Scholarly article on topic 'Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats ( Felis s. catus )'

Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats ( Felis s. catus ) Academic research paper on "Veterinary science"

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Abstract of research paper on Veterinary science, author of scientific article — Deborah L. Duffy, Roseana T. Diniz de Moura, James A. Serpell

Abstract A questionnaire instrument for obtaining quantitative behavioral evaluations of pet cats from cat owners was developed and validated. Exploratory Factor Analysis of 2608 questionnaire responses to 149 behavioral questions/items extracted a total of 23 distinct factors that measured most of the more common dimensions of cat behavior. Seventeen of the 23 factors demonstrated adequate–high internal reliability (Cronbach’s alpha=0.712–0.923). Questionnaire validation was accomplished by determining: (a) whether owners’ subjective ratings of the severity of their cat’s behavior problems were associated with cats’ actual scores on expected questionnaire factors, (b) whether expected associations between specific demographic and/or lifestyle characteristics and behavior were confirmed by cats’ factor or item scores on the questionnaire, and (c) whether breed rankings based on owner-reported factor scores matched those previously derived from the opinions of experts (veterinarians). The results of these various tests confirmed the overall construct validity of the questionnaire.

Academic research paper on topic "Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats ( Felis s. catus )"

Accepted Manuscript

Title: Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats (Felis s. catus)

Authors: Deborah L. Duffy, Roseana T. Diniz de Moura, James A. Serpell

PII: DOI:

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S0376-6357(16)30294-7

http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.010 BEPROC 3388

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Behavioural Processes

Received date: Revised date: Accepted date:

14-10-2016

19-1-2017

9-2-2017

Please cite this article as: Duffy, Deborah L., de Moura, Roseana T.Diniz, Serpell, James A., Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring behavior in domestic cats (Felis s.catus).Behavioural Processes http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2017.02.010

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Development and evaluation of the Fe-BARQ: A new survey instrument for measuring

behavior in domestic cats (Felis s. catus)

1 2 1 Deborah L. Duffy , Roseana T. Diniz de Moura , James A. Serpell *

1 Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6010, USA

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil.

*Corresponding author: serpell@vet.upenn.edu

Article highlights

• A novel questionnaire instrument for the quantitative behavioral assessment of pet cats by their owners was developed.

• A convenience sample of 2068 cat owners completed an initial online survey regarding their cats' behavior.

• Twenty-three behavioral factors/subscales were extracted by exploratory factor analysis.

• Seventeen of these 23 factors displayed adequate-high internal reliability.

• Many factors also demonstrated construct validity when compared with owner assessments of problem behavior, expected behavioral effects of demographic and environmental variables, and independent behavioral rankings of cat breeds by veterinarians.

Abstract

A questionnaire instrument for obtaining quantitative behavioral evaluations of pet cats from cat owners was developed and validated. Exploratory Factor Analysis of 2608 questionnaire responses to 149 behavioral questions/items extracted a total of 23 distinct factors that measured most of the more common dimensions of cat behavior. Seventeen of the 23 factors demonstrated adequate-high internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.712-0.923). Questionnaire validation was accomplished by determining: (a) whether owners' subjective ratings of the severity of their cat's behavior problems were associated with cats' actual scores on expected questionnaire factors, (b) whether expected associations between specific demographic and/or lifestyle characteristics and behavior were confirmed by cats' factor or item scores on the questionnaire, and (c) whether breed rankings based on owner-reported factor scores matched those previously derived from the opinions of experts (veterinarians). The results of these various tests confirmed the overall construct validity of the questionnaire.

Keywords: cats; behavior; questionnaire; validation study

1. Introduction

Behavior problems (defined here as, behaviors generally considered problematic or undesirable by most cat owners) are a major risk factor for the premature death and abandonment of companion cats. According to one estimate, as many as 4 million cats are euthanized annually in US animal shelters (Patronek et al., 1996), and behavior problems—chiefly house-soiling, destructiveness, hyperactivity, and aggression directed toward people and other animals— account for around 30% of cats relinquished to animal shelters each year (Miller et al., 1996; Salman et al., 1998, 2000; Scarlett et al., 2002; New et al., 2000). Although no reliable data are available, it is likely that feline behavior problems also contribute to the casual or deliberate eviction of many cats from their homes, thereby increasing the vulnerability of these free-roaming animals to starvation, disease, predation, traffic accidents and other mishaps. Cats also suffer unnecessarily from the actions of misguided owners who resort to physical punishment in an effort to discourage their pets from performing problem behaviors (American Association of Feline Practitioners, 2004; Overall, 1997). In addition, many cats suffer from chronic fears that, while not necessarily cause for relinquishment or abandonment, severely reduce the welfare of these animals (Rochlitz, 2000).

Despite the scale of the problem, surprisingly little is known about the prevalence, distribution, or severity of behavior problems in the pet cat population, or the genetic and environmental factors that may contribute to the development of such problems (AAFP, 2004). Most of the information currently available on domestic cat behavior is based either on ethological studies of feral or free-roaming cats (Cafazzo & Natoli, 2009; Liberg et al., 2000; Macdonald et al., 2000; Natoli et al., 2001), cats living in 'captive' colonies and shelters (Arhant et al., 2015; Cobb et al.,

2005; McCune, 1995; Reid et al., 2004; Turner et al., 1986), or derived from the clinical caseloads of behaviorists (Amat et al., 2009; Bamberger & Houpt, 2006; Wassink-van der Schot at al., 2016). Apart from a small number of pioneering studies that attempted to observe the behavior of cats within cat owning households (Barry & Crowell-Davis, 1999; Bernstein & Strack, 1996; Lowe & Bradshaw, 2001; Mertens, 1991; Turner, 2000), there is a dearth of research on the ontogeny and epidemiology of behavior problems among the majority of cats living in their typical domestic environment. A major reason for this lack of research is the practical difficulty of observing and recording animal behavior for extended periods of time when the object of study—the 'focal animal'—is living in association with humans inside their homes.

