Scholarly article on topic 'Intercultural Education from Russian Researches Perspective'

Intercultural Education from Russian Researches Perspective Academic research paper on "Educational sciences"

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{"intercultural education" / "educational practice" / "teaching methods" / "intercultural values" / "dialogue of cultures" / "the culture of the students"}

Abstract of research paper on Educational sciences, author of scientific article — Roza Valeeva, Agzam Valeeva

Abstract The purpose of the Russian higher education renovation is the development of educational and professional potential of Russia, formation of the youth readiness for productive intellectual and organizational activities in the open multicultural world. It is important to improve the quality of educational practice due to the very essence of social life in the processes of democratization and the development of national cultures of the peoples of Russia as a necessary tool of formation and functioning of Russian civil nation in its baseline - ethno-cultural and national-territorial levels. It is also associated with the formation of comprehensively and harmoniously developed person performing ethno-cultural and civic self-determination on the basis of national traditions and values of Russian and world culture. Today in Russia we are redefining the conceptual approaches to the educational process. The axiological and humanistic paradigms occupying a dominant position bring to the forefront of cross-cultural basis of education. The study showed the importance of expanding the dialogue of cultures; the need for the young generation's orientation on the effective intercultural communication. All these issues are actively studied by the Russian researchers. The article describes the relevant aspects of intercultural education, viewed by Russian researchers; essence and main characteristics of intercultural education, developed on theoretical and practical levels; systematic, cultural, axiological and competence approaches to intercultural education. The study describes a system of objectives and content of intercultural education; the development of intercultural education issues in Russian school; teaching methods taking into account the students’ culture, creating an interactive learning environment, the realization of interdisciplinary projects.

Academic research paper on topic "Intercultural Education from Russian Researches Perspective"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 237 (2017) 1564 - 1571

7th International Conference on Intercultural Education "Education, Health and ICT for a Transcultural World", EDUHEM 2016, 15-17 June 2016, Almena, Spain

Intercultural Education from Russian Researches Perspective

Roza Valeeva* & Agzam Valeeva

Kazan Federal University, Russia

Abstract

The purpose of the Russian higher education renovation is the development of educational and professional potential of Russia, formation of the youth readiness for productive intellectual and organizational activities in the open multicultural world. It is important to improve the quality of educational practice due to the very essence of social life in the processes of democratization and the development of national cultures of the peoples of Russia as a necessary tool of formation and functioning of Russian civil nation in its baseline - ethno-cultural and national-territorial levels. It is also associated with the formation of comprehensively and harmoniously developed person performing ethno-cultural and civic self-determination on the basis of national traditions and values of Russian and world culture. Today in Russia we are redefining the conceptual approaches to the educational process. The axiological and humanistic paradigms occupying a dominant position bring to the forefront of cross-cultural basis of education. The study showed the importance of expanding the dialogue of cultures; the need for the young generation's orientation on the effective intercultural communication. All these issues are actively studied by the Russian researchers. The article describes the relevant aspects of intercultural education, viewed by Russian researchers; essence and main characteristics of intercultural education, developed on theoretical and practical levels; systematic, cultural, axiological and competence approaches to intercultural education. The study describes a system of objectives and content of intercultural education; the development of intercultural education issues in Russian school; teaching methods taking into account the students' culture, creating an interactive learning environment, the realization of interdisciplinary projects.

© 2017 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016.

Keywords: intercultural education, educational practice, teaching methods, intercultural values, dialogue of cultures, the culture of the students

* Corresponding author.E-mail address: valeykin@yandex.ru

1877-0428 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of EDUHEM 2016. doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2017.02.246

1. Introduction

In a global world with its intense migration and ethnic revival there is a sharp problem of young people's tolerant attitude towards other cultures, as well as productive interaction skills with people belonging to different cultural groups development. The issues of training students to the effective life in the cultural and heterogeneous society are solved, as a rule, in the framework of intercultural (multicultural) education. Its aim is to develop the students' intercultural competence. The younger generation's focus on effective intercultural communication is today a particularly sensitive issue in education. That's why at the present stage of its development the conceptual approaches to the educational process are redefining with intercultural education occupying important position. In this connection, various studies are carried out in the field of intercultural education in Russia (Dzhurinskiy, 2002). For example, large scale migration to Russia raises many problems not only with housing, employment, acclimatization, but also with the social and psychological adaptation of immigrants into unfamiliar for them socio-cultural environment. And attempts to solve the educational and social problems in the context of intercultural relations brought the Russian government to recognize the phenomenon of the existing society multiculturalism.

