Scholarly article on topic 'Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction in 5 Star Hotels of North Cyprus: Descriptive Analysis'

Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction in 5 Star Hotels of North Cyprus: Descriptive Analysis Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Procedia Computer Science
OECD Field of science
{"Job satisfaction ;hospitality employees" / motivation / gender / "North Cyprus" / "5 star hotels."}

Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Tulen Saner, Gunay Sadikoglu

Abstract The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of job satisfaction of the hospitality employees and provide empirical evidence whether gender differences exists in relation to the job satisfaction of male and female hospitality employees in 5 Star Hotels in North Cyprus. The study instrument used was the short form of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which measures job satisfaction using 20 facets of the job. A total of 248 hospitality employees agreed to take part in this study. Data was analyzed using statistical program SPSS 17 The study indicate that male hospitality employees, as compared to female hospitality employees, have a higher level of satisfaction with overall job satisfaction

Academic research paper on topic "Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction in 5 Star Hotels of North Cyprus: Descriptive Analysis"


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Procedía Computer Science 102 (2016) 359 - 364

12th International Conference on Application of Fuzzy Systems and Soft Computing, ICAFS

2016, 29-30 August 2016, Vienna, Austria

Gender differences in job satisfaction in 5 star hotels of north

cyprus: descriptive analysis

Tulen Sanera, Gunay Sadikoglua*

a High School ofTourism and Hotel Management, Near East University, P.O.Box:99138 Nicosia, North Cyprus, Mersin 10,Turkey.


The purpose of this study is to analyze the level of job satisfaction of the hospitality employees and provide empirical evidence whether gender differences exists in relation to the job satisfaction of male and female hospitality employees in 5 Star Hotels in North Cyprus. The study instrument used was the short form of Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) which measures job satisfaction using 20 facets of the job. A total of 248 hospitality employees agreed to take part in this study. Data was analyzed using statistical program SPSS 17 The study indicate that male hospitality employees, as compared to female hospitality employees, have a higher level of satisfaction with overall job satisfaction

© 2016 The Authors.PublishedbyElsevierB.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICAFS 2016

Keywords: Job satisfaction hospitality employees; motivation; gender; North Cyprus; 5 star hotels.

1. Introduction

Hospitality industry is one of the fastest global rising industries and it plays a big role in national economic development of North Cyprus.It is a critical service industry around the world where hospitality companies try to improve their service strategies in order to meet customers' expectations and differ from their competitors. The quality of service is the key assets in the success of hospitality industrywhere the service quality largely depends on employees behaviours, as employees play a big role among the guest satisfaction and guest's loyalty. According to1, organizations higher productivity and improved customer service depend on how strongly employees

* Günay Sadikoglu. E-mail

1877-0509 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Organizing Committee of ICAFS 2016 doi:10.1016/j.procs. 2016.09.412

are motivated. Knox2 stated that, satisfied employees are more likely to provide exceptional service and higher levels of efficiency. Thus, understanding job satisfaction is very important so to improve behaviors of employees in a positive way. The job satisfaction is an important technique used to motivate the employees to work harder. It has often been said that, a happy employee is a productive, innovative and creative employee4. Most of the people spend a major of their life at their work place then it can be said that job satisfaction plays an important role in a person's entire life and that it is a part of life satisfaction. Fajana4 support this view, by stating that, employee's jobs can influence where they live, whom they associate with, what they need, think and discuss, and in fact their jobs can accurately influence virtually all aspect of their lives. Schultz5 emphasised that people spend one third to one half of their life working hours at work, for period of 40 to 45 years, which is a very long time to be unhappy and dissatisfied since these feelings carry over to family and social life, and affect physical and emotional health. Okpara6 also stated that, an understanding of the factors involved in job satisfaction is crucial to improving the happiness of workers.

People feel satisfied when they do job they like, doing it well and being rewarded for it. It is more likely that a person who has a high position in the hierarchy of the organization is more satisfied with job he/she performs. The most important factors for job satisfaction are creating interesting work for employees, providing equal pay and rewards for them, and having confidence with themselves.

