Scholarly article on topic 'Pilot Plant Demonstration of CO2 Capture from Cement Plant with Advanced Amine Technology'

Pilot Plant Demonstration of CO2 Capture from Cement Plant with Advanced Amine Technology Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — Jacob Nygaard Knudsen, Otto Morten Bade, Inga Askestad, Oddvar Gorset, Thor Mejdell

Abstract As part of the Norcem CO2 capture project, Aker Solutions’ Mobile Test Unit (MTU) has been installed at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik, Norway. The main objective of the test campaign is to demonstrate the feasibility of Aker Solutions’ Advanced Carbon CaptureTM amine process for the cement industry and determine key design and performance parameters. Operation of the MTU on flue gas from the cement kiln commenced in May 2014 and will continue for 6 months. The results so far indicate that Aker Solutions’ amine process operates stable with low energy consumption. In addition, low amine consumption, low degradation and low emissions are observed. Thus, all in all the results suggest that post combustion capture with an advanced amine process is an interesting option for CCS deployment in the cement industry.

Academic research paper on topic "Pilot Plant Demonstration of CO2 Capture from Cement Plant with Advanced Amine Technology"

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Energy Procedia 63 (2014) 6464 - 6475

GHGT-12

Pilot plant demonstration of CO2 capture from cement plant with

advanced amine technology

Jacob Nygaard Knudsena*, Otto Morten Badea, Inga Askestada, Oddvar Gorseta, Thor

Mejdellb

aAker Solutions, PO Box 222, 1326 Lysaker, Norway bSINTEF Chemistry & Materials, Sem Saelands vei 2A, 7034 Trondheim, Norway

Abstract

As part of the Norcem CO2 capture project, Aker Solutions' Mobile Test Unit (MTU) has been installed at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik, Norway. The main objective of the test campaign is to demonstrate the feasibility of Aker Solutions' Advanced Carbon Capture™ amine process for the cement industry and determine key design and performance parameters. Operation of the MTU on flue gas from the cement kiln commenced in May 2014 and will continue for 6 months. The results so far indicate that Aker Solutions' amine process operates stable with low energy consumption. In addition, low amine consumption, low degradation and low emissions are observed. Thus, all in all the results suggest that post combustion capture with an advanced amine process is an interesting option for CCS deployment in the cement industry.

© 2014 TheAuthors.Published by ElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

Keywords: Post combustion capture, cement industry, advanced amines, pilot plant testing

1. Introduction

More than 5% of the global anthropogenic CO2 emissions originate from cement production. While the CO2 emissions originating from combustion of fuels in cement kilns to a large extent can be compensated by use of CO2 neutral fuels such as waste and biomass, the share of CO2 being released from calcination of limestone (around 50 to

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +47 67 51 36 27 E-mail address: Jacob.knudsen@aksersolutions.com

1876-6102 © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license

(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of GHGT-12

doi: 10.1016/j.egypro.2014.11.682

60%) cannot easily be mitigated. CCS therefore remains the only viable solution which can make cement production completely CO2 neutral. Thus, demonstrating cost-efficient carbon capture solutions for the cement industry is a key priority in dealing with global CO2 emission reductions.

Norcem which is owned by Heidelberg Cement has initiated a project together with European Cement & Research Academy (ECRA) to assess the suitability of different CO2 capture techniques for the cement industry [1]. As part of this project, Aker Solutions will demonstrate its Advanced Carbon Capture™ (ACCTM) technology at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik, Norway.

Aker Solutions' Mobile Test Unit (MTU) was installed in Brevik in April 2014 and will be operated on a slip stream of flue gas from the cement kiln for a period of 6 months (end October 2014). This will be the first time amine based CO2 capture technology is extensively tested on real flue gas from a cement kiln. The overall objective of Aker Solutions test program at Brevik is to demonstrate the feasibility of Aker Solutions' ACCTM amine process for the cement industry and determine key design and performance parameters.

