Scholarly article on topic 'Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream'

Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream Academic research paper on "Animal and dairy science"

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Journal of Ethnic Foods
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{"chocolate ganache" / "coconut milk" / milk / "vegetable cream" / "whipped cream"}

Abstract of research paper on Animal and dairy science, author of scientific article — Yu Jin Kim, Suna Kang, Da Hee Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Woo Ri Kim, et al.

Abstract Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05) and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05), a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and softness, coconut milk was considered suitable for making chocolate ganache. In conclusion, coconut milk may be the better ingredient for chocolate ganache than whipped cream in regard to caloric content and texture. Making chocolate ganache using coconut milk combined with alternative sweeteners such as tagatose, would be better for consumers’ health.

Academic research paper on topic "Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream"

Accepted Manuscript

Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

Yu Jin Kim, Suna Kang, Da Hee Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Woo Ri Kim, Yoo Min Kim, Sunmin Park

PII: S2352-6181(17)30015-X

DOI: 10.1016/j.jef.2017.02.002

Reference: JEF 99

To appear in: Journal of Ethnic Foods

Received Date: 15 February 2017 Accepted Date: 21 February 2017

Please cite this article as: Kim YJ, Kang S, Kim DH, Kim YJ, Kim WR, Kim YM, Park S, Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream, Journal of Ethnic Foods (2017), doi: 10.1016/j.jef.2017.02.002.

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Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

Yu Jin Kim11", Suna Kang2t, Da Hee Kim2, Yeo Jin Kim2, Woo Ri Kim2, Yoo Min Kim2, Sunmin Park

1Equal contribution

1Division of Nutrition and Metabolism Research, Korean Food Research Institutes,

Seongnam, South Korea

Dept of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Basic Science, Hoseo University, Asan, South Korea

Correspondence author: Sunmin Park

Food and Nutrition, Hoseo University

165 Sechul-Ri, BaeBang-Yup

Asan-Si, ChungNam-Do, 336-795, South Korea

Tel: 82-41-540-5345

Fax: 82-41-548-0670

E-mail: smpark@hoseo.edu

Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

Abstract

Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity. So some people have concern about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream (WC), milk, vegetable cream (VC), and coconut milk (CM). The WC chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The WC chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p<0.05) and resulted in average hardness. The VC chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the WC's result above, except in the category of hardness. The VC chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the WC's result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference(p<0.05), a low height, and a similar value to WC but CM also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the WC chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test but the CM chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and softness, the CM was considered suitable for making chocolate ganache. In conclusion, the CM may be the better ingredient for chocolate ganache than the WC in caloric content and texture. Making chocolate ganache using coconut milk combined with alternative sweeteners such as tagatose, would be better for consumers' health.

Key word: chocolate ganache; whipped cream; vegetable cream; milk; coconut milk

1. Introduction

Chocolate is a food with a long history, commonly processed into a number of forms including desserts, meal replacement calorie bars, drinks, confectionery, and candy and enjoyed by people of all ages. Ancient records indicate that chocolate dates back almost 3000 years and was grown in the southern part of what is now Mexico in 1400-1500 BC [1]. This region had ideal conditions for cacao trees, with a hot and humid climate and plenty of forest cover. It was the Olmecs that lived here who first cultivated cacao trees and used cacao beans to make drinks. The origins of the word chocolate can be found in the various names given to this drink, including cacahuatl (which means cacao water), chocolatl and choratl. Following this period, the Aztecs and Mayans called the beans of cacao trees 'a gift from God' and mixed it with vanilla, fruit, and flowers to make drinking chocolate. At this time, chocolate was a luxury that was reserved for the elite class or those of high social status, and commoners were not able to taste it. Chocolate was regarded as so sacred that cacao beans were even used as currency or presented to clerics. Evidence of this can be seen in the relics they left behind (Fig. 1) [2, 3].

Viewed in this light, it can be seen that the chocolate currently produced in Europe was originally brought to the region from Latin America. Christopher Columbus, who discovered the American continent, first learned about cacao beans from the Aztecs and brought this information back to Europe, but cacao did not become widely known in Europe until Hernando Cortez overthrew the Aztec Empire in the early 16th century. Cortez observed that the Aztecs used cacao beans for medicinal purposes and in a bitter drink that was enjoyed by aristocrats, and Europeans gradually discovered the value of cacao beans when he brought this discovery home [4, 5].

