Scholarly article on topic 'Share Ratio Change of Public Transport in Airport Landside under the Background of Car Population Rapid Increase—A Case of Shanghai Pudong International Airport'

Share Ratio Change of Public Transport in Airport Landside under the Background of Car Population Rapid Increase—A Case of Shanghai Pudong International Airport Academic research paper on "Social and economic geography"

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Abstract of research paper on Social and economic geography, author of scientific article — Ji Fu, Hangfei Lin, Yidian Niu, Shengzhong He

Abstract With the rapid increase of economy and residents’ income in China, the era of civil aviation massification is coming at present. As the sharp increase of traffic in airside, the shortage of transport capability in airport landside is exposed. Congestion often occurs in landside road systems and parking facilities of Chinese large airports. China is at a turning point of car population rapid increase in recent years. It gives a tough challenge to Chinese airport landside transportation systems. Therefore, it is necessary to study the developing trend and law of public and private transport in the airport landside. In this paper, the case of Shanghai Pudong International Airport, a typical airport in Mainland China is chosen. In Pudong International Airport, we investigate the main factors which affect air travelers ’ choice on their ground transport modes, and the share of each landside transport mode, and compare the service level of landside transport system, and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of various transport modes. From the results of survey and investigation, we study the share changes of public transportation in the past ten years, to explore the possibility of substitution among landside transport modes, under the background of car population rapid increase. Based on these studies and explorations, we provide some suggestion on how to raise service level of public transport, which could be helpful to guide a coordinated development in the landside.

Academic research paper on topic "Share Ratio Change of Public Transport in Airport Landside under the Background of Car Population Rapid Increase—A Case of Shanghai Pudong International Airport"

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Transportation

ScienceDirect Procedía

Transportation Research Procedía 25C (2017) 92-102 ■ ■ w «J «J

www.elsevier.com/locate/procedia

World Conference on Transport Research - WCTR 2C16 Shanghai. lt-15 July 2C16

Share Ratio Change of Public Transport in Airport LanSsiSe under the Background of Car Population Rapid Increase—A Case of Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Ji Fua, Hangfei Lina, YiSian Niub*, Shengzhong Heb

a School of Transportation Engineering, Tongji University, Cao-anRd.4800, Shanghai, P. R. China, 201804 bShanghai Airport (Group) Co., Ltd, 288Konggang(l) Road, Shanghai, P. R. China, 200335

Abstract

With the rapid increase of economy and residents' income in China, the era of civii pviation massification ís coming; at present. As the sharp increase of traffic in airsiSe, the shortaoe of transport capability in airport lanSsiSe is exposed. Congestion often Cccurs in lanSsiSe roaS systems and parking facilities of Chinese large airports.

China is at a tssrning pouri of car population rapid increase in recevt years. It gives a tough challenge to Chinese airport landsthe transportation systems. Therefore, it is necessary to study the developing trend and law of public and private transport in the airport ^SsiSe.

In this paper, tUp case of" Shanghai PuSong International Airport, a typical airport in Mainland China is chosen. In PuSong International Airport, we investigate the main factors which affect air travelers' choice on then ground transport medes, and the shsre of each lanSsiSe transport mode, and compare the service level of lanSsiSe transport system, and analyze the advantages FnS disadvantages of various traneport modes.

From the results of survey and idvestigdtion, we ntTy the share changes of public transpgl'tation in the pap; Sen years, to explore the possidihty oS substitution among landside transport modes, under the background o. car population rapid increase. Bued on there studies and explorations, we provine nome suggestion on how to raise service level of public transport, which could be helpful to guide a coordinated development in the landside.

© 2017 The Authors. Publisho! by Elsevier B.V.

PreMCThw mudei- responsibility ofWORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY.

Keywords: Airport Land^Se Transportation, Public Transport System, Share Ratio

* CorrernooSiog author. Tel.: +86-21-22343246; fax: + 86-21-62692329. E-mail address: nisoiSian(g),aliealn.c2m, fuji t;s(tг),163.com

2352-1465 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Peer-review under responsibility of WORLD CONFERENCE ON TRANSPORT RESEARCH SOCIETY. 10.1016/j.trpro.2017.05.384

1. Introduction

1.1. Background and Motivation

As the rapid increase of economy and residents' income in China, the era of civil aviation massification is coming at present. There are 24 Chinese airports, each of which serves more than 10 million passengers in 2014. That includes the one airport, Beijing capital airport, with annual passenger traffic of 86.13 million, and the two airports, Guangzhou Baiyun Airport and Shanghai Pudong Airport, with more than 50 million annual passengers, and the four airports, Shanghai Hongqiao Airport, Shenzhen Airport, Kunming Airport and Chengdu Airport, with more than 30 million annual passengers.