Analysis of the Russian researches on the issue of intercultural education and the practice of educational institutions in this direction gives grounds for assuming intercultural education as a communion to the younger generation of ethnic, national and world cultures with a view to spiritual enrichment, as well as the formation of readiness and ability to live in a multicultural environment. Such an understanding of intercultural education implies that education content is drawn from the Russian and world culture, combining the latest achievements of different peoples. In this context, international culture began to stand out as the most important principle in the organization of education.

1.1. Explore importance of the problem

The Russian scientists consider the aim of intercultural education the formation of a person capable of active life in a multicultural environment, having a strong sense of understanding and respect for others, the ability to live in peace and harmony with people of different nationalities and beliefs. At the beginning of the XXI century in conditions of intercultural interaction intensification the absorption of knowledge about different cultures, about their traditions and lifestyle became one of the fore problems of education. All this has affected the importance of educating the younger generation's tolerance and empathy towards other culture values. In this connection there was a need for a concept of education, which could combine the two opposite tendencies such as: understanding of planetary or global mindset and the desire of many ethnic groups to preserve their ethnic culture and identity. Thus, we try to preserve the uniqueness of ethnic cultures and, at the same time, to interconnect with the processes of globalization, integration and internationalization.

As a conceptual approach there can be the concept of global education, which Russian researchers define as one of the directions of modern pedagogical theory and practice that is based on the need to prepare a person for life in an increasingly interconnected world and of growing global problems. This concept deals with the identifying in all the existing social, political, ethnic and religious doctrines something common and agreeable which would define universally acceptable goals, values, and moral principles for the entire global community. It is the implementation of intercultural education practice.

1.2. Status of a problem

Conceptual bases of intercultural education are presented in many publications of Russian researchers: I.S. Bessarabova (2008), O.V. Gukalenko (2003), A.N. Dzhurinskiy (2002). Theoretical and practical aspects of intercultural education in Russian schools are disclosed in the dissertation studies of E.R. Khakimov (2012), V.A. Ershov (2000), Y.A. Karyagina (2007. Pedagogical methods for formation of intercultural competence are described in the works of A.M. Goglenkov (2011), Y.Y. Korotkich (2010). Ways and means of schoolchildren's tolerance formation are presented in the works of T.V. Poshtareva (2006), R.Z. Khairullin (2009). Theoretical foundations of intercultural education in the context of environmental impact on the formation and development of the growing human personality are formulated by A. A. Andreev (2002), L.V. Obraztsova (2011), D.I. Feldstein (1996), E.N. Shiyanov (2002). The issues of the need for justification of pedagogical processes and phenomena of modern

methodological positions are considered by E.V. Berezhnova (2006), V.V. Krajewski (2006). F.N. Ziatdinova (2012), L.L. Suprunova (2000), E.R. Khakimov (2011) have their own approaches to the issue of the formation of young people ready to live in today's interdependent world. Aspects of intercultural competence as the goal of preparing young people for life in a multicultural world are reviewed by A.P. Sadokhin (2013), E.P. Komarova (2012). Examining intercultural education as a dialogue and national consensus culture of the region are studied by N.B. Krylova (2000) and A.V. Shafikova (1999). Studies of cross-cultural education as a pedagogy of international communication we meet in the works of Z.T. Gasanov (1999). Deep theoretical research and its practical implementation in the field of tolerance pedagogy is conducted by A.G. Asmolov (1996), H.W. Soldatova (1999). The possibility of forming human capable of active and effective life in the multiethnic and multicultural environment, having a strong sense of understanding and respect for other cultures are researched by V.S. Bibler (1993) and V.V. Makaev (1999).