1.1. Literature review

Job satisfaction can be defined in many different ways. The job satisfaction as a pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience7. Job satisfaction is an attitude developed by an individual towards the job and job conditions. This view supported, by defining job satisfaction as one's reaction against his/her occupation or organization8.

In9 was stated that people experience job satisfaction when they feel good about their jobs, and that this feeling often relates to doing their jobs well, or they are becoming more proficient in their professions, or they being recognised for good performance.

The job satisfaction relates to people's own assessments of their jobs against those issues that are important to them10. Since emotions and feelings are involved in such evaluation, employee's levels of job satisfaction can affect their personal, social and work live, and as a result affect their behaviour at work. In11 also stated that, job satisfaction is closely linked to the individual's behaviour in the work place. For this reason, managers should take into the consideration that there is a transparent relationship between job satisfaction and absenteeism. According to12, workers who are not satisfied with their jobs, often miss their work. The main idea behind this view is that the higher the degree of job satisfaction is the lower employee absenteeism should be. So, satisfaction is worth paying attention to, especially since it is potentially under manager's control-unlike some of the other causes of absenteeism (e.g. illness, accidents). Managers can decrease the level of absenteeism by creating effective company policies. If people are paid for sick days, and if they must be "used or lost" this is pretty strong encouragement for employees to be absent. In other words, managers have helped create a culture of absenteeism that can overcome the "satisfaction" effect13. When satisfaction is high, absenteeism tends to be low; when satisfaction is low, absenteeism tends to be high.

Additionally, dissatisfied workers are more likely to leave their job. Factors such as, low status, poor relations with colleagues, lack of participation and monotonous and boredom work can a make employees to quit their job. Also, according to5, job satisfaction involves employees'positive and negative feelings which depend not only on work-related characteristics, but also on personal characteristics, such as age, health, social relationships, education and gender.

2. The aim of the research

The aim of this study is to determine the level of job satisfaction for both genders from 6 different hotels working in 5 Star hotels in North Cyprus. The study was conducted with hospitality employees working in six different 5 Star hotels in North Cyprus.

3. Methodology

In total 248 hospitality employees from different departments, with different educational background, marital status and working experience agreed to take part in this study.

Table 1 indicates a number of hospitality employees by gender. Out of 248 respondents 166 were male while 82 were female, representing 33.1% and 66.9% of the sample.

Table 1. Gender distribution

Gender Number Percent

Male 166 334

Female 82 66,9

Total 248 100

3.1. Instruments and data analysis

Usually job satisfaction is measured by using general scientific research methods such as the questionnaires. After studying job satisfaction questionnaires it was found that short form of MSQ is the most preferred questionnaire for the purpose of this research where responses to each item were evaluated through a 5-level Likert's scale format: very dissatisfied, dissatisfied, neither satisfied or dissatisfied (neutral), satisfied and very satisfied.

Scale. The reliability of the questionnaire was measured through Cronbach Alpha, yielding a score of 0,921. This

indicates a 92 % reliability level which is regarded as very satisfactory.

Data was collected through the questionnaire by using SPSS 17 software. The findings from study were represented in table format by means of frequencies and percentages.

4. Results and discussion

Gender is one of the most important demographic variables affecting job satisfaction. Men and women may appear to be satisfied with different facets of jobs.

In this study the analysis was done using mean scores for both female and male hospitality employees on 20 facets, which include; activity independence, variety, social status, supervision or human relations , supervision/ technical, moral values, security, social service, authority, ability, policies and practices, compensation, advancement, responsibility and creativity.

Table 2 illustrates , the mean scores ( M ) and standard deviations ( SD ) of the job satisfaction of both genders (N) in 5 Star hotels in North Cyprus.