Meanwhile, China is at a turning point of car rapid increase in recent years, with the rapid process of economic growth. It gives a tough challenge to the airport landside transportation, because more and more cars are taken to self-drive or pick-up and drop-off in airport access.

Under the impact of the daily large passenger traffic, the shortage of transport capability in airport landside is exposed. The expressways access to airport are often congested, and the curbside is occupied by so many vehicles, and the parking facility has reached its capacity that people had to spend a lot of time waiting for park in airport. And the arrival passengers often wait taxi for a long time in peak hours or in midnight when their flights are delayed. Furthermore, it may lead to the downtrend of bus ridership in landside.

So, how to solve these problems or make some improvements?

A project of rail transport is often proposed as a final solution. There are already 9 Chinese airports, Beijing Capital, Shanghai Pudong, Shanghai Hongqiao, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Kunming, Chongqing, Tianjin and Nanjing Airport, which have metro or light rail connecting their terminals with the city. A trolley car is operated accessing to Shenyang Airport terminal. The world's first commercial used high-speed maglev, connecting the city with Shanghai Pudong Airport has been in service since 2003. Also, a brand new urban maglev (low-speed maglev) line is under construction linking to Changsha Airport. Some city governments have made plans of rail transport system to connect the city with their airports.

But, there is still a problem of whether the rail system really works. Therefore, it is necessary to study the exact contribution of public transportation in landside, and to study the substitutions between public and private transportation, in order to obtain a clear answer, to guide a coordinated development of landside transportation.

1.2. Brief literature review

Some studies related on airport landside transport system have been made earlier.

TAM and LAM (2005) analyzed the airport planning and operation, considering the landside transportation model, based on the case of Hong Kong International Airport. Gosling (2006) studied the reliability of transport mode choice predicting model on airport access. Neufville era (2007) studied the problems on airport ground transport planning in an era of the low-cost airlines. Nilsson, Hultkrantz and Karlstrom (2008) studied an example of failure of rail system in Stockholm Arlanda airport, Sweden.

On the problem of Chinese airports, Nie et al. (2009) studied on the method for demand forecast in express rail of Beijing capital airport. Guo (2009) studied the problems and methods of planning of rail link to Chongqing Jiangbei Airport landside. Zhang (2013) analyzed the main bugs of airport bus and the express rail of Beijing Capital Airport on linking with the central city of Beijing.

From earlier studies listed above, it has made much achievement in the modeling on passenger's transport mode choice and facilities planning on airport landside, but it is lack of in-depth research on the impact analysis of landside private transport, and the mode substitutability and the share change between public and private transport on landside. Therefore, in this paper, we hope to get some achievements on these themes.

1.3. Objectives

In this paper, Shanghai Pudong International Airport, a typical airport in Mainland China, is chosen as study case. It is one of the three largest gateways of Mainland China, and the important hub airport in East Asia. Based on the

pattern of landside traffic change in recent ten years in Pudong International Airport, we attempt to explore the rule of substitution between various modes of landside transport, under the background of rapid increase of car population in China.

Based on these studies and explorations, we try to give some suggestions, which could be helpful to provide more convenience and suitable public service for passengers, and to guide a coordinated development in the landside.

2. Methodology

In this paper, we make use of the results of two sample traffic surveys. The first sample survey was held in August 2005 by researchers from Tongji University1. They made questionnaires to about 2700 departure passengers in Terminal 1, the unique Terminal at that time, of Pudong International Airport. The other sample survey was held during April to June in 2014 by the authors and their colleagues. The survey site was located at the Departure Check-in Hall of Pudong Airport Terminal 1 and Terminal 2, where we send questionnaires to about 5000 passengers. The persons to answer the questionnaire are departing passengers the day.

Meanwhile, we also investigate several public transport operators in landside. The operating information and the historic traffic data are obtained from the corresponding operators: maglev from Shanghai Maglev Transportation Development Co. Ltd. (SMTDC), metro from Shanghai Shentong Metro Group Co. Ltd., airport express bus from Shanghai Airport Bus Co, Ltd., and air traffic data are obtained from Shanghai International Airport Co. Ltd. (SIA).

