Scholarly article on topic 'Design of Hazards List based on Hazard Components for Chinese Coal-mine'

Design of Hazards List based on Hazard Components for Chinese Coal-mine Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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{"hazard identification" / "hazard element" / "initiating mechanism" / "target and threat" / "hazards list"}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Fan Yunxiao, Lu Ming

Abstract This paper aimed to introduce our research on the systematic hazard identification method for the coal-mine industry in China. Hazard identification is a significant factor in risk management. Various methods have been adopted in coal-mine enterprises. Based on our analysis, the recent methods appear to be complicated and difficult for the first-line workers. Thus a more systematic method is needed. Our main contribution in this paper was to come up with a hazards list. A hazard evolves into an accident is a process of state transition in which the basic components of the hazard contribute a lot. In order to identify the hazards in coal-mine comprehensively and systematically, this paper proposed to analyze and classify three elements of a hazard in detail. First of all, the accident types of coal-mine industry were classified from the energy point of view based on one hazard component—hazard element. Then, equipment and environment hazards lists and the management elements list were established based on the analysis of another hazard component— initiating mechanism. More over, a questionnaire survey was taken. Based on the analysis of this survey, the types of worker violations were classified aimed to ascertain the root cause of those violations. In order to get a systematic and comprehensive hazard identification and avoid omissions, all the identified hazards need to be recorded in detail and to be rechecked in order to realize the closed-loop management of hazard. Finally a hazards list for coal-mine industry is shaped through the systematic combination of mentioned hazard components. The list will never come to the end. The upgradation and improvement are needed constantly with the development of production technology.

Academic research paper on topic "Design of Hazards List based on Hazard Components for Chinese Coal-mine"

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SciVerse StienceDirect Procedia

Engineering

Procedia Engineering 45 (2012) 264 - 270 —

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

2012 International Symposium on Safety Science and Technology Design of hazards list based on hazard components for Chinese coalmine

FAN Yunxiaoa*, LU Mingb

School of Eng. & Tec, China University of Geosciences (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China

Abstract

This paper aimed to introduce our research on the systematic hazard identification method for the coal-mine industry in China. Hazard identification is a significant factor in risk management. Various methods have been adopted in coal-mine enterprises. Based on our analysis, the recent methods appear to be complicated and difficult for the first-line workers. Thus a more systematic method is needed. Our main contribution in this paper was to come up with a hazards list. A hazard evolves into an accident is a process of state transition in which the basic components of the hazard contribute a lot. In order to identify the hazards in coal-mine comprehensively and systematically, this paper proposed to analyze and classify three elements of a hazard in detail. First of all, the accident types of coal-mine industry were classified from the energy point of view based on one hazard component—hazard element. Then, equipment and environment hazards lists and the management elements list were established based on the analysis of another hazard component— initiating mechanism. More over, a questionnaire survey was taken. Based on the analysis of this survey, the types of worker violations were classified aimed to ascertain the root cause of those violations. In order to get a systematic and comprehensive hazard identification and avoid omissions, all the identified hazards need to be recorded in detail and to be rechecked in order to realize the closed-loop management of hazard. Finally a hazards list for coal-mine industry is shaped through the systematic combination of mentioned hazard components. The list will never come to the end. The upgradation and improvement are needed constantly with the development of production technology.

© 2012 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Selection and/or peer-review under responsibility of the Beijing Institute of Technology.

Keywords: hazard identification; hazard element; initiating mechanism; target and threat; hazards list

1. Introduction

Hazard identification is not only the first step of risk management but also the premise and foundation for accident prevention. Coal-mine is one of the most dangerous and hazardous industries in China. Its technological process is complicated due to its severe and changeable operating environment. More over, the intellectual and awareness level of the workers there is low. In addition to this, the mobility of the workers is growing. All the characteristics of coal-mine mentioned make hazard identification particularly important.

A lot of studies about hazard identification for coal-mine have been done by researchers and scholars in various professional domains. Generally there are three view points among these studies: 1) based on the two types of hazard theory [1-3], 2) based on the characteristics of harm [4-5], 3) based on the 4 factors—man, machine, medium, management (4M) in system safety [6-9]. The first two thoughts were from the nature characteristics of hazard point of view to identify hazards, and it is an open way of thinking. As coal-mine workers relatively have low intellectual level but a greater workload, these two kinds of ways seem to be even more difficult for workers to identify hazards. In addition, these identification contents

* Corresponding author. Tel: +86-10-82322619. E-mail address: fanyxiao@cugb.edu.cn

ELSEVIER

1877-7058 © 2012 Published by Elsevier Ltd. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2012.08.155

are cumbersome and disordered so that few effects have been achieved. As for the third kind of thought, the specific tools it needs are risk analysis methods in system safety, such as FTA, FMEA, HAZOP etc. These system safety methods are mostly used to solve the specific problems for specific industries. More over, the effective utilization of these methods requires a higher level of experiences. Thus they contribute a little in the daily hazard identification and are likely to obtain a distorted result.