The main differences between flue gas characteristics from power plants i.e. coal fired power plants, and cement kilns are the higher CO2 content of the latter as well as the different nature of the trace level pollutants such as the composition and size distribution of particulate matter. The higher CO2 partial pressure in the cement flue gas is an opportunity to increase energy efficiency of the capture process. However, it is also a challenge for the CO2 absorber, because more heat of absorption shall be absorbed in a smaller volume of flue gas. Thus, the CO2 absorber temperature is likely to increase and thereby shift absorption equilibrium in less favorable direction. To address this challenge, a screening study has been conducted to optimize the composition of solvent for the higher CO2 partial pressure.

It is furthermore expected that the different mineral composition of the particulate matter contained in the flue gas from cement plants may affect solvent degradation to some extent. Thus establishment of the requirements for flue gas pre-treatment and determination of amine robustness towards real cement flue gas are important goals of the MTU test campaign. In addition, the propensity of cement derived flue gases to generate amine mist in the CO2 absorber and thereby high amine emissions is important to assess during the MTU test campaign. Severe amine mist formation has previously been observed on flue gases containing particulate matter and SO3 such as from coal-fired power plants and refinery catalytic cracker [2, 3]. The MTU is fitted with Aker Solutions' Anti-Mist concept and the potential of reducing mist emissions with this technology will be investigated in Brevik.

This paper will summarize the main findings from the solvent screening and the current results of the MTU test campaign at Norcem. Based on the test finding, conclusions will be drawn with respect to the feasibility of Aker Solutions' ACCTM process for cement kilns.

Nomenclature

ACC Advanced Carbon Capture

CCS Carbon Capture and Storage

DCC Direct contact cooler

ESP Electrostatic Precipitator

ICP-MS Inductive-Coupled-Plasma Mass-Spectroscopy

LC-MS Liquid chromatography Mass-Spectroscopy

MEA Monoethanolamine

MTU Mobile Test Unit

SNCR Selective non-catalytic reduction

2. Test facilities and test program

2.1. Screening tests

An in-house screening apparatus at SINTEF Materials & Chemistry at Trondheim, Norway was used to optimize the composition of Aker Solutions' advanced amine solvent S26 for flue gas conditions resembling that of a cement kiln. Figure 1 shows a schematic illustration of the screening apparatus.

The solvent to be tested is placed in a gas sparger reactor and a gas consisting of 20% CO2 in N2 is bubbled through the solvent at 40°C. The experiment runs until the gas leaving the reactor (measured by IR analyser) has a CO2 concentration of 95% of the start concentration. At the end of absorption a small liquid sample is collected for loading analysis and the reactor is prepared for stripping. During stripping the solution is heated up to 80 °C at atmospheric pressure and the evolution of CO2 is followed by the IR analyser. At the end of stripping phase a sample of the regenerated solvent is collected for loading analysis. Thus, the screening experiment provides a relative measure of absorption and stripping rates as well as a measure of the cyclic capacity of the solvent.

Screening tests were performed with 5 different blends of the ACCTM S26 solvent and 30% MEA as a reference. The reference test with 30% MEA was both performed at 10 and 20 kPa CO2 partial pressure in order to investigate the influence of the CO2 concentration in the flue gas on loading and absorption rate.

Condenser IR CO2 Analyzer

Absorber Saturator

Figure 1. The screening apparatus at SINTEF.

2.2. Mobile Test Unit

Aker Solutions' Mobile Test Unit (MTU) is a custom-built mobile test CO2 capture facility, which can be used to capture CO2 from different industrial flue gases. The facility is used to verify new design features and solvents, and operates in an industrial environment during long-term testing. The facility is designed for easy transport and hookup, which means that it can be transported to different sites.

The MTU was commissioned in 2008 and since then several test campaigns have been conducted at different test locations and with different solvents [2, 3, 4]. Among others, verification of emission control technology and emissions have been areas of attention [2, 3, 4]. Process improvements and new technology have been implemented in the MTU on a continuing basis.