In Pudong International Airport, we investigate the real components of landside transport system, the advantages and disadvantages of various transport modes, and the main factors which affect air travelers' choice on their ground transport modes. We also investigate the share ratio changes of various public transport modes in the past ten years, and make analyses between these modes. We try to explore the rule of substitution between the modes of landside transport, under the background of rapid increase of car population in China.

3. Data Analysis and Discussions

3.1. Basic information of landside transport system in Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Pudong International Airport is located in the east of Shanghai city, about 30km-distance from the eastern edge of the city downtown. Since open in 1999, it is now the primary international airport serving Shanghai, and a major aviation hub for Asia. It had only one terminal and one runway firstly. But after 15 years, to meet the increasing air travel demand, after several expansions, there are two passenger terminals and five runways up till the present time.

There are four expressways connecting with Pudong International Airport, three from the north and one from the south. And two rail linking with the airport, the one is Shanghai Metro Line 2 east Extension Rail, the other is Shanghai Maglev Demonstration Line.

There are several mode choices in landside transport of Pudong Airport. Besides private car or company cars and taxis, there are several other ground transport mode choices, consisting of maglev, metro, airport express bus, longdistance coach and charter bus (mainly of tourist bus).

In 2014, Pudong Airport serves 51.69 million passengers, making it the third busiest airport in China and the 19th busiest in the world counting by passenger traffic. According to the data from SIA, about 9% passengers connecting their flights at Pudong Airport, it means that there are averagely nearly 130,000 ground trips per day in landside of by air passengers.

According to our survey in 2014, among the passengers who take use of the landside transport system, about 74.7% of the passengers in the survey come from Shanghai city territory, about 25.3% of the questioned passengers come outside of Shanghai territory (Fig. 1).

1 Qian, X. J., 2007. Characteristics of Transport Service in Airport Terminal Area. Thesis for Master's Degree, Tongji University, p6-23.

Among the passengers from Shanghai city territory, 65% are from central urban area, 25% are from the near suburban, and 10% are from the outer suburban. The passengers who come outside of Shanghai territory are mainly from Jiangsu Province and Zhejiang Province, the two neighboring provinces of Shanghai.

Fig. 1. Ground Origins of Air Passengers

3.2. Results of two sample surveys and some adjusted data

According to the result of questionnaire survey in 2005, the share ratios of all land-side transport modes are illustrated in Fig. 2(a). Among the passengers accessing to Pudong Airport, about 26.1% take private car or company car, and 30.3% take taxi, 28.6% take airport express bus, and 3.9% take long-distance coach, and 11.1% take other ground transport modes (including maglev and charter bus) in 2005.

Since we have obtained the historic public traffic data from the corresponding operators, some errors in the sample survey could be corrected. Hence the share ratio of airport express bus and maglev in 2005 can be revised to 22.3% and 11.3%, as shown in (Fig. 2 (b)).

Car Taxi

Airport Express Bus

I Long-Distance Coach

Other modes(incluing maglev& charter bus)

Car iTaxi

Airport Express Bus

I Long-Distance Coach i Maglev

Charter bus

Fig. 2. Sharing ratio of landside transport in Pudong International Airport in 2005 (a) Counted from questionnaire survey data (b) Counted from our revised data

According to the result of questionnaire survey in 2014, the share ratios of all land-side transport modes are illustrated in Fig. 3(a). Among the passengers accessing to Pudong Airport, about 33.0% take private car or company car, and 22.0% take taxi, 13.5% take airport express bus, and 4.6% take maglev, and 14.4% take metro (Line 2 East Extension Rail), and the rest of 12.5% take long-distance coach or charter bus.

As to thr historic public traffic data of airport bus, mrtro and maglrv, thr error in the sample survey could br corrected. Thus wr revise thr data of these three modrs of public transportation. That mrans about 8.5% of passrngrrs take airport rxprrss bus, and 6.6% take maglrv, and 17.4% take mrtro (Fig. 3 (b)).

Fig. 3. Sharing ratio of landside transport in Pudong International Airport in 2014 (a) Counted from questionnaire survey data (b) Counted from our revised data

3.3. The share change trend ofprivate transport in landside and the background of car population rapid increase

Comparing with the survey data of 2005 and 2014, we can find that ten years later, the share of private car or company car rise by 6.9% to 33%, and the share of taxi drops by 8.3%. These phenomena might be explained by two reasons.