Similar limitations on the collection of quantitative behavioral information on pet dogs prompted the development of standardized survey instruments, such as the Canine Behavioral Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ; www.cbarq.org), that can be used to measure canine behavior by proxy; by collecting indirect behavioral information provided by the dog's owner, guardian or handler (Hsu & Serpell, 2003). The information on canine behavioral traits (factors) obtained by the C-BARQ has been shown to be reliable and valid, and the factor structure remarkably consistent across dogs of different sexes, ages, breeds and geographic regions (Duffy & Serpell, 2012; Hsu & Sun, 2010; Nagasawa et al., 2011; Van den Berg et al., 2010). Since its development, the C-BARQ has become one of the most widely used tools for measuring behavior and temperament in both companion and working dogs worldwide. The development of a similar instrument for measuring the behavior and behavior problems of cats would be

expected to generate comparable uses and benefits for cat owners and breeders, animal shelters and adoption centers, behavior counselors, and cat researchers.

The primary aim of the current study was to develop and validate a feline equivalent of the C-BARQ—provisionally titled the Fe-BARQ (Feline Behavioral Assessment & Research Questionnaire)—for the quantitative assessment of cat behavior and behavioral problems.

2. Methods

2.1 Questionnaire development

In conformity with standard psychometric procedures (Nunnally, 1978) an exhaustive literature review was first performed to identify the full range of cat behavior and behavioral problems. An initial prototype questionnaire was then developed based on this information. Each behavioral item in the questionnaire comprised a series of 5-point, ordinal rating scales describing the frequency (e.g. Never, Rarely, Sometimes, Usually, Always) with which the behavior had been observed in the recent past (i.e. in the last few months).

To establish the content validity of the prototype questionnaire, an international panel of 5 established experts on cat behavior1 was invited to review and comment on the content and suggest appropriate additions or revisions to improve its quality. The questionnaire was then revised and updated in light of this expert feedback. The resulting 149-item behavioral questionnaire was then published in English online (SurveyGizmo™).

1 John Bradshaw, Debra Horwitz, Eugenia Natoli, Carlo Siracusa and Dennis Turner,.

2.2 Subject recruitment

Survey participation was solicited via a variety of cat- and pet-related websites and blogs. Cat owners were asked to, "complete the survey for only one cat per household, preferably by choosing one at random (e.g. put their names in a hat or similar container and select one with your eyes closed)." Survey participants were also asked to provide a range of background information about their cat (see Tables 1-3). A self-selected, convenience sample of 2,788 cat owners completed the online survey.

2.3 Statistical analysis

Exploratory factor analysis was performed on all 149 variables in order to reduce the total number of questionnaire items and investigate patterns of correlation among the items. A Principal Components Extraction method was used, excluding items with eigenvalues < 1, with varimax rotation and pairwise exclusion of missing values. Remaining items with factor loadings less than 0.5 on any factor, or items that loaded onto more than one factor with a difference in factor loadings of less than 0.2, were also eliminated (eliminated questionnaire items are listed in supplementary Table 1). A number of stand-alone, 'Miscellaneous' items (i.e. items which did not load on any of the extracted factors) were retained in the questionnaire when these were deemed to reflect behaviors considered important by a majority of cat owners. For the purposes of further analyses, factors scores were calculated by summing the scores for the individual questionnaire items within each factor and dividing by the number of completed items. Thus, if 4 questionnaire items loaded on one particular factor, the score for that factor was calculated by summing the scores for each of the 4 items and dividing the sum total by 4.

2.4 Questionnaire validation

To determine the internal reliability of the extracted factors, Cronbach's alpha values were calculated.

Construct validity was examined in three ways. First, cat owners' responses to a single question posed in the introductory section of the survey —"Are you currently experiencing any problems with this cat's behavior or temperament"— were compared with Fe-BARQ factor/item scores (Kruskal-Wallis test) to determine if cats perceived as more problematic by their owners also tended to display less favorable scores on the Fe-BARQ, as would be expected. The 4 possible responses to this question were: "No," "Only minor problems," "Moderate problems" and "Serious problems."

Second, nonparametric statistics (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests) were used to test for expected associations between specific demographic and/or lifestyle characteristics and Fe-BARQ factor or item scores. Specifically, the following predictions based on anecdotal reports and/or previous literature were examined:

• Cat activity/playfulness and predatory behavior would decline with age.

• Inappropriate elimination (e.g. outside litter box) would increase with age, particularly with advanced age (Landsberg et al., 2013).

• Declawed cats would display less activity/playfulness, predatory behavior and scratching of inappropriate objects than cats with intact claws (AVMA, 2016; Landsberg, 1991; Landsberg et al., 2013).

• (Clawed) cats with outdoor access would display more predatory behavior and less scratching of inappropriate objects than (clawed) cats without outdoor access (Bernstein, 2007; Buffington, 2002; Heidenberger, 1997; Rochlitz, 2007).

• Cats living in single cat households would display more separation-related behavior than those living in multi-cat households (Rochlitz, 2007).

• Cats living in multi-cat households would display more inappropriate elimination than those living in single cat households (Bradshaw, 2013; Hart et al., 2006; Rochlitz, 2007).

• Cats left at home alone for long periods would display more separation related behavior than those left alone for shorter periods (Schwartz, 2002)

Some of the demographic and lifestyle variables were recoded or categorized to facilitate analysis: the 'moderate' and 'severe' categories of owner-reported behavior problems were combined due to relatively few responses in the 'severe' category, the number of cats in the household was recorded as an open-ended item then recoded into a binary variable (single versus multi-cat households), the cat's age was recorded as an open-ended item and categorized into one year increments up to 15 years plus > 15 as the highest category, and declawed status was recoded from a three-category item (not declawed, declawed front paws only, declawed all four paws) into a binary item (not declawed versus declawed) due to relatively few cats having four-paw declawed status. Finally, a composite variable was created to capture the amount of time left alone by first multiplying the owner-reported days per week left alone by the hours per day left alone (using the midpoint of each category range), then categorizing the product (hours left alone per week) into five hour increments up to 40 plus >40 as the highest category.

Third, previously published cat breed rankings based on expert opinions of breed differences in behavior (Hart & Hart, 2013) were compared with breed rankings of comparable Fe-BARQ factor scores using Spearman rank order correlation. To determine if breeds could be reliably ranked based on Fe-BARQ factors, Kruskal-Wallis tests were first performed to confirm that the breeds differed significantly in their average factors scores.

