Scholarly article on topic 'Intermediary Translation in Russian and English Literary Relations: Analysis of “Night Thoughts” by E. Young in Russian Translations'

Intermediary Translation in Russian and English Literary Relations: Analysis of “Night Thoughts” by E. Young in Russian Translations Academic research paper on "Languages and literature"

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{"Relay translation" / "intermediary translation" / sentimentalism / "dialogue of cultures" / "history of translation"}

Abstract of research paper on Languages and literature, author of scientific article — Alevtina G. Stroilova, Nikolay M. Dmitriev

Abstract The article is about the role of the intermediary French translation in perception of the English literature in Russia in the 18-19th century. For detailed study of intercultural dialogue, a well-known European poem “Night thoughts” by E. Young was chosen. The French language was often used as an intermediary language to explore the European culture. French translation done by Le Tourneur was used for producing a Russian text. The authors analyse the evolution of the key motifs in Russian literature and studies the “Night thoughts” perception in France and Russia in the context of the translation principles of that time.

Academic research paper on topic "Intermediary Translation in Russian and English Literary Relations: Analysis of “Night Thoughts” by E. Young in Russian Translations"

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Procedía - Social and Behavioral Sciences 236 (2016) 131 - 138

International Conference on Communication in Multicultural Society, CMSC 2015, 6-8 December

2015, Moscow, Russian Federation

Intermediary translation in Russian and English literary relations: analysis of "Night Thoughts" by E. Young in Russian translations

Alevtina G. Stroilova*, Nikolay M. Dmitriev

National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoe shosse 31, Moscow 115409, Russian



The article is about the role of the intermediary French translation in perception of the English literature in Russia in the 18-19th century. For detailed study of intercultural dialogue, a well-known European poem "Night thoughts" by E. Young was chosen. The French language was often used as an intermediary language to explore the European culture. French translation done by Le Tourneur was used for producing a Russian text. The authors analyse the evolution of the key motifs in Russian literature and studies the "Night thoughts" perception in France and Russia in the context of the translation principles of that time.

© 2016 The Authors.Publishedby Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). Keywords: Relay translation; intermediary translation; sentimentalism; dialogue of cultures; history of translation

1. Introduction

The problem of the translation has become the focus of linguistic research in the second half of the 20th century. The pivotal role of translation in the process of multicultural communication is undeniable and has been studied in many philological works. The phenomenon of a relay translation has recently gained the attention of the researchers, such as Ringmar (2007), Dollerup (2009), St Andre (2008), Toury (1995), Hekkanen (2014), Proshina (2005), Zabrov (2000) and others. Various terms are used in different papers to define the phenomenon of "translating a text via a language other than the original language" (Hekkanen, 2014, p. 48), including relay, indirect, secondary,

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +7-495-788-5699; fax: +7-499-324-2111. E-mail address:

1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute). doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.12.051

mediated translation. The difference in terminology has been studied by Ringmar (2007) and Dollerup (2009), the latter distinguishing between indirect and relay translation. He defines indirect translation as a "process that comprises an intermediate translation and therefore involves three languages. The intervening translation does not cater for a genuine audience and exists only in order to transfer a message from one language to another." (Dollerup, 2009, p. 6) The relay translation, according to Dollerup (2009, p. 7), is "based on a translation that has a genuine audience in the first target language."

But the phenomenon has been seen as "a necessary evil" (St. André, 2008, p. 230), because "mistakes made in the original translation are passed on to the relay translation, and more mistakes and distortions are added as one moves further away from the original" (St. André, 2008, p. 230). That is the reason why according to St. André, "Relay translation has received very little attention by either critics, theoreticians or historians of translation" (ibid). However in the history of the world literature this type of translation played a significant role and as stated in Toury's work, "no historically oriented study of a culture where indirect translation was practiced with any regularity can afford to ignore this phenomenon and fail to examine what it stands for [...] not as an issue in itself, but as a juncture where systematic relationships and historically determined norms intersect and correlate" (Toury, 1995, p. 130). Following Z. Proshina (2005, p. 518), in this study we will use the term "intermediary translation" by which we understand an intervening translation, which serves as a secondary source text for a new translation.