The design of the MTU is based on conventional amine absorption/desorption process with full packing height absorber and desorber columns. Several novel features are installed such as Aker Solutions' ACCTM Energy Saver, Anti-Mist Design and Emission Control technology. Extensive instrumentation is implemented at the MTU and all on-line signals are logged in historical databases. The MTU is also equipped with an electrically power reboiler,

which allows for accurate quantification of the energy consumption. Key design data and specifications of the MTU are shown in Table 1.

To monitor CO2 capture and emissions, the MTU is equipped with a permanent FTIR online emission monitoring system from GasmetTM. The FTIR is connected via heated sampling lines (180°C) to sampling probes at the absorber inlet (downstream of DCC), absorber outlet and desorber overhead condenser outlet. The FTIR is calibrated for a list of standard flue gas pollutants, e.g. CO, CO2, SO2, HCl, NO, NO2, NH3, as well as MEA and Aker Solutions' Advanced solvent amines. The detection limit of the FTIR system is approximately 1 ppmv.

Table 1. MTU Key design data and specifications

Parameter Design value Unit

Max flue gas capacity 1000 Sm3/h

CO2 capture efficiency ^90 %

Absorber diameter 0.40 m

Absorber packing height Up to 18 m

Desorber diameter 0.32 m

Desorber packing height 8.0 m

Solvent circulation 0-3.6 m3/h

Number of washing stages 2 + 1 acid wash -

During April 2014 the MTU was installed at Norcem's (part of HeidelbergCement) cement plant in Brevik, Norway. A tie-in point was installed on Norcem's flue gas duct just before the flue gas enters the stack i.e. downstream all existing emission control devices (SNCR, ESP, spray dryer FGD and baghouse filter). The MTU can be fed with a slip stream of flue gas from the cement kiln of up to 1000 Sm3/h. A picture of the MTU installed at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik is shown in Figure 2.

The characteristics of the flue gas received by the MTU is varying, depending on the type of cement clinker that is produced at Norcem, the fuel mix and the operating conditions of cement kiln as well as the emission control devices. Typical characteristics of the flue gas from Norcem's cement plant in Brevik are given in Table 2.

Table 2. Typical flue gas characteristics at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik.

Parameter O2 CO2 H2O SO2 NOx Dust

(Vol.-%, actual) (mg/Nm3, actual)

Typical value 7.5 17.8 18.2 0-130 180-250 5-10

Figure 2. The MTU installed at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik, Norway.

2.3. MTU test program at Norcem

The installation and commissioning of the MTU at Norcem, Brevik was completed in the beginning of May 2014. The six months' MTU test campaign was commenced immediately after commissioning and it is anticipated that the campaign will continue throughout October 2014. The campaign is therefore ongoing and not all test results are available at present.

As mentioned in the introduction, the overall objective of Aker Solutions test program at Brevik is to demonstrate the feasibility of Aker Solutions ACCTM amine process for the cement industry and determine key design and performance parameters. Thus, the campaign will focus on determination of parameters such as:

• Overall process stability and impact of cement plant operation conditions

• CO2 capture efficiency and energy consumption

• Solvent degradation, consumption and reclamation

• Emissions and waste production

• Impact of flue gas pollutants on solvent degradation

• Performance of equipment and materials

• Equipment design

2.4. MTU test procedures

MTU operation: The campaign consists of periods where the MTU is operated under various operating conditions in order to optimise operation for cement flue gas conditions and to obtain input for design studies and

model validation. In these periods, the operating point is typically changed once per day. After change of operating conditions, the process is allowed at least 4 to 6 hours to reach a new steady state before samples of lean and rich solvent are collected for loading analysis. Each operating point is referred to as a "test run" and normally all process data is averaged over 2-hours of stable operation. The parameters varied between the different test runs are reboiler temperature, stripper pressure, flue gas flow rate, CO2 capture rate, etc.

Also the campaign consists of longer periods of time where the MTU is operated at fixed settings. This is referred to as "base case" operation. During periods of base case operation, solvent samples are collected on less frequent basis and mainly for monitoring of amine concentrations and degradation level.