One reason is the increasing price of taxi service which leads to the taxi share drop. The taxi price has risen three times in Shanghai in the past ten years, and the total growth rate is about 21%, averaged 2% per year.

The other reason is the rapid increase of car population in the same period that might directly lead to the car share increase. Due to the economy growth and the increasing income in a long term, Chinese urban residents showed more willingness to own private car.

The number of registered vehicles in Shanghai increases 173% from 2005 to 2014, which means an annual increase rate of 10.5%. Meanwhile the number of registered private cars increases 341%, averaged 16% per year. Fig. 4 shows the increasing trend of car population in Shanghai. And according to the result of the fifth comprehensive traffic survey in Shanghai, the daily share ratio of traveling by car rises by 5.3%, comparing with that of 10 years ago. These two reasons lead to the more travel by car and less travel by taxi.

3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0

Number of Vehicles ( thousand)

Number of Private Cars ( thousand)

<$> <$> <$> ^ f v V T "V "V V "V "V

Fig. 4. Ownership change of vehicle and private car in Shanghai

3.4. The share change trend of inner city public transport and some deep analyses

There are three modes of inner city public transport, metro, maglev and airport express bus. Based on the passenger traffic data of which Pudong airport, airport express bus, maglev and metro serve, we can illustrate the share of these inner city public transport modes in landside.

Pudong Airport, served 51.69 million passengers in 2014, while the average annual increasing rate of passenger traffic reaches 9.66% from 2005 to 2014 (Fig. 5).

Fig. 5. The increasing trend of annual passenger traffic in Pudong Airport.

As the recent ten years' rapid growing of air traffic, the total contribution of inner city public transport keeps a relatively stable state of over 30% (Fig. 6). And the figure also shows the increasing trend of metro share ratio and the decreasing trend of airport bus and maglev. This state is not so easy to keep, considering the large increase of car population in the same period.

40% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0%

2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014

Fig. 6. Share ratio change of inner city public transport in landside

We presume that, the service keeping and extending in much degree of these public transportation, especially the service open of Metro Line 2 East Extension Rail, makes a roughly stable total-share, despite the increasing private car taken in landside transportation.

Let's make some deep analyses on these three transport modes.

• The historic change of operating service

Among three modes serving for Pudong Airport, the airport express bus has the longest history. So it has the most share in earlier years. With the opening of Pudong Airport in 1999, six routes of airport bus (line 1 to line 6) began their operation. In 2006, two new routes (line 7 to line8) opened. In 2008, one new route of midnight line opened to service. In2009, there was a largest passenger traffic of the airport bus, which has eight regular routes and one midnight route in operation.

After the opening of Shanghai Metro Line 2 East Extension Rail linking to Pudong Airport in 2010, the traffic of the airport bus reduced a lot. Thereafter from June of 2011, airport bus line 6 stopped operation during the day, only serving at 21: 00-23: 00 per day in one-way departure from airport, and from July of 2014, airport bus line 3 and line 6 ceased their operation completely, because of too little passengers.

Shanghai Maglev Demonstration Line, is the first and unique commercially operated high-speed magnetic levitation line in the world. It has only two stations, Pudong Airport station and Longyang Road Station, which is located at the east edge of the Shanghai's Inner Ring Road. At this station, people can transfer to Shanghai metro's large network.

In 2004, the operator dropped single-trip ticket price to 40 yuan for air passengers and the operation time was extended to 9 hours per day. Furthermore, the operation time was extended twice in 2005 and 2007, to nearly 15 hours per day, covering almost 80% schedule of the flights in Pudong Airport. The frequency was increased to 1520 minutes. Since September 2014, in order to transport the arrival passengers in the night, when metro has closed in Pudong Airport, the maglev company prolongs the service time an hour more to 22:40.

Due to World Expo 2010 held in Shanghai, the tourists to Shanghai increasing a lot that year, that there was a largest passenger traffic of maglev in its history. After that in 2011, the traffic decreased a lot because of the opening of Shanghai metro line 2 east extension rail linking to Pudong Airport. Since then, the annual traffic has been stabilized to 3million around in recent three years.