The purpose of this study is to define the role of the intermediary translation of poem "Night Thoughts" by Edward Young in the connections between the English and Russian literature of the 18th - 19th centuries. To achieve this it is necessary to analyze the place of the intermediary translation during that period of time. The distinguishing feature of the 18th century in the history of the Russian literature was interest in the European literature in general and in the British literature in particular. But the English language due to weak cultural and economic links between the two countries was not widespread. So according to Petr Zaborov, "Intermediation occurs when the literature has the need to absorb some foreign material, but the direct borrowing is difficult or even impossible" (Zaborov, 2000, p. 66). This is the reason why the need to use an intermediary language appeared. During that period of time Russia had strong connections with France and Germany, and because of that the French and the German languages became intermediaries for Russian readers.

The poem "Night Thoughts" (1742-1746) by Edward Young stands out for Russian readers among some of the British literary works. The poem, due to the new ideas included in it, became significant for the development of sentimentalism in Europe. Such themes as God and the creation of the world, as well as death, time, grief were developed by Young as though seen through the eyes of an ordinary man. This poem changed the pattern of poetic meditation which existed before the "Night Thoughts". The poet in his meditation describes the night landscape (the moon, the stars, the nightingale), as well as the images of his hero's inner world, or the so called "landscape of the soul". These new motives are connected with the growing interest to inward world of an average man.

The popularity of this poem led to the appearance of a series of translations, but the Russian translators needed the intermediary language, because the English language was mostly unknown to the Russian authors. Due to the lack of the Russian poetry translation experience they needed to study the European tradition of translating poetry.

One of the first well known translations of the poem was French translation by P. Letourneur (1766), but to understand the value of it, the French version needs to be evaluated according to the principle of translation of the 18th century. According to Yuriy Levin this principle is defined as, "...the author wanted not to copy precisely the translated work, but to create a new work on the basis of the translated work, which would resemble the esthetical ideal" (Levin, 1990, p. 12). In the introduction to his translation, Letourneur writes, "Mon intention a été de tirer de l'Young anglais un Young français qui pût plaire à ma nation, et qu'on pût lire avec intérêt, sans songer s'il est original ou copie. Il me semble que c'est la method qu'on devrait suivre en traduisant les auteurs des langues étrangères, qui, avec un mérite supérieur, ne sont pas des modèles de gout." (My intention was to extract the French Young from the English Young. The French Young whom my nation could like, whom my nation could read with interest without knowing whether it was the original, or the copy. It seems to me that this is the method, which the translators from foreign languages should choose, when they translate the authors who, their merits notwithstanding, are not the models of taste.)

Letourneur states one of the main principles of the 18th century translation, which is to adapt the works of foreign authors not only to make them more understandable for readers, but also to change their aesthetic features, excluding some parts of the original text and including the translators own reflections.

The translation of Edward's Young's poem by Letourneur was prosaic, and most of the Russian translations were prosaic as well. Due to this fact the "Night Thoughts" were perceived by Russian readers as a philosophical tract, which had very little to do with lyrical poetry. Its main goals were supposed to be the didactic reflections, which was typical for the Russian sentimentalist literature.

According to Levin, "The educational function of the Russian literature was perceived as the most important by Russian sentimentalists." The first Russian poetic translation (1803) of the poem, although it was based on Letourneur's prosaic translation, was made by Sergey Glinka. In his introduction he wrote, "As I didn't know the English language, I couldn't translate Young, but I tried to copy him". The first aspect in which Glinka copied Young was that he made a poetic translation. Using Letourneur's translation as the basis, he didn't use prosaic form, but tried to make it poetic, which reflected the lyrism of Young's philosophical reflections.

2. Methods

The original of the poem "Night Thoughts" and two translations, French and Russian, were compared in this research to reveal the most distinguishing differences between the three versions. In Young's poem the key images of sentimentalism such as night, stars, the moon, the dream, the nightingale are developed. The translation of these images into foreign cultures was the most important goal of the translator, that is why the transformations in these images are the pinpoints of the poem's perception in foreign cultures. In this study the main motives and images and their representation in three versions of the poem were analyzed to observe their transformation and evolution due to the influence of the French intermediary translation. To achieve this goal, the material was divided into two main groups, which introduce most important motives and images of the poem, including the night landscape, melancholy, and misery. In the Russian translation, their development depended on the French intermediary translation.

