Scholarly article on topic 'An affair analysis of mother's attitudes and 9 years old offspring’ sibling relations'

An affair analysis of mother's attitudes and 9 years old offspring’ sibling relations Academic research paper on "Sociology"

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{"Sibling relations" / "Mother attitudes" / "Sibling couples" / "family relationship" / "parental attitudes"}

Abstract of research paper on Sociology, author of scientific article — Fisun Köse, Serap Demiriz

Abstract In this study; the relationship between mother's attitudes and sibling relations was examined. The study includes, with their mothers, 9 years old 147 female and 153 male children who are studying in elementary schools of Nicosia, T.R.N.C. In total 300 mothers and offspring were involved in this study. As a result of this study; it is found out that, democratic, denying her role, interparental conflict mother attitudes have an effect on attitudes of children, who have elder sister, concerning affection/closeness behaviours, discipline mother attitudes have an effect on children, who have little brother, concerning status/strength factor, denying her role discipline mother attitudes have an effect on children, who have little brother, concerning conflict factor.

Academic research paper on topic "An affair analysis of mother's attitudes and 9 years old offspring’ sibling relations"

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V ScienceDirect Procedia

Social and Behavioral Sciences

Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 1 (2009) 872-876

* World Conference on Educational Sciences 2009

An affair analysis of mother's attitudes and 9 years old offspring'

sibling relations

Fisun Kosea*, Serap Demirizb

aAtaturk Meslek Lisesi; §ht. Huseyin Bora Str. Kizilba§-Lefko§a, Mersin on Turkey bGazi University Professional Education Faculty 06500 Beçevler-Ankara / Turkey

Received October 20, 2008; revised December 11, 2008; accepted January 02, 2009

Abstract

In this study; the relationship between mother's attitudes and sibling relations was examined. The study includes, with their mothers, 9 years old 147 female and 153 male children who are studying in elementary schools of Nicosia, T.R.N.C. In total 300 mothers and offspring were involved in this study. As a result of this study; it is found out that, democratic, denying her role, interparental conflict mother attitudes have an effect on attitudes of children, who have elder sister, concerning affection/closeness behaviours, discipline mother attitudes have an effect on children, who have little brother, concerning status/strength factor, denying her role discipline mother attitudes have an effect on children, who have little brother, concerning conflict factor.

Keywords: Sibling relations; mother attitudes; sibling couples; family relationship; parental attitudes. 1. Introduction

Siblings are one of the most significant determinants which are affecting a offspring's development. The emotional bond between siblings, in terms of strength, is ranked number two after the devotion between parent and offspring (Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). In family, the sibling relations start with birth of a new sister/ brother, end with death of only one sister/ brother. Family structure is changed dramatically after the birth of second offspring. Mothers are generally, after the birth of second offspring, establishing rules for first offspring, making more claims, attempting to play and talk less with first offspring than second offspring (Baydar, Green & Gunn, 1997), showing more tenderness, controlling and answering when she/he needs to second offspring than first offspring (Stocker, Dunn & Plomin, 1989). First offspring are generally, on such an occasion, behaving spoiled and conflicting against mother when the mother is interested in second offspring (Braynt, 1982; Nadelman &Begun, 1982; Furman, 1995; Baydar, Greek & Gunn, 1997). In that the transaction between mother and offspring serves as a model for the sibling relations, together with a new baby joins to the family, the relationship between mother and first offspring will underlie the relationship between siblings all of their lives. Mothers are showing different patterns to offspring and the offspring are, consciously or unconcislously, adopting these behaviours so; the attitudes of mothers are underlying and affecting the human relations of an offspring during his/her life (Brody, Stoneman & Burke, 1987).

ELSEVIER

1877-0428/$-see front matter © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2009.01.156

For this reason; mother and offspring relationship is seen the most important factor which determines the sibling relations.

