Scholarly article on topic 'Impact of Topographic Change against Groundwater Recharge Areas Caused by Limestone Mining in Rengel District, Tuban Regency'

Impact of Topographic Change against Groundwater Recharge Areas Caused by Limestone Mining in Rengel District, Tuban Regency Academic research paper on "Earth and related environmental sciences"

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{"Digital Elevation Model" / Groundwater / Limestone / "Recharge Area" / Topography}

Abstract of research paper on Earth and related environmental sciences, author of scientific article — P. Ilham Adi, W. Gigih Prakoso, P. Innanda Rizqiani, Widya Utama

Abstract Exploitation of limestone in Tuban Regency has been carried out continuously with a very large amount of production. In one area of 12 hectares mining site alone can produce more than 290.000 tons per year, this condition leads to significant change in the topography of the mining area. In this study, research was conducted to the impact of changes in topography, which results to the change of broad, shape, and the ability of water recharge areas that lead to the groundwater reserve. The primary data used is the amount of mined limestone produced by PT. Pentawira in researched site and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) satellite imagery. In addition, the supporting data used are characteristic of limestone and the reserve data of groundwater in Tuban Regency. Analysis of DEM satellite imagery, presents the model of geomorphology and topography of the study area, and then combined with mining data provided by PT. Pentawira to create a model or simulation of topography changes in the mining site, and how much impact it produce to the groundwater recharge areas including the reduce ability of recharge areas in the research site to absorb meteoroids water, that it is known after conducting the research that from 2013 forward the absorbance ability is reduced to more than 31 million liters per year. The analysis result of the study in this research can be used as a reference for the government in arranging environmental impact assessment for limestone mining companies. Mining activity will be controlled if the environmental impact assessment is done correctly, so that both environmental balance and sustainability can be maintained. The research site was conducted in Rengel District, Tuban Regency, East Java.

Academic research paper on topic "Impact of Topographic Change against Groundwater Recharge Areas Caused by Limestone Mining in Rengel District, Tuban Regency"

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ScienceDirect

Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 135 (2014) 25 - 30

Impact Of Topographic Change Against Groundwater Recharge Areas Caused By Limestone Mining In Rengel District, Tuban

Regency

Ilham Adi Pa, Gigih Prakoso Wb, Innanda Rizqiani Pc, Widya Utamad*

aGeophysical Engineering, Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia bGeophysical Engineering, Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia cGeophysical Engineering, Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia dGeophysical Engineering, Institute Technology Sepuluh Nopember, Indonesia

Abstract

Exploitation of limestone in Tuban Regency has been carried out continuously with a very large amount of production. In one area of 12 hectares mining site alone can produce more than 290.000 tons per year, this condition leads to significant change in the topography of the mining area. In this study, research was conducted to the impact of changes in topography, which results to the change of broad, shape, and the ability of water recharge areas that lead to the groundwater reserve. The primary data used is the amount of mined limestone produced by PT. Pentawira in researched site and DEM (Digital Elevation Model) satellite imagery. In addition, the supporting data used are characteristic of limestone and the reserve data of groundwater in Tuban Regency. Analysis of DEM satellite imagery, presents the model of geomorphology and topography of the study area, and then combined with mining data provided by PT. Pentawira to create a model or simulation of topography changes in the mining site, and how much impact it produce to the groundwater recharge areas including the reduce ability of recharge areas in the research site to absorb meteoroids water, that it is known after conducting the research that from 2013 forward the absorbance ability is reduced to more than 31 million liters per year. The analysis result of the study in this research can be used as a reference for the government in arranging environmental impact assessment for limestone mining companies. Mining activity will be controlled if the environmental impact assessment is done correctly, so that both environmental balance and sustainability can be maintained. The research site was conducted in Rengel District, Tuban Regency, East Java. © 2014 Published byElsevierLtd.This isan open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Cities International Seminar Committee.

Keywords:Digital Elevation Model; Groundwater; Limestone; Recharge Area; Topography

* Corresponding author. E-mail address:widya@geofisika.its.ac.id

1877-0428 © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Cities International Seminar Committee. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.07.320

1. Introduction

1.1. Background

Lithological conditions and geography Tuban most of the land in this area is composed of limestone. Although the topography Tuban is low, the area has reserves of underground water which is quite large. Groundwater recharge areas close association with (recharge area). Recharge area is very important because whether large or groundwater reserves are affected by the additive. Groundwater flow is always associated with the topography of an area (Shiklomanov & Rodda, 2003).