3. The Night landscape

Young's poem describes reflections on existential themes such as life and death, time, faith, misery, which all occur during the night. Young creates the night world: darkness, silence, deadly sleep. But in his reflections the main character fills this world with different images which complicate and develop this world. Night is the central image of Young's poem, and is the core of the poem's structure. The poem is divided into several parts, and each part is entitled "Night" and is numbered. Night is personified in the poem. Young presents it as a goddess who rules the world, on the ebon throne with the leaden scepter.

Night, sable goddess! from her ebon throne, In rayless majesty, now stretches forth Her leaden scepter o'er a slumb'ring world

Letourneur writes: "Maintenant arrivée au milieu de son cercle, assise au haut des air sur son trôned'ébène, la nuit, comme un Dieu dans une majesté voilée et sans rayons, étend son scepter de plomb sur un monde assoupi." (Right now arriving in the middle of its circle, sitting high in the air on her ebony throne, the night, as God, covered by majestic veil and without rays of light, stretches her leaden scepter over her sleeping world.) Letourneur creates an image of the Night's circle, he includes the motive of time into this passage, and represents the image of the night in motion, not static like in the original. In the French version the ruling of the night is temporary, though in the original text night is a permanent force, which rules not only the world, but the feelings of the main character as well. Some of the adjectives used in the original text to describe the image of the night are translated by Letourneur who uses French equivalents that express only one of the meanings of the word "leaden" (made of or containing lead; heavy and inert; listless; sluggish; lacking liveliness or sparkle; dull; Downcast; depressed; Dull, dark gray in color). The French epithet "de plomb" (made of lead) only specifies the material of the scepter, and it emphasizes the heaviness of the Night's rule.

Unlike Young and Letourneur, Glinka represents a more general view on nights parade:

Уже она в сейчас, в час общей тишины, Already in this hour, hour of common silence

Когда страны небес луной осребрены, When the parts of sky\heaven are silvered by the light

Стопою медленной на мрачный трон вступает; Slowly arriving at the dark\somber throne. Простерла жезл, - и ход природа прекращает. She stretched her scepter and the nature stops its course.

In the Russian translation, influenced by the French one, the description of the image of the Night includes the motif of time via the word час (chas) "hour", which also makes the rule of the night temporary. By including the words общей тишины (obschey tishinyi) "common silence", Glinka makes the image of the Night soundless. Then he uses небеса (nebesa) "heaven\sky" and the image of the Moon in his translation. In the very beginning of the Russian translation the night landscape becomes dynamic. The image of silvered skies complicates the landscape, making it lighter, and the night becomes an object to admire. The epithet "leaden" disappears in the Russian version, as it no longer suggests the additional meanings to this epithet in French.

Young introduces the opposition of darkness and light in his poem:

Even silent night proclaims my soul immortal; Even silent night proclaims eternal day. For human weal, Heaven husbands all events.

The author of the poem emphasizes the idea that despite the darkness it brings, night is still a part of the world created by God and is inextricably connected with light and day.

Letourneur in his translation introduces this part of the poem in a different way, "Non, l'immortalité de mon âme n'est point une simple conjecture; tous les objects de la nature m'en répètent la prevue. Le ciel attentive au bonheur de l'homme a disposé partout des lumières qui l'éclairent sur son être." (No, the immortality of my soul is not simply a conjecture, all the objects in nature remind me of this prophecy. The sky\heaven, attentive to human happiness extended everywhere the light\rays, which enlighten on its being).

So Letourneur stresses that the Night remains in his translation a dark and mysterious time and space. Glinka, following the French translation develops the image of light in this part of the poem:

Безсмертие! бытие в тебе я ново зрю; Торжественно тебя являет нам природа. Сиянье, льющееся с лазуреваго свода, Луч славы вышния предзнаменует нам Все ощущать дает безсмертие сердцам

Immortality! I see new existence in you; Nature solemnly presents you to us. Light, pouring from the azure sky, The ray bespeaks the heavenly glory to us Everything lets the hearts feel immortality.

In the Russian translation, influenced by the French version, the image of heavenly lights is emphasized as well. But the interpretation of the image in Glinka's version is different and reflects the Russian national identity. The words сиянье, льющееся (siyanye lyuscheesya) "light, pouring from", лазуревый свод (lazurevyiy svod) "the azure sky" as well as the fact that in the Russian translation ощущать безсмертие сердцам (oschuschat bezsmertie serdtsam) "the hearts feel immortality" correspond to the traditional images of the Russian poetry, which could be found in works by M. Lomonosov and G. Derzhavin. Because of the focus on the description of light, a new antithesis is created, one that is not accentuated in Young's original text: night, associated with the original chaos, death, apocalypse versus light, associated with heaven, God, immortality and new life. Glinka, unlike Young, does not reconcile the two opposites, but enhances the contrast of the image, even if compared with Letourneur's text.

