Scholarly article on topic 'The Effect of Mural on Personal Crime and Fear of Crime'

The Effect of Mural on Personal Crime and Fear of Crime Academic research paper on "Economics and business"

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Abstract of research paper on Economics and business, author of scientific article — Siti Rasidah Md Sakip, Azrul Bahaluddin, Khalilah Hassan

Abstract In recent years, the trend of 3D art mural has been gaining attention in Malaysia. This 3D art mural is believed some perception of safety among user from crime activities. However, an empirical study on the relationship between perceptions of safety on art mural is very hard to find. The main purpose of this study is to identify the perceptions of the safety of mural art in the alleys. The t-test value between victimization with 3D art mural show that there are significant differences in score for non-victimization (M=53.57, SD=8.80) and victimization (M=56.00, SD=7.71; t(292) = -2.03, p=.04).

Academic research paper on topic "The Effect of Mural on Personal Crime and Fear of Crime"

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Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 234 (2016) 407 - 415

ASEAN-Turkey ASLI (Annual Serial Landmark International) Conferences on Quality of Life 2016

AMER International Conference on Quality of Life, AicQoL2016Medan 25 - 27 February 2016, Medan, Indonesia

The Effect of Mural on Personal Crime and Fear of Crime

Siti Rasidah Md Sakip*, Azrul Bahaluddin, Khalilah Hassan

Faculty of Architecture, Planning & Surveying, UniversitiTeknologiMARA Perak, 32610 Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia

Abstract

In recent years, the trend of 3D art mural has been gaining attention in Malaysia. This 3D art mural is believed some perception of safety among user from crime activities. However, an empirical study on the relationship between perceptions of safety on art mural is very hard to find. The main purpose of this study is to identify the perceptions of the safety of mural art in the alleys. The t-test value between victimization with 3D art mural show that there are significant differences in score for non-victimization (M=53.57, SD=8.80) and victimization (M=56.00, SD=7.71; /(292) = -2.03, />=.04).

© 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-reviewunderresponsibility of the Associationof MalaysianEnvironment-Behavior Researchers, AMER(ABRAmalaysia) Keywords:Crime; public art; mural; urban

1. Introduction

According toMerrick(1989), urban population growth around the world has increased rapidly since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution. Malaysia confronted an increasing number of inhabitants in urban areas that it is in direct relationship with crime rates(M. S. Siti Rasidah, 2012). Therefore, Malaysia faces many challenges to be a development country such as escalating crime rates (Wong, T. C., 2006). According to M. Hedayati Marzbali, A. A., (2011), the overall crime rate in Malaysia increased from 746 reported crimes per 100,000 persons in 2006 to 767 in 2007 and 2008, a rise of nearly 3%. Referring to M. S. Siti Rasidah(2012), thecrime rate has a direct

* Corresponding author. Tel.: +0 000 000 0000 ; fax: +0 00 0000 0000. E-mail address: sitir704@perak.uitm.edu.my

1877-0428 © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.Org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

Peer-review under responsibility of the Association of Malaysian Environment-Behavior Researchers, AMER (ABRA malaysia) doi:10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.10.258

relationship with the population in urban areas. Lost space in an urban area such as back alleys often is a hotbed of crime and immoral acts. Thus, Malaysia government, non-governmental organization (NGOs) and communities strive to reduce crime by carrying out activities to improve surveillance on the environment. Therefore, in recent years, the public art such as 3D art mural has been gaining attention in Malaysia. In 2013 Shah Alam City Council (MBSA) has been running program to developing back alleys in Seksyen 7 Shah Alam. The objective of the program is to improve the environment in the alleys towards a more cheerful. It will directly increase the livable area that also can reduce crime activities(www.mbsa.gov.my). However, it is very hard to find the empirical study that mural art can reduce the sense of fear of crime. Hence, the main objective of this paper is to identify the perception of the mural on the sense of safety and fear of crime. Furthermore,the purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between the perception of safety and mural art.