In Europe as well, chocolate began as a drink that was exclusive to royalty and aristocrats. However, some were put off by the bitter taste, which led to the addition of sugar and other spices to make the drink less bitter. Accordingly, at the start of the 17th century, chocolate drinks spread across Europe to Belgium, Italy, France, and Britain. Following this, the first edible chocolate was produced in Britain in 1847 by mixing cocoa power with cocoa butter in a mold to create chocolate bars of the kind we are familiar with today [6, 7]. In addition to this, the industrial revolution allowed for automated mass production of chocolate, meaning that chocolate was no longer an expensive luxury reserved for aristocrats and became available as a popular treat for the masses [8].

In summary, in the past, chocolate was a bitter drink based on the original taste of cacao beans, but it is now known as a cocoa-based food that contains other nutrients as well as sugar, oils, and fats

Chocolate is now a readily available popular treat not only in Europe but also across Asia, including Korea, while the form and mix of ingredients differs in each country. The Korean Food Standards Codex differentiates between seven kinds of chocolate based on their cocoa content, including ordinary chocolate, milk chocolate, and white chocolate, compound chocolate [10]. Chocolate also varies by type, including solid chocolate, which usually comes in flat, square bars, shell chocolate, which uses a chocolate exterior filled with nuts, fruit or caramel, enrobed chocolate which, mixes chocolate with wafer or biscuits, hollow chocolate, and pan-work chocolate, where peanuts or almonds are coated with chocolate [11]. There are also other types such as couverture which has a much higher concentration of cocoa butter, and ganache which is a smooth mixture that combines chocolate with whipped cream, butter, and milk [12, 13]. Chocolate ganache is the subject of this research. It is said that chocolate ganache was created by accident in a confectionary factory in 19th century France when an apprentice accidentally spilled milk into a batch of chocolate, creating a unique flavor and soft texture that turned out to be popular [14].

Unlike in the past, chocolate nowadays comes in a variety of shapes and flavors, bringing joy to a lot of consumers. However, as the product contains a lot of sugar, oils and fats up to 500kcal per 100g, there are concerns about people consuming large quantities [15]. Even as recently as a few decades ago, sweet foods such as chocolate were not consumed in large quantities, and therefore had only a minimal impact on public health. However, due to rising economic standards and the development of the food industry, over the last 20 years obesity has become a serious social issue. As consumption of

chocolate, a food high in fat and sugar, has increased, it has been increasingly viewed as a product that is harmful to human health.

However, more recently some compounds found in high concentrations in chocolate such as polyphenols and flavonoids have been found to help prevent aging and eliminate peroxides [16, 17] and low-sugar chocolate has been recognized as a functional food [18, 19]. Furthermore, research on the functionality of chocolate [20, 21] and research that focuses on ways to improve this functionality through manufacturing is still ongoing [22]. Cocoa, the main ingredient in chocolate, contains polyphenols, while in addition to research on the functions of chocolate, other research has been conducted on ways to reduce fat content, add more cocoa or add other functional ingredients. One example of this is research to replace the ingredients of chocolate with low-calorie alternatives [23, 24]. This low-fat, low-sugar chocolate is smooth and not bitter, making it a safer choice than regular chocolate for middle-aged or elderly people who are at greater risk of contracting metabolic diseases.

This research aimed to produce and determine the physical properties of low-calorie, low-fat chocolate using chocolate ganache. The main ingredients of chocolate ganache are dark chocolate and whipped cream, with very little added sugar. Therefore, we aimed to create chocolate ganache that used milk, vegetable cream or coconut milk as a substitute for whipping cream, which is high in fat, and compare the physicochemical properties and flavor of these varieties with traditional chocolate ganache.

2. Material and methods

2.1. Chocolate Ganache

Chocolate is usually manufactured by adding cocoa powder, sugar, and other flavoring to cocoa butter, but chocolate ganache, also known as pave chocolate, is made by adding fresh cream or whipped cream to chocolate which makes it have a smoother taste than ordinary, firmer chocolate. Whipped cream is made by adding vegetable stabilizers and emulsifiers to animal cream, and is used for decorating or aromatic dishes. Whipped cream contains 350kcal, 3.0g of carbohydrates, 37.0g of fat, 2.0g of protein and 58.0g of water per 100g. Vegetable cream, coconut milk, and milk can be used as substitutes for whipped cream [25].

