Scholarly article on topic 'Intercropping white (Lupinus albus) and Andean (Lupinus mutabilis) lupins with other annual cool season legumes for forage production'

Intercropping white (Lupinus albus) and Andean (Lupinus mutabilis) lupins with other annual cool season legumes for forage production Academic research paper on "Biological sciences"

CC BY
0
0
Share paper
Academic journal
South African Journal of Botany
OECD Field of science
Keywords
{"Andean lupin" / "Forage dry matter yield" / Intercropping / "Land equivalent ratio" / " Lupinus albus " / " Lupinus mutabilis " / "White lupin"}

Abstract of research paper on Biological sciences, author of scientific article — A. Mikić, B. Ćupina, V. Mihailović, Đ. Krstić, S. Antanasović, et al.

Abstract Small-plot trials were carried out during 2011 and 2012 on calcareous soils at the Experimental Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops at Rimski Šančevi near Novi Sad. The aim was to use white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (L. mutabilis Sweet) as supporting crops, and intercrop them with nine other annual cool season legumes, as supported crops. The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield obtained was for the intercrop of white lupin with grass pea (11.2tha−1). Intercropping white lupin with Ethiopian pea and French vetch had the highest two-year average values for land equivalent ratio (LER), given as LERFDMY (both 1.20). The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield came from the intercrop of Andean lupin with grass pea (9.8tha−1). Intercropping Andean lupin with grass pea had the highest two-year average values of LERFDMY (1.10). The overall average obtained for intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes was 10.3tha−1 of forage dry matter yield and LERFDMY of 1.15, while intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes yielded 8.7tha−1 of forage dry matter and LERFDMY of 1.04. In comparison to the traditional approach of intercropping annual legumes with cereals for forage production, the mutual intercropping of annual legumes provides farmers with higher quality forage and grain richer in protein and better utilisation of natural resources.

Academic research paper on topic "Intercropping white (Lupinus albus) and Andean (Lupinus mutabilis) lupins with other annual cool season legumes for forage production"

ARTICLE IN PRESS

SAJB-00965; No of Pages 5

South African Journal of Botany xxx (2013) xxx-xxx

Contents lists available at SciVerse ScienceDirect

South African Journal of Botany

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/sajb

Intercropping white (Lupinus albus) and Andean (Lupinus mutabilis) lupins with other annual cool season legumes for forage production

A. Mikic a* B. Cupina b, V. Mihailovic a, D. Krstic b, S. Antanasovic b, L. Zoricc, V. Dordevic a, V. Peric d, M. Srebric d

a Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia

b University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia c University ofNovi Sad, Faculty of Sciences, Department ofBiology and Ecology, Novi Sad, Serbia d Maize Research Institute Zemun Polje, Belgrade, Serbia

ARTICLE INFO ABSTRACT

Small-plot trials were carried out during 2011 and 2012 on calcareous soils at the Experimental Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops at Rimski Sancevi near Novi Sad. The aim was to use white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (L. mutabilis Sweet) as supporting crops, and intercrop them with nine other annual cool season legumes, as supported crops. The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield obtained was for the intercrop of white lupin with grass pea (11.2 t ha-1). Intercropping white lupin with Ethiopian pea and French vetch had the highest two-year average values for land equivalent ratio (LER), given as LERFDMY (both 1.20). The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield came from the intercrop of Andean lupin with grass pea (9.8 t ha-1). Intercropping Andean lupin with grass pea had the highest two-year average values of LERFDMY (1.10). The overall average obtained for intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes was 10.3 t ha-1 of forage dry matter yield and LERFDMY of 1.15, while intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes yielded 8.7 t ha-1 of forage dry matter and LERFDMY of 1.04. In comparison to the traditional approach of intercropping annual legumes with cereals for forage production, the mutual intercropping of annual legumes provides farmers with higher quality forage and grain richer in protein and better utilisation of natural resources.