The researchers, analysing the reasons for differences of sibling relationship, concentrate on variables such as gender, sister/brother gender, age, age differences between siblings (Minnet, Vandell & Santrock, 1983), at first; in latter studies, they indicated that these variables are important for the basis of siblings relationships and also they asserted that, parent-offspring interaction and offspring's cognitive, social and personal characteristics are the basis of main determinants ( Furman & Buhrmester, 1985). Nowadays, fathers have more part in bringing up offspring, barely, mothers resume to be with their offspring more than fathers, as a result; it is thought that mothers have more affective role on offspring's behaviours sensually (McHale & et. al.,1995; Piotrowski, 1997). For this reason, in the study, it is searched that, the attitudes of mothers while bringing up offspring and their opinions concerning how do they comment on offspring's relations with their siblings.

2. Method

9 years old 300 offspring and their mothers are involved in this study because middle offspring hood period is the period which they start to realise their psychological features. All offspring in this study have one sister/brother. All offspring and all mothers are Cypriot Turkish and have the structure of immediate family with full mother/ father and siblings. In the study, in order to indicate the relationship between siblings, three factors of "Sibling Relationship Questionnaire; S.R.Q)" was used which was developed by Wyndol Furman and Duane Buhrmester (1985). In order to obtain information about the mother's attitudes on bringing up offspring, Parental Attitude Research Instrument, P.A.R.I, developed by Schaefer and Bell, was used. The questionnaire is adapted into Turkish by G. Le Compte, A.Le Compte and S.Ozer (Oner, 1997). Application was carried out in 5 schools, in which Turkish students are going, in Nicosia. In order to indicate the offspring's mothers' attitudes, affecting the sibling relations in the study, standard multiple regression analysis was used. In this analysis, three factor points of sibling relationship was dealt with as a dependent variable and the authors attempted to determine how much these points were explained by P.A.R.I factor and what kind of relationship is there between the factor points of P.A.R.I and S.R.Q. The co-efficient level was .05.

3. Results and Discussion

In sample study, % 49.0 (n= 147) of offspring were female, % 51.0 (n= 153) of them were male. % 20.0 (n=60) of offspring have little sister, % 30.7 (n=92) have little brother, %23.0 (n=69) have elder sister, % 26.3 (n=79) have elder. When we examined the results of multiple regression analysis concerning the comments on affection/closeness factor S.R.Q, according to P.A.R.I factor points of mothers' of offspring who have elder or little sisters or brothers, in children who have little sister (n=60) and the correlation (R= 0.172) between PARI points of mothers and the sibling relations of children on affection/closeness were not significant. [F(5-54)= 0.32 , p>.05]. % 3 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on affection/closeness, is explained by the mothers' attitudes such as over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline. It was seen that, the variance being explained, is not important. When the results of T-test, concerning the coefficient regression significance and 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above were examined one by one, it was determined that; sibling relationship is not an important factor on affection/closeness behaviours. In children who have little brother, (n=92); mothers' P.A.R.I. factor points and the correlation (R= 0.214) between children's sibling relations on affection/closeness were not significant [F (5-86) = 0.82, p>.05]. According to this; %4.6 of variance concerning the sibling relations on affection/ closeness is explained (R2= 0.046), together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline. The variance being explained was not found significant. When the results of T-test, concerning the coefficient regression significance, and when we think about the 5 factors of mothers' attitudes one by one, it was seen that these factors are not an important determiner on sibling relation concerning affection/closeness behaviour. In children who have elder sister (n=69); the correlation between the P.A.R.I factor points and children's sibling relations on affection/closeness behaviour is (R=0.459). According to this; % 21 of variance concerning the sibling relations on affection/ closeness behaviour is explained (R2= 0.210) together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes. The variance, being explained, was found significant [F (5-63) =3.35, p<.05]. When the results of T-test coefficient regression significance was examined; democratic, denying her role, interparental conflict mother attitudes' points were an important determiner on children's sibling relations, who have elder sister, according to