Letourneur adds the image of the night after his expanded reflections on light and immortality, thus dividing this description into two parts, though in the original text it was presented in one part, "Ainsi la nuitdans son silence même me révèle une âme immortelle: la nuit dans son obscurité m'annonce un jour éternel." (So even night in its silence reveals to me the immortal soul: the night in its darkness announces eternal day)

Letourneur adds complexity to the metaphor. Unlike Young, he highlights not only the silence of the night, but its darkness as well. But still Night becomes a part of the God's world and is an announcer of immortality, as it is described in the original.

Glinka introduces a different interpretation of this episode:

И так не может ночь, сгущенный сея мрак, So the Night, sowing its thickened darkness, cannot

Сияющий от нас сокрыть безсмертья зрак; Hide from us the eyes of immortality;

Чистейший света луч во тьме ее блистает. The purest light shines in its darkness

The Russian translator accentuates the darkness of the night, using words like сгущенный мрак (sguschennyiy mrak) "thickened blackness", тьма (tma) "darkness", сеять мрак (seyat mrak) "sow blackness". Unlike the original and the French translation, where darkness is an announcement of immortality, the Russian version presents the Night with its darkness as the enemy of the light and immortality, that wishes to "hide immortality" from humans. It is then defeated by the light, which appears in Glinka's description of the night. Thus, following the French translation, the Russian author develops and changes the images and motives, created in Letourneur's work, introducing the motif of the opposition between night and God's world, which was neither included in the original text, nor the French translation.

Some parts that are not present in the original text are added by Letourneur in the French translation of the poem. This concerns mainly the night landscape, thus making it even more important for the aesthetical atmosphere of the poem: "O lune, notre malheureux globe est encore plus changeant que le tien! Je te vois pâle et triste; serais-tu un témoin sensible des malheurs de l'espéce humaine? " (Oh moon, our miserable globe is even more changing than you are! I see you pale and sad; will you be the sensitive witness of human misery?")

Following the classicist's translating tradition, Letourneur, introduces a new part in his translation, in his pursuit to improve the original. He develops the image of the Moon, presented in the original as the lyrical hero's companion. He introduces epithets "pâle" (sad), "triste" (sad) and "sensible" (sensitive) to the description of the Moon, which coincide perfectly with sentimentalists' values. In sentimentalism, which was the leading literary philosophy of the time, sensitivity and melancholy were proclaimed as the core values of humanity. Thus Letourneur makes the poem even more modern and appealing for the French readers.

Glinka, following the French translation, also includes this part:

Светило ночи! Твой не столь пременен зрак, Сколь в нашем бедственном жилище все

превратно! Что зрю! бледнеешь ты! Уже ли стало


Луна! страдание души моей тебе?

The star of the night! Your view is not as changing, As everything in our miserable dwelling is wrong

What do I see! You are becoming pale!

Have you perceived? Oh Moon! The sufferings of my soul?

Glinka adds his own changes to this part. Letourneur's Moon watches the sufferings of the whole humanity, but Glinka's Moon is the witness of the hero's personal feelings and sufferings. Glinka makes this image closer to the lyrical hero. He turns the Moon into a sympathetic character. The emotions of the lyrical hero are reflected on the Moon, it changes its colour, observing the sufferings of the character ("you are becoming pale").

4. Melancholy and misery

Misery is one of the basic motives in the poem. The main hero is suffering and in his grief creates a monologue that constitutes the poem. It is his misery and suffering that makes him reflect on the value of life, the future life and immortality. His feelings become indicators of a person's goodness and value. What also is remarkable about the special attention to the feelings of the main character is the fact that these are the feelings of an average man, who ponders on the questions of the universe, though it is not through reasoning, but through feelings that he perceives the universe. Considering the "earth's melancholy map," Young compares the sufferings of the humankind with his own:

What then am I, who sorrow for myself?

In age, in infancy, from others aid Is all our hope - to teach us to be kindThat nature's first, last lesson to mankind: The selfish heart deserves the pain it feels.