© 2013 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Available online xxxx Edited by B-E Van Wyk

Keywords: Andean lupin Forage dry matter yield Intercropping Land equivalent ratio Lupinus albus Lupinus mutabilis White lupin

1. Introduction

Lupin (Lupinus L.) is a species-rich legume genus and comprises a few hundred species originating from both Old and New World, and cultivated on about 1,000,000 ha on a world scale (Mihailovic et al., 2007a). The most important crops in this genus are white (L. albus L.), yellow (L. luteus L.), narrow-leafed (L. angustifolius L.) and Andean (L. mutabilis Sweet) lupins, that, like many other annual legumes, are multi-functional crops and are utilised in human consumption and animal feeding, in the form of green forage, forage dry matter, forage meal, mature grain, as well as green manure (Mikic et al., 2006).

Although the primary centre of both cultivated white lupin (L. albus L. var. albus Gladst.) and its wild progenitor (L. albus L. var. graecus (Boiss. and Sprunn) Gladst.) is most likely the southern Balkans (Cowling et al., 1998), this crop has remained mostly unknown in the central and northern parts of the Balkan Peninsula, such as Serbia (Mihailovic et al., 2005). The first attempts to introduce white lupin as a forage and

* Corresponding author at: Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Maksima Gorkog 30, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia. Tel.: +381 21 4898 376, +381 64 8706 059; fax: +381 21 4898 377.

E-mail address: aleksandar.mikic@nsseme.com (A. Mil<ic).

grain legume into Serbian agriculture occurred only relatively recently (Popovic-Pecija, 1950), with no success. Today, the only collection of white and other lupins in Serbia exists at the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad (Cupina et al., 2006). The Novi Sad collection of lupins contains about 200 accessions of 10 species, including 68 accessions of white lupin and eight accessions of Andean lupin of different geographic origin and status (Mihailovic et al., 2007b).

The main obstacle to the successful growing of white lupin in Serbia may be the predominance of chernozem, officially designed as aridic Kastanozem (FAO, 1974), soil in the fertile northern parts. The term chernozem comes from the Russian languages and literally means "black soil", referring to its colour. It is dominant in southern Russia, the Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia and is generally considered one of the best soil types for cultivating a large majority of field crops since its richness in organic matter such as humus. White lupin may be tolerant of slightly calcareous soils with pH values between about 5 and 8, but a high soil pH and a presence of lime, often found in chernozem soils, can cause chlorosis in white lupin, mainly due to a lack of iron (Duthion, 1992). However, the wide genetic variation of white lupin, present in accessions of different origin, has been found useful as a base for the establishment of the first Serbian white lupin breeding programme (Mikic et al., 2010). It was aimed at

0254-6299/$ - see front matter © 2013 SAAB. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. http://dx.doi.org/! 0.1016/j.sajb.2013.06.015

ARTICLE IN PRESS

2 A. Mikic et al. / South African Journal of Botany xxx (2013) xxx-xxx

developing the cultivars tolerant of calcareous soils and with a potential for high quality forage, protein-rich grain and higher biomass yields, resulting in the registration of two cultivars, 'Vesna' and 'Panorama', in the Serbian national list of December 2008 (Mikic et al., 2011). In a preliminary trial in 2009 in Helsinki, Finland, 'Vesna' produced more than 18 t ha-1 of forage dry matter in a single cut at the stage of first flowering (Stoddard, pers. comm.).

One of the clearest definitions of intercropping is that it represents the simultaneous cultivation of at least two crops in the same field (Willey, 1979). In a more complex context, it may be regarded as a practical application of ecological principles with respect to biodiversity, plant interactions and other natural regulation mechanisms (Vandermeer et al., 1998). While intercropping legumes with cereals (Bedoussac and Justes, 2010) or brassicas (Cortes-Mora et al., 2010) is well-studied, little is known on intercropping legumes with each other. Some annual legumes are companion crops in establishing perennial forage crops such as red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.), where they act as bioherbicides (Cupina et al., 2011). Regarding the mutual intercropping of annual legumes for forage production, we established four main principles (Fig. 1, left): 1) same time of sowing; 2) similar growth habit; 3) similar cutting time; and 4) combinations of crops with good standing ability, acting as supporting crops, with others that are susceptible to lodging, acting as supported crop (Mikic et al., 2012).