2. Literature review

The mural is a painting or drawing on the wall as a media or surface that is eternal(https://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mural, n.d.). Art mural regarded as a public art involving sculptures and decorative facades which enhance an appearance of the environment and it also can reduce crime thatinstalls a sense of pride and 'ownership' with the community (Erickson, 2015).Besides being able to beautify the environment, art mural used as an effective medium to deliver or send a message to the public (Adika Tirta, Arvino Prameswara, Aryo Dwinto Putra, 2012). Mural is derived from the word 'murus' from the Latin meaning 'wall'. It has begun since 30,000 years BC through the discovery of prehistoric drawings found on the walls of caves in Altimira, Spain, and Lascaux, France with actions drawings and hunt of religious(Adika et al., 2012). Mural is differing with graffiti. Although it seems like similar, it is different. Graffiti refers to a form of the composition of colors, shapes and writing on a wall(wikipedia.org/wiki/Grafiti). Graffiti is more related to crime activities (Kanan, J. W., & Pruitt, 2002)and those concernedabout graffiti may equate it with violent crime and the presence of gang activity. Many ofthe same factors that evoke fear of crime in residents also evoke fear of gangs, even though the magnitude may vary (Austin, 2007). These perceptions may increase the level of fear of crime and lower the level of perceived safety that residents experience when encountering an area that contains graffiti. The understanding of graffiti can refer to Figure 1.

Fig. 1. (a) hip-hop style graffiti; (b) message graffiti (Source: Austin, 2007)

What is a fear of crime?...It is can be described as a "wide range of emotional and practical responses to crime.. .individuals and communities may make"(Pain, 2000). It is a manifestation of a feeling that one is in danger. According to Pain (2000), fear of crime is not an inherent characteristic of the individuals but rather something that may come and go, dependent on and influenced by one's experiences, especially as they relate to one's position in society. Some studies have postulated that fear of crime is assumed to be signs or symbols of criminal victimization (Stephen, Emily, & Jonathan, 2007), as the frequency of one becoming a victim of crime will induce a higher feeling of fear of crime (Gray, Jackson, &Farrall, 2008). Nevertheless, individual understanding of the fear of crime differs as it depends on the situation in which one feels the fear of crime (Schneider & Kitchen, 2007), design and

the environment (Spinks, 2001), as well as their psychological and social life factors (Minnery& Lim, 2005). The physical environment is one of a factor that influences the feeling of fear of crime. The physical environment is the utilization of fixed elements caused by physical planning and design (Nasar& Fisher, 1993) and is believed to give a significant effect on fear of crime (Harang, 2003). This is directly related to the physical vulnerability which is the perception of increased risk to physical assault. This form of vulnerability stems from a decreased ability to fend off the attack because of issues such as limited mobility or the lack of physical strength and competence (Franklin & Franklin, 2009). Such vulnerability is termed as environmental physical disorder referring to disorderly surroundings such as abandoned cars, vandalized property, trash, vacant houses and deteriorated homes (Painter, 1996). Neighbourhood residents who perceived their local surroundings to be physically disorderly are more likely to exhibit higher levels of fear (LaGrange, Ferraro, &Supancic, 1992).

To reduce the sense of fear of crime in an urban area, mural as a public art has gained attention as a means to enrich the urban environment and preventing criminal behavior. As mentioned by Cozens, Hillier, D., & Prescott (2001), the best crime deterrent to creating a positive image to stimulate a sense of belonging to the community. Criminals are discouraged from operating in areas whichgive them the feeling that someone will challenge them and turn them in(Erickson, 2015). Therefore, public art has been seen a relationship to crime reduction and increase surveillance in an area with a good image (McMillan, D. W., & George, 1986). Also, to improve the surveillance is to encourage human interaction in an area(Roitman, 2005). This is based on the theory of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) that applied four main principles to eliminate crime; territoriality, surveillance, access control and maintenance (Jeffery, 1976). There are an additional principles in the theory of CPTED namely support activity and target hardening that contribute as a significant in crime reduction(Crowe, T., & Zahm, 1994). Based on the CPTED theory, it is showed the livable area is correlated with CPTED elements such as surveillance and support activity. This is in line with Curry(2015), that mentioned an art brings people together as a point of triangulation that would be its primary function in the public space. By incorporating decorative public art features into buildings and streetscapes can reduce blight and give the community a much-needed boost in the pride they have in their space. This, in turn,will create a feeling of ownership, resulting in the community taking a more active role in keeping their space clean and safe(Erickson, 2015).