[insert Tables 1 & 2 about here]

3. Results

3.1 Sample characteristics

A total of 2,788 cat owners representing 42 countries completed the online survey. Nearly one-half of respondents were from the United States (47%, N = 1,302). Another 21% (N = 591) were from the United Kingdom and 20% (N = 565) were from Australia. All other countries were represented by fewer than 5% of the respondents.

To reduce any possible effects of extreme youth or senility on the behavior of cats, cats younger than 6 months of age and older than 20 years of age were excluded from further analysis (N = 180). This resulted in a final sample of 2,608 survey responses. The mean age of the cats was six years (+/- 0.09 SE). The sample contained 53% male cats (N = 1,389), 98% of which were neutered. There were 1,219 female cats (47% of the sample), of which 95% were spayed.

Owners were asked to select all that apply from a list of reasons why their cat was spayed/neutered. The majority (80%) indicated that their cat was neutered to 'control reproduction', followed by 14% for 'urine marking', 9% for 'unknown' reasons, 7% for 'odor control', and 6% for 'aggression'. Another 20% (N = 498) reported that their cat was spayed/neutered for 'other' reasons. Respondents who selected 'other' reasons for spaying/neutering were permitted to enter their reasons verbatim. Twenty-eight percent (N = 139) reported that spaying/neutering was required by the shelter or rescue from which the animal was obtained. Another 17% (N = 83) reported better health or the prevention of medical issues as the reason for spaying/neutering. The information requested on the cat's age when it was obtained was categorical—i.e. unweaned kitten (< 2 months), kitten (2-6 months), junior (6 months-2 years), mature (3-10 years), senior (> 10 years)—so length of ownership prior to survey completion could not be assessed accurately. However, it was possible to determine that 71% of respondents had owned their cats for at least 6 months prior to completing the survey. Other information regarding the cats' backgrounds and life histories are summarized in Tables 1 & 2.

Cat owners were asked for their cat's breed type by indicating whether their cat was a domestic short hair (DSH) / mixed breed, domestic long hair (DLH) / mixed breed, mix of pure breeds, or pure breed (Table 1). Cat owners were also asked to indicate their cat's breed by selecting any and all that applied from a list of 67 pure breeds. In total, 437 (17%) cat owners indicated that their cat was a pure breed and, of those, 48 different cat breeds were represented (Table 3). The most common pure breeds were Burmese (13%), Maine Coon (10%), Ragdoll (9%), Siamese

(9%), British Shorthair (7%), Persian (6%), and Bengal (5%). Other purebred options were selected by fewer than 5% of cat owners who responded to the question (see Table 3).

[insert Table 3 about here].

3.2 Factor analysis

Factor analysis was performed on all 149 items using 2,608 submitted questionnaires. Ninety of the 149 items that were analyzed were grouped into 23 factors that accounted for 67% of the variance in item scores (Table 4). Of those 90 items, 10 were later reworded and combined to form 5 items, resulting in 85 items that comprised 23 factors in the final survey (Table 4). Extracted factors were given the following labels: playfulness/activity (14 items related to the tendency to interact in a playful manner with objects, people or other pets in the environment), sociability (7 items related to the level of comfort the cat has with familiar and unfamiliar adults and children in the home), directed calls/vocalizations (4 items related to the tendency to communicate with people using vocalizations), purring (2 items related to purring behavior), attention-seeking (2 items related to the solicitation or seeking out of attention from household members), sociability with cats (3 items related to friendly behavior exhibited towards unfamiliar cats or kittens either inside or outside the home), stranger-directed aggression (3 items related to the tendency to display aggression towards unfamiliar adults and children), touch sensitivity/owner-directed aggression (5 items related to the tendency to react aggressively to being touched or petted or to attack people's legs or feet in movement), resistance to restraint (7 items related to the tendency to react aggressively to be handled for grooming, bathing or

medicating), familiar cat aggression (4 items related to aggression directed towards other familiar cats), dog aggression (5 items related to aggression directed towards familiar and unfamiliar dogs), fear of unfamiliar dogs/cats (2 items related to the tendency to react fearfully to unfamiliar dogs and cats visiting the home), fear of novelty (2 items related to restlessness or hyper-vigilance in response to unfamiliar objects or changes to the cat's environment), separation-related behavior (6 items related to the behavioral displays of anxiety just prior to or when left alone or separated from the for a period of time), trainability (3 items related to response to commands and attentive behavior), predatory behavior (3 items related to the tendency to chase or capture prey animals or exhibit fascination with small household pets), prey interest (2 items related to display of excitement in response to looking at small animals outside of the home), location preference for resting/sleeping (3 items related to the tendency to rest or sleep in particular locations in the home), excessive/compulsive self-grooming (3 items related to excessive and intense self-grooming or self-mutilation), other compulsive behaviors (3 items related to staring, freezing or other strange repetitive movements without obvious cause), inappropriate elimination (2 items related to urination or defecation outside of the litter box), elimination preferences (2 items related to the location or substrate preferences for urinating or defecating), and Crepuscular activity (3 items related to increased activity in the early evening or early morning). Another 21 items were retained in the survey as stand-alone 'Miscellaneous items' due to their potential importance to cat-owner relations (see Table 4).

All 90 questionnaire items were moderately to strongly correlated with the other items in their respective factors (i.e., factor loadings of 0.49 to 0.90). Internal consistency of each factor was examined by calculating Cronbach's a. Seventeen of the 23 factors had adequate a values (Table

4). However, the a values for six factors (trainability, location preferences for resting/sleeping, other compulsive behaviors, inappropriate elimination, elimination preferences, and crepuscular activity) were somewhat low, suggesting that adding more items addressing these constructs would improve the reliability of these factors.

[insert Table 4 about here]

3.3 Validation

Cats identified by their owners as having behavioral problems received less favorable scores on several Fe-BARQ factors (Table 5; Figures 1-3; Kruskal Wallis test, p < 0.001). Cats whose owners indicated they were experiencing mild or moderate-severe behavioral problems were more aggressive towards strangers, owners, familiar cats and dogs and showed more resistance to restraint (Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.0001; Fig. 1). Similarly, cats with owner-identified behavioral problems showed greater fear of novelty, separation-related behavior, inappropriate elimination, crepuscular activity, excessive self-grooming and other compulsive behaviors (Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.0001; Fig. 2). Cats with behavioral problems also showed less sociability with humans and other cats, less purring, and were rated as less trainable and more prone to spraying indoors (Kruskal Wallis tests, p < 0.001; Fig. 3).