The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and potential benefits of intercropping white and Andean lupins with other temperate annual legumes for forage production.

2. Materials and methods

Small-plot trials were carried out during 2011 and 2012 on chernozem soils at the Experimental Field of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops at Rimski Sancevi near Novi Sad. All the treatments were designed according to the said four basic principles of mutual annual legume intercropping. Following the model of intercropping white and Andean lupins with other annual cool season legumes (Fig. 1, right), white and Andean lupins played the role of supporting crops, while nine other cool season annual legume species, namely red vetchling (Lathyrus cicera L.), winged vetchling (Lathyrus ochrus (L.) DC.), grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.), Ethiopian pea (Pisum abyssinicum A. Braun), tall pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. elatius (Steven ex M. Bieb.) Asch. & Graebn.), common pea (Pisum sativum L. subsp. sativum), Narbonne vetch (Vicia narbonensis L.), French vetch (Vicia serratifolia Jacq.) and common vetch (Vicia sativa L.), acted as supported crops. All eleven crops were represented by one accession of different status and geographic origin from the collection of the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops (Table 1) and were also sown as sole crops.

All eighteen intercrops and all eleven sole crops were sown on 24 March 2011 and 22 March 2012. The plot size was 5 m2 and the experimental design was a split-plot with three replicates. The sowing rates in sole crops were 100 viable seeds m-2 for white and Andean lupins, all three vetchlings and all three peas and 120 viable seeds m-2 for all three vetches. In all the intercrops, the sowing rate of each component was one half of its sowing rate when sown as a sole crop.

Fig. 1. (Left) Different aspects of the mutual intercropping of annual legumes (Mikic et al., 2012): (first row from above) in the pure stand of a lodging-susceptible crop such as common vetch, weeds are suppressed but lower leaves in vetch are mostly lost; (second row from above) in the pure stand of a lodging-resistant crop such as faba bean, weeds have favourable conditions; (third row from above) semi-leafless field pea and common vetch are less-beneficial choice since different growing habit; (fourth row from above) white lupin and common vetch are appropriate choice respecting all basic principles. (Right) Model of intercropping white or Andean lupins with other annual cool season legumes: (top row) white or Andean lupin has a good standing ability, but is heavily infested by weeds; (middle row) some annual cool season legumes are highly susceptible to lodging, such as pea, and easily match weeds but significantly suffer from losing lower leaves; (bottom row) intercropping white or Andean lupin with some annual cool season legumes, such as pea, is beneficial to both by suppressing weeds and increasing forage yield and improving its quality.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Mikic et al. / South African Journal of Botany xxx (2013) xxx-xxx

Table 1

Selected passport data of the accessions included in the trial with of intercropping white or Andean lupins with other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi in 2011 and 2012.

Table 3

Chemical composition of the soil layer up to a depth of 30 cm during the growing season of white and Andean lupins and other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi in 2011 and 2012.

Species Accession name Status Country of origin

White lupin Vesna Cultivar Serbia

Andean lupin LUP 509/83 Local landrace Peru

Red vetchling SA22083 Local landrace Portugal

Winged vetchling SEL 547 Local landrace Cyprus

Grass pea Sitnica Cultivar Serbia

Ethiopian pea MG 101785 Wild Ethiopia

Tall pea K-2524 Wild Lebanon

Common pea Jantar Cultivar Serbia

Narbonne vetch Chicharo Local landrace Spain

French vetch Novo Hopovo Wild Serbia

Common vetch Perla Cultivar Serbia

All the plots with sole crops were cut at the full bloom or early pod stage, while the intercrops were cut when the first intercrop component reached the full bloom or early pod stage. The green forage yield in all intercrops was measured immediately after cutting. The forage dry matter yield in each was determined on the basis of forage dry matter proportion in the green forage samples taken after the cutting and dried until constant mass at a room temperature.

