Scholarly article on topic 'Valorization of the Crushed Dune Sand in the Formulation of Self-compacting-concrete'

Valorization of the Crushed Dune Sand in the Formulation of Self-compacting-concrete Academic research paper on "Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries"

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Procedia Engineering
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{SCC / "crushed dune sand" / "limestone filler" / "compressive strength" / shrinkage}

Abstract of research paper on Agriculture, forestry, and fisheries, author of scientific article — Farid Benmerioul, Abdelkadir Makani, Ahmed Tafraoui, Said Zaouai

Abstract In this paper, the crushed dune sand and limestone filler were using as mineral addition in the formulation of self-compacting concrete (SCC), for that a comparison was carried out on their effect on the properties and behaviour of SCC in a fresh and hardened state. The results of the mechanical tests showed that there is a light difference between the concrete containing limestone filler or crushed dune sand. Moreover, the SCC containing crushed dune sand presents a better behavior at the shrinkage than the SCC with limestone filler.

Academic research paper on topic "Valorization of the Crushed Dune Sand in the Formulation of Self-compacting-concrete"


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ScienceDirect Procedía


Procedía Engineering 171 (2017) 672 - 678

Sustainable Civil Engineering Structures and Construction Materials 2016, SCESCM 2016

Valorization of the crushed dune sand in the formulation of


Farid Benmerioula'*, Abdelkadir Makanib, Ahmed Tafraouib ,Said Zaouaia

aLaboratoire de Fiabilité des Matériaux et des structures (FIMAS), Université TahriMohammed — Béchar BP 417 - Béchar (08000), Algeria. bLaboratoire de Fiabilité du Génie Mécanique (LFGM), Université Tahri Mohammed — Béchar BP 417 - Béchar (08000), Algeria


In this paper, the crushed dune sand and limestone filler were using as mineral addition in the formulation of self-compacting concrete (SCC), for that a comparison was carried out on their effect on the properties and behaviour of SCC in a fresh and hardened state. The results of the mechanical tests showed that there is a light difference between the concrete containing limestone filler or crushed dune sand. Moreover, the SCC containing crushed dune sand presents a better behavior at the shrinkage than the SCC with limestone filler.

©2017 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierLtd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SCESCM 2016.

Keywords: SCC; crushed dune sand; limestone filler; compressive strength; shrinkage.

1. Introduction

The self-compacting-concrete (SCC) makes a new family of concrete and a new technological step in civil engineering, it is very fluid concrete whose putting in place without vibration, it has several advantages so much at the environmental level, technological that economic which interests the industrialists more and more [1-3]. It is essential that the self-compacting-concrete preserves its stability and ensures a perfect homogeneity; these two contradictory properties are ensured by the employment of superplastifiant and the incorporation of the mineral additions as binary or ternary blended cement in their compositions [3-7]. The aim of this study is to valorize the crushed dune sand (Dmax ^ 80 ^m) in order to use it like a mineral addition in the formulation of self-compacting-

* Corresponding author. E-mail address:

1877-7058 © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license


Peer-review under responsibility of the organizing committee of SCESCM 2016.


concrete. In this work, incorporation was made for the limestone filler and crushed dune sand producing by crushing the western dune sand in the formulation of the SCC in order to evaluate their effects on the properties fraiche and hardened of these concretes. This document carried out a comparison on the effect of limestone filler and crushed dune sand in term of behavior on the fresh states, compressive strength, loss mass, and free shrinkage of these concretes.

2. Materials and experimental method

2.1. Basic materials

2.1.1. Cement

The cement used is Portland cement composed CPJ СЕМ II / В resistance real Matine 425 bars under the trade name.

2.1.2. Additions

• Limestone fillers are type calcaire according to norm (NF P 18-508 1995a).

• The crushed dune sand coming from crushing dune sand which is on the level of Taghit, wilaya of Bechar (Algeria), the maximum coarse aggregate of crushed dune sand does not exceed 80цт. it has high content of quartz silica [8].

The results of DRX analysis carried out on the sand of Taghit and limestone fillers are presented graphically on Fig. 1. It was noticed a peak of approximately 100 % of silica with crashed sand and calcite for limestone fillers which translated the predominance of Si02 and СаСОз, the others revealed elements present at small percentages.