Comparing with the way of back deduction, trying to fine-draw what result in an accident is more systematic and effective. In our research, it is found that hazard identification was paid an extreme attention throughout the coal-mine leaders. Thus, how to identify hazards easily and systematically and to make hazard identification be really and effectively done is a serious problem.

In view of hazard identification contributes a lot in accident prevention and the corresponding existing issues in the coalmine of China, this paper will introduce a framework to explain the way that hazards evolve into an accident based on the basic components of hazards. Through the analysis and progressively classification of the three components of hazard -hazard elements, initiating mechanism and target and threat, a hazards list for coal-mine will be finally shaped.

2. "Hazard - Accident" causation model

In system safety, an accident is an unplanned act or event that results in damage to property, material, equipment, or cargo, or personnel injury or death [10]. A hazard is any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel, damage to or loss of equipment or property, or damage to the environment. Based on these definitions, it can be realized that hazards evolve into an accident is a process of condition transition. The upper half of Fig 1 illustrates the relationship between hazard and accident.

Fig. 1. "Hazard - Accident" causation model.

Hazard is not only the fountainhead but also the potential condition of an accident. So effectively eliminating the hazards in a system can help to prevent accidents from happening. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze the basic components of hazard and find the mechanism of hazards evolving into an accident.

Hazard has three basic components: hazard element (HE), initiating mechanism (IM), target and threat (T/T) [10]. It is illustrated in the bottom half of Fig 1. All the mentioned components help to wake hazards up from "dormant state" to "active state", finally lead to an accident. So eliminating any one component, the hazard is eliminated. On the contrary, if in a system all the components exist, then hazards will evolve into an accident sooner or later. Fig 1 is the framework that shows the way that hazards evolve into an accident.

3. Coal-mine accident types based on hazard element

Hazard element is the basic hazardous resource creating the impetus for the hazard. From the epidemiological models for accident, the unplanned release of energy theory and the two types of hazardous resource theory, we can realize that the impetus is the energy existing in the work place. Therefore, the energy resources and the energy carriers in work place all belong to the hazard elements.

In GB6441-1986, the types of accidents are defined based on the objects lead to accidents and the materials that directly cause damage to the system [11]. But classifying the accident types through this way does not work effectively in coal-mine due to the complex operating system. Therefore, in view of the consideration of hazard element, while borrowing ideas form GB6441-1986, the types of accidents in coal-mine was classified from the perspective of the energy that leads to accident or damage in this paper. Different kinds of energy work in different ways, so they will lead to different kinds of accidents. Details are shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Accident types in coal-mine based on hazard element (part)

Hazard component

Energy (Pd)

Energy (Fd)

Accident type

Examples

Hazard Element

Physical

Energy

Mechanical

Energy

Fall from high place Object attack

Mechanical damage

Roof fall Collapse Lifting damage

Workers fall into the coal bunker Attacked by the coal fell from rock

Mechanical damage caused by running tramcar, scraper conveyor and other equipments.

Damage caused by large-area collapse of the top or side wall

Slope slide or the collapse of materials

All the kinds of damages in lifting operation

Thermal Energy

Gas explosion

Gunpowder explosion

Blasting damage Coalmine fire Empyrosis

Explosion caused by gas accumulation

The explosion caused by improper transportation or storage of gunpowder

The damages in blasting operation

The fire caused by flammable material in mine

Burned by fire or scalded by hot steam

Electric Energy Electric shock

The damages caused by energized equipment

Radiation Energy

Radiation injury

If one worker stands on a high place, then he or she has some of the potential energy and the possibility to fall from height. Therefore, there is a one-to-one relationship between accident type and hazard element. In view of this, the hazard element types are named and defined by the corresponding accident type.

The accidents classified from the energy point of view can not only help to find the common causations of similar accidents, but also contribute to the implementation of different precautions for different accidents caused by different energy. The accidents in different workplaces must be different from each other. Having a clear understanding of the energy sources in their own workplaces can help workers to identify hazards specifically.

4. Hazard analysis based on initiating mechanism

Initiating mechanism is the trigger or initiator events causing a hazard to appear. The coal-mine operating system is complicated due to its various mechanical equipments, the poor working environment. More over, the intellectual and awareness levels of the workers there is low. In addition to this, the mobility of the workers is growing. All the factors mentioned above belong to the initiating mechanism.