The reliability of forage dry matter yield in all intercrops of both white and Andean lupins was determined by calculating the land equivalent ratio (LERFDMY) as:

LERf = FY(sg)IC/FY(sg)SC + FY(sd)K/FY(sd)So

where FY(sg)IC is the forage dry matter yield of the supporting component in the intercrop, FY(sg)SC is the forage dry matter yield of the supporting component when grown as sole crop, FY(sd)IC is the forage dry matter yield of the supported component in the intercrop and FY(sd)SC is the forage dry matter yield of the supported component when grown as sole crop.

The results of the study were processed by analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the least significant difference (LSD) test applied and using the computer software MSTAT-C.

3. Results and discussion

The analysis of the weather data during the growing seasons of white and Andean lupins and other cool season annual legumes shows that the average monthly temperature in both growing seasons was slightly higher in comparison to a long-term average (Table 2). However, both growing seasons of white and Andean lupins and other cool season annual legumes had less precipitation than a long-term average. In general, the sowing layer of the chernozem soils at Rimski Sancevi in both growing seasons of white and Andean lupins was well provided with the most important nutrients (Table 3).

Table 2

Weather data during the growing season of white and Andean lupins and other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi in 2011 and 2012 as compared to a long-term average.

March April May June July Average/sum

Year 2011 2012

Long-term average

Year 2011 2012

Long-term average

Average monthly temperature (°C)

6 13 17 20 22 16

8 13 17 23 25 17

6 11 17 20 21 15

Precipitation sum (mm)

28 23 65 87 62 265

4 23 51 31 48 157

38 47 59 85 70 299

pH pH N P2O5 K2O CaCO3 Humus

(H2O) (KCl) (%) (mg 100 g-1) (mg 100 g-1) (%) (%)

7.90 7.41 0.196 17.99 21 5.61 2.97

There were significant differences in the two-year average values of forage dry matter yield at both levels of 0.05 and 0.01 in the sole crops of both white and Andean lupins and other cool season annual legumes (Table 4). The average forage dry matter in white lupin was higher than in Andean lupin. All sole crops had similar or mostly higher forage dry matter yield in comparison to the results of the previous trials in the same agroecological conditions, such as red vetchling, with 5.0 t ha-1 (Mikic et al., 2013a), grass pea, with 6.7 t ha-1 (Mihailovic et al., 2013), common pea, with 6.4 t ha-1 (Cupina et al., 2010), French vetch, with 6.3 t ha-1 (Cupina et al., 2012), Narbonne vetch, with 5.0 t ha-1 (Mikic etal.,2009) and common vetch, with 8.8 t ha-1 (Mikic et al., 2013c).

In the intercrops of white lupin with other cool season annual legumes (Table 5), white lupin had the highest two-year average individual contribution to the total forage dry matter yield in the intercrop with Ethiopian pea. The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield was in the intercrop of white lupin with grass pea. Intercropping white lupin with common pea had a similar agronomic performance as in a previous trial in the same agroecological conditions, with 11.0 t ha-1 (Krstic et al., 2011). Regarding the two-year average forage dry matter yield of the intercrops of white lupin with three tested genera, the highest two-year average of forage dry matter was with vetchlings.

Intercropping white lupin with Ethiopian pea and French vetch had the highest two-year average values of LERFDMY, while intercropping white lupin with common vetch had the lowest two-year average values of LERFDMY (Table 5). Intercropping white lupin with grass pea proved more economically reliable in comparison with a trial in the same agroecological conditions (Cupina et al., 2009).

In the intercrops of Andean lupin with other cool season annual legumes (Table 6), Andean lupin had the highest two-year average individual contribution to the total forage dry matter yield in the intercrop with Narbonne vetch. The highest two-year average total forage dry matter yield was in the intercrop of Andean lupin with grass pea. Intercropping Andean lupin with other annual cool season legumes had a poorer agronomic performance than in a previous trial with the intercrops of white lupin (Krstic et al., 2011).