Public Art can be a very valuable tool in creating local distinctiveness (Pycroft, 2009).Indeed, the process of upgrading and conserving the heritage elements using public art will highlight the uniqueness of local culture and it gives a prospect to the tourism sector (Arthur & Mensah, 2006). The streets are upgraded to accommodate new comfortable pedestrian walkways linking the public arts with a continuous pedestrian system. In other words, the whole city is transformed, not only the building walls but the building use and the whole environment around the buildings. The involvement of local and international artist with the local communityin participating to design and paint murals on the walls can regenerate the city socially to strengthen the social bond and increase social interaction between the locals and visitors.This involvement will increase the sense of belonging and sense of community which will then create a healthy environment for the city dwellers and to foster a good relationship between the visitors with the community. Art is seen as a way to rejuvenate cities by enhancing public spaces (Baker, A.,1998).

The impact of art in reducing crime and contributing to crime prevention is an element considered by researchers. Crime is mentioned both in the frame of urban regeneration and in the frame of social inclusion; in the frame of social inclusion it is considered as one of the combined problems - with ill-health, unemployment, low income, poor education, and housing and family breakdown - which leads to social exclusion (Jermyn, 2004). This public art will reduce the physical deterioration such as graffiti, vandalism, littering and social deterioration such as loitering. The art has been seen as new alternative and effective to stimulate and activate in an urban area and harmonize the space, especially in urban areas. It is seen as an alternative to activating the lost space in an urban area that consequence towards the quality of life in the city.

3. Case study

The study was conducted in the Ipoh city. It is a city in the Kinta district. It is the state capital and administrative center of Perak. The city is located 200 km north of Kuala Lumpur and is the fourth largest city in Malaysia (http://www.mbi.gov.my/; wikipedia.org/wiki/Ipoh.).Ipoh City is divided into two, namely Bandar Baru Ipoh and

Ipoh Old Town through the Kinta River. In this study, the siteis in the Ipoh mural art trail that is located in the old town area of Ipoh. Ipoh old town is known as a place of historic buildings from the British colonial era(Ipohtourism.mbi.gov.my, n.d.). There are nine streets Gazette as Mural Art Trail Ipoh by Ipoh Tourism centre. It involves seven routes namely JalanTunSambanthan, JalanPanglima, Jalan Bandar Timah, Tin Street, Market Street and Jalan Masjid (Ipohtourism.mbi.gov.my, n.d.) (refer Figure 2). This study conducted in back alleys of Jalan of JalanPanglima. The art murals are still not designed in the area. The purpose of this study is to identify the perception of users that use the route of the back alleys of JalanPanglima towards their feeling of fear of crime and a sense of safety. The selection of the site is based on the zone of mural art trail as one of the tourist attractions. Another objective of this study is to identify the relationship between mural arts with the fear of crime before commencing the mural art. This study has been supported by the Department of Social Development (Community Development, Tourism & International) Ipoh to develop an attractive place and good image as well as to reduce the crime rate in the Ipoh Old City.