The metro access to Pudong Airport is Shanghai Metro Line 2. When opening in 1999, it had no connections with either of the two airports in Shanghai. Till the opening of World Expo on April of 2010, metro line 2 extended its line west to Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport and Shanghai Hongqiao Railway Station, the largest highspeed rail station in Shanghai, and extended its line east to Pudong International Airport.

The whole Metro Line 2 covers a 64-kilometer long distance, with 30 stations, and over 90 minutes time in a single trip. It is operated in two sections. Passenger need to transfer another train at Guanglan Road Station to reach Pudong International Airport when they take Metro Line 2 from the city center. From September 2011, the operating time of Metro Line 2 East Extension Rail from Pudong Airport Station to Guanglan Road Station was prolonged from 6:00 to 22:00, 16 hours per day.

Table 1 shows the comparison of service level, time cost and money cost among the three modes.

Table 2. Service level of various modes of land-side transportation

Transport mode

Max speed (km/h)

Average tripspeed

In-vehicle

travel

time(min)

Interval (min)

Operation time

to airport

from airport

Fare of single trip (CNY)

Maglev Metro

Airport express bus

230 55

15-20 8.5

6:45-21:40 6:00-22:00

5:30-21:30

7:02--22:40

6:00-22:00

Regular line: 7:0023:00/

Midnight line: 23:00-30 minutes after all flights arrival

40 8-9

• Comparison of advantages and disadvantages of various public transportation

Among the three modes of inner city public transport, maglev has several advantages, the fastest speed, most comfort, most punctuality and reliably. Although more expensive than bus and metro, it still has a rather stable market share in landside transportation. But it is not so convenient because it has only one route, and cannot connect with the central city directly.

Metro has several advantages, the cheapest price, relatively punctuality and reliably, more easy to reach most area of the city by connecting with the large network of city metro, consisting of 14 lines and 548 kilometer-long railways. Therefore, metro occupies the largest share among landside public transport. But it has so many disadvantages, the lowest average trip-speed, the most discomfort because the metro vehicles are often crowded with commuters, and inconvenient for passengers handling with big size baggage. Another disadvantage complained by most passengers is that metro stops its service too early in the night.

Comparing with maglev and metro, the airport express bus is ride on road, much easier delayed by road congestion. And its price is more expensive than metro. Moreover, because the bus lines haven't added up since 2008, and the service space of airport bus only covers 7.3% of the Shanghai city territory, and covers 43.4% of the area inside the Outer Ring Road of Shanghai, if we take the 3 km radius around the bus stop as the service space. These factors lead to a large declining of bus traffic.

But airport bus still has its advantages. The bus trip speed is obviously faster than metro except the peak hour, and it is more comfortable than metro, not crowded in the vehicle, and it is more convenient to aboard, especially to passengers with large size baggage, and also, it keeps service later in the night than metro. Since the reason above, airport bus still keeps some market share in competition with metro.

In the survey result in 2014, on all the land-side transport modes, the main complaint of passenger are concluded, consisting of that the travel time of metro is too long, and that the routes and stations of airport express bus are insufficient, and that the ticket price of maglev is too high, and that car parking in airport is rather inconvenient, and that the time of waiting taxi is sometimes too long, as shown in Fig. 7.

50% 40% 30% 20°% 10°% 0%

Low speed of Metro

Shortage of airport bus

routes and stations

High price of Inconvenience Longtime of maglev of car parking waiting taxi

Fig. 7 Main problems complained by passenger on land-side transport in Pudong Airport

According to the definition of marginal rate of substitution, MRS = - (A X2 / A X1), and based on the share change in past ten years, we can calculate the MRS among the three inner city transport modes. We get that the average MRS of bus by metro is 0.662, and the average MRS of maglev by metro is 0.369. It could be concluded that airport bus passengers are more likely to transfer to take metro than the maglev passengers.

• The influence of travel purpose on the choice of landside access modes

There is significant affect on the choice of the landside access modes by various travel purposes. Business travelers are often more sensitive to time cost than money cost of landside access. On the other hand, non-business travelers are rather more sensitive to money cost of landside access than business travelers.

According to the survey conducted by "China Civil Aviation" magazine over the years, non-business air travelers have exceeded business travelers from 2005 \ The proportion of business and non-business air travelers in Mainland China from 2000 to 2009 is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 8 The proportion of business and non-business air travelers in Mainland China

1 Li, H. T., 2010. The Analysis of Domestic Air Passenger Transport Market Structure and Consuming Behaviour. China Civil Aviation. 120,47-50.