[insert Table 5 and Figs. 1-3 about here]

All but two of the ten expected associations between specific demographic and lifestyle characteristics and Fe-BARQ factor or item scores were confirmed (Table 6, Figs. 4-7). No

associations were observed between multi-cat/single cat households and inappropriate elimination or the time left alone per week and separation-related behavior.

[insert Table 6 and Figs. 4-7 about here]

Eight of the behaviors included in the Hart & Hart (2013) study were identified as being analogous to Fe-BARQ factors, and six breeds in the present study (Bengal, Burmese, Maine Coon, Persian, Ragdoll, and Siamese) matched those included in Hart & Hart (2013) and were represented by at least 20 records. No significant breed differences (Kruskal-Wallis test, P > 0.05) were detected for two of the matched Fe-BARQ behaviors (inappropriate elimination and familiar cat aggression), suggesting that the breeds could not be reliably ranked on these factors. The six breeds were therefore ranked based on mean factor scores for the remaining 6 behaviors and these rankings were then compared using Spearman rank order correlation to those reported in Hart & Hart (2013). In total, significant positive rank order correlations were found for four of the six comparisons (Table 7).

[insert Table 7 about here] 4. Discussion and conclusions

The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate a questionnaire that can be used to obtain reliable quantitative evaluations of cat behavior and behavioral problems from cat owners.

Exploratory Factor Analysis of 2608 questionnaire responses to 149 questions/items extracted a total of 23 distinct factors or subscales with eigenvalues > 1 comprising a total of 90 items. Most of these factors displayed adequate-high internal reliability (i.e. Cronbach's alpha 0.712-0.923), although the alpha values for six factors—trainability, crepuscular activity, elimination preferences, inappropriate elimination, other compulsive behaviors, and location preferences for resting/sleeping—were somewhat low (0.501-0.675). While these levels of alpha do not necessarily disqualify these factors from being used to evaluate cat behavior, they might be enhanced by the addition of further items relating to the same behavioral constructs.

The questionnaire performed relatively well in the three different tests of construct validity investigated. Cats' scores on a number of factors successfully predicted responses to a single 'background' question that asked owners to rate the severity of any behavior problems they were currently experiencing with their cats. Furthermore, the kinds of behavioral factors associated with owners' reports of moderate to serious 'problems' tended to be similar to those most commonly reported in the literature on feline behavior problems and shelter relinquishment: e.g. aggression towards people and other animals, neophobia, elimination outside the litter box, spraying, separation anxiety, and lack of sociability and trainability (obedience) (Hart et al., 2006; Landsberg et al, 2013; Rochlitz, 2000; Salman, et al., 2000; Schwartz, 2002). Though not widely reported in the behavior problem literature, the additional factors/items associated with owner reports of moderate to severe problems (e.g. resistance to restraint, crepuscular activity, excessive/compulsive grooming, other compulsive behaviors, and lack of purring) appear also to be plausible sources of owner dissatisfaction with the behavior of their pets, despite being for the most part 'normal' aspects of feline behavior. For example, crepuscular and compulsive

behaviors may be regarded as a nuisance by some cat owners, while resistance to being held or restrained and an absence of purring during social interactions may detract from the quality of the owner-cat relationship. Admittedly, this type of validation cannot be considered truly independent since both sources of behavioral information were derived from the same individual cat owners. However, it does at least confirm that the kinds of behavior associated with owners' perceptions of problems are also those that would be expected based on current evidence. As an aside, it is interesting to note thatpredation was not perceived as a problem by this sample of cat owners, despite the considerable negative impact of cat predation on wildlife populations (Loss et al., 2013).

Eight out of 10 of the predicted associations between demographic and lifestyle variables and questionnaire factor and item scores were also confirmed, suggesting that the Fe-BARQ is sufficiently sensitive to detect cats' behavioral responses to factors such as aging, surgical onychectomy (declawing), and to variations in their physical and social environment. Contrary to the implications of some previous reports (e.g. AVMA, 2016; Landsberg, 1991), the present study found highly significant behavioral differences reported by the owners of declawed and non-declawed cats. While most of these differences could be construed as beneficial, either from the owner's (less destructiveness) or the environmental (less predation) perspective, the observed reduction in activity/playfulness in declawed cats suggests a possible negative impact of this procedure on feline welfare.

The Fe-BARQ did not confirm two expected behavioral effects of being either left at home alone for long periods or living in single versus multi-cat households. The prediction that frequency of

separation-related behavior would increase with time left alone did not take into account other factors that may mitigate such effects, including the presence of other objects of attachment such as other pets (Schwartz, 2002). It is also possible that the particular behaviors comprising the separation-related behavior factor—i.e. restlessness, hypervigilance and vocalization—are relatively short-term responses to the owner's departure rather than reliable reflections of the total time left alone. The expectation that cats in multi-cat households would be more likely to display inappropriate elimination was based on previous observations that (a) the chronic psychological stress of living with other cats may lead some cats to develop house-soiling problems (Bradshaw, 2013), and (b) more dominant cats in multi-cat households sometimes prevent less assertive ones from gaining access to litter boxes; a problem that can usually be resolved by providing several litter boxes in various locations (Rochlitz, 2007). Several possible reasons for this lack of association can be suggested, including the difficulty many cat owners encounter when trying to identify which cat in a multi-cat household is eliminating inappropriately (Nielson, 2004), the lack of background information on the different cats and their relationships in these households, and other aspects of the social environment such as the owner (see Ramos et al., 2013). Also, as indicated by the disproportionate numbers of neutered cats in our sample, the cat owners who participated in the current study may not have been representative of the cat owning population as a whole. Specifically, these owners were self-selected through cat-oriented websites and blogs, and may therefore have been better informed than average about the need for adequate safe havens for subordinate cats and/or for providing multiple litter boxes in multi-cat households.