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4. Research methodology

This study conducted in back alleys of JalanPanglima, Ipoh. The questionnaire was used to collect the data regarding the perception of fear of crime and perception of safety among users. This questionnaire was administered in the context of face-to-face structured and formal interviews. The survey was completed in 10 days in a month of December in 2015. This survey conducted at 8 am to 7 pm. Random sampling technique was used to conduct this survey. In this technique each user of the population has an equal chance of being selected as the subject. Each user who uses the alleys will be selected to be the respondent. If they agreed, they would be provided a questionnaire. 300 respondents have been participated in the survey. The questionnaire included the background of the respondent,

the construct of the perception of three D art mural (PTDA), the perception of fear of crime (PFOC) and victimization experience. The constructs of PTDA and PFOC were measured using 8 Likert scales.

4.1. Measuring the perception of three D art mural and the perception of fear oof crime

The construct of the perception of Three D Art Mural (PTDA) and fear of crime (PFOC) was measured using 8 Likert scales with eight options of the answers ranging from (1) highly disagree to (8) highly agree, and (1) highly not worried to (8) highly worried. The validation and confirmation of PTDA and PFOC were done using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA). EFA is used to gather information about the interrelationship among a set of variable (Pallant, 2005). The result for the level of reliability was found by calculating the Cronbach's Alpha. The items of PTDAand PFOC have a good reliability value as the Cronbach's Alpha value exceeds 0.60(Nunnally, J.C. & Bernstein, 1994).The results indicated that the Alpha values for the perception of three D art mural (PTDA) are0.92 after one item is deleted. The item A.12.a was eliminated because of the value of corrected item- total correlation is below than 0.3. Meanwhile, the Alpha value of PFOC is 0.93. This construct of PFOC using eight items and the item of A.5.g was eliminated because of a value of corrected item-total correlation is less than 0.3. Therefore, referring to Nunnally & Bernstein (1994), the results of Alpha value for the PTDA and PFOC is achieved good Alpha reliability levels as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Cronbach's Alpha value for perception of three D art mural and perception of fear of crime

Construct

Items Description of Items

Corrected Item-Total Correlation

Reliability (Cronbach's Alpha)

Perception of three D 1 art mural (PTDA)

I feel a fear of crime when I used the alley with art mural design on the wall.

When I used the alley with three D art mural design on the wall, I feel the sense of safety from criminal threats.

When I know that there are alleys with three D art mural on the wall, I will come to observe.

The alleys with three D art mural will make a space cheerful. I will take at least one hour when I am in the alleys with three D art mural on the wall.

One of the places that I want to visit is an area or place that have three D art mural on the wall.

I feel cheerful when I am in the alleys with three D art mural on the wall.

The alleys with three D art mural on the wall will help to eliminate criminal activities in that place.

When I use the alleys that have 3D art mural on the wall to the destination, I did not feel tired or far to reach the intended destination.

Perception of fear of 1 I feel the fear of crime when I saw vandalism. .85

crime 2 I feel the fear of crime when I saw abandoned of buildings. .86

(PFOC) 3 I feel the fear of crime when I am inthe silent alley .83

4 I feel the fear of crime when I am in the dark area .79 .93

5 I feel the fear of crime when I am in the crowd .74

6 I feel the fear of crime when I saw people hang up .79

7 I feel the fear of crime when I saw homeless -

8 I feel the fear of crime when I saw drunker .75

5. Result and discussion

The respondent that involved in this research withMalaysia citizen is 98.3% and non-citizen 1.7%. There is 43.7% female respondentsand 55.9% male. They were respectively 37.9% aged in the 20s and 30s, followed by the 40s (12.4%), 50s (6.4%) and 60s an above (5.7%). Malay ethnicity that involved in this study were 54.8%, Chinese 32.1%, Indian 11.0%, and others 2%. Most of the respondent were married (50.7%) and unmarried (44.6%). 18%

respondent had been a crime victim in a past 12 months such as snatch theft (26.9), burglary (11.5%), stolen (21.2%), assault (11.5%), sexual harassment (17.3%) and others (5.8%).