affection/closeness behaviours. According to P; if we look at the comparative order of importance of determinant variables on sibling relations, these are, in regular turn, denying her role, democratic, over protectiveness, discipline behaviours. When we examine the regression coefficient unit, we can say that there is a negative relationship between democratic, denying her role behaviours and children's sibling relations on affection/closeness behaviour; on the contrary there is a positive relationship between the behaviours over protectiveness, discipline and interparental conflict. In children who have elder (n=79), the correlation between P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and the sibling relations on affection/closeness factor points is (R= 0.137). According to this; % 1.9 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on affection/ closeness is explained (R2= 0.019) together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes. The variance, being explained, was found significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression concerning the significance and 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was determined that, these factors are not an important determiner on children who have elder brother, according to affection/closeness behaviour concerning sibling relation. Furman and Giberson (1995) did a research on mothers who have 2 offspring; it was found that, the level of affection/closeness behaviours is high between the siblings whose mothers behave equally and warmly to their offspring. This result is consistent within the research results. Adler argues that, in family the location of children (order of birth) has an effect on growth experience and transaction between siblings shapes the personal characteristics of children. As follows, according to Adler, elder child have two different experiences. At first the child is only offspring and all concern is on this child but after the birth of second child, first offspring have to share this concern with his/her sibling. Elder offspring conflict against to sibling in order to gain the interest of the mother again and in the end first child become a problem. Yet, if he/she be sure about the mother's interest and love and being prepared by the mother for transitional period, he/she can assume the role of protectionist against the sibling who is imitating the mother (Akt.Furman, 1995:144). Thus, in most of the researches it was found that, mothers respond their offspring warmly and emotionally and when they do not hold a choice between their offspring, the children's sibling relations are less contradictory and friendlier. (Brody et.al., 1987; Brody et. al., 1992; Stocker et. al., 1989).

According to P.A.R.I factor points of mothers whose offspring have elder / little brother or sister, if the multiple regression analysis results is examined concerning the comments on S.R.Q Relative Status/Strength factor, in children who have little sister (n=60), the correlation (R=0.284) between the P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and children's sibling relations concerning Relative Status/Strength is not significant [F (5-54) = 0.94, p>.05]. According to this; % 8 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on relative status/strength is explained (R2= 0.080), together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes. The variance, being explained was not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression concerning the significance and 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one, it was determined that relative status/strength factor is not an important determiner. In children who have little brother (n= 92); the correlation between P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and the sibling relations on relative status/strength is (R= 0.366). According to this; % 13.4 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on relative status/strength is explained (R2= 0.134), together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes. The variance, being explained is significant [F(5-86) =2.65, p<.05]. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, only the points of discipline mother attitudes are an important determinant on children, who have little brother, attitudes concerning relative status/strength behaviours; but the other four attitude factors are not an important determinant. According to P; if we look at the comparative order of importance of determinant variables on sibling relations, these are, in regular turn, denying her role, democratic, over protectiveness, discipline behaviours. When we examine the regression coefficient unit, we can say that there is a negative relationship between, mothers' denying her role and over protectiveness behaviours and children's sibling relations on relative status/ strength behaviours whereas there is a positive relation between mothers' discipline and interparental conflict behaviours and children's sibling relations on relative status/ strength behaviours. In children who have elder sister (n= 69); the correlation between P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and the sibling relations on relative status/strength (R= 0.328) is not significant [F (5-63) =1.51, p>.05]. According to this; % 10.8 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on relative status/strength is explained (R2= 0.108), together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict and discipline mother attitudes. The variance, being explained is not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was seen that, these factors are not an important determiner. In children who have elder brother (n= 79), the