Intercropping Andean lupin with grass pea had the highest two-year average values of LERFDMY, while intercropping Andean lupin with common pea had the lowest two-year average values of

Table 4

Two-year average values of forage dry matter yield (tha-1) in the sole crops of white and Andean lupins and other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi for 2011 and 2012.

Sole crop

Forage dry matter yield

White lupin Andean lupin Red vetchling Winged vetchling Grass pea Ethiopian pea Tall pea Common pea Narbonne vetch French vetch Common vetch

LSDq.05

7.6 8.9

9.6 10.2

6.7 9.3 9.6

7.2 6.2 9.0

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Mikic et al. / South African Journal of Botany xxx (2013) xxx-xxx

Table 5

Two-year average values of forage dry matter yield (t ha-1) and its land equivalent ratio (LERFDMY) in the intercrops of white lupin with other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi for 2011 and 2012.

Intercrop Forage dry matter yield LERFDMY

Supporting Supported Total

crop crop

White lupin + red vetchling 6.0 4.2 10.3 1.16

White lupin + winged vetchling S.3 S.1 10.4 1.14

White lupin + grass pea S.0 6.2 11.2 1.18

White lupin + vetchlings average S.S S.2 10.6 1.16

White lupin + Ethiopian pea 6.7 2.9 9.7 1.20

White lupin + tall pea S.2 S.S 10.7 1.18

White lupin + common pea S.0 S.6 10.6 1.1S

White lupin + peas average S.7 4.7 10.3 1.18

White lupin + Narbonne vetch 6.2 2.8 9.0 1.09

White lupin + French vetch S.9 3.3 9.2 1.20

White lupin + common vetch S.0 4.4 9.4 1.06

White lupin + vetches average S.7 3.S 9.2 1.12

White lupin intercrops average 6.0 4.2 10.3 1.1S

LSD0.05 1.8 0.0S

LERfdmy (Table 6). Intercropping Andean lupin with grass pea proved more economically reliable in comparison with a trial in the same ag-roecological conditions, where white lupin intercropped with grass pea had a LERFDMY of 1.04 (Cupina et al., 2009).

The overall average yield obtained by intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes was 10.3 t ha-1 of forage dry matter yield and LERFDMY of 1.15, while intercropping white lupin with other cool season annual legumes had 8.7 t ha-1 of forage dry matter yield and LERFDMY of 1.04. Their performance was similar to intercrops of autumn-sown annual legumes and brassicas, with the two-year average forage dry matter yield of 8.6 t ha-1 (Cupina et al., 2013a), and intercrops of spring-sown annual legumes and brassicas, with the two-year average LERFDMY of 1.15 (Mikic et al., 2013b). It was also similar to intercropping autumn-sown legumes and cereals, with the two-year average LERFDMY of 1.05 (Mihailovic et al., 2011), better than intercropping lentil with other cool season annual legumes, where the two-year average forage dry matter yield was 8.6 t ha-1 (Cupina et al., in press) and comparable to intercropping vetches with other cool season annual legumes, with the two-year average forage dry matter yield of 9.4 t ha-1 and LERFDMY of 1.10 (Cupina et al., 2013c).

Table 6

Two-year average values of forage dry matter yield (t ha-1) and its land equivalent ratio (LERfdmy) in the intercrops of Andean lupin with other annual cool season legumes at Rimski Sancevi for 2011 and 2012.

