

Cities which are lack of clear identities and lack of city images are mostly also lack of traditional landmarks of modern architectures. These cities need to have city branding to increase the quality of life of its people and to increase the amount of investment. In the contrary, Pekalongan has a unique identity that is strong enough to compete with other industrial cities.

The creations of product displays along the main road are easily visible. Hence, the corridor becomes a promotional media in shaping up the city branding. The sustainability of the trading activities is well maintained because the city has industrial villages in the countryside as production areas.

6. Conclusion and recommendation

6.1. The glory the past

It is possible to assume that this city has managed to shape its own image as an industrial city since long time ago. The spatial arrangement of the city suggests that there are three areas of productive industries stretched along the industrial corridor. The indicator of success in the industry has created social classes of traders, rich merchants, and workforces within the society. Industrial houses built in the past have had a distinct character from modern architecture that time. The spatial arrangements in the house are divided into two: the main house and the industrial house. The image of rich merchants attached on people who own large luxurious houses with several industrial workers. The industrial activities have uncovered the phenomena that the possession of a strong city brand not only can bring in visitors, investments, and businesses, but also can retain residents, attract new residents, and attract a so-called creative class. The glory of the past can still be seen today in the shape of the rich merchants' houses. The agglomeration of industrial productive corridor and display activities corridor gives a new insight about the system of a professional city. This city has become a professional town that contains the industrialization process of the village and creates showrooms in the city central since the 1800s. As a professional town, the city has already had the concept of housing corridors or industrial villages as

industrial areas and as showroom corridors, but still manages to conserve the farming areas. The city arrangement as the result of people's works unveils the meaning of zone-formation that classes citizens into groups of workers, rich merchants, and traders.

6.2. Corridor as display media

Based on the field data, the industrial activities in this city have been experiencing their own ups and downs. However, the road that passes through big cities in Java has becomes a promotional media for the city. This proves the undisputed impact of corridor on creating a strong city brand. This city doesn't need too much promotion through mass media to market its industrial products and activities. People are able to recognize the city from the vibrant activities along the corridor and from the business climate of the local citizens. Professional city system has been implemented in the city since the 18th century. The road corridor as display media also functions as tourism area and a large shopping window. The embryonic activities of trading and service are now developing with the existence of shops and wholesale markets.

6.3. Public participation andsustainability of the urban design in global professional cities

The new finding in this research is the community participation that has been going on since the 1800s up to the present day. The industrial activities strengthen the inaugurations the industrial-tourism villages. The citizens of the city self-manage the tourism activities. This self-management also strengthens the city image in the process. Researchers assume that this kind of concept is appropriate for new industrial cities trying to create industries that attract tourists. This is similar to the urban design idea on three human settlements. The recommendation of this research is the new knowledge about the importance of street corridors as shopping windows in industrial cities. How other countries manage to apply the urban design concept for marketing their industrial products is a question that needs to be answered through a joint research conducted by experts from developed industrial countries.

Tirto Stores district Setono wholesale market

Fig.4. Toward global professional city (Source: Researchers' analysis,2013)

Acknowledgment

Researchers would like to thanklocal industrial peoplethat were willing to share their stories on community participationeffortsin shaping tourism and industry in Pekalongan.

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