The ratio of dark chocolate and cream in chocolate ganache is used 1: 2, 1: 4, 1: 5 and so on. The purposes of these several different ratios are giving the chocolate a smooth feeling and reducing calorie contents. This experiment was selected a chocolate/cream ratio of 1:1 to create smooth, high chocolate content. Whipped cream was used for the cream, while milk, vegetable cream and coconut milk were used as substitutes. Fresh cream is high in fat content so it tastes good. However, it has high-calorie and negative effects on people with diabetes or metabolic diseases. Because of this, we tried to make chocolate ganache with low fat content by replacing fresh cream with other raw materials.

Vegetable cream synthesizes vegetable oils and fats such as coconut oil, giving it a clean taste, and it also lasts longer and is cheaper than animal cream. Vegetable whipped cream contains 250kcal, 2.9g of carbohydrates, 25.9g of fat, 2.2g of protein and 69.0g of water per 100g [26]. The composition of coconut milk is similar to whipped cream, but it does not contain stabilizers or emulsifiers and is lower in calories. It is used as a substitute for milk in vegetarian cuisine. Canned coconut milk contains 197kcal, 2.8g of carbohydrates, 19.3g of fat, 2.0g of protein and 75.9g of water per 100g, with the remainder consisting of moisture and minerals [27].

2.2 Chocolate Ganache Making and Selection of Groups

To make the chocolate ganache, we bought dark Cargille chocolate (Belgium) as well as whipped cream (Mail, Korea), vegetable cream (Bravo, UNIGRA S,R,L, Italy), milk (Seoul Milk, Korea) and coconut milk (Thai Coconut Co. Ltd, Thailand).

The chocolate containing whipped cream was used for the control group, while the chocolate

containing milk, coconut milk and vegetable cream was used for the experimental groups. As a control group, the composition of chocolate ganache was used 100g of chocolate, 100g of whipped cream and 3g of cocoa powder. As experimental groups, whipped cream was replaced by milk, vegetable cream or coconut milk and the other ingredients being the same. To make the chocolate, 100g of fresh cream was boiled in a pot. When the surface began to boil, the heat was turned off and 100g of dark Cargille chocolate was stirred into the mixture until it had melted. Once the chocolate was fully mixed with the cream, the mixture was poured into a 50 x 50 x 10cm mold and then left in a refrigerator for 3-4 hours to set, with the exception of samples used in the circumference and height measurements. Once set, the chocolate ganache was taken out of the mold and depending on the method chosen for each experiment, had cocoa powder sprinkled on the outside before being used in the experiment. The chocolate was stored in refrigerated, airtight containers prior to use in the experiment.

2.3 Measuring the Water Content and Crude Fat in Chocolate Ganache

Water content was analyzed using an industrial drying and heating technique. Five grams of each type of chocolate were placed in containers for measuring. After placing the containers with samples

in the 105±1°C drying machine for five hours, the weight was measured after being left to cool for 30 minutes in the desiccator. This was repeated four times until a consistent measurement was obtained. The water content was calculated using the following method. Water content (%) = (W2 - W3) / (W2 - W1) x 100

In this equation, W1 represents the weight of container (g), W2 represents the weight of sample and container (g), and W3 represents the measured weight of sample and container (g).

Crude fat content was measured using the soxhlet method. Five grams of each type of chocolate was used, and each measurement was repeated four times. The chocolate was placed inside a round

filter with the top covered by cotton wool. After drying for 2-3 hours in a 100±1°C drying machine, analysis with the soxhlet method was conducted after being left to cool for 30 minutes in the desiccator. The crude fat content was calculated using the following equation. Crude fat content (%) = (W2 - W1) / S x 100

In this equation, W1 represents the weight of flask before extracting crude fat (g), W2 represents the weight of flask after extracting crude fat (g), and S represents the sample weight (g).

2.4 Measuring Sugar Content

To measure the sugar content of the chocolate ganache, 5g of each type of chocolate was mixed with 10ml of water. Sugar content was measured once the chocolate had completely melted. The prepared samples were measured four times using a refractometer (ATAGO N-50E, Japan).