1.3. Russian scientists' views on intercultural education

The issues of intercultural education were developed in Russia on the theoretical and practical levels since the end of the XX century. In 1988 there was founded the movement "Teachers for Peace and Cooperation" aimed at organizing discussions and discourses on tolerance issues, mutual respect and human rights in society, the development of instruments aimed at the education of children and youth in the spirit of peace. The Russian concept of intercultural education designated the following important idea: the educational system should be developed in three-dimensional space, that is, national-regional, national and global. This idea is traced in the works of many Russian scientists dealing with this issue. For example, E.R. Khakimov (2011) identifies three phases of intercultural education. The first phase relates to the development of poly-ethnic and cultural education in post-Soviet Russia, which consisted in introducing the mother tongue and culture of interethnic communication. The second phase, i.e. poly-socio-cultural education, is reflected in the federal target program "Shaping an attitude of tolerance and prevention of ethnocentrism in the Russian Society (2001-2005)" and solves the problem of humanization of relations between people with different cultural identities. The third phase reflects the practice of the moral development and education of the individuals of Russia (Khakimov, 2011). Hence, intercultural dialogue is accompanied with a new understanding of education, not only as a process of assimilation of knowledge systems, skills and competences, but also as a process of personal development, the adoption of values (Danyluk, Kondakov, Tishkov, 2009].

This was stated by a famous scientist, historian of pedagogy P.F. Kapterev (1982), who spoke about the development in the children a sense of belonging to all mankind. P.F. Kapterev rightly observed that schools should reduce the idea that native people are the only true carriers of culture. Hence, according to the scientist, educational activities originally carried out on the basis of the national ideal, should then be transformed into efforts to achieve universal ideal. In education it is necessary to address not to one nation, but to many ones, to consider their ideals and values to supplement their national ideal (Kapterev,1982).

The problems of national and universal acceptance ratio, the adoption of foreign cultural values were discussed by the Russian educators who lived in the 1920s abroad. The majority of them (Zenkovsky, 2001; Berdyaev, 1994; Bulgakov, 1993; Gessen, 1995), emphasizing the primacy of universal human, "supranational" values, approached them in different ways: they talked about the person's possessing the highest moral freedom, a critical mind, and imbued with principles of universal brotherhood. They saw the main task of intercultural education in helping young people to find themselves in the spirit of individual initiative and international solidarity, but at the same time, in the spirit of national values, the formation of the Russian soul, Russian mentality and character (Osovsky, 1997). In Soviet times, the idea of tolerance to other national cultures has been considered in the publications devoted primarily to international education and international communication. For example, N.K. Krupskaya (1965) considered that there should be different training programs for different people; classes need to complete, taking into account ethnic diversity; joint participation of children of different nationalities in the holidays, excursions; the development of the press and literature in national languages. Similar opinions were stated in publications of A.V. Lunacharsky (1925), P.P. Blonsky (1961), S.T. Shatsky (1989).

In the history of Soviet pedagogy there can be found examples, anticipating the concept of intercultural education. This is primarily the practice of Pavlyshskaya high school, headed by the educator V.A. Sukhomlinsky (1974), where

the second class of pupils under the guidance of the teacher made the virtual "travel" around the world with the help of a globe. This teacher drew attention of pupils to utility to familiarize with primary sources of literary works of writers and poets of different nations. Modern Russian pedagogy using the concept of intercultural education is based on the understanding of the possibility of a peaceful, reasonable and fruitful coexistence of different ethnic groups, peoples, nations, only on the basis of the dialogue of cultures. One of the proponents of dialogue, polyphony in the culture M.M. Bakhtin (1989) wrote that a man never finds the fullness only in himself. Developing this idea, M.M. Bakhtin speaks of man as a unique culture world. Some of intercultural education structure is formulated in student-centered teaching techniques, represented by V.S. Bibler (1993) and his followers in the project "School of the dialogue of cultures." The representatives of this trend consider dialogue as a specific communicative environment embodying the mechanism of formation of the person in the conditions of multiculturalism. The developed program of "School of the dialogue of cultures" aims to recreate the cultural and historical traditions, including the traditions of its own people (Bibler, 1993).