The perception of the mural on fear of crime was measured using Likert scale with eight option: (1) highly agree to (8) highly disagree, with a statement "I feel a fear of crime when I used the alley with art mural design on the wall."The output is shown in Fig 3. The result shows that the curve rises towards to the left. It is explained that user didn't feel the fear of crime if they use the back alley with mural art on the wall. The perception of the mural on the sense of safety also measured similar as perception on fear of crime. The different in the arrangement of Likert scale, (1) highly agree to (8) highly disagree, with a statement "When I used the alley with three D art mural design on the wall, I feel the sense of safety from criminal threats." The output is shown in Fig 4. The result showsthat the curve rises towards to the right. It is explained that users have a sense of safety when walking in the alleys with mural art on the wall.

Fig. 3. The fear of crime when using back alley with mural art on the wall

Fig. 4. The sense of safety when using back alley with mural art on the wall

Another objective of this paper is to seek the relationship of the mural on personal crime and fear of crime. T-test analysis was conducted to identify the relationship between victimization with the perception of three-D art mural (PTDA) and perception of fear of crime (PFOC). The result shows there is significant difference between victimization with PFOC (t(60.4)= -2.72; p=0.03) and PTDA (t(292)= -2.03; p=0.04) as shown in Table 2.

Siti Rasidah Md Sakip et al. /Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 234 (2016) 407 — 415 Table 2. T-test between victimization with perception of fear of crime and perception three D art mural

Levene's Test for t-test for Equality of Means

Equality of

Variances

F Sig. t df Sig. (2- tailed) Mean Difference Std. Error Difference 95% Confidence Interval of the Difference

Lower Upper

Equal variances 16.970 .000 -2.726 284 .007 -3.12265 1.14566 -5.37772 -.86758

PFOC assumed Equal variances not assumed -2.142 60.460 .036 -3.12265 1.45750 -6.03764 -.20767

Equal variances 1.053 .306 -2.036 292 .043 -2.43009 1.19360 -4.77924 -.08095

PTDA assumed Equal variances not assumed -1.873 72.417 .065 -2.43009 1.29763 -5.01662 .15643

Note: PFOC= perception of fear of crime, PTDA= perception of three D art mural

Theresult shows that there is a significant relationship between victimization and the perception of fear of crime and the perception of three-D art mural. This output explained that the art mural gives the feeling of safety. Possibility the presence of people to the area canimprove the natural surveillance that provides a sense of safety among users. It has been mentioned by Schneider, R. H., & Kitchen (2007) that high surveillance will reduce the fear of crime. It is argued by Fernandez (2005), found the high surveillance has an ability to monitor the area to ensure their self-are safe is from crime threat. It is also can be explained in Figure 5.

Fig. 5. The sense of safety when using back alley

It shows the sense of safety of users when using the back alley with the art mural on the wall. Figure 5 shows the graph is curved into the right corner that explained most of the users are strongly agree that feeling safe when using back alley with the art mural on a wall.

6. Conclusion

Art mural is one of public art that are believed to help prevent crime in an area. Mural art is suitable to be applied in urban areas especially in the back alleys of the building. Back alleys in urban areas often become an unused area that mitigates the immoral and criminal activities such as theft, rape, etc. These activities took place because there were no people want to use the space, which makes it the best area for criminal activities. Therefore, this research was carried out in the back alleys in urban are at Old Town Ipoh that does not have art mural anymore. The purpose of the study is identifying the sense of safety among user that used the alleys. Some alleys have been identified by respondents that give a sense of criminal threat because of the bad environment (dirty, bad maintenance) not attractive and crime activities reported. Based on this outcome, the right place/ alleys has been identified to be selected as an area to build the three-D art mural. The design concept should be interactive and influence the

surrounding area to evoke the sense of safety. Future research will be conducted in the same area, after art mural design built in selected areas. Comparative study of before and after is important and to generalize the impact of natural surveillance capabilities in preventing crime.

Acknowledgements

This researchacknowledges to University Community Transformation Centre (UCTC), Ministry of Education (MOE), the Ipoh City Council (MBI), UniversitiTeknologi MARA (UiTM) for their support and assistance in conducting this research by given an opportunity of UCTC grant.

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