Chemical analysis: The concentrations of amines, amine degradation products and other impurities in the solvent are determined by chemical analysis of solvent samples. The total amine concentration in the solvent (alkalinity) is determined by titration and the CO2 loading are determined locally at Brevik on daily basis. For detailed component specific analyses, samples are shipped to SINTEF, Trondheim and analysed by several different techniques. Individual solvent amines and specific degradation products are determined by LC-MS. Total nitrogen of samples are determined by the Kjeldal method. Heat stable salts by ion-exchange and titration. Elemental analysis e.g. sulphur and metals are determined by ICP-MS. Total nitrosamine content is determined by head space GC-MS-NCD as released NO after treatment with HCl and CuCl. The method is a modified version of the method described in [5]. CO2 content is determined by Apollo total inorganic carbon (TIC) analyser.

Manual emission measurements: Manual emission measurements were conducted at the outlet of the MTU absorber (stack) during base case operation to quantify the emissions of solvent amines and volatile degradation products. A sampling system consisting of three parallel sampling trains was used. Train A: Impinger bottles with 0.1 N sulphuric acid, for collection of amines, ammonia, and some specific degradation products. Train B: Impinger bottles with 0.1 N sulfamic acid, for collection of nitrosamines and nitramines. Train C: Single impinger bottle for condensate collection, followed by DNPH cartridges, for collection of aldehydes and ketones. The three separate sampling trains allowed parallel sampling without splitting of gas. Probe A and probe B extracts gas under isokinetic conditions from the absorber stack, which was not the case for Train C. The sampling is conducted over a period of approx. 2 hours. The impinger contents and DNPH cartridges are collected and shipped to SINTEF for analysis by LC-MS. The water content in the gas is determined gravimetrically.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Optimization of solvent for cement kiln flue gas conditions

Aker Solutions has selected its advanced amine solvent S26 for the MTU test campaign at Norcem, Brevik. S26 is selected because it is an energy efficient solvent that shows very good degradation resistance and environmental performance i.e. low tendency to form nitrosamines and other harmful degradation products. Because the S26 solvent primarily has been developed for gas and coal derived flue gas, an optimization study was conducted in order to exploit the benefit of the more CO2 rich flue gas from cement kilns.

Figure 3 shows the measured cyclic capacity of 30% MEA and the six different blends of the S26 solvent (standard S26 and 5 modified blends denoted S26_1 to S26_5) based on the tests in the screening apparatus at SINTEF. All tests except one with 30% MEA were conducted with a CO2 concentration in the feed gas (20%, dry) representative to that of the cement kiln in Brevik. The cyclic capacity is a measure of the efficiency of a solvent as it indicates how much solvent that must be circulated in the capture plant per unit of CO2 captured. It appears from Figure 3 that the cyclic capacity of 30% MEA is increased somewhat when going from CO2 concentrations more typical of heat and power generating boilers (10%) to that of a cement kiln (20%). Nevertheless, Figure 3 clearly indicates that all of the blends of the S26 solvent show superior cyclic capacity compared to 30% MEA. Figure 3

furthermore indicates that the blends S26_1, S26_2, S26_3 and S26_5 show higher cyclic capacity than standard S26. Tendency of solid formation was observed for the blends S26_2 and S26_3, hence they were rejected for operational reasons. Therefore, based on the cyclic capacity and also good absorption performance, blend S26_1 was concluded to be the more optimal solvent for cement kiln flue gas streams and selected for the MTU test campaign at Norcem, Brevik.

Figure 3. Determined cyclic capacity (mol CO2/l) based on tests in screening apparatus.

3.2. MTU operation and Energy optimization tests

Operation of the MTU on cement flue gas in Brevik started on 12th of May. In the beginning of the campaign, the MTU was only operated during daytime hours, however from mid-June and onwards, the MTU went into continuous operation. At the end of August approximately 1600 hours have been achieved and around 215 tons of CO2 have been captured. In general, the MTU operates very well on the flue gas from the cement kiln and no operational problems related to the nature of the flue gas have been experienced to date. Some downtime has been experienced due to ordinary maintenance operations e.g. replacement of gaskets, repair of a pump, etc.