Young talks about compassion in this abstract, though he does not name this quality directly. For him, sympathy and kindness are connected with nature that teaches mankind about these qualities. Nature becomes the wise power that nurtures the best qualities in man; the kindness comes from nature.

In the French translation, Letourneur gives the following description: «Que faisais-je en ne pleurant que sur moi? Le faible enfant et le malheureux vieillard n'ont d'espoir que dans la pitiéd'autrui. La nature a voulu par-là nous apprendre à être compatissans. Un coeur qui ne souffre que de ses maux, mérite les peines qu'il endure». (What am I doing, not feeling sorrow for anyone, but me? A weak child and a miserable old man only hope for the pity of others. The nature thus wanted to teach us to be compassionate. The heart that suffers only because of its own miseries deserves the pain it feels.)

Letourneur's translation is accurate, but he makes some changes. He adds epithets "faible" (weak) and "malheureux" (miserable) to the nouns "enfant" (child) and "vieillard" (old man), so he describes not an abstract mankind, but concrete people, whose sufferings he describes. Unlike Young, who talks about "others aid", Letourneur introduces the motif of pity ("pitie"), so we can help others by empathizing. It is important that in his translation Letourneur placed this part after the address to the Moon, not after the reflections on the miseries of the Earth, like in the original. So the natures compassionate character is associated with the night landscape, and with the image of the Moon in particular, which sympathizes with the hero.

In the Russian translation this part is being developed and acquires more details:

Жалеть меня, коль зрю мучение везде Жалеть меня, когда есть тысячи несчастных,

Гонению судьбы безжалостно подвластных!

Жалеть меня, а здесь, томясь под игом лет,

Со стоном ближний мой меня к себе зовет; Здесь ежечасное рыдание вдовицы, Неосушающей от слез свои зеницы, С стенаньем сироты меняется ее: Зря их, как вспоминать страданье нам свое!

Сих жертв злой участи в объятья наши примем, Их со страдательной душою мы обнимем И к сердцу своему приложим скорби их Кто плачет только лишь о бедствиях своих, Тот стоит злейшее понесть судьбы гоненье

To pity\sorrow me, as I see misery everywhere To pity\sorrow me, as there are thousands of miserable\suffering

Who are dependent on\in power of persecutions of the fate

To pity\sorrow me and here languishing under the burden of the years

With a howl a fellow human being calls for me;

Here is the sobbing of a widow,

Not drying her eyes from tears,

With moaning orphans follow her:

Seeing them, how can we remember about our


We will embrace these victims of an unfortunate fate, Their sufferings we will embrace with our soul And we will take their misery to our hearts The ones who cry only about their own sufferings, Deserve the worst fate's persecution

The additional length of the description in the Russian translation is obvious. This means that the topic of compassion is very important for the translator. Talking about the miserable people, Glinka uses hyperbole "thousands of miserable." He is trying to emphasize the number of people suffering on Earth and that the sufferings of the main character should be forgotten in the face of others' misery. Following Letourneurs translation and his images of an old man and a child, Glinka also includes the images of average people sufferings (a widow, an orphan), which makes the description more personal and calls for emotional feedback from Russian readers. Developing the motif of misery the translator introduces the description of the sufferings: со стоном к себе зовет (so stonom k sebe zovet) "with a howl calls", томясь под игом лет (tomyas pod igom let) "languishing under the burden of the years", рыдания вдовицы (ryidaniya vdovitsyi) "the sobbings of the widow", the victims in the

Russian translation are not the abstract humankind, but concrete people, who need compassion. That is how Glinka produces a stronger emotional impression on the readers. The choice of the word ближний (blizhniy) "fellow human being", which is not present in the original text and the French translation, has a definite evangelic meaning.

Glinka, unlike Young and Letourneur does not say that compassion is taught by nature. Describing compassion, he uses the metaphor "we will embrace them with our soul". In the Russian translation the compassion is physical: "embrace", "atake", which reflects the hero's desire not only to empathize with miserable people, but also to share their sufferings as if they were his own. The physical evidence of the support is very important in the Russian system of values.

It is important to note that the main character's monologue in the Russian version is directed towards the Moon. So the Moon is a compassionate character of the poem. It pities the hero (to pity me), when no one else does.

The climax of the hero's sufferings as well as his story is described in the following part:

Insatiate archer! Could not one suffice?