2.5 Measuring Chromaticity

To measure the chromaticity of the chocolate ganache, 5g of each type of chocolate was mixed with 100ml of water. Once fully mixed, a color spectrophotometer (CM-3500d, Minolta Co Ltd. Osaka, Japan) was used to take three measurements of each sample. Chromaticity was expressed as a function of L (brightness), a (redness) and b (yellowness).

2.6 Measuring Circumference and Height

The circumference and height of the chocolate ganache were measured by dropping samples taken directly after it was made and before it was left to set. Samples of 2.5g of each type of chocolate were prepared and dropped from a height of 20cm, and the height and circumference of the circle on the floor were measured four times for each sample.

2.7 Measuring Hardness

The hardness of the chocolate ganache was measured using a texture analyzer (Texture analyzer TA-XT Express, Texture Technologies Co., Ltd., England). The conditions for measuring the hardness of the chocolate ganache were set as the following: pre-test speed 2.00mm/sec, test speed 1.00mm/sec, post-test speed 5.00mm/sec. A sample of 2cm3 was cut from each type of chocolate, and each was measured three times, with the result expressed as an average.

2.8 Sensory Evaluation

Sensory evaluation was conducted using 100 students from Hoseo University. The finished chocolate ganache was used for the sensory evaluation, and participants rated each type of chocolate on sweetness, smoothness, texture and preference. Each sample was labelled only with a letter of the alphabet so that participants could not determine which chocolate was which. Whipped cream was (A), milk (B), vegetable cream (C) and coconut milk (D). Participants were asked to write down the letter of the sample they rated the highest in each category.

2.9 Statistical Analysis

The results of each experiment were analyzed statistically as average ± standard deviation and statistical significance was measured with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) using an SPSS program. Statistical significance was measured with ANOVA using the Tukey test, and a result was considered statistically significant when P<0.05.

3. Results and discussion

3. 1 Water Content and Crude Fat Content of Chocolate Ganache

The water content of the 5g sample of each chocolate type made using the whipped cream substitutes can be seen in Fig.2A. The water content by chocolate type was 37.9% for milk, 36.8% for coconut milk, 32.9% for vegetable cream, while whipped cream was the lowest with 22.6% (p<0.05).5 The water content was higher in the chocolate made using milk and coconut milk and lower in the chocolate made using vegetable cream and whipped cream. This appears to be caused by the different water content of each ingredient, with milk, containing 88.3g of water per 100g, producing the highest water content in the results. The standard deviation for the whipped cream chocolate was higher than that of the others, but this did not influence the results. The crude fat content can be seen in Fig.2B. The crude fat content by chocolate type was 16.8% for whipped cream, 10.3% for vegetable cream, 7.5% for coconut milk and 6.7% for milk, showing a statistically significant difference (p<0.05). This was the opposite of the results for water content, and the vegetable cream chocolate was closer to whipped cream in terms of crude fat content than the other types. Higher water content appeared to be correlated with lower crude fat content. Among the chocolate ganache made using substitute ingredients, the vegetable cream chocolate produced results most similar to the control, the whipped cream chocolate. The differing calories, carbohydrates, fat and protein contained in each variety of chocolate ganache can be seen in Table 1. The caloric content was highest in the whipped cream chocolate, followed by vegetable cream, coconut milk, and milk. The biggest influence on caloric content in the chocolate ganache was the difference in fat.

3.2 Sugar Content of Chocolate Ganache

The sugar content of each chocolate type can be seen in Fig.2C. The chocolate ganache made with whipped cream had the highest sugar content, followed by milk, vegetable cream and coconut milk. The whipped cream used in the experiment contained 3.0g of sugar, followed by vegetable

cream with 2.9g, coconut milk with 2.8g and milk with 5g. However, the refractometer showed that the milk chocolate ganache had the lowest sugar content, followed by the coconut milk, vegetable cream and whipped cream chocolate in order. This is because the refractometer measures the amount of sugar in the melted solution, reflecting the water to sugar content ratio, which is, in order from lowest to highest, milk, coconut milk, vegetable cream and whipped cream.

3.3 Chromaticity

The chromaticity of each chocolate type can be seen in Table 2. The whipped cream chocolate had a low L (brightness) score of 0.07, while the vegetable cream chocolate produced the lowest score of 0.043. In contrast, the milk and coconut milk varieties received a high L score. Scores for a (redness) and b (yellowness) were similar to the brightness scores (a: whipped cream - 0.403, vegetable cream - 0.283, b: whipped - 0.113, vegetable - 0.037). In terms of chromaticity, the vegetable cream chocolate ganache was most similar to the whipped cream chocolate.