The MTU is typically treating a slipstream of 450 Sm3/h flue gas from the cement kiln, which corresponds to capture of around 140-150 kg/h CO2 at 90% removal rate. At 140-150 kg/h CO2, the reboiler is operating near full capacity.

Figure 4 shows the amount of CO2 captured from the flue gas for the different test runs. The CO2 capture is calculated in three independent ways based on either absorber and desorber gas side measurements or analysis of CO2 uptake on the solvent side. It appears from Figure 4 that there is good agreement between the three different methods (typically the deviation is less than 5%). Thus, the CO2 mass balance is well closed for the MTU.

The heat requirement for solvent regeneration, i.e. the specific reboiler duty (SRD), is obtained from the captured amount of CO2 and the heat input to the reboiler. In Figure 5, the SRD is plotted against the cyclic capacity or the net CO2 loading (mol/kg) of the solvent for all the different test runs. It appears that the lower SRD values are obtained at the higher cyclic capacities. A high cyclic capacity implies that the solvent is efficiently utilized and that the mass of solvent that needs to be circulated per mass of CO2 captured is minimized. Compared to the laboratory screening tests (Figure 3), Figure 5 indicates that somewhat lower cyclic capacity is obtained in the test at MTU. This is most likely due to transport/kinetic limitations in the real flue gas absorber. However, still relatively high cyclic capacity is obtained in the MTU tests. It is furthermore seen from Figure 5 that SRD values around 3.0 MJ/kg CO2 are typically obtained. The lowest SRD obtained is 2.8 MJ/kg CO2. Tests with Aker Solutions' Energy Saver installation remain to be conducted. The Energy Saver has potential of reducing the SRD even further.

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo

CO o -f un

(N(N(N(NCOCOOOOOOOOO

(N CO CO o

Figure 4. CO2 capture (kg/h) based on absorber and stripper gas side as well as solvent side.

3,6 3,4

& 3,2 3

■0 3,0 ®

1 2,8 a. tn

2,6 i-,-,-,-,-,

1,0 1,2 1,4 1,6 1,8 2,0

Cyclic capacity (mol CO2/kg)

Figure 5. Specific reboiler duty of all tests runs vs. cyclic capacity (mol CO2/kg).

The good energy efficiency obtained during the MTU test campaign at Brevik shows that post combustion capture with advanced amine processes are an interesting option for CCS deployment in the cement industry. In particular considering that many cement plants have substantial amounts of recoverable waste heat e.g. in flue gas, that can be utilized for solvent regeneration, thus substantially reducing the amount of addtional energy that needs to be supplied.

♦ ♦ ♦ ♦

3.3. Solvent consumption and degradation

A very important aspect of demonstrating the viability of Aker Solutions' ACCTM process on flue gases from cement kilns is to demonstrate low consumption and low degradation rates of solvent amines. It is expected that the different mineral composition of the particulate matter contained in the flue gas from cement plants compared to that of coal-fired power plants may affect solvent degradation to some extent.

The consumption of solvent during MTU operation at Brevik is determined by monitoring the solvent inventory and the amine concentrations over an extended period of operation. The amine concentrations have been determined by three different methods as shown in Figure 6: Specific amine analysis (LC-MS), titration and total nitrogen analysis. Good agreement between component specific analysis, titration and total nitrogen analysis is observed (Figure 6). The fact that there is good agreement between total nitrogen analysis and amine specific analysis suggests that there are not significant amounts of other nitrogen containing compounds, i.e. degradation products, other than the solvent amines. In the period from 15th of May to 19th of August, the three different methods yield total amine consumption numbers in the range of 0.15-0.20 kg/ton CO2 captured. This is much lower consumption numbers than have been reported with MEA and other advanced amines for gas and coal-fired boilers [6]. This indicates that the Aker Solutions' ACCTM S26 solvent is very robust and that little degradation occurs under the flue gas conditions from the cement kiln.

Amine titration mol/kg

LC MS Amine tot. mol/kg

A Total N mol/kg

01.05.2014 21.05.2014 10.06.2014 30.06.2014 20.07.2014 09.08.2014 29.08.2014

Figure 6. Comparison of solvent total amine concentration by LC-MS, titration and total nitrogen.