Taking place in the XXI century the processes of globalization have an ambiguous effect on education in general. According to A.D. Palkina (2011), globalization is the availability of one and the socio-economic resources in almost anywhere in the world. However, according to I.M. Sinagatullin (2006), in Russia today, globalization has both positive and negative effects on the conceptualization and materialization of ideas and issues related to intercultural education. On the one hand, thanks to the ideas of globalization and people's cooperation, it is possible to create a common educational space; reducing the gap in the use of global communications; strengthening intercultural exchange and the exchange of professional groups. At the same time, the desire for ethnic identity sometimes leads to ethnic and religious tensions. That is why it is so important to strengthen intercultural interaction, to promote tolerance among schoolchildren, to distribute humanitarian and democratic values (Wulfson, 2012]. N.V. Bogovik (2010) argues that the modern world education system develops in view of cultural integration, globalization, socio-economic and socio-political stability.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. The tasks of the research

General study plan is specified by the following objectives: 1) To investigate the problem of intercultural education; 2) To study the genesis of multicultural education in the history of Russian pedagogy; 3) To determine the level of scientific research of intercultural education; 4) To identify objectives and content of intercultural education; 5) To determine the basic methods of training in the context of intercultural education.

2.2. Theoretical and empirical methods

To achieve the objectives there were used the following methods:

- Theoretical methods: analysis of works of Russian researchers, publications in periodicals on intercultural education, the use of ethno-cultural technologies in educational process; generalization and systematization of ideas, theories on the use of ethno-cultural technologies in intercultural education; terminological analysis, modeling of the pedagogical process;

- Empirical methods: analysis of pedagogical practice and of the results of the implementation of the ideas of intercultural education into practice.

2.3. The scientific level of intercultural education research

Specific level of scientific research of intercultural education is a system of research procedures that are specific to pedagogy combining different conceptual approaches to the study of educational reality. These approaches tend to include systemic, cultural, axiological, and competence approaches. Thus, intercultural education as part of a systematic approach is considered as the educational system which is a set of interrelated components: a conceptual framework; the subjects of intercultural education; goals, objectives and content; educational technology; socio-

pedagogical conditions of training students for life in a multicultural environment. These components are arranged in sequence and have internal logic. The systemic approach allows to explore each component of this system, a set of structural connections between elements of the system, their hierarchy; to identify the functions of the system elements and their functioning mechanisms; to build models, each of which describes a particular aspect of the system (Suprunova, 2000). The cultural approach suggests to consider the pedagogical phenomena and processes as cultural phenomena. As a methodological research it can be considered as a set of pedagogical phenomenon of cultural components in a wide socio-cultural background of a society and taking into account the local cultural situation. This approach is based on the ideas about the essence of culture as the totality of material and spiritual values created by man. In accordance with it, one of the most important mainstreams of the cultural research is the issue of the individual and culture relationship. According to E.A. Em (2010), the cultural approach, by its nature, provides an opportunity to consider the humanitarian and scientific knowledge in their unity; to evaluate historical experience and moral values. The use of the cultural approach in the study of the student's identity formation process in terms of intercultural education shows that interrelation between cultures always leads to mutual enrichment. As for the axiological approach, according to E.P. Komarova (2012), intercultural education is implemented in three axiological blocks: intercultural education as a public utility; intercultural education as a social value, intercultural education as a personal value. At the same time, according to this scientist, the socialization and education of young people, the formation of their system of value orientations and attitudes cannot do without such values as human creative activity within the various innovative projects. In the study of intercultural education it is very important the use of the competency approach which brings to the fore the formation of intercultural competence, treated as an indicator of the result of intercultural education. For example, E.F. Zeer (2005) and E.E. Symanyuk (2011) consider intercultural education as a meaningful generalization of theoretical and empirical knowledge, presented in the form of concepts, principles and provisions of the semantic. In this regard A.P. Sadokhin (2013) offers the formation of intercultural competence, by which he understands the totality of knowledge, abilities and skills necessary for productive interaction with different cultures. At the same time, these researchers suggest that intercultural education contains certain groups of components: cognitive components (they include ethnocentrism and ethnic-cultural relativism which are the basis for an adequate interpretation of the communicative behavior of the representatives of other cultures in order to prevent misunderstanding and to change one's own communicative behavior in an interactive process); affective components (they include empathy and tolerance which form the psychological basis for effective intercultural communication); procedural components (these are strategies which specifically applicable in situations of intercultural contacts: firstly aimed at the success of such cooperation, and secondly, aimed at updating the knowledge of the cultural distinctiveness of the partner). These components allow reaching understanding, effective implementing intercultural interaction, thereby providing productive livelihoods of identity in a multicultural world.