Finally, despite major differences in methodology and a small sample size of comparable breeds (N = 6), surprisingly strong positive correlations were found between 4 out of 6 breed rankings for behavior when comparing Fe-BARQ owner reports (current study) with expert (veterinary) opinions (Hart & Hart, 2013). Significantly, 3 of these behaviors—'vocalization', 'activity level' and 'predation on songbirds'—were determined by ANOVA to be the most reliable at distinguishing between breeds in the survey of 'experts', while the fourth ('affection toward family members') was classed as being moderately reliable (Hart & Hart, 2013). Agreement between cat owners and cat experts might therefore be considered more likely for these particular behaviors. The absence of positive Fe-BARQ correlations with Hart & Hart's measures of 'aggression toward family members' and 'friendliness toward visitors' may be due to lack of comparability between their behavioral variables and the Fe-BARQ's, or it may indicate that one or other source of information—cat owners or veterinarians—is not a reliable guide to the relative prevalence of these types of behavior in different cat breeds.

In conclusion, the Fe-BARQ appears to be a comprehensive, internally consistent, and valid questionnaire instrument for evaluating behavior and behavior problems in pet cats based on owner reports. The development of such an instrument should help to improve understanding of feline behavior among cat owners and breeders, animal shelters and adoption centers, behavior counselors, and cat researchers. However, further work is needed to assess the reliability of these different measures of cat behavior, particularly when sampled at different times (test-retest reliability) and between different evaluators (inter-observer reliability), and to determine how they are influenced by demographic, environmental, and ontogenetic factors.

Acknowledgments

The Fe-BARQ was developed with the help of a grant to Dr. J. Serpell from the Waltham Foundation. Dr. Diniz de Moura's contribution to the study was supported by the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco. We wish to thank both these organizations for their support, as well as the many cat owners who participated in the survey. We are also grateful to Drs. John Bradshaw, Debra Horwitz, Eugenia Natoli, Carlo Siracusa and Dennis Turner for their help with establishing the content validity of the Fe-BARQ.

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Table 1. Background/demographic information about the cats (N = 2,608) included in the sample.

Males 1,389 53.3%

Neutered 1,359 52.1%

Intact 30 1.2%

Females 1,219 46.7%

Spayed 1,163 44.6%

Intact 56 2.1%

Declawed

Not declawed 2,378 91.2%

Declawed, front paws only 200 7.7%

Declawed, all four paws 30 1.2%

Health problems

No 2,026 77.7%

Yes 582 22.3%

Behavioral problems

No behavioral problems 1,696 65.0%

Only minor problems 758 29.1%

Moderate problems 135 5.2%

Serious problems 19 0.7%

Where Acquired

Home (born at) 80 3.1%

Friend / relative / neighbor 468 17.9%

Veterinary hospital 175 6.7%

Street (as a stray) 387 14.8%

Shelter 833 31.9%

Breeding cattery 271 10.4%

Cattery (multicat holder / foster) 77 3.0%

Pet store (purchase) 49 1.9%

Pet store (rescue) 84 3.2%

Other 184 7.1%

Age Acquired

Unweaned kitten (< 2 months) 332 12.7%

Kitten (2 - 6 months) 1,370 52.5%

Junior (6 months - 2 years) 573 22.0%

Mature (3 - 10 years) 311 11.9%

Senior (> 10 years) 22 0.8%

Breed Type

Domestic short hair / mixed breed 1,706 65.4%

Domestic long hair / mixed breed 386 14.8%

Mix of pure breeds 79 3.0%

Pure breed 437 16.8%

Country

USA 1,207 46.3%

United Kingdom 554 21.2%

Australia 534 20.5%

Canada 119 4.6%

Others 194 7.4%

Total 2,608

Table 2. Household/lifestyle information about the cats included in the sample.

Number of People in the Household

1 607 23.3%

2 1,247 47.8%

3 384 14.7%

4 271 10.4%

5 77 3.0%

6 or more 22 0.8%

Number of Cats in the Household

1 971 37.2%

2 858 32.9%

3 363 13.9%

4 178 6.8%

5 74 2.8%

6 or more 163 6.3%

Cat Breeder

No 2,529 97.0%

Yes 79 3.0%

Days Left Alone/week

0 166 6.4%

1 147 5.6%

2 237 9.1%

3 230 8.8%

4 227 8.7%

5 700 26.8%

6 313 12.0%

7 587 22.5%

Hours Left Alone/day

0 - 1 405 15.5%

1 - 2 309 11.8%

2 - 4 420 16.1%

4 - 6 406 15.6%

6 - 8 608 23.3%

8 - 12 437 16.8%

13 or more 23 0.9%

Time alone per week

Up to 10 hours 833 32.0%

11 - 15 hours 236 9.1%

16 - 20 hours 76 2.9%

21 - 25 hours 255 9.8%

26 - 30 hours 106 4.1%

31 - 35 hours 367 14.1%

36 - 40 hours 31 1.2%

More than 40 hours 703 27.0%

Home Environment

Apartment / Condo 734 28.1%

House 1,793 68.8%

Farm 40 1.5%

Shelter 1 0.0%

Breeding Cattery 20 0.8%

Cattery (multicat holder / foster) 11 0.4%

Other 9 0.3%

Lifestyle

Indoors only 1,257 48.2%

Indoors with free access to garden / backyard / terrace only 224 8.6%

Indoors with controlled or supervised access to outdoors 570 21.9%

Indoors with free access to outdoors 525 20.1%

Outside only (no access indoors) 11 0.4%

Lives on leash and has controlled access outdoors 1 0.0%

Other 20 0.8%

Where Cat Sleeps

In bedroom on bed (with a household member) 1,538 59.0%

In bedroom but not on bed 223 8.6%

In another room in house 712 27.3%

Caged or confined in part of house 59 2.3%

Caged or confined in outdoor run/shed 5 0.2%

Outside free-ranging 31 1.2%

Other 40 1.5%

Total 2,608

Table 3. Cat breeds as reported by survey respondents.

Burmese * 56 12.8%

Maine Coon * 42 9.6%

Ragdoll * 40 9.2%

Siamese * 38 8.7%

British Shorthair 29 6.6%

Persian * 25 5.7%

Bengal * 23 5.3%

Birman 15 3.4%

Abyssinian 13 3.0%

Norwegian Forest 12 2.7%

Oriental Shorthair 12 2.7%

Russian Blue 12 2.7%

Australian Mist 8 1.8%

Himalayan 8 1.8%

Devon Rex 7 1.6%

Tonkinese 7 1.6%

Turkish Van 6 1.4%

Balinese 5 1.1%

Cornish Rex 5 1.1%

Siberian 5 1.1%

Sphynx 5 1.1%

Other (N < 5 each) 53 12.1%

Total 437 --

* Breeds that met the criteria for comparison to Hart & Hart (2013) breed rankings of behavior (N > 20)

Table 4. Survey items with factor loadings and Cronbach's alpha of extracted factors.