correlation (R= 0.196) between the P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and children's sibling relations on relative status/strength behaviours is not significant [F (5-63) =1.51, p>.05]. According to this; % 3.8 of variance concerning the sibling relations on relative status/strength is explained, together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes (R2 =0.038). The variance, being explained is not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was seen that, these factors are not an important determiner. According to the research, done by Volling and Elins (1998), it was found out that parents regiment their first offspring more than second one, as a result first offspring behave in a negative way to his/her sibling and have difficulties to adapt. Also; an affiliation research on solving the problem of interparental conflict and parent-offspring relation concerning to the quality of sibling relations, done by Brody et.al. (1996), it was found that, character level of elder offspring have an important role on adjusting the quality of sibling relations and the quality of mother and elder offspring relation, also contribute on quality of sibling relations. These results are enlightening the future researches. According to the P.A.R.I factor points of mothers whose children have elder or little sister/brother, when the multiple regression analysis results concerning the S.R.Q Conflict factor is examined; in children who have little sister (n=60) the estimated correlation (R= 0.220) is not significant between the P.A.R.I factors of mothers and sibling relation related to conflict [F(5-54)=0.55, p>.05]. According to this; % 4.9 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on conflict, is explained together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes ( R2= 0.049). The variance, being explained is not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was seen that, these factors are not an important determiner on children's sibling relations concerning conflict behaviours. In children who have little brother (n= 92), the correlation between the P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and children's sibling relations on conflict is (R= 0.322). According to this; %10.3 of variance concerning the sibling relations on conflict, is explained together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes ( R2= 0.103). The variance, being explained is not significant [F (5-86) =1.98, p>.05]. The P.A.R.I. factor points do not explain significantly the variance of sibling relations on conflict but when the variances are dealt with one by one, the points of denying her role, discipline mother attitudes are an important determinant in children, who have little brother, concerning the sibling relations about conflict. On the other hand; the other 3 mother attitudes factors are not an important determinant. According to P; if we look at the comparative order of importance of determinant variables on sibling relations, these are, in regular turn, discipline, denying her role, democratic, over protectiveness and interparental conflict mother attitudes. When we examine the regression coefficient unit, we can say that there is a negative relationship between over protectiveness, denying her role, interparental conflict mother attitudes whereas there is a positive relationship between democratic and discipline mother attitudes. In children who have little sister (n=69), the correlation between the P.A.R.I factor points of mothers and children's sibling relations on conflict is (R= 0.210). The variance, being explained is not significant [F (5-63) =0.57, p>.05]. According to this; % 4.4 of variance, concerning the sibling relations on conflict, is explained together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother attitudes (R2= 0.044). The variance, being explained is not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was seen that, these factors are not an important determiner on children's sibling relations concerning conflict behaviours. In children, who have elder brother (n=79), the correlation between the P.A.R.I. factor points of mothers and children's sibling relation on conflict is (R= 0.184). The variance, being explained is not significant [F(5-73)=0.50, p>.05]. According to this; % 3.4 of variance concerning the sibling relations on conflict, is explained together with over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline mother (R2= 0.034). The variance, being explained is not significant. When the results of T-test coefficient regression is examined, concerning the significance, 5 factors of mothers' attitudes, mentioned above, were examined one by one; it was seen that, these factors are not an important determiner on children's sibling relations concerning conflict behaviours. These results are consistent with the results of the research, about disciplinary and restrictive mother attitudes are related to interpersonal conflict and hostile behaviours of siblings, done by Brody et.al (1987).

4. Conclusion and Recommendations

According to the results of the research; there is not any significant relationship between the attitudes of mothers concerning, over protectiveness, denying her role, democratic, interparental conflict, and discipline and the children, who have little/elder brother/ sister, concerning affection/closeness behaviour whereas there is a significant relationship between the children, who have elder sister, and affection/closeness behaviours. So; in an occasion of having elder sister, it can be said that; the negative relationship between the attitudes of mothers concerning democratic, denying her role and the sibling relation concerning affection / closeness behaviours is in the same direction in a positive way. There is not a significant relationship between the mother attitudes and the children, who have little sister and elder brother/sister, attitudes concerning relative status/strength behaviours, whereas there is a relationship between the children, who have little brother, and status/strength behaviours. In this situation; it can be said that; there is a positive relationship between the mother attitudes concerning discipline, interparental conflict and democratic behaviours, and mentioned sibling relations of children, who have little brother whereas there is a negative relationship with over protectiveness and denying her role mother attitudes. Again, while a significant relationship cannot be found between the mentioned mother attitudes and the conflict behaviours of children who have little sister and elder/little sister/brother, there is a significant relationship between the children who have little brother and conflict behaviours. In this situation it can be said that, in children who have little brother, there is a positive relationship between discipline mother attitudes and mentioned sibling relations but there is a negative relationship with denying her role mother attitudes. As a result of these findings; studies must be done about the subject of developing close and positive relations between siblings in order to enlighten the parents. And researchers should point out to the relationship between children's perception of parent's attitudes and the quality of sibling relations.

Acknowledgements

We would like to take this opportunity to thank Mr. Wyndol Furman and Duane Buhrmester for conducting S.R.Q and giving permission to us about using, and evaluating it, also special thanks to Wyndol Furman for sharing his studies with us.

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