3.4 Circumference and Height

The circumference and height of each type of chocolate ganache were measured four times by dropping samples taken directly after it was made and before it was left to set. The results of this can be seen in Fig.3. The circumference was the largest for the milk chocolate ganache, followed by the vegetable cream, coconut milk, and whipped cream varieties, demonstrating statistically significant differences (p<0.05). Height was greatest in the whipped cream chocolate, followed by vegetable cream, milk, and coconut milk. Based on these width and height measurements, it can be calculated that the vegetable cream chocolate had the largest volume, followed by whipped cream, milk and coconut milk. Afoakwa et al. [28] reported that higher fat content was associated with reduced hardness, while Shin and Joo [29] used aged fermented garlic extracts to make chocolate, finding that hardness was reduced, a softer texture was achieved, and agglutination increased as more cream was added. Yu et al. [30] and Yoon et al. [31] reported that higher water content was associated with reduced hardness and softer texture. Our results show that milk, containing 88.3g of water and 4g of fat, produced the widest circumference (p<0.05) and a low height. Vegetable cream and coconut milk produced similar circumferences, while the height of the vegetable cream chocolate was significantly higher than the coconut milk variety. This appears to be because vegetable cream contains a higher concentration of fat, protein, and sugar while coconut milk contains more water. (vegetable cream's water and fat content: 63.5g, 30.9g, coconut milk's: 72.9g, 21.3g). Among the ingredients, the whipped cream contained the lowest water content and the highest fat content, and it appears that when the cream was being mixed with the chocolate, the fat was able to turn into cream without obstruction from the water, causing the chocolate to take on greater volume

3.5 Hardness

The hardness of each chocolate type can be seen in Fig.2D. The hardness of each chocolate ganache type once set was measured using 2cm3 samples, and the coconut milk was found to be the softest (p<0.05), followed by the whipped cream, milk and vegetable cream varieties. Afoakwa et al. [32] researched the impact that particle size distribution (PSD) and the elements found in chocolate had on the texture and appearance of dark chocolate. They found that greater PSD and higher fat content were associated with reduced hardness, while Keogh et al. [33] also reported that higher fat content was correlated with lower hardness. Youn and Lee [34] examined the impact of various mixtures of vegetable oils and fats on the quality characteristics of chocolate ganache and found that higher levels of vegetable oils and fats were associated with reduced hardness. Unlike the results obtained by Youn et al. [34], our experiment found that chocolate ganache containing vegetable cream was harder than chocolate ganache containing animal cream (whipped cream or milk). Guinard & Mazzuchelli [35] researched the influence of sugar and fat on milk chocolate, finding that chocolate with higher sugar content was harder and that sugar and fat seemed to interact with each other, impacting hardness. However, they added that it would be difficult to accurately determine the nature

of this interaction. It is already established that higher fat content is correlated with less hardness, and it appears that irrespective of the level of fat content, there are interactions between fat and protein and fat and sugar that impact the hardness of the chocolate.

3.6 Sensory Evaluation

The results of the sensory evaluation conducted using 100 students from Hoseo University can be seen in Fig.4. In the sweetness category, the vegetable cream chocolate was rated highest, followed by the whipped cream, milk, and coconut milk varieties. This differs from the results pertaining to levels of sugar content. The whipped cream chocolate was found to have the highest sugar content, and was rated as sweet by the participants, but the vegetable cream type, which contained 30% less sugar than the whipped cream variant, was given the highest rating in this category. In line with the results on sugar content, the coconut milk chocolate ganache was rated as the least sweet by participants. In the texture category, the vegetable cream chocolate received the highest score, followed by the whipped cream, coconut milk, and milk varieties. For smoothness, the coconut milk chocolate was rated highest, followed by vegetable cream, whipped cream, and milk. The coconut milk chocolate, which had the lowest recorded hardness, was rated as the smoothest, followed by vegetable cream, whipped cream, and milk. In the overall evaluation, the vegetable cream chocolate received the highest score, followed by the whipped cream, milk, and coconut milk types. The vegetable cream chocolate was rated highly across the board and was also rated as the sweetest, while the coconut milk variant was rated as the smoothest.