Thy shaft flew thrice - and thrice my peace was slain;

And thrice, ere thrice yon moon had fill'd her horn

The hero speaks about his losses and grief. By "Thy shaft flew thrice" the hero means that three of his family members died. The Moon becomes the indicator of time. Letourneur describes it in this way: «Il sont déchiré mon coeur de trois mortelles blessures, avant que l'astre de la nuit eut arrondi trois fois son globe mélancholique» (They tore my heart with three deadly wounds, before the night star took the full form of its melancholic body).

The French translator adds an epithet and the Moon is described as «mélancholique» (melancholic). It shows that the Moon reflects the feelings of the main character, because it is he, who is melancholic.

The Russian translation describes it in a different way:

Три раза в небесах едва взошла луна, А смертью рана мне трикратная дана! Вотще я зрю часов пременное теченье;

Не пременяется от них мое мученье: Везде и каждый шаг страданьем я разим;

Нет счастья; я на век уже расстался с ним.

Three times in the sky the moon rose

And death gave me three wounds

Regardless I watch the consequent flow of the

My agony doesn't change because of them Everywhere and on each step of my way I am wounded by misery

There is no happiness, I have forever parted ways with it.

Glinka wants to emphasize the sufferings of the main character, using the words: рана (rana) "wound", мученье (muchene) "agony", страданье (stradane) "misery", нет счастья (net schastya) "no happiness". The Russian translator shifts the attention from the moon to the feelings of the hero. They are not "melancholic" as in the French version. The intensity of the emotions is much higher in the Russian translation. Moreover, by adding three lines, Glinka speaks not only about the history of the hero's grief, but also about his future, "There is no happiness, I have forever parted ways with it". In the Russian culture, life's ordeals are perceived as a chance for a person to develop his/her moral qualities and inner world. The translator underlines the grief of the hero to support the image of the morally good character and to evoke sympathy in his audience.

5. Discussion and conclusion

The purpose of the article was to define the influence of the intermediary French translation on the perception of Edward Young's poetry in the Russian poetic translation. The issue of the intermediary translation has been researched in modern linguistics, but the historical aspect as well as its influence on the development of culture has not been at the centre of attention. In this study we attempted to analyze the influence of the French intermediary translation on the first Russian poetic translation of the famous poem "Night Thoughts" by Edward Young. We carried out a comparative analysis of the three versions of the poem: the English, the Russian and the French,

focusing particularly on the most famous and important themes of the poem, which are the night landscape and the feelings of the main character.

The image of the Night is given a different description in each version of "Night Thoughts". In the original, Night, first introduced as realm of the "sable goddess", who rules the world with the "leaden scepter" is changing with the development of the poem. New details are added to the description: the Moon, the stars, and later the nightingale. The Moon becomes a companion of the main character, reflecting his emotions, so the night becomes the space which consoles the distressed. It is the time for a person to reflect on the existential questions of life, death, immortality, fate.

Letourneur using principles, proclaimed in the introduction of his translation, includes the changes, which transform the poem according to his taste. In his adaptation he focuses on and emphasizes the parts, describing the melancholic atmosphere of the night landscape, sometimes adding his own images and reflections. He directs even more attention to the emotional side of the character's contemplations of the existential questions, intensifying the sentimentalism aspect of the "Night Thoughts", thus making it more appealing for the French readers, as sentimentalism was a very popular literature style at that time.

Glinka used Letourneur's translation as the basis for his own poetic translation of the "Night thoughts". His version becomes influenced by the French translation, so the Russian readers had the English poem seen through the eyes of the French culture. Following Letourneur, Glinka includes the parts that were added by the French author and the images and motives, intensified by Letourneur, become the focus in the Russian translation as well. Using the same translation principle of classicism, Glinka adapts the poem to the Russian readers. He also emphasizes the night landscape and the emotions of the main character, but to achieve this goal he uses metaphors and epithets traditional for the Russian poetry of the 18th century, thus making the poem closer to the tastes of the Russian audience. There is no doubt that the content, the atmosphere and the tone of the poem changed because of different translations.

The popularity of the poem and its different translations gave a new perspective to the philosophical poetry in Russia, so Young's motives and images, in their changed form, appear later in the works by many Russian poets, such as V. Zhukovsky, A. Pushkin, M. Lermontov. These connections of the English and Russian literatures shall be the subject of future research.


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