According to the domino theory of Heinrich, Frank Bird and Edward Adams and based on the definition of hidden dangers, the initiating mechanism is divided into unsafe condition, unsafe act and management deficiencies [12]. According to GB13861-2009 the unsafe condition is consist of the unsafe condition of the equipments and the unsafe condition of the environment [13]. Therefore, the unsafe condition is defined as the hidden dangers of equipments and environment. The unsafe act mainly refers to the violations of workers. Therefore, the unsafe act is defined as the violations of the workers.

Given the above analysis, the hazards in coal-mine based on initiating mechanism are consist of the hidden dangers of equipments and environment, the violations of the workers and the management deficiencies.

4.1. Hidden dangers of equipments and environment in coal-mine

In the production process, according to the different usage of the tools or equipments, there are three functions: their own working functions, protection functions and supporting alarming functions. Thus, there are corresponding tools and equipments defects, protective system defects and alarming system defects. As for the environment, it mainly refers to the environment that may affect the safe and health of the workers and the ergonomic environment that may affect the efficiency of workers.

Based on the analysis above and according to GB13861-2009, the hidden dangers of equipments and environment are classified. Details are shown in Table 2.

As shown in Table 2, we not only concerned the physical defects but also care whether the tools or equipments are properly used. In the daily production process, the accidents due to the improper use of tools or equipments are common. But usually these kinds of hazards are the blind spots in hazard identification. The adverse environment of workplace may not be able to lead to accidents immediately. But it may greatly enhance the possibility of accidents and lead to occupational diseases to the workers who work in these kinds of environment for a long time.

Table 2. Classification of hidden dangers of equipments and environment in coal-mine

Function classification

Action ways and mechanism

Function classification

Action ways and mechanism

tools and equipments defects

Defective equipments/tools Inadequate equipment/tools Improperly prepared tools Improperly maintained equipment/tools

Work exposures to

Radiation Noise

Temperature extremes

protective system defects

No protection

Defective protective devices Improper protection Improper protective distance

Work place environment/layout

alarming system defects

Defective signal Defective marking signs

Slippery floors or walkways

Inadequate or excessive illumination

Inadequate ventilation Clutter

Congestion or restricted motion

4.2. Violations of workers

The so-called "three violations" were based on the ways the workers disobey regulations. Classifying violation actions in this way is not conductive to analyze the causations of these violations and to control these illegal behaviors. Thus, this paper re-classified the violations from the underlying causations points of view.

According to GB13 861-2009, human factors usually include psychological and physiological factors and behavioral factors. The behavioral factors more commonly refers to the so-called "three violations". And behavioral factors mainly depend upon the psychological and physiological factors. And these psychological factors mainly refer to the psychology of leaving things to chances, paralysis, foolhardy psychology and other six psychological factors and work intensity, working conditions, production schedule, production pressure, safety awareness and other objective physiological factors.

In order to analyze the reasons of violations, a survey was conducted among the front-line workers of a coal-mine in China. 100 questionnaires were given out and 98 effective questionnaires were taken back.

Through the analysis of these 98 questionnaires, it is found that 11% of the worker took violating actions because they do not know the acts are violations of the relevant rules and regulations. So this kind of violations is named as "ignorant fearlessness". And workers are mainly new employees or transferees from other positions inside the company. In addition, 64% of the workers knew their behaviors were illegal, but in the past these behaviors had never led to any accidents, so they took the violating actions fearlessly. So this kind of violations is named as "knowing and willing". These workers are mostly older employees who have some experiences. The rest 25% of the workers took the violating behaviors due to misjudgment and negligence. So this kind of violations is named as "misstep".

In summary, from active and passive points of view, violations are re-classified into three: ignorant fearlessness, knowing and willing and misstep. The ratio of the new "three violations" is shown in Fig 2.

For different kinds of violations, different control measures are needed. For example, for "ignorant fearlessness" kind of violations, there is a clear need to strength training, raise safety awareness and improve the corresponding rules and safety regulations. For "knowing and willing" kind of violations, incentives are needed to encourage workers to conduct

compliance operations actively. As for "misstep" kind of violations, there is a need to habituate the workers to conduct compliance operations to reduce the operation errors.

TU e Litio «ithe ■ew"(fcrec riolalioiti " 11»

■ ignorant fearlessness ■ knowing and willing □ coisstep

Fig. 2. Ratio of the new "three violations".

4.3. Management deficiencies

Management deficiencies are the root causations of accidents. Comprehensive and systematic management is a protective umbrella of safety production. Incomplete and vulnerable management is a catalyst of accidents.

The front-line workers are in charge of identifying defects of equipments and environment. Managers are responsible for identifying the management deficiencies. The full participation in hazard identification is not only conductive to achieve bottom-up but also top to bottom feedback control of hazards in workplaces.