4. Conclusion

In conclusion, we believe that coconut milk, which contains less fat than whipped cream, is suitable for use in chocolate ganache due to its smoothness and lower caloric content, despite the fact that it is not as sweet. In addition, we believe that the functionality of coconut, when combined with low-calorie sweeteners, could be used to produce high quality chocolate snacks that are low in calories.

Based on this study, if many studies are done to lower the fat content of chocolate ganache in the future, we will be able to take the chocolate more healthily and sustain a long chocolate culture and history.

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Table 1

The nutrient composition for 100g of chocolate ganache

Energy(kcal) Carbohydrate(g) Fat(g) Protein(g)

WCCG 436 25.5 35.5 4.0

MCG 296 26.5 19.0 4.5

VCCG 386 25.5 30.0 4.1

CMCG 359 25.4 26.7 4.0

WCCG indicates Whipped Cream Chocolate Ganache, MCG indicates Milk Chocolate Ganache, VCCG indicates Vegetable Cream Chocolate Ganache and CMCG indicates Coconut Milk Chocolate Ganache. Whipped cream chocolate ganache was made by dark chocolate and cream ratio of 1:1. Whipped cream was substituted into unsweetened milk, vegetable cream and coconut milk in chocolate ganache and the nutrient composition was calculated.

Table 2

Chromaticity of chocolate ganache made with different fat sources

Chromaticity

Lab WCCG 0.07b + 0.005 0.403= ± 0.023 0.113" ± 0.05

MCG 0.157b ± 0.028 0.757b ± 0.045 0.213b ± 0.059

VCCG 0.043b ± 0.003 0.283= ± 0.008 0.037b ± 0.006

CMCG 0.283a ± 0.034 1.433a ± 0.043 0.457a ± 0.049

WCCG indicates Whipped Cream Chocolate Ganache, MCG indicates Milk Chocolate Ganache, VCCG indicates Vegetable Cream Chocolate Ganache and CMCG indicates Coconut Milk Chocolate Ganache. L, a, and b measured by color spectrophotometer indicated the lightness, redness and yellowness of the different chocolate ganache made with different fat sources, respectively. Values are mean ± SD (n=3)

a bc Different alphabets after means represented significant differences among the groups in Tukey test at P<0.05.

Fig. 1. Records demonstrating that the Aztecs used to cultivate cacao beans

(A) A Latin Aztec Badianus manuscript from the 16th century depicting a cacao tree (theobroma cacao) (http://www.mexicolore.co.uk/images-7/706_05_2.jpg) (B) A Codex Tudela painting from the 16th century depicting a woman making a chocolate drink (https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3AMujer_vertiendo_chocolate_-_Codex_Tudela.jpg)

WCCG MCG VCCG CMCG WCCG MCG VCCG CMCG

WCCG : Whipped Cream Chocolate Ganache MCG : Milk Chocolate Ganache

VCCG : Vegetable Cream Chocolate Ganache CMCG : Coconut Milk Chocolate Ganache

Fig. 2. Four contents of chocolate ganache with different fat sources

(A) Moisture contents, (B) Crude fat contents, (C) Sugar contents, (D) Hardness of the chocolate ganache with different fat sources. Values are mean ± SD (n=4)

a,b,c,d Bars on the different alphabets were significantly different among groups in Tukey test at P<0.05.

WCCG : Whipped Cream Chocolate Ganache MCG : Milk Chocolate Ganache

VCCG : Vegetable Cream Chocolate Ganache CMCG : Coconut Milk Chocolate Ganache

Fig. 3. Circumference and height of chocolate ganache with different fat sources

(A) Circumference of chocolate ganache, (B) Height of chocolate ganache

The melted chocolate ganache was fallen into the flat plate and the circumference and

height of them were measured by the ruler.

Values are mean ± SD (n=4)

a b c Bars on the different alphabets were significantly different among groups in Tukey test at P<0.05.

Overall acceptance

Sweetness 40

Texture

Hardness

Whipped Cream Chocolate Ganache Vegetable Cream Chocolate Ganache

Milk Chocolate Ganache Coconut Milk ChocolateGanache

Fig. 4. Sensory evaluation scores of chocolate ganache with different fat sources

The sensory evaluation (sweetness, hardness, texture and overall acceptance) of different chocolate ganache was conducted in 100 university students. Values are mean ± SD(n=100)