Intercrop Forage dry matter yield Supporting Supported crop crop Total LERFDMY

Andean lupin + red vetchling 4.0 4.6 8.7 1.0S

Andean lupin + winged 3.3 S.1 8.4 0.97

vetchling

Andean lupin + grass pea 4.2 S.6 9.8 1.10

Andean lupin + vetchlings 3.9 S.1 9.0 1.04

average

Andean lupin + Ethiopian pea 4.9 2.9 7.8 1.09

Andean lupin + tall pea 4.1 S.0 9.1 1.07

Andean lupin + common pea 4.0 4.2 8.2 0.96

Andean lupin + peas average 4.3 4.0 8.4 1.04

Andean lupin + Narbonne S.0 3.0 8.0 1.07

Andean lupin + French vetch 4.S 2.9 7.4 1.0S

Andean lupin + common vetch 4.4 3.6 8.0 0.98

Andean lupin + vetches 4.6 3.2 7.8 1.03

average

Andean lupin intercrops 4.0 4.6 8.7 1.04

average

LSD0.05 1.S 0.04

4. Conclusions

Intercropping white and Andean lupins with other cool season annual legumes may lead to higher forage and grain yields and can be economically justified by high LER values and better utilisation of natural resources. In comparison to the traditional intercropping of annual legumes with cereals for forage production, the mutual intercropping of annual legumes provides farmers with high quality forage and grain richer in protein. Further research on the same subject will focus on forage and grain quality aspects, such as the crude protein and crude fibre content in forage and grain dry matter and other less examined aspects such as forage yield, grain yield and crop physiology.

Acknowledgements

Support for the projects LEGUME FUTURES of the EU Framework Programme 7 (FP7) and TR-31016 and TR-31024 from the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia is acknowledged. We thank ICARDA (Syria), VIR (Russia) and INIA (Spain) for donating the Novi Sad legume collection.

References

Bedoussac, L., Justes, E., 2010. The efficiency of a durum wheat-winter pea intercrop to improve yield and wheat grain protein concentration depends on N availability during early growth. Plant and Soil 330,19-35. Cortés-Mora, F.A., Piva, G., Jamont, M., Fustec, J., 2010. Niche separation and nitrogen transfer in Brassica-legume intercrops. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 47, 581-586.

Cowling WA, Buirchell, B.J., Tapia, M.E. 1998. Lupin. Lupinus L. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Genetic Research, Gatersleben — International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Cupina, B., Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Tomic, Z., Vasiljevic, S., 2006. Genetic resources of

annual forage legumes in Serbia. IPGRI: Newsletter for Europe 33,16. Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Krtsic, D., Duric, B., 2009. Intercropping of grass pea (Lathyrus sativus) with other grain legumes for forage production. Grain Legumes 54, 32.

Cupina, B., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Eric, P., Pejic, B., Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., 2010. Potential of the intercrops of normal-leafed and semi-leafless pea cultivars for forage production. Pisum Genetics 42,11-14. Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Stoddard, F.L., Krstic, D., Justes, E., Bedoussac, L., Fustec, J., Pejic, B., 2011. Mutual legume intercropping for forage production in temperate regions. In: Lichtfouse, E. (Ed.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 7: Genetics, Biofuels and Local Farming Systems. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 347-365.

Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Zoric, L., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Zlatkovic, B., Eric, P., 2012. Ex situ evaluation of forage yield components and forage yields in wild populations of French vetch (Vicia serratifolia Jacq.) from Serbia. Grassland Science in Europe 17,673-675.

Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Marjanovic-Jeromela, A., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Eric, P., Vasiljevic, S., Mihailovic, V., 2013a. Intercropping autumn-grown brassicas with legumes for forage production. Cruciferae Newsletter 32,17-19. Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Dordevic, V., Mihailovic, V., Vasiljevic, S., 2013b. Intercropping lentil (Lens culinaris) with other annual legumes for forage production. Journal of Lentil Research 5 (in press). Cupina, B., Mikic, A., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Vasiljevic, S., Mihailovic, V., Pejic, B., 2013c. Forage yield in intercropping vetches with other annual legumes. Grassland Science in Europe 18, 207-209. Duthion, C., 1992. Comportement du lupin blanc, Lupinus albus L, cv Lublanc, en sols

calcaires. Seuils de tolérance à la chlorose. Agronomie 12,439-445. FAO, 1974. Key to the FAO Soil Units. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United

Nations (FAO), Rome. Krstic, D., Mikic, A, Cupina, B., Antanasovic, S., Mihailovic, V., Eric, P., Pejic, B., 2011. Forage yields in the intercrops of pea with other cool season annual legumes. Pisum Genetics 43,29-32.

Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Eric, P., 2005. Field pea and vetches in Serbia and

Montenegro. Grain Legumes 44, 25-26. Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Cupina, B., 2007a. Potential of annual legumes for utilisation in

animal feeding. Biotechnology in Animal Husbandry 23 (5-6), 1 (573-581). Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Vasiljevic, S., Krstic, D., Tomic, Z., Vasic, M., 2007b. Genetic resources of annual forage legumes in the world and Serbia. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 44 (I), 115-123. Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Kobiljski, B., Cupina, B., Antanasovic, S., Krstic, D., Katanski, S., 2011. Intercropping pea with eight cereals for forage production. Pisum Genetics 43, 33-35.

Mihailovic, V., Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Radojevic, V., 2013. Forage yields and forage yield components in grass pea (Lathyrus sativus L.). Legume Research 36, 67-69.

ARTICLE IN PRESS

A. Mikic et al. / South African Journal of Botany xxx (2013) xxx-xxx 5

Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Katic, S., Karagic, D., 2006. Importance of annual forage legumes in supplying plant proteins. Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 42 (I), 91-103.

Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Cupina, B., Vishyakova, M., Vasic, M., Dordevic, V., Peric, V., 2009. Forage and grain yields in the VIR accessions of narbonne vetch Vicia narbonensis in the conditions of Serbia. Bulletin of Applied Botany, of Genetics and Plant Breeding 188,185-188.

Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Cupina, B., Dordevic, V., Stoddard, F.L., 2010. Introduction of novel legume crops in Serbia — White lupin (Lupinus albus). Ratarstvo i povrtarstvo 47,21 -26.

Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Cupina, B., Dordevic, V., Milic, D., Duc, G., Stoddard, F.L., Lejeune-Hénaut, I., Marget, P., Hanocq, E., 2011. Achievements in breeding autumn-sown annual legumes for temperate regions with emphasis on the continental Balkans. Euphytica 180,57-67.

Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Mihailovic, V., Krstic, D., Dordevic, V., Peric, V., Srebric, M., Antanasovic, S., Marjanovic-Jeromela, A., Kobiljski, B., 2012. Forage legume intercropping in temperate regions: models and ideotypes. In: Lichtfouse, E. (Ed.), Sustainable Agriculture Reviews. ,11. Springer Science + Business Media, Dordrecht, the Netherlands, pp. 161-182.

Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Mihailovic, V., Marjanovic-Jeromela, A., Antanasovic, S., Krstic, D., Katanski, S., Milosevic, B., 2013a. Intercropping spring-grown brassicas and legumes for forage production. Cruciferae Newsletter 32,14-16.

Mikic, A., Mihailovic, V., Cupina, B., Milic, D., Katic, S., Karagic, D., Pataki, I., D'Ottavio, P., Kraljevic-Balalic, M., 2013b. Forage yield components and classification of common vetch (Vicia sativa L.) cultivars of diverse geographic origin. Grass and Forage Science. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gfs.12033.

Mikic, A., Cupina, B., Mihailovic, V., Krstic, D., Antanasovic, S., Vasiljevic, S., Vaz Patto, M.C., Rubiales, D., 2013c. Potential of red vetchling (Lathyrus cicera) for forage production. Grassland Science in Europe 18,352-354.

Popovic-Pecija, E.S., 1950. Tri korisne biljke. Lucerka, soja, slatki vucjak.Matica srpska, Novi Sad.

Vandermeer, J., Van Noordwijk, M., Anderson, J., Ong, C., Perfecto, I., 1998. Global change and multi-species ecosystems: concepts and issues. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 67,1-22.

Willey, R., 1979. Intercropping — its importance and research needs. 1. Competition and yield advantages. Field Crops Abstracts 32,1-10.