□ ^—_- A— >JL л А А Л_______

ft 10 Il> ill JO ¡41 6» TO Я» 9"

SiO: Г 1 - — 1—Г- " T " — T - "Г - 11

СаС<н I I I III 1111

FC;o. [ i : ] : i : " : i : 1 i i i : : i

F«»0 I I I I i I 1

Fig. 1. DRX analyze oflimestone filler and dune sand.

(a) (b)

Fig. 2. MEB photographs of(a) Limestone filler; (b) Dune sand.

From Fig. 2, it was observed that the shape of filler calcaire particle is angular, dappled, broken or round forms observed for crushed dune sand.

Table 1. Physical properties ofLimestone filler and crushed dune sand.

Items Limestone filler (0/0.63) Crushed dune sand (< 80 |im)

Specific density 2.71 2.8

specific surface cm2/g 4060 3000

Unit weight (kg/m3) 1120 1300

Activity index i2gj 0.79 -

2.1.3. Aggregates

The aggregates play an important role in the behavior of concrete. Their influence is very strong in terms of mechanical performance, shrinkage and durability [9-10]. Rolled sand class (0/3) from the quarry Mahmoudi (Bechar), gravels are class 3/8, 8/15 from Hassi EL 20 (Bechar).

Fig. 3. Particle size distribution curves ofthe aggregates used.

Table 2. Physical characteristics of materials.

Rolled sand (0/3) Gravel (3/8) Gravel (8/15)

Sand Equivalent (%) 74 — —

Fineness modulus 2.1 — —

Absolutevolumetricmass (kg/m3) 2604 1606 1444

Apparentvolumetricmass (kg/m3) 1761 2630 2666

2.1.4. Superplasticizer

Superplasticizer SIKAPLAST 5045 / High Reducer Water / retarder for concrete ready and compacting concretes according to normNF EN 934 -2. [11].

2.1.5. Mixing water

The water abstraction is done on the conduct of drinking water supply for the town of Bechar. This water is treated for drinking.

2.2. Formulation of concrete

For this purpose, we first made a self-compacting-concrete (SCC) based solely on the criteria recommended by AFGC [12] (report (Gravel / Sand) to be close to 1, the volume of the paste must be between 330 and 400 1/ m3, cement dosage is between 300 and 350 kg/m3, dosage of Superplasticizer must ensure the fluidity of the mixture.) The final formulation of the self-compacting-concrete is given in table 1. Two concretes were thus obtained, one with the limestone filler is named SCC LF, and another with crushed dune sand is named SCC CS.

Table 3.Composition ofself-compacting-concrete.

Constituents Binder (C+A) Addition Rolled Sand (0/3 mm) Gravel (3/8mm) Gravel(8/15mm) Superplasticizer E/B

Dosage (kg/m3) 520 104 903 151 578 6.8 0.4

2.3. Experimental method

2.3.1. Tests in fresh state

The SCC must satisfy many tests, we chose three that are recommended by AFGC [12] that allow to characterize the principal properties of SCC in the fresh state (fluidity, static and dynamic stability, free and confined environment) spreading Abrams cone flow box L and stability through a sieve. The test slump flow is carried with the Abrams cone consists of measuring the diameter of concrete spread on two perpendicular lines and takes the mean. The test L-box is used to check the mobility of confined concrete and verify the implementation of concrete will not be thwarted by blocking phenomena. The test of stability [1,13] by sieve can qualify compacting concrete vis-a-vis the risk of segregation and indicates the degree of segregation of SCC.

2.3.2. Tests in hard state

The tensile strength in bending according to norm [NF P18-407] was determined using bending machine 3 points. For the mechanical compressive strength according to norm [NF P18-406], The compression test is to break the test specimen between the two plates of a compression press. The press used is a compression machine (ELE AUTOTEST).

The measurements of shrinkage were recorded from 24h after the casting. All testing was completed on three samples and the average value reported.