Mining limestone almost done throughout the district in Tuban district, one in the District of Rengel. Impact on the topography of the mining is changed to lower. In this study, observations were made in the district Rengel, Tuban. The intent and purpose of this research is to make an analysis of the influence of topography changes due to mining on groundwater recharge areas. The result is expected to be a reference for the various parties to perform activities related to the mining of limestone and underground water usage in order to maintain environmental sustainability.

1.2. Tuban Regency

Tuban regency is located at 111 ° 30' - 112 ° 35 'E 6 ° 40' - 7 ° 18 ' South Latitude. Ground state in Tuban consists of mountains derived from limestone deposition in the hill to the mountain peaks contained in sub Semanding, Montong, Hoists, and Plumpang. Derived from alluvial sediments in the plains and basins are in District Rengel, Tambakboyo, Soko, and Cross. Grumusol sediments derived from the undulating rocks in the area are in Banjar district, Jatirogo, and Senori. Potential mineral limestone quarry (limestone) in Tuban scattered in several locations limestone mountains Tuban. Potential limestone deposits are estimated at ± 1.089.531.362 tons. From these data, which has been done is the exploitation of ± 86,175,962 tons. Production of limestone mostly utilized by PT. Semen Gresik cement as raw material and PT. Pentawira as mature limestone (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Replubic Indonesia, 2010)

2. Methods

The research was conducted in accordance with the research process. After the identification and formulation of the problem and determined the research area, data collection of sample and characteristics of limestone, the mining data, DEM and Citra satellite in research location.

The first data collection was a limestone sample data. Limestone samples which the main mining products in Tuban were taken to measure its density because the characterization of limestone is different in each region. The tools that used in this research are beaker glass to measure the volume of limestone and analytical balance to weigh its mass. Density measurements made with the mass of limestone sample per volume as indicated in following equation.

• p = density (gram/cm3)

• m = mass (gram)

• V = volume (mL)

The density values used to determine the amount of water that can be absorbed by one ton of limestone. After it, using the amount of water absorbed by one cubic meter of limestone and conversing in tones used limestone density as shown in following equation

Qw = m x p x k

• Qw = the amount of water absorbed per one ton of limestone (liter/ton)

• m = mass (ton)

• p = density (gram/cm3)

• k = the amount of water absorbed per cubic meter ;150 liter/m3, (ESDM Bandung, 2010)

The amount of water that can be absorbed by the limestone used in calculating the reduction of the limestone and the ability of water recharge area in absorbing every years using the effective day of mining or production activities as well as combined with mining production data, use following equations.

Dp = Dt-Dn

• Dp = the amount effective days in one year (days)

• Dt = amount of days in a year (days)

• Dn = the amount of non-productive days (days)

QLt = QLD x Dp

• QLt = amount of limestone mined during one year (tons)

• QLD = the average amount of limestone mined in one day (tons)

• Dp = the amount effective days in one year (days)

Qh = Qw x QLt

• Qh = The amount of water lost per year (liters)

• QLt = Amount of limestone mined during a year (tons)

• Qw = the amount of water absorbed per one ton of limestone (litre/ton)

Modeling changes in topography and water recharge areas due to mining using Citra satellite DEM, coordinate data that took from positioning in the mining location, the reduction of limestone and water recharge areas data. The software that used in processing data is Global Mapper 11. The first step is plotting the coordinates on the mine site to the Citra satellite through Global Mapper 11. Then determined the parts and the boundary mine site. Last, by using the "3D Path Profile / Line of Sight Tool", obtained cross-sectional two-dimensional (2D) and the volume of mine sites.Changes in topography due to mining using a 2D cross section, mine site using Photoshop CS 3 software, so we get a comparison of the topography before and after limestone mining.

3. Findings

Mining activities affecting the factors that influence the formation of ground water, which reshaped the topography of the catchment areas and reduce the volume of waste rock in the unsaturated zone which is the first seep water zone before heading saturated zone and become the groundwater. Decreased volume of the waste rock will make the unsaturated zone become thinner and make the distance of saturated zone closer to the surface. The impact is that the water absorbs in unsaturated zone is reduced and also impact on increased run-off or surface water. This situation can be seen in the rainy season, where the discharge of water flowing in the rivers near mine sites increasing drastically when compared to normal condition. Increased river flow is affected by the increasing number of surface water (run-off) from rain which is not absorbed in the unsaturated zone.