Factor

Factor_loading

Playfulness / activity (alpha = 0.923)

Curious: Actively investigates/explores new objects, sights, or changes in its environment 0.544

Carries small objects/toys in the mouth to interact with 0.687

Runs and jumps in the air 0.783

Engages in active jumping and climbing on high surfaces, furniture or curtains/drapes 0.664

Exhibits bursts of running and/or climbing in certain periods of the day 0.712

Exhibits sudden jumping and running during playful activity 0.819

Stalks, chases, pounces on moving objects (strings, balls, soft toys, etc) during playful activity 0.761

Displays running/chasing and hunting/pouncing at unseen/imaginary prey/objects 0.723

Chases and ambushes other household members (including pets) playfully 0.736

Chases or follows shadows or light spots 0.631

Initiates mutual chasing by running from room to room in the house 0.776

Initiates interactive play (i e bringing toys, strings, or small objects) with people in the home 0.633

Plays with other household cat(s) 0.603

Quickly learns how to play with new introduced toys 0.533

Sociability (alpha = 0.938)

Is comfortable and relaxed among people in social gatherings at home 0.831

Is comfortable and relaxed being petted by unfamiliar (non-household) person at home 0.867

Greets unfamiliar adults visiting your home in a friendly manner (sniffs, rubs, purrs, lies on the floor) 0.872

Greets unfamiliar children visiting your home in a friendly manner (sniffs, rubs, purrs, lies on the floor) 0.861

Appears comfortable (confident, relaxed) when playing with familiar child(ren) 0.649

Appears comfortable (confident, relaxed) when playing with unfamiliar adult persons 0.870

Appears comfortable (confident, relaxed) when playing with unfamiliar child(ren) 0.857

Directed calls / vocalizations (alpha = 0.774)

Talks to people using calls/vocalizations (i e answers when spoken to by a person) 0.691

Asks (vocalizes, walks toward door, makes noise) to be let outside, or in and out of rooms 0.826

Asks (vocalizes, walks toward its bowl or food source, makes noise) for food when hungry 0.760

Meows loudly in front of any closed door 0.669

Purring (alpha = 0.830)

Purrs when stroked or petted 0.873

Purrs when sitting/lying on someone's lap 0.866

Attention-seeking (alpha = 0.794)

Nudges and nuzzles you or other members of the household when you are sitting or lying down 0.840

Seeks out physical contact with you or other household members when you/they 0.829

are sitting or lying down

Sociability with cats (alpha = 0.908)

Greets unfamiliar (non-household) cats visiting your home in a friendly manner (sniffs, touches nose, rubs) 0.803

Approaches unfamiliar adult cats outside your home in a friendly manner (sniffs, touches nose) 0.898

Approaches unfamiliar kittens outside your home in a friendly manner (sniffs, touches nose) 0.875

Stranger-directed aggression (alpha = 0.885)

Growls/hisses when an unfamiliar (e g non-household member) person tries to touch or pet him/her 0.777

Growls/hisses at unfamiliar child visiting its home 0.815

Growls/hisses at unfamiliar adult visiting its home 0.827

Touch sensitivity / Owner-directed aggression (alpha = 0.756)

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite (in a non-playful way) when petted on the belly 0.631

Growls/hisses when stroked along the back or spine a 0.673

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when stroked along the back or spine a 0.807

Chases, grabs onto, or attacks people's legs or feet in movement (in a non-playful way) 0.586

Lashes out (scratches, bites) unexpectedly when petted 0.646

Resistance to restraint (alpha = 0.875)

Growls/hisses when given medicine by a familiar person b 0.758

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when given medicine by a familiar person b 0.714

Growls/hisses when being bathed c 0.737

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when being bathed c 0.690

Growls/hisses when being groomed 0.586

Growls/hisses when nails/claws are clipped d 0.781

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when nails/claws are clipped d 0.733

Familiar cat aggression (alpha = 0.876)

Growls/hisses when approached by a familiar (household) cat while eating 0.738

Growls/hisses when approached by a familiar cat at a favorite resting place 0.822

Growls/hisses when stared at, growled or hissed at by a familiar cat 0.817

Attacks (scratches/bites/attempts to bite) when stared at, growled or hissed at by a familiar cat 0.684

Dog aggression (alpha = 0.878)

Growls/hisses at familiar dog(s) 0.744

Attacks (scratches/bites/attempts to bite) familiar dog(s) 0.785

Growls/hisses when unfamiliar dog visits its home or enters the home yard/garden 0.761

Attacks (scratches/bites/attempts to bite) when a unfamiliar dog visits its home or enters the home yard/garden 0.864

Chases or scratches unfamiliar dogs on the street if given the opportunity 0.780

Fear of unfamiliar dogs / cats (alpha = 0.780)

Runs and/or hides when unfamiliar (non-household) cat(s) visits its home or enters the home yard/garden 0.793

Runs and/or hides when unfamiliar dog visits its home or enters the home 0.790

yard/garden

Fear of novelty (alpha = 0.822)

Shows restlessness (active investigation) when its resting area is modified (e g 0.843 objects moved from usual place, changing fabrics/sheets, etc.)_

Shows restlessness (active investigation) or hyper-vigilance (constant ears movement and watchful eyes) when unfamiliar objects are introduced into the home

Separation-related behavior (alpha = 0.859)

Shows restlessness, agitation and/or pacing when you or another household member prepares to leave the home 0.782

Sulks, hides and/or slinks away from you or another household member when you are preparing to leave the home 0.632

Lies down or stays still in the vicinity of the entrance door when you or another household member is preparing to leave the home 0.630

Displays restlessness (active investigation) when left behind 0.861

Remains still and alert/hyper-vigilant (constant ears movement and watchful eyes) when left behind 0.787

Vocalizes by crying or meowing when left alone at home 0.719

Trainability (alpha = 0.664)