In Pudong Airport, business travelers account for about 34% and non-business travelers account for about 66% among the responders.

We find that a higher proportion of non-business travelers take landside public transportation than that of business travelers, since non-business travelers are more sensitive to money cost of landside trip. As metro has such advantages as price cheaper, more punctual, much larger network and more stations, a larger share has shifted from airport express bus to metro in recent years, in the ridership of landside public transport system.

3.5. Some suggestions to make improvement in landside public transportation

The general condition of landside transportation infrastructure in Pudong Airport is at a rather good level, comparing with other same type of hub airport in the world, since there are four expressways, and two rails linking with the airport. But the contribution of public transportation hasn't reached a relatively high ratio. It is mainly because the public transport service has not reach a satisfied level.

We investigate the main factors that passenger take into account when they choose mode to access the airport, in the 2014 survey. As the investigation result, the most important factor that the passenger choose is time cost (about 32% passengers choose), the second important is punctuality and reliability (about 21% choose), the third important is money cost (about 20% choose), the fourth is convenience (about 17% choose), and then the factor of comfortableness (Fig. 9 ). From the result, we can see a big difference between air passengers and the daily commuters during their ground trip in city.

Time cost Money cost Punctuality & Convenience Comfortableness

Reliability

Fig. 9. The passengers' most important requirements of land-side transport mode

On this problem, HongKong international airport provides a good example. It has just one express rail, linking with the CBD of city, and easily to transfer to the metro network. The airport express rail is operated from 5:50 to 0:48 the next morning, with an interval of every 10-12 minutes. And there are 40 lines of airport bus, connecting the airport with most districts of HongKong. The buses provide 24-hour service, with the frequency of 10 to 30 minutes. Therefore, public transport gives so large contribution that the airport express rail serves 23% of passengers in landside and airport bus serves 35% of passengers.

From the above, to make improvement in landside transportation, we suggest that the public transports need to raise their service level. The improvement should include that, the operation time of metro and maglev be prolonged, in order to cover the schedule of more flights, and the line and station of airport bus be increased, in order to cover more area, to make more people reach the airport more directly and more conveniently.

Only if the public transports improve the quality their service and keep their advantages, to meet the differential demand of landside passengers, could they provide more choice to passengers and more possibility to substitute the private transport in landside.

3.6. Reference for other airports in China

The air traffic takes continuously rapid growth in recent years, with the great economy growth and improvement in people's living conditions in China. The total annual traffic reaches 3.9 million air passengers in 2014.

There is development lag of landside transportation in Chinese airports, so those phenomena are often seen in many large airports, that traffic congests on the expressway accessing to the airport, and that cars crowd on the curbside of terminal, and that parking garages are filled up, and that arriving passengers have to wait a long time for taxi, especially at night when public transport out of service.

Since China has much less land for construction use than America, it could not rely on private cars in airport landside like the United States and many other countries.

The development of public transport system in airport landside has been relatively neglected in China before. But the demand for mass transport system in airport landside is more and more urgent today, with the popularization of China's civil aviation market.

Therefore, researches should be carried out, on how to plan and develop landside public transport system of higher service quality, more efficient and more reliable, based on the lessons from Pudong airport. It is a very important and practical subject at present.

4. Conclusions

Comparing with the survey data of 2005 and 2014 in Shanghai Pudong International Airport, we can find that ten years later, the share of private car or company car rises by 6.9%. Under the background of rapid increase of car population in the same period, it might directly lead to the increasing vehicle usage in landside.

On the other hand, the total contribution of inner city public transport keeps a relatively stable state of over 30%, as the recent ten years' rapid growing of air traffic. But in detail, it shows the increasing trend of metro share and the decreasing trend of airport bus and maglev.

This state is not so easy to keep. We presume that, the service keeping and extending in much degree of the public transportation, especially the opening of metro service in Pudong Airport, makes the roughly stable total-share, despite the increasing private car taken in landside transportation. But, comparing with other same type of hub airports in the world, the contribution of public transportation hasn't reached a relatively high ratio in Pudong Airport, which has a rather good landside transportation infrastructure. It is mainly because the public transport service has not reach a satisfied level.

Finally, based on the survey result and analyses, we provide some suggestion on how to raise service level of the public transports, in order to provide more choice to passengers and more possibility to substitute the private transport in landside.

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