To gain further insight into the level of degradation of S26, solvent samples from the MTU campaign have been collected at start-up (15.05.2014) and again on 18.06.2014 and on 19.08.2014. The samples were analysed for heat stable salts (HSS), elements as well as total nitrosamines. The results are shown in Table 3. It appears that the HSS content has been below the detection limit of 0.01 mol/kg in all samples, confirming low level of degradation for the S26 solvent. Table 3 furthermore indicates that only small quantities of nitrosamines are forming in the solvent, despite the NOx level in the flue gas from the cement kiln is significant (Table 1). The nitrosamine quantity formed is much smaller compared to what has been reported for other solvents such as concentrated piperazine [7]. The S26 solvent amines do not form nitrosamines themselves, however an impurity present in one of the amine products may form nitrosamine. Specific analysis for this particular nitrosamine confirms that this is the main nitrosamine found in the solvent. Results from elsewhere [8] indicates that this specific nitrosamine is removed from the S26 solvent by reclaiming, hence its concentration will never build-up to significant values.

Table 3. HSS and total nitrosamines in S26 solvent samples

Parameter 15.05.2014 18.06.2014 19.08.2014 Unit

Operating hours 20 375 1400 hours

HSS <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 mol/kg

Total nitrosamines 0.013 0.024 0.11 mmol/kg

Elemental analysis (ICP-MS) of the solvent samples indicates that the concentrations of metals and sulfur are low as shown in Figure 7. The development in solvent concentrations of the metals Cr, Fe and Ni is an indication of the corrosiveness of the solvent. The low (1-2 ppm) and relatively stable concentration of these metals indicate low corrosiveness of the S26 solvent. The sulfur content in the solvent stems from absorption of SO2 from the flue gas and results in HSS formation. Ideally all SO2 is scrubbed out in the pre-scrubber or DCC, however, a small slip of SO2 to the amine process is unavoidable. Figure 7 indicates that only approx. 220 mg/l sulfur has been absorbed by the solvent after 1400 operating hours. The 220 mg/l sulfur is equivalent to approx. 0.014 mol/kg HSS. The ACCTM process should operate safely with HSS levels up to 0.3 mol/kg before solvent reclaiming needs to be initiated. Hence, the current results indicate that operation can continue for years before the solvents' sulfur content reach level where reclaiming is required. This illustrates that the SO2 removal degree achieved in the MTU pre-scrubber is satisfactory. It is the plan to demonstrate the removal efficiencies concerning HSS, nitrosamines and other impurities with the ACCTM reclaiming technology before the end of the campaign in Brevik.

Cr [mg/l] ■ Fe [mg/l] ANi [mg/l] • S [mg/l]

01.05.2014 31.05.2014 30.06.2014 30.07.2014 29.08.

Figure 7. Metals and sulfur concentrations in MTU solvent samples by ICP-MS.

3.4. Emissions

Demonstration of low emissions of amine and amine degradation products is of key importance to qualify the amine based CO2 capture technology for the cement industry. Severe amine mist formation and high amine emissions have previously been observed [2, 3] on flue gases containing particulate matter and SO3 such as from coal-fired power plants, refinery catalytic cracker, etc. As flue gas from cement kilns typically contains significant amounts of particulate matter e.g. raw material and fine mode combustion generated particles, it is anticipated that mist formation and potentially high amine emissions may be an issue. The MTU is fitted with Aker Solutions' proprietary Anti-Mist design, hence amine mist emissions are not expected to be significant at the MTU.

In Figure 8, one month of online emission data for NH3 and solvent amines from the FTIR system is shown for the MTU. In the period shown in Figure 8, the MTU was operated at base case conditions treating 450 Sm3/h of flue gas. It is seen from Figure 6 that some outages, i.e. periods where the flue gas flow drops to zero, have occurred in this period. The outages have been caused by outages of the cement kiln and maintenance work at the MTU. Throughout the period where the MTU has been in operation, Figure 8 indicates that the emission of solvent amines has been practically 0 ppm or at the detection limit of the FTIR. This indicates that Aker Solutions' emission control system works well and that the anti-mist design prevents emissions of amine mist. The emission of ammonia from the MTU is seen to be just below 5 ppmv during the majority of the time. Sharp peaks with up to 15 ppmv are typically seen during start-ups or other operating offsets. The relatively low NH3 emission also indicates low degradation of the S26 solvent.