Table 2. Descriptive analyses in terms of gender

Variables Female Male


Activity 82 3.32 1.31 166 3.36 1.20

Independence 82 3.27 1.28 166 3.38 1.20

Variety 82 3.20 1.32 166 3.52 1.17

Social Status 82 3.93 1.15 166 3.60 1.30

Supervision / human 82 3.72 1.16 166 3.75 1.21

Supervision/ technical 82 3.76 1.08 166 3.73 1.17

Moral values 82 3.88 1.16 166 3.57 1.30

Security 82 3.68 1.15 166 3.81 1.05

Social Service 82 3.70 1.13 166 3.76 1.13

Authority 82 3.60 1.25 166 3.64 1.21

Ability 82 3.48 1.25 166 3.77 1.17

Policies and practices 82 3.15 1.29 166 3.22 1.22

Compensation 82 2.83 1.33 166 3.11 1.26

Advancement 82 3.38 1.36 166 3.31 1.24

Responsibility 82 3.16 1.31 166 3.49 1.17

Creativity 82 3.55 1.20 166 3.69 1.16

Work Conditions 82 3.51 1.15 166 3.55 1.16

Co- workers 82 3.44 1.30 166 3.69 1.18

Recognition 82 3.59 1.33 166 3.51 1.35

Achievement 82 3.77 1.26 166 3.81 1.26

There is a significance difference between genders in variety, social status, moral values security, ability and coworkers. It is evident that both females and males consider variety of tasks in their day to day jobs as a factor leading to job satisfaction. On variety male hospitality employees recorded satisfaction with a mean of 3.52 compared to female hospitality employees with a mean of 3.20. This is in line with the idea that when a job is characterized with less variations in job's contents and repetitiveness, the higher the likelihood of job dissatisfaction15.

It should be noted that, mean scores above 3.50 considered to be more ''satisfied'' side of the ''satisfaction-dissatisfaction'' scale, where mean score below 3.50 being more in ''dissatisfied'' side of the scale14 (see Fig. 1). According to this, it can be said that, male hospitality employees are satisfied (3.56) while their job compare to female hospitality employees with a mean of 3.49. This can be due to women's' social-economic disadvantages caused by gender discrimination and their double roles of being a worker and care taker for their household.

It is also evident that social status is highly regarded as a factor to job satisfaction mostly by the female respondent with a mean of 3.93 compare to male with a mean of 3.60. It should be taken into consideration that, the job that brings with it a certain degree of social status will be regarded as important in terms of satisfying employees and boosting their morale.

3,34 3,34 3,41 ^ —

3 2,5 1 \ 1,5 1

_3,74 3,77 3,63

3,71 3,74 3,67 3,74 3,67

3,19 3,33 3,38 3,54 3,61 3,53

ml m2 m3 m4 m5 m6 m7 m8 ni9 ml0mllml2ml3ml4mlSml6ml7mî8ml9m20


Fig.1. Histogram of descriptive analysis

The second highest ranked for female hospitality employees is moral values. Even both genders were comfortable with the moral standards of their job, female hospitality employees had higher mean level at 3.88 compare to male hospitality employees having mean of 3.57.According to the result, it can be said that the issue the

issue of moral value which entails the ability of an employee to act morally right seems to be an important contributor to job satisfaction for both genders. They are able to work without jeopardizing their moral standards. As being pushed to do unethical things seems to negatively impact on job satisfaction.

Another facet that was established to be a great contributor of job satisfaction is job security of a stable job. It emerged that when employees are convinced that their job is secure makes them motivated, satisfied hence greatly contributing to attainment of a firm goals and objectives. As sated in16, job insecurity can reduce workplace performance. Male hospitality employees ranked slightly higher mean score (M=3.81) compared to female hospitality employees ( M=3.68). A survey by the International Social Survey Program ( ISSP ) in 2005 found that male seem to feel more secure than female about their job. The study indicates that 64.1 % of male respondents strongly agreed that they felt secure in their job.