3. Results

3.1. The objectives and content of intercultural education

Overall education reform from the standpoint of intercultural aspects is a common strategic task, the implementation of which in Russia is at the initial stage. To date, Russian specialists distinguish the following possible solutions: 1) to study in the educational process of democratic values, both within a particular school subject, and within the framework of humanitarian cycle. At the same time, it is important to consider that the system of democratic values is universally significant area that allows people to perceive other cultures in all their humanity; for this in an educational institution it is necessary to create a favorable psychological climate, based on justice and respect for the dignity of all subjects of the educational process; 2) to study the culture of the world, taking into account the place of national cultures in the various specific aspects of the interaction with other cultures; to impart an understanding that the world culture values are formed on the basis of mutual enrichment and integration of cultures of many peoples, that only in unity, in the relationship of cultures a cultural and historical heritage of the people is created; 3) a large role in intercultural translation of society values takes the teaching of history and literature, when they are studied and understood in the broader sense - as the history of civilization and ethnic group and as a culture of mutual relations between peoples; 4) to study history in close relationship with geography, because the people living space is

inseparable from the process of forming their national identity; the main contents of geography in terms of the basic ideas of intercultural education should be a different vision of any problems by various peoples of the world as a whole; 5) to learn languages; in the Russian version it can be bilingualism and multilingualism; in this case, learning a language should have its sequence and the prospect of the implementation of language skills in different situations of intercultural nature.

From this derive specific objectives of intercultural education: reflected in the training material humanistic ideas; disclosure of common elements in the culture of the Russian people, the traditions, allowing to live in peace and harmony; introducing students to the world culture; the disclosure of the accelerating process of globalization, the interdependence of nations and peoples; deep and comprehensive mastery of the students' culture of their own people; the formation of students' ideas about the diversity of cultures in the world and in Russia; bring up positive attitudes to cultural differences; creating conditions for the integration of students with other cultures; development of skills of productive interaction with different cultures; education of pupils in the spirit of peace, tolerance and humane international communication. Hence, according to Russian researchers, the content of intercultural education must be multifaceted and has a high degree of interdisciplinary approach, which allows us to consider the problem of intercultural education as a part of academic disciplines humanities, natural sciences, artistic and aesthetic cycle, and in the special courses on the history and culture of individual peoples (Razumovskaya, 1999).