Comes when called 0.729

Readily responds to simple commands (out, in, quiet, down, up, no, lie down, etc.) 0.745

Attends and listens closely to everything you say or do 0.664

Predatory behavior (alpha = 0.809)

Brings prey animals (mice, birds, reptiles, frogs, insects, worms, etc.) into the home given the opportunity 0.803

Chases birds, lizards, rodents, squirrels, rabbits or other small animals, given the 0.852

opportunity

Is fascinated by the activities of other small pets (rodents, birds, reptiles, fish, etc.) in the home 0.667

Prey interest (alpha = 0.760)

Makes chirping or chattering noises when observing birds or other small animals outside the home 0.776

Displays lashing tail, skin rippling and/or a tense body when looking at birds or other movements through the window 0.713

Location preferences for resting / sleeping (alpha = 0.501)

Tends to rest/sleep in elevated places (shelves, bookcases, tops of wardrobes or cupboards, etc.) 0.686

Tends to sleep/rest on top of warm appliances (dvd player, tv, printer, computer, radiator, etc.) 0.680

Tends to sleep/rest inside cupboards, clothes drawers, laundry baskets, etc. 0.646

Excessive / compulsive self-grooming (alpha = 0.712)

Shows excessive and intensive (several times a day for long period) grooming 0.770

Exhibits self-mutilation, hair barbering (pulls fur with teeth, vigorously nibbles and/or licks its body parts) 0.837

Exhibits sudden frantic licking or chewing 0.682

Other compulsive behaviors (alpha = 0.617)

Stares unblinking at people 0.752

Freezes and stares intently at nothing visible 0.792

Shows strange repetitive movements (pacing, walking) from one place to another (short distances) 0.525

Inappropriate elimination (alpha = 0.675)

Urinates (crouching position) outside of the litter box or in other inappropriate area indoors 0.834

Defecates outside the litter box or in other inappropriate area indoors 0.834

Elimination preferences (alpha = 0.612)

Shows location preference (i.e. quiet, high or hidden places) for elimination 0.778

Shows substrate preference (i.e. litter box, sand, pebbles, grass, newspaper, sheets) for elimination 0.814

Crepuscular activity (alpha = 0.615)

Shows increased activity in the evening around dusk, sunset 0.485

Shows increased activity in the early hours of morning around dawn, sunrise e 0.788

Wakes or attempts to wake members of the household early in the morning e 0.700

Miscellaneous items

Gives sudden and loud vocalizations (meowing, yowling) during the daytime (without another cat or animal in sight) f N/A

Gives loud vocalizations (meowing, yowling) during the night (without another cat or animal in sight) f N/A

Sprays (standing position with tail raised vertically) outside of the litter box or on other surfaces and objects indoors (i.e. against people's legs, furniture, walls, objects, etc.) N/A

Growls/hisses when approached while in possession of stolen food or prey s N/A

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when approached while in possession of stolen food or prey s N/A

Appears uncomfortable (trembles, becomes rigid/tense, struggles) when picked up/held in arms h N/A

Appears uncomfortable (trembles, becomes rigid/tense, struggles) sitting on laps h N/A

Shows agitation, restlessness, vocalization when you or another member of the household shows affection for another cat or animal 1 N/A

Shows agitation, restlessness, vocalization when you or another household member shows affection for another person 1 N/A

Kneads, suckles and/or mounts fuzzy stuffed toys, pillows or fabrics j N/A

Suckles and chews on fabrics (woolen, synthetics or cotton substrates) j N/A

Plays 'fetch'; likes to retrieve thrown objects or toys N/A

Readily adapts to changes in daily routines (schedules, replacement or rearrangement of objects and furniture). N/A

Growls/hisses when examined or treated by a veterinarian k N/A

Scratches/bites or attempts to bite when treated by a veterinarian. k N/A

Runs and/or hides in response to sudden or loud noise (e.g., vacuum cleaner, car backfire, road drills, dropped object, sounds of musical instruments, doorbells or someone knocking on the door). N/A

Escapes or attempts to escape from the home or yard/garden, if given the opportunity. N/A

Scratches, claws on inappropriate objects or surfaces indoors (furniture, rugs, drapes, curtains, wallpaper, etc.) N/A

ACCEPTED MANUSCRIPT

Tends to lie on paper, books or things that are being used by people. N/A

Chases its own tail/hind end. N/A

Chews or damages inappropriate objects when left alone at home (destructive behavior). N/A

a-k Items with the same superscript letters were combined for the final survey to reduce the total number of questions (the final version of the Fe-BARQ is publicly available online at: http://www.febarq.org).

Table 5. Behavioral differences among cats identified by their owners as having no behavioral problems, minor problems, or moderate to severe problems.

Factor Chi-Square p value

Playfulness / activity 0.17 0.918

Sociability 23.31 <0.0001

Directed calls / vocalizations 1.45 0.485

Purring 42.92 <0.0001

Attention-seeking 9.70 0.008

Sociability with cats 13.76 0.001

Stranger-directed aggression 83.64 <0.0001

Resistance to restraint 59.07 <0.0001

Touch sensitivity / Owner-directed 146.85 <0.0001

aggression

Familiar cat aggression 104.64 <0.0001

Dog-directed aggression 17.67 0.0001

Fear of unfamiliar dogs/cats 0.89 0.641

Fear of novelty 73.68 <0.0001

Separation-related behavior 48.98 <0.0001

Trainability 39.92 <0.0001

Predatory behavior 0.01 0.995

Prey interest 6.63 0.036

Location preference for resting/sleeping 2.63 0.269

Excessive / compulsive self-grooming 51.11 <0.0001

Other compulsive behaviors 57.15 <0.0001

Inappropriate elimination 76.87 <0.0001

Elimination preferences 7.07 0.029

Spraying indoors 57.30 <0.0001

Crepuscular activity 17.83 0.0001

Kruskal Wallis Test, df = 2 ("No behavioral problems", "Only minor problems", "Moderate-Severe problems"); Items in boldface are statistically significant at the 0.05 level with Bonferroni correction.

Table 6. Results of predicted associations between demographic or lifestyle characteristics and Fe-BARQ factors/items.