IV W 1

-Flue gas--NH3

ft l^1tll.l

-Solvent amine

20.06.2014 25.06.2014 30.06.2014 05.07.2014 10.07.2014 15.07.2014 20.07.2014 25.07.2014

Figure 8. Emissions of NH3 and solvent amines by FTIR during 1 month of operation at base case conditions.

To quantify the emissions of solvent amines and degradation products with higher sensitivity, two manual emission measurement campaigns have been conducted according to the procedure described in section 2.4. The MTU was operated at base case conditions during both campaigns. The results of the measurements are summarized in Table 4. It appears from Table 4 that the emissions of solvent amines were very low (0.3-0.46 mg/Nm3) in both campaigns confirming the low readings from the online FTIR system and demonstrating that the Aker Solutions' emission control technology perform well on cement kiln flue gas. Table 4 furthermore shows low emission of ammonia and other volatile amines (alkyl amines). To confirm that there is no large emission of unknown amines also the emission has been analyzed for total nitrogen. The measured total nitrogen emission is in good agreement with the sum of ammonia and amine emission indicating no large emission of unknown amines. Note that the MTU is equipped with an acid wash, however, the acid wash has not been in operation in the campaign so far. With acid wash in operation it is expected that the traces of amines and ammonia shown in Table 3 can be nearly eliminated as demonstrated in previous MTU campaigns [2, 8].

Finally, Table 4 shows the total nitrosamine emission, which is below the detection limit of 0.03 ^mol/Nm3 indicating low nitrosamine emission if any.

Table 4. Results of manual emission measurements on 18.06.2014 and 19.08.2014.

Parameter Unit Test 18.06.2014 Test 19.08.2014

Solvent amines mg/Nm3 0.46 0.30

Ammonia mg/Nm3 4.0 3.1

Other volatile amines* mg/Nm3 0.04 0.06

Total Nitrogen mg/Nm3 3.6 2.6

Total nitrosamine ^mol/Nm3 < 0.03 < 0.03

*sum of 6 different amines: methyl-amine, ethyl-amine, propyl-amine, dimethyl-amine, diethyl-amine, dipropyl-amine

All in all the work on emission quantification shows that only very miniscule emissions of solvent amines and amine degradation products are generated from the Aker Solutions ACCTM process on flue gases from a cement kiln.

4. Conclusion

As part of the Norcem CO2 capture project, Aker Solutions' Mobile Test Unit (MTU) has been installed at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik, Norway. The main objective of the test campaign is to demonstrate the feasibility of Aker Solutions' Advanced Carbon CaptureTM amine process for the cement industry and determine key design and performance parameters. The MTU campaign is conducted with a modified version of Aker Solutions' S26 solvent specially adapted for the higher CO2 content of the cement kiln flue gas. Operation of the MTU on flue gas from the cement kiln commenced in May 2014 and will continue for 6 months. The results so far indicate that Aker Solutions' amine process operates stable with low energy consumption (down to 2.8 MJ/kg CO2) on the cement kiln flue gas. In addition, low amine consumption, low degradation and low emissions are observed. Thus, all in all the results suggest that post combustion capture with an advanced amine process is an interesting option for CCS deployment in the cement industry.

Acknowledgements

This work has been performed as part of the project "Test facilities for CO2 capture at Norcem, Brevik phase 2". The project is sponsored by the strategic Norwegian research program CLIMIT, Norcem, HeidelbergCement and the European Cement & Research Academy (ECRA). The authors would like to express their gratitude to the sponsors. Also the authors acknowledge the staff at Norcem's cement plant in Brevik for their cooperation and kind support with the test campaigns.

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