3.2. The nature and characteristics of intercultural education from Russian researches perspective

In the most general form intercultural education is characterized by domestic experts on this issue as an important area of general education, which is aimed at creating conditions for formation students' readiness for a successful life and work in a multicultural environment. In the Russian pedagogy, along with the term "intercultural education" there are also used definitions of "multicultural education" (Dmitriev, 1999), "multicultural education" (Balitskaya, 2001), "polycultural upbringing" (Rean et al., 2008, Dzhurinskiy, 2002). The essence of these concepts has much in common, since the first part of these terms refers to the same thing, but has different linguistic origins: Russian, Greek, Latin origin. However, the concept "intercultural education" reflects the relationship of national tradition and innovation in shaping the willingness of young people to productive lives and work in a multicultural world. Based on this, we came to the conclusion that intercultural education can be considered as one of the main areas of education, because the competence in the field of cultural diversity is as vital in the modern world as the ability to read, write, count and work with your computer. Intercultural education is the curriculum for the different perspectives and life experiences. Therefore, intercultural education is inclusive in nature, and purpose of educational strategies should be the enrichment of representatives of all cultural groups. Intercultural education is a process that takes place continuously and dynamically, and, most importantly, it is associated with the building of relationships between people.

4. Discussions

Studying aspects of intercultural education the Russian researchers believe that between global education and intercultural education there is a natural relationship, because the agenda is always the question of how we interact with different cultures, societies and social groups. Today, all countries in the world are characterized by an increasing degree of cultural interpenetration and cultural diversity, which further increases the importance of increasing understanding of intercultural education. In this context, intercultural education takes into account the following factors: the difference and common across cultures should be in equilibrium; understanding of culture as their own and the world one is always in development; cultural minorities are often opposed to the opinion of the majority, which are incarnated in legitimate ways of social control (laws, norms, values); belonging to a particular culture should be born in a human sense of pride. Hence, intercultural education cannot be mechanically added to existing training programs. It must impregnate the whole educational environment and school life, decision-making, training and professional development of teachers, the content and methods of teaching, relationships between students. Especially important in this regard is to develop and implement methods of training in the context of intercultural education. In particular, the Russian researchers in the development of teaching methods are guided by the fact that the methods must take into account the culture of the students (for example, there will be used ethnic forms of expression, such as

short stories, stage plays, poetry and songs); will include thematic tours, visits to memorial sites and creative activities related to the socio-economic and cultural life of the community; will promote respectful study of the historical heritage and the contributions of the various ethnic groups; will provide educational process in the spirit of equality; consistent with the studied values; will implement interdisciplinary projects; will create an interactive learning environment (e.g., in the implementation of intercultural projects) to give students a sense of self-confidence and ability to communicate and collaborate with others. At the same time, it is important the interaction of the institution and the local community; involvement of students and the general public in the educational process, such as: the use of the school or the university as a center of social and cultural activities; involvement of representatives of the teaching of traditional crafts and national artists; participating students, parents and the local community, teachers and administration - representatives of different cultures - in school management, decision making, planning and implementation of educational programs, etc.

5. Conclusion

Intercultural education is just beginning to develop in Russia, which sees an urgent need for intercultural education values in the continuous interaction of cultures in a multinational state. An analysis of the theoretical and practical framework in this area shows that this issue is already under active development. And here there may be of interest the best practices of different countries, which can be the basis for intercultural education of the Russian school issues. The Russian researchers, in this connection, consider the following important aspects: refusal of understanding of intercultural education as a focus treatment only to ethnic minority issues in the field of education, i.e., the formation of each student system stable value orientations in relation to the effective interaction of different cultures (Tishulina, 2006); penetration of intercultural values in the wider educational practice, which should begin with the activity of teachers, flexible on the issue of cultural diversity (Dergacheva, 2007); the relationship of culture and multi-ethnicity which determines characteristics of educational space in a multicultural environment (Bessarabova, 2008); ability to work with a multi-ethnic composition of the student team, for which teachers need to learn ethno-pedagogical features and pedagogical potential of the ethnic environment under which they operate (Lenski, 1998); deep knowledge of teachers the principles of intercultural education and its impact on the daily work of the teacher in the classroom, the school and the local community (Makaev et al., 1999); the establishment of direct contacts and regular exchanges between pupils, students and teachers in the different countries (Palkin, 2011), etc.

These ideas having been widely researched by Russian scientists should be further developed in the practice of education in Russia which is following the path of intercultural education values. All this, in fact, led to the introduction in a scientific turn of the Russian pedagogical science the concept of "intercultural education" and its use in practice.

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