Prediction

Test Statistic P value

K-W K-W K-W M-W U 474.617 36.627 50.807 22680.5 < 0.0001 < 0.01 < 0.0001 < 0.001

M-W U 147411 < 0.0001

M-W U 19715.5 < 0.0001

M-W U 287693 <0.0005

M-W U 404751 < 0.0001

Activity/Playfulness declines with age Predatory behavior declines with age Inappropriate elimination increases with age Declawed cats display less predatory behavior than cats with intact claws

Declawed cats display less scratching of inappropriate objects than cats with intact claws

Cats with outdoor access display more predatory behavior than cats without outdoor access

Cats with free outdoor access display less destructive behavior (scratching inappropriate objects) than cats without outdoor access (indoors only)

Cats living in single cat households display more separation-related behavior than those living in multi-cat households

Cats living in multi-cat households (> 1 cat) display more inappropriate elimination than those living in single cat households

Cats left at home alone for long periods display more separation related behavior than those left alone for shorter periods

732742 0.596

Table 7. Results of correlations between Hart & Hart (2013) behavior rankings and Fe-BARQ behavior rankings for six matched breeds (N > 20 each), along with breed rankings, breed means (Fe-BARQ), and results of Kruskal-Wallis tests comparing the six breeds (Fe-BARQ).

Kruskal-

rho Wallis

(p value) Pure Breeds' Rank (mean) Test

Maine Statistic

Bengal Burmese Coon Persian Ragdoll Siamese (p value)

Playfulness / Activity 0.943

Activity Level / Playfulness (Hart & Hart) 1 (0.005) 1 3 4 6 5 2

Playfulness / Activity (Fe-BARQ) 1 1 (3.25) 2 (2.49) 4 (2.46) 6 (1.95) 5 (2.19) 3 (2.48) 34.85 (<0.0001)

Vocalization 0.829

Vocalization (Hart & Hart) 1 (0.042) 2 3 5 6 4 1

Directed vocalization (Fe-BARQ) 1 2 4 3 6 5 1 19.23

(2.89) (2.62) (2.71) (2.36) (2.50) (3.18) (0.002)

Affection / Attention-seeking 0.886

Affection toward family members (Hart & (0.019) 6 2 3 5 1 4

Hart) 1

Attention-seeking (Fe-BARQ) 1 5 1 3 6 2 4 20.95

(2.63) (3.00) (2.714) (1.87) (2.74) (2.711) (0.001)

Predatory behavior 0.829

Predation on songbirds (Hart & Hart) 1 (0.042) 1 4 3 6 5 2

Prey interest (Fe-BARQ) 1 1 (3.07) 3 (2.67) 2 (3.06) 6 (1.65) 5 (2.14) 4 (2.54) 24.63 (<0.0001)

Aggression toward family members -0.371

Aggression toward family members (Hart & (0.468) 1 5 4 3 6 2

Hart) 1

Touch-sensitivity / Owner-directed aggression 6 2 1 3 5 4 11.99

(Fe-BARQ) 1 (0.13) (0.36) (0.39) (0.25) (0.14) (0.16) (0.035)

Friendliness/sociability towards people -0.086

Friendliness towards visitors (Hart & Hart) 1 (0.872) 4 5 2 6 1 3

Sociability (Fe-BARQ) 1 3 1 4 6 5 2 13.75

(2.56) (3.03) (2.26) (2.04) (2.08) (2.68) (0.017)

1 - most to least; 2 - worst to best

Figure captions

Figure 1. Mean differences in aggressive behavior among cats identified by owners as having "No behavioral problems" (black bars), "Only minor problems" (dark grey bars), or "Moderate" to "Severe" behavioral problems (light grey bars). Kruskal-Wallis tests, p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction.

Figure 2. Mean differences in fearful or compulsive behaviors among cats identified by owners as having "No behavioral problems" (black bars), "Only minor problems" (dark grey bars), or "Moderate" to "Severe" behavioral problems (light grey bars). Kruskal-Wallis tests,p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction.

Figure 3. Mean differences in spraying, social, interactive, and crepuscular behaviors among cats identified by owners as having "No behavioral problems" (black bars), "Only minor problems" (dark grey bars), or "Moderate" to "Severe" behavioral problems (light grey bars). Kruskal-Wallis tests, p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction.

Figure 4. Associations between cats' age and a) Playfulness / activity, b) Predatory behavior, and c) Inappropriate elimination (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction).

Figure 5. Mean differences in activity/playfulness, scratching and predatory behaviors between cats with intact claws (black bars) and cats that have been declawed in either all four paws or front paws only (grey bars; Mann-Whitney U tests, * p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction).

Figure 6. Mean differences in separation-related behaviors and inappropriate elimination between cats living in single-cat households (black bars) and cats living in multi-cat households (grey bars; Mann-Whitney U tests, * p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction).

Figure 7. Mean differences in predatory behavior and scratching of inappropriate objects or surfaces indoors between cats that live indoors only (black bars) and cats with free access to outdoors (grey bars; Mann-Whitney U tests, * p < 0.05 family-wise with Bonferroni correction).

Stranger-directed Resistance to Touch sensitivity Familiar cat Dog-directed aggression restraint / Owner-directed aggression aggression

aggression

Fear of novelty Separation- Excessive / Other compulsive Inappropriate related behavior compulsive self- behaviors elimination grooming

Sprays indoors Sociability

Purring

Trainability

Crepuscular activity

More than15years 14-15 years 13-14 years 12-13 years 11-12 years 10-11 years i-10 years ¡-9 years 7-8 years -7 years -6 years 4-5 years 3-4 years -3 years 1-2 years p to 1 year

More than15years 14-15 years 13-14 years 12-13 years 11-12 years 10-11 years i-10 years ¡-9 years 7-8 years -7 years -6 years 4-5 years 3-4 years -3 years 1-2 years p to 1 year

1-E-E-V

p in p

CN t— T—

More than15years 14-15 years 13-14 years 12-13 years 11-12 years 10-11 years i-10 years ¡-9 years 7-8 years -7 years -6 years 4-5 years 3-4 years -3 years 1-2 years p to 1 year

Scratches claws on Scratches claws on inappropriate objects objects or surfaces or surfaces indoors outside in the

yard/garden

Predatory behavior Playfulness / Activity

- 0.60-

Separation-related behavior

Inappropriate elimination