3. Results and discussion

3.1. Fresh state of concrete

From those results (Fig. 4), it was observed that all the self-compacting concretes (SCC) respect the criteria of autoplacibilite recommended for testing [AFGC.2008] [12]. For all SCC, the aureole laitance at the periphery of concrete patties was absent or very low (1 to 2 mm). In addition, the coarse aggregates have been properly trained by the cement matrix and are not remains piled in the midst of galette of concrete.

| 70 a

* го


Type of concrete

Щ 0,4

Domain of SCC

Type of concrete

б ti 10%

scc ii scc cs

Тура of concrete

(a) (b) (0

Fig. 4. Effect ofthe mineral additions on fresh properties of SCC. (a) Slump flow; (b) L-Box; (c) stability in sieve.

The influence of the mineral additions on the flow of concretes is according to their dosage and of their state (inert or active)[14-16], while, the time of flow more noticeable by the concrete containing siliceous fines is dependent on the fineness of additions and its high demand of water [10].The fine particle of the addition fills the voids available between the particles of the mortar, thus increasing the compactness of the mixture by improving total arrangement of the particles in the matrix. Consequently, the quantity of water which occupied these voids is liberated in the interstitial solution, which results a better fluidity. [13, 17]. The Fig 4 presents the slump flow of the different formula. It is seen that the two concretes having a better fluidity what is acceptable for a SCC according to recommendations of the AFGC. However, one rather notes a light reduction in slump flow, particularly for the SCC CS compared with SCC CS.

The results obtained by the L - Box test are presented on Fig. 4, it can show that these concretes have a good mobility in confined milieu, the SCC shows a better rate of filling.

According to the criteria of the AFGC, [12]. The role of volume of paste is more important to limit the risks of segregation and sweating. These mixtures have a satisfactory stability (Fig.4), it is marked laitance p < 10% who signifies any risk for the static segregation. The SCC CS has a resistance for the static segregation a little improved that SCC LC, the concrete is too viscous to run out through the sieve.

3.2. Hardened state of concrete

3.2.1. Compressive strength

The mechanical strength is an essential characteristic for the material concrete and one of the fundamental parameters of our study. The introduction of mineral additions involves a modification of the porosity of the cementing matrix and improving the mechanical strength of the concretes at the young age by physical effect mainly and pozzolanic effect when they are chemically active, in the longer term [18].


SCC es

Type of concrete

« 50 0.

£ 40 m

c 35 ®

•S 30

25 20 15 10 5 0



Type of concrete

(a) (b)

Fig. 5. (a) Compressive strength of concretes; (b) tensile strength.

Consequently, the evolution of compressive and tensile strength in time was followed for the various compositions of concrete and the results so obtained are represented graphically in Fig. 5. It is noted, according to Fig. 5, that the mechanical compressive strength of the two compositions of SCC is almost equivalent. Nevertheless, SCC LF has better compressive strength at the expiry of 7 and 28 days while for SCC CS.

3.2.2. Shrinkage

(a) (b)

Fig. 6. Effect ofthe mineral additions on: (a) free shrinkage; (b) loss ofconcrete mass.

The analysis of the curves of Fig. 6 shows that the shrinking of concrete SCC LF is more significant than that of concrete SCC CS that can be justified by the extreme fineness of crushed dune sand and the absence of sweating. The results of the loss of mass could confirm this differed behavior. Fig. 6 illustrates the percentage of the loss in mass of the two compositions of concrete. From Fig. 6, it is notable that the loss of mass of concrete SCC LF is much more significant compared to those of concrete SCC CS. The weak loss of mass of concrete SCC CS is due mainly to the reduction in porosity by the pozzolanic reaction of the silica which contributes to the containment of the pores in the cementing matrix [4].

4. Conclusion

This study contributed to the research tasks undertaken on the valorization of crushed dune sand of the western erg. Our first experimental results showed that the mechanical resistance in compression of the limestone filler concrete is slightly higher than that of the crushed dune sand of concrete, the fineness is the principal reason to improve this characteristic. With regard to the free shrinkage in desiccation, the use of crushed dune sand is very satisfactory. Indeed, the concrete containing crushed dune sand presented shrinkage remarkably lower than that of the concrete containing limestone filler. To finalize, it was deduced that the incorporation of crushed dune sand of the western erg in the composition of the SCC as a mineral addition was generally beneficial and can bring solutions to future in certain work of our country.


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