Each enterprise has its own organizational structure and functions division. According to the different functions, the management factors for coal-mine are listed in Table 3. In general, the management deficiencies are invisible, and they will not lead to accidents immediately and directly. A sound management system is not able to prevent unsafe act and unsafe conditions absolutely, but if the management system is vulnerable, then there must be a lot of defects exist in the man and machine system. Then accidents are very likely to happen. Therefore, identifying management deficiencies should also be taken seriously to minimize the likelihood of accidents.

Table 3. Management factors for coal-mine list (part)

Function units Form Function units Form

Inadequate accountability No correction responsibility assigned

Inadequate work site walk-through Assessment report Performance evaluation Standards missing or not enforced

Inadequate safety promotion Inadequate performance measurement and assessment

Leadership and accountability Inadequate safety meetings Inadequate incident reporting/investigation system

Inadequate supervisory knowledge Improper purchase Improper purchasing and storage of explosives

Non-compliance not corrected Improper purchasing of production equipments

Inadequate reinforcement Improper or insufficient delegation of authority materials, equipments and tools Inadequate PPE Lack ofPPE

Improper layout of equipments Inadequate horizontal communication between peers

Improper design and layout of Inadequate ergonomic design Inadequate vertical communication between supervisor and person

equipments Safety factors are not considered into the design of the equipments communication Inadequate communication between different organizations

Improper operating procedures Inadequate communication between shifts

Work rules/ No check-off spaces provided Inadequate communication methods

policies/standards/p Contradictory requirements No communication method available

rocedures Technical error/missing steps Change Inadequate management of change system

Inadequate training goals management inadequate means to determine if qualified for job

5. Design and creation of the hazards list

The target and threat are main bodies who suffer damages from hazard elements through the induction of the initiating mechanism. If there is no target and threat in the system then a hazard will always be a risk, never an accident. For the existing mine operating system, main target and threat are workers as the reliability of mechanical equipments is relatively high. According to the different work contents, there are mainly 15 jobs in coal-mine.

If the energy in the system release and reach the target and threat in the case that all the human, machine and management barriers failed then accidents will happen. In view of this, the mentioned three components were combined systematically to shape the hazards list for coal-mine. An example is shown in Table 4.

The "violations" column in Table 4 needs enterprises to note clearly to which regulations that the workers have ran counter. The identification of violations should be rule-based. For example, if an employee works with a high-speed rotation machine, then a certain degree of mechanical energy is existed there. In such circumstances, if there are no protective cover installed or the worker does not obey the procedures for operation, then accidents will occur.

Since there are various situations coming out in the daily production, the hazards list needs upgradation and improvement. During the hazard identification, employees need to check workplaces situations according to the contents in Table 4. Hazards will be recorded if found. When recording, the hazards need to be described in detail. The responsibility of rectification of the identified hazards should be placed on the relevant workers. And a date of the end of the rectification should be assigned. All the rectified hazards need to be reviewed until hazards are eliminated completely. Then the closed-loop hazard management can be achieved.

Table 4. An example of hazards list for coal-mine (part)

Hazard elements Initiating mechanism Target and

violations hidden dangers of equipments and environment management deficiencies threat

Defective equipments/tools Inadequate training

No protection Inadequate training goals

Fall from Defective protective devices Inadequate PPE Winch

high place Improper protection Lack ofPPE driver

Slippery floors or walkways Safety factors are not considered into the

Inadequate or excessive illumination design of the equipments

6. Conclusions

This paper aimed to shape a hazards list for coal-mine in China. This list is conductive to simplify the daily hazards identification and help to ensure hazards identification is really and effectively done. Through the study of the relationship between hazard and accident and the analysis of the three components of the hazard, the following conclusions can be drawn:

According to the concepts of hazard and accident and referring to GB13861-2009, a "Hazard - Accident" causation model was established based on the three components of hazard. The identification work can be done gradually under the guidance of this model.

In view of accident causation theories and referring to GB6441-1986, accident types in coal-mine were classified from energy point of view. Thus, a table of accident types in coal-mine based on hazard element was established. This table is conductive to the statistics and analysis of accidents. So the control of hazards can be more targeted.

Based on analysis of initiating mechanism of hazard, a table of the classification of hidden dangers of equipments and environment in coal-mine and management factors list were established. The missions of workers and managers in hazard identification were clarified. In this way, the full participation in hazards identification can be realized.

In order to ascertain the main reasons of workers violations, a questionnaire survey for the related issues was conducted among the front-line workers. Finally, violations were classified into three from active and passive points of view.

A hazards list for coal-mine was shaped. This list covers the contents of hazard identification. The list will be the basis and reference for the daily hidden danger investigation of the workers and leaders. In this way, the hazard identification will be easier and simpler for the employees.

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