Regarding ability , male hospitality employees ranked higher when compared to female, with means of 3.77and 3.48 respectively. It should be noted that, employees are satisfied with their job if they are assigned duties and responsibilities they can use all their abilities . The mean score of female employees for ability demonstrate dissatisfaction .This can be due to women's social- economic disadvantages caused by gender discrimination. Bosses or managers may see male employees more capable than women. Another probable reason may be cultural pressure that women have. Some women are afraid to be in the centre of attention. Thus, unconsciously they may hide their abilities. Which in turn prepare them an environment where they cannot really use their abilities.

Another facet which indicates difference between genders is co-workers. In17 was discovered that friendly staff relationships contribute to the level of job satisfaction. In the study with academic staff of thirteen universities in Turkey18, also found that the most important factor in job satisfaction was co-worker. The result of this study indicated that female hospitality employees are dissatisfied (M=3.44), while male hospitality employees recorded satisfaction with the mean score of (M= 3.61).

Considering the mean score for both genders, it is evident that they are dissatisfied with activity, independence, policies and practices, compensation, advancement and responsibility.

In this study, both female (M=3.32) and male ( M=3.36) hospitality employees indicated dissatisfaction on activity. With regards to independence, it is also evident that both male (M=3.38) and female (M=3.27) hospitality employees recorded dissatisfaction.

These are followed by policies and practices . An inclusive environment where employees are involved from the development of policies to its implementation positively impacts on job satisfaction. In this study , female hospitality employees were dissatisfied (M= 3.15) with the company policies and regulations. This may be due to women's negative perceptions if they believe that they should be treated equally to their male counterparts. Just like female hospitality employees, hospitality male employees found policies and practices to be a large source of dissatisfaction (M= 3.22). In19 also found that, both female and male employees indicate dissatisfaction with hotels policies and practices.

Another reason may be changes that are taking place in the company. The greatest challenge for an organization is dealing with change.

Both genders identify compensation as the great source of dissatisfaction. The employees felt they are earning less than they deserve to. The mean score for male hospitality employees is 3.11 and for female is 2.83. Probable explanation for female hospitality employees may be that usually women work in the lowest paying fields in the hotels. This is in line with20 who states that, women have lower wages than men in the labour markets. Male hospitality employees also feel dissatisfied because they compare their output and inputs while assessing satisfaction.

Advancement which is the opportunity to go up the ranks in the job, is one of the major cause of dissatisfaction in this study for both female (M = 3.38) and male (M = 3.31) hospitality employees. Ideally, in order to move up the ranks employees should be given opportunities to acquire advanced skills and knowledge necessarily. Chances to be allocated greater responsibility and the chance to use personal knowledge, skill and judgment to come up with innovative ideas, products and services have been linked with motivation and job satisfaction21. Even though the mean score for male hospitality employees (M= 3.49) is higher than female hospitality employees with the mean of 3.16 in relation to responsibility, both genders indicate dissatisfaction. It is may be because hospitality employees are hesitated to take responsibility.

5. Conclusion and recommendations

The present study was devoted to analyze the job satisfaction of female and male hospitality employees in the hospitality industry that plays a vital role in the economy of North Cyprus.

Descriptive statistics of data in terms of gender (166 male, 82 female) revealed that both male and female participants are satisfied with their job. However, overall job satisfaction of male (M=3.56; SD=0.76) participants is higher than female (M=3.49; SD=0.74) participants. Small values of standard deviations (SD) indicate that responses of participants are close to each other and consistent within the group in both cases. For both genders high level satisfactions were observed for the facet of achievement, security, supervision / human relations, supervision/ technical and social status.

It is also observed that, the satisfaction level of male participants is higher than female participants at a rate of 15 out of 20 facets.

Recommendations. It is recommended that the top managers of 5 star hotels ought to analyze and control the employee's job dissatisfaction reasons such as compensation, company policies and practical applications, activity potentials, opportunity of advancement and responsibility in order to improve the job satisfaction of their hotel employees.


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