From limestone samples that have been taken from the research site, the result is limestone density measurements. The limestone sample had a volume of 0.1 liters with a mass of 0.225 kg.So the limestone sample density in Rengel District is 2.25 kg / liter.

Based on production data mining conducted by PT. Pentawira in District Rengel, Tuban regency in April 2013, were analyzed the average mining production per day is equal to 1,331.28 tonnes consisting of limestone and pedle (material derived from limestone mountain avalanches). Production of limestone and pedle 465,948 tonnes per year.

Mine site is located on a limestone mountain impacting many holes and giant basin on the mountain as an indicator of changes in the topography of the site.

Based on DEM data satellite, note that the study site was at an elevation 90 meters to 160 meters above MSL (Mean Sea Level), based on topographic data, it can be analyzed that the infiltration areas and recharge areas that are among the sites play a vital function in the hydrogeology cycle, particularly as recharge areas.

Based on the DEM data processingobtained widespread mining area is 12.11 hectares and more than 160 meters elevation above MSL. Volume of limestone deposits in diameter at 389 meters the area is 4,666,046 m3.Based on the mass conversion of limestone in one ton to cubic meter, using the method of determination of the absorbed water per ton of limestone, it can be seen that 1 ton of limestone can absorb 66.6 liters of water.

4. Discussions

If in 2013, the volume limestone deposits in research site reached 4,666,046 m3 and mined of ± 1,331.28 tons / day, the meteoroids water that cannot be absorbed by the limestone decreased 31,032,136 liters / year.Simulation calculations for the next five years (assuming a constant number of mining), then in 2017 district Rengel will lack 155,160,684 liters of water infiltration caused by mining inFigure 6 Modelling changes in topography due to limestone mining) shows a comparison of the topography before and after mining, which shows that the topographical changes that occur significantly aided by the existing analysis and calculation. The topography changesone location, where it will certainly affect the groundwater depletion.

Based on the analysis and calculation of limestone loss due to mining, resulting in changes in topography are modeled based on the visualization of 2D cross-sectional image of the DEM satellite research sites. Modeling (seealso affect recharge areas in the region, especially in terms of form and its ability. Recharge area ability to absorb water in the study area calculated will be reduced 31 million liters every year because of the impact of changes in the topography.

From Pos: 11 2.0353426293, -To Pos: 112.0353426293, -7.0321543390

160 mI Topography before]mined

140 m 120 m 100 m

250 ft

500 ft

750 ft

1016 ft

From Pos: 11 2.0353426293, -To Pos: 112.0353426293, -7.0321543390

Idfiographiy after mined

250 ft

500 ft

750 ft

1016 ft

Fig. 1.Modeling changes in topography due to limestone mining

In one year alone that the District Rengel had water loss (loss of potential water absorption) in large enough quantities. If this continues in the next 5-year period, the availability of underground water reserves District Rengel will be reduced and the impact it had on the community in the area around the District Rengel is the difficulty in obtaining underground water. Mining limestone mining causing changes in the topography of the area, thus reducing the amount of groundwater reserves.

5. Conclusions

Exploitation of limestone mountains in the district Rengel, Tuban affect the topography of the area and can reduce the amount of water reserves that exist in the recharge area.From the analysis and calculation of the data, it was found that the District Rengel loss of water absorption potential of 31,032,136 liters every year. If calculated over the next 5 years, the district Rengel water absorption potential loss of 155,160,684 liters of water. It can turn off the water source if mining is done without control and can detrimental to the community around the district Rengel because most of the the community use water from wells.

References

Healy, R. W. (2010). Estimating Groundwater Recharge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kabupaten Tuban. (2010). Pertambangan. Dipetik Juni 3, 2013, dari Situs resmi Kabupaten Tuban: http://tubankab.go.id/new/tuban-33-Pertambangan.html

Martha, J. (1990). Mengenal Dasar-Dasar Hidrogeologi. Bandung: Nova.

Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Replubic Indonesia. (2010). Data ESDMBandung. Bandung: Ministry of Energy and Mineral

Resources Replubic Indonesia. PT. Pentawira. (2013). Limestone Mining report on April 2013 in district Rengel, Tuban regency. Tuban: PT. Pentawira. Seyhan, E. (1990). Dasar-Dasar Hidrogeologi. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.

Shiklomanov, I., & Rodda, J. (2003). World Water